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A Learners Guide to the Cherokee-English Dictionary (CED) Draft, August 2006 prepared by Christian Koops (Rice University) for

the Cherokee Education Degree Program at Northeastern State University

PLEASE NOTE: The orthography used in this Guide is not yet completely consistent with the orthography of the dictionary. There is no separate syllabary representation of each linguistic example, and tone information is not yet available for all examples that are discussed. Later versions of this Guide will be completely consistent in this regard.

Table of Contents 1.
2.

Introduction . 3 Cherokee sounds and Cherokee orthographies 2. 1. 2. 2. 2. 3. 2. 4. 2. 5. .. 3 4 4 5 6 7

Why are there different ways of writing Cherokee? .. What is there to represent? ... Basic sounds in the CED . Vowel length in the CED Tone in the CED .

3. 4. 5.

Looking up words in the CED 10 What information goes into a dictionary entry? 10 The architecture of a verb entry ........ 12 5. 1. 5. 2. 5. 3. 5. 4. 5. 5. The PRESENT form ...... The REMOTE PAST form ...... The PRESENT HABITUAL form ........ The IMPERATIVE form .......... The INFINITIVE form ............ 13 14 14 15 15

6.

How to put together new verb forms with the CED ..... 16 6. 1. 6. 2. Isolating the left end of the verb stem ....... 16 Working with the 5 aspect stems ........ 17 6.2.1. 6.2.1. 6.2.1. 6.2.1. 6.2.1. 6. 3. 6. 4. The PRESENT stem ......... The PERFECTIVE stem ........ The IMPERFECTIVE stem ....... The IMMEDIATE stem ....... The INFINITIVE stem ........ 17 18 19 21 22

Summary: Stem forms ........ 23 Summary: Suffixes ......... 24

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Special cases ...... 24 7.1 7.2 7.3 Verbs with partially identical stem forms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Verbs in which pre-pronominal prefixes are obligatory . 24 Verbs which lack certain or all stem forms 24

8.

Additional Information... ... 25 8.1 8.2 8.3 Phonological Rules 25 Cherokee in conversation and speech . 26 Next steps in learning . 27

9.

Further reading....... 27

1.

Introduction

The Cherokee-English Dictionary (CED), authored by Durbin Feeling and edited by William Pulte in 1975, is the most sophisticated Cherokee dictionary to date. This Guidebook is designed for second-language learners of Cherokee who use the CED in their studies. It shows students how to best utilize this important reference work. Having worked through this Guide, you will be in a position to understand and make the most of the different types of information which the CED provides. For example, you will be able to create and recognize grammatical forms of words which you may never have heard or used before. The CED comes together with the Outline of Cherokee Grammar (OCG) in one volume. The Dictionary makes up the first part, and the Grammar is the second part. The two parts can be studied independently, but they are designed to be used together. For example, the same orthography is used for both. You need not understand and memorize everything in the Grammar section in order to use the Dictionary. However, the more aware you are of the information in the Grammar, the more you will be able to appreciate the information in the Dictionary. This Guide includes occasional references to particular sections of the Grammar where appropriate. It also provides some additional grammatical information, beyond what is contained in the Outline of Cherokee Grammar, in particular regarding the issue of aspect stems. However, the Guide is not designed to replace it, but to complement it. To familiarize yourself with the Cherokee-English Dictionary, it is best to read the Introduction (pages vii-xix) now, before going on to work through this Guide. Also, after having read through this Guide, you should go on the work through the Outline of Cherokee Grammar. This will be necessary because not all of the information in the OCG is summarized in this Guide. There is a lot more to be discovered! Finally, in order to become seriously engaged in the study of the Cherokee language, it is inevitable that you consult some of the primary literature written by linguists, especially the major grammatical descriptions by Duane King and Bill Cook, and Janine Scancarelli. These works are more technical than this guide or the OCG. But they present the state-of-the art when it comes to explaining Cherokee grammar in scientific term. At the end of this Guide you can find references the these and other works for further reading. 2. Cherokee sounds and Cherokee orthographies

