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TEMA DESIGNATION

Front End Stationary Head

Shell Type

Rear End Stationary Head

CHANNEL AND REMOVABLE COVER

ONE PASS SHELL

FIXED TUBESHEET, LIKE 'A' STATIONARY HEAD

BONNET (INTEGRAL COVER)

TWO PASS SHELL WITH LONGITUDINAL M BAFFLE

FIXED TUBESHEET, LIKE 'B' STATIONARY HEAD

CHANNEL INTEGRAL WITH TUBESHEET AND REMOVABLE COVER Shown: Removable Tube Bundle only

SPLIT FLOW

FIXED TUBESHEET, LIKE 'C' STATIONARY HEAD

CHANNEL INTEGRAL WITH TUBESHEET AND REMOVABLE COVER Shown: Fixed Tube sheet only

DOUBLE SPLIT FLOW

OUTSIDE PACKED FLOATING HEAD

SPECIAL HIGH PRESSURE CLOSURE

DIVIDED FLOW

FLOATING HEAD WITH S BACKING DEVICE (SPLIT RING)

KETTLE TYPE REBOILER

PULL THROUGH FLOATING HEAD

U-TUBE BUNDLE

PACKED FLOATING TUBE SHEET WITH LANTERN RING

Some examples of the TEMA designation for Heat Exchangers

BE Bonnet (Intergral Cover), One Pass Shell, Fixed Tubesheet Bonnet M Fixed tubesheet heat exchanger. This is a very popular version as the heads can be removed to clean the inside of the tubes. The front head piping must be unbolted to allow the removal of the front head, if this is undesired this can be avoided by applying a type A front head. In that case only the cover needs to be removed. It is not possible to clean the outside surface of the tubes as these are inside the fixed part. Chemical cleaning can be used. Shown is a version with one shell pass and two tube passes.

BE This is the same type of heat exchanger as above, but with one tube pass. M

AE Channel with Removable Cover, One Pass Shell, Fixed Tubesheet Bonnet M This is almost the same type of heat exchanger as the first BEM, the removable cover allows the inside of the tubes to be inspected and cleaned without unbolting the piping.

AES Channel and Removable Cover, One Pass Shell, Floating Head with Backing Device Floating Head Heat Exchanger. A floating head is excellent for applications where the difference in temperature between the hot and cold fluid causes unacceptable stresses in the axial direction of the shell and tubes. The floating head can move, i.e. provides the possibility to expand in the axial direction. Note that the bundle can not be pulled from the front end. For maintenance both the front and rear end head, including the backing device, must be disassembled. If pulling from the front head is required a type AET should be selected

Shell & Tube Heat Exchanger Heat Exchanger Design, Inc. offers shell and tube exchangers starting at 2" IPS in all TEMA types. We design and fabricate to ASME code and TEMA standards. Our shell and tube line utilizes bare tube (straight and u-tubes), helical low-fin outside, longitudinal fins (inside & outside are available). These exchangers are suitable for a variety of applications and are offered in fixed tube sheets or removable bundles. The surface area ranges from (1) square foot to 40,000 square feet. Pressure range is from full vacuum to over 14,000 PSI (limited by size, material and design condition). Types and applications of shell & tube heat exchangers: 1. Type U U-Tube Exchangers: These units are constructed using U shape tubes that are attached to the same tubesheet. This design may be used with A, B, C, N, or D type front end. Advantages: 1. Tube bundle is removable; therefore mechanical cleaning is possible on the shell side. 2. Attachment of tubes to single tubesheet eliminates the need for differential expansion joint. 3. This type is suitable for high pressure. 4. High degree of protection from leakage is possible. 5. Double tubesheet is possible to provide further protection Limitations: 1. Only chemical tube side cleaning is possible. 2. Access to the tubes other that the outside row is limited.

from leakage. For the above reason, this type is recommended for clean process fluids and those subject to chemical removal.

2. Type L, M, and N Fixed tubesheets: These units are constructed with the tubesheets integral with the shell. They may be used with A, B, or N Type front head. Advantages: 1. High degree of protection against contamination of streams. 2. Double tubesheet is possible. 3. Mechanical tube side cleaning is possible. Limitations: 1. Differential expansion is possible only by using expansion joint. 2. High pressure application is limited. 3. Tube bundle is not removable. 4. Shell side mechanical cleaning is not possible.

These types are recommended for low and high pressure, and low fouling fluids.

3. Type W Externally sealed tubesheets: The shell side and tubeside streams are individually sealed by individual packing and are separated by a lantern ring. This is the lowest cost of the floating head designs and can be used with type A, B, or C front head. Advantages: 1. Differential expansion between tubes is possible thru the floating head design, therefore eliminates the need for an expansion joint. 2. Tube bundle is removable. (Also individual tubes) 3. Tube side mechanical cleaning is possible. 4. Shell side mechanical cleaning is possible. Limitations: 1. Maximum of only two tube side passes is possible. 2. The shell and tube side leakage is possible. 3. Maximum temperatures of 375 degrees F and maximum pressure of 300 psi limits the usage of these units at higher pressure and temperature.