The first things you might notice about the Cherokee-English Dictionary is the way in which Cherokee words are written in it. Understanding the orthography (the writing system) used in the CED is extremely important to understanding the information contained in it. Open any page of the Dictionary, and you will see that every word is given in two different writing systems. First, they are written in a alphabetic orthography designed for students of Cherokee. This writing system is based on the letters of the Latin alphabet. In this Guide, we will refer to this system as the CED orthography. In addition, words are additionally written in the Cherokee syllabary. The first, alphabetic representation may remind you of what many people refer to as Cherokee phonetics. Like the traditional Cherokee phonetics, the CED orthography 3

aims to give a representation of the sounds of Cherokee based on the Latin alphabet, thus allowing those who do not know the Cherokee syllabary to learn it. However, the CED orthography differs from Cherokee phonetics in that it is a complete representation. What that means is that it gives you all of the information that is required to pronounce the words like a native speaker would. This includes long and short vowels and tone information. For this reason, it is the best suited orthography available today for secondlanguage learners, and it is important to become familiar with it from the beginning. 2.1 Why are there different ways of writing Cherokee?

There is no single, best way to write Cherokee, or any language for that matter. How to best write down a language depends on who is going to read it. And there are at least two different audiences. If you are a native speaker of Cherokee, you dont need a full representation of all the details of pronunciation. That is because you already know the words which you are reading, including all the information about their pronunciation. All you need to do is recognize them. Then, once you have recognized them, you will be able to say them. The Cherokee Syllabary was designed for native speakers of Cherokee. It includes the information needed by a native speaker to recognize the words. At the same time, it ignores certain details such as long and short vowels, tone, and most aspiration contrasts. There is nothing wrong with that because a native speaker will automatically fill in these aspects of pronunciation. In fact, adding all of this detail would probably be unnecessarily cumbersome for the purposes of a native speaker. Second-language learners, on the other hand, are not in a position to fill in any missing information. Rather, in order to know how to pronounce a given word, the writing system must represent all relevant aspects of pronunciation. In order to know how to say a given word a full representation is needed, if a second-language learner is to be able to say Cherokee words like a native speaker would. It is necessary because second-language learners will frequently have to say and pronounce words which they have never heard before. The CED is designed to satisfy both of these audiences, which is reflected in the fact that every word is given in two different modes of representation. It is important to point out that the two orthographies that you find in the Cherokee-English Dictionary, the Syllabary and the CED orthography, are both equally valid ways of writing the language. The difference between them is that they are designed for two different jobs. The syllabary is designed for native speakers (and, perhaps, advanced learners). The practical orthography is designed for second-language learners of Cherokee. 2.2. What is there to represent?

In the following, we will go through CED orthography in detail. To start out, we need to ask: What is there to represent? What phonetic information is it that we need to write in order to write Cherokee? There are basically three types of information that need to be

included in the written representation of a Cherokee word in order to give second-language learners a chance to pronounce it correctly. 1. 2. 3. Basic consonants and vowel information for example, is the given consonant d or t ? Is it y or hy ? Is the vowel a or v? Vowel length for example, is the vowel long (e.g the a in gadu bread) or short (e.g. the a in gadu top)? Tone for example, is a given vowel pronounced with a low tone (e.g. the first a in 2ma water), high tone (e.g. the first a in a3ma salt), or some other tone category?

As you can see from this list, vowels pose a much greater challenge than consonants in Cherokee. That is because every vowel has both a short and a long variant, and can carry one of 7 tones. This means that each of the 6 vowels can, in theory, be pronounced in 14 different ways! This gives you an idea of the amount of information which is lost if you write Cherokee in a system that ignores length and tone. To be fair, there are fewer different pronunciations than this in practice. But the number of different pronunciations is still great and there is, in most cases, no way to predict what it will be unless it is part of the written representation. You may have heard that Cherokee has nasalized vowels. That is true. The difference between nasal and non-nasal (oral) vowels actually adds yet another dimension to the complexity of Cherokee sounds. However, unlike lenth and tone, whether or not a vowel is nasalized is completely predictable. What that means is that second language learners can learn the system very quickly and soon wont need the aid of the writing system any more. What is there to learn? In Cherokee, one vowel is always nasalized: the vowel that is written v. The other 5 vowels are normally not nasalized, but they, too, become nasal when they occur at the end of a word. Teachers of Cherokee report that nasalization is rarely a problem for learners, and since the rules are easy to learn and understand, we wont say anything more about them here. 2.3. Basic sounds in the CED

Given this complexity, what solution have the authors of the CED arrived at? First, every sound has a letter, or letter combination. In this alphabet, there are 6 vowels and 22 consonants. The vowels are the same as those used in the traditional syllabary transliteration: i, e, a, o, u, v. The consonants are more complicated, because there are more of them. But there is an easy way of simplifying the system. Most of the 22 phonetic consonants of Cherokee form pairs of aspirated and unaspirated sounds. The difference between an aspirated and an unaspirated consonant is, roughly, the same as that between the English voiceless and voiced versions of the same sound, for example k (as in kill) and g (as in gill). The two columns below show the Cherokee sounds which come in such pairs, written as they appear in the CED orthography. On the right are the sounds which dont come in aspirated-unaspirated pairs.

unaspirated:
d g j dl gw w y n l

aspirated:
t k ch tl kw hw hy hn hl

Sounds which dont follow this pattern:


m, >, h, s

(or: wh) (or: yh) (or: nh)

Look at the two columns on the left for a minute. Note that many of the sound contrasts are familiar to English speakers. For example, it should not be a problem for a learner to pick out the difference between d and t or between j and ch. That is why the CED authors have opted to use those letters, and this is what makes their orthography practical. However, note that other sounds dont occur in English, at least not regularly. The sounds hw and hy may be somewhat familiar from words like which or hue. But, the sound hn (known as a voiceless nasal) does not ever occur in English. It is therefore important to pay extra attention to this sound. It is very easy to overhear hn, and beginners are likely to hear it as n. Finally, the hl sound does not exist in English either, but it appears to be easy hear because it is sufficiently different from l. The only issue in connection with hl is that, as you may know, native speakers will sometimes, or always, use hl for tl and in some cases dl. Note that the CED orthograpny has two different ways in which the sounds hw, hy, and hn are written. This sound is written as hw before vowels (e.g. ahwi deer) but as wh before consonants (e..g. jgowhtha I see it). It is important to understand that these are not different sounds. In this Guide, these sounds are consistently spelled with an initial h (hw, hy, hn) which is also how they appear in all linguistic work on Cherokee. There is one more issue in connection with aspiration. In Cherokee the s sound aspirates sounds which directly precede it. For example, the world nigalsdi its happening is actually pronounced nigahlsdi. This effect is completely predictable. Because it can be predicted, the authors of the CED do not write such sounds as aspirated. The sound s has a similar effect on short (but not long) vowels that precede it. If a short vowel precedes s, you will hear a faint h sound right before s. This h sound is, essentially, the apiration associated with s. For example, the word sv>i night sounds like hsv>i. Since this h sound is completely predictable, it is not written in the CED orthography. There is one letter in the CED orthography that does not exist in the Latin alphabet: the glottal stop. This letter is written as a dot-less question mark - >. 2.4. Vowel length in the CED

In their normal form, the letters i, e, a, o, u, and v represent long vowels in the CED. The short counterpart of each vowel is marked by a dot under the letter: , , , , , v.

This sounds easy enough. However, there are two complications associated with the shortlong distinction as it is written in the CED. 1. In Cherokee, if a word ends in a vowel, that final vowel will be short. In other words, there are practically no words which end in long vowels (a few exceptions exist, but you can remember this as a very useful rule-of-thumb). Given that for these final vowels