This type is recommended for low pressure, low temperature and nonhazardous fluids.

4. Type P outside packed floating head: A skirt attached to the floating tubesheet passes through the back end of the shell. The space between the skirt and the shell is sealed by several layers of packing and packing gland. Advantages: 1. High pressure on tube side is possible. 2. Tube bundle is removable. (Also individual tubes) 3. Shell and tube mechanical cleaning is possible. 4. More than two tube passes is possible to utilize the allowable pressure drop. 5. Packing failure is externally visible under operation. 6. Double tubesheet is possible. 7. Differential expansion is provided by the packing. Limitations: 1. Hazardous material should not be used on the shell side because of the possible leakage. 2. Packing will tend to limit shell fluids to temperatures below 300 degrees F and pressure below 150 psi.

The above types are recommended for low pressure, low temperature nonhazardous fluids.

5. Type T pull through floating heads: The floating tubesheet is designed with a larger diameter than required for the tube array. Advantages: 1. Tube bundle is removable. (Also individual tubes) 2. Differential expansion is provided by the floating head. 3. Shell and tube side mechanical cleaning is possible. 4. Double tubesheets are possible. Limitations: 1. The seal is not externally visible; therefore leakage might be undetected for some time. 2. This type will tend to be more expensive than other types.

6. Type S Inside split backing ring: The floating tubesheet is sealed to a floating head cover using a split backing ring and a gasketed surface. Advantages: Limitations:

1. High pressure is possible. 2. Differential expansion is provided by the floating head. 3. Shell and tube mechanical cleaning is possible. 4. Tube bundle is removable.

1. Failure of gasket is not externally visible, therefore leakage might go undetected for sometime.

The above type is recommended for high pressure, non-hazardous process fluids.

Hairpin Heat Exchanger HEAT EXCHANGER DESIGN,INC. offers a complete line of Hairpin Exchangers. These exchangers provide true counter-current flow and are especially suitable for extreme temperature crossing, high pressure, high temperature, and low to moderate surface area requirements. Our Hairpin Exchangers are available in single tube (Double Pipe) or multiple tubes within a hairpin shell (Multitube), bare tubes, finned tubes, U-tubes, straight tubes (with rod-thru capability), fixed tube sheets and removable bundle. The surface area ranges from (1) square foot to 6,000 square feet (Finned tubes). Pressure capabilities are full vacuum to over 14,000 PSI (limited by size, material, and design condition). Hairpin Exchangers are designed and fabricated per ASME code, and TEMA standards.

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1. Double-pipe Hairpin Bare and Multi-tube (Table 1 & 2): These units are constructed using U shape tubes or pipe that are attached to two tubesheets and are loaded inside a hairpin shape shell. Advantages: 1. Tube bundle is removable; therefore mechanical cleaning is possible on the shell side. 2. The U shape bundle is free for expansion and contraction inside the Hairpin shell eliminating the need for Limitations: 1. Only chemical tube side cleaning is possible.

3.

4.

5.

6.

expansion joint. Are capable of carrying the maximum pressure allowable by ASME Code per given wall thickness. (Up to 14600 psi with no corrosion allowance). Higher pressure ratings are possible using materials with higher stress values For processes that require frequent mechanical cleaning, bare tube offers ease of cleaning and accessibility. Bare Multi-Tube and DoublePipe Exchangers offer the least pressure drop among most exchangers. Very often a process might be modified or completely changed. The streams flow rate or other conditions might also change. A Double Pipe Hairpin is designed so as to accommodate these changes, simply by rearranging the sections. Unlimited numbers of sections could be arranged in parallel and series to fit new requirements of the process conditions.

Click here to view Table 1 Click here to view Table 2

2. Finned Double Pipe & Multi-tube (Table 3 & 4): Advantages: 1. The same advantages as the bare tubes above (A, B, C, E, and F) 2. The finned hairpin usually has up to four times more heat transfer surface than bare tube hairpin. This would especially be more advantageous when the shell side heat transfer coefficient is low, therefore requires more Limitations: 1. Only chemical cleaning of the tubes finned surface is possible.

surface 3. Good application for high shell side viscosity with low heat transfer coefficient. Finned hairpins are particularly good application for cooling viscous fluids. The viscosity on the fin wall is higher than the average bulk viscosity which produces a lower film coefficient on the fin, and reduces heat transfer and causes excessive fouling.

Click here to view Table 3 Click here to view Table 4

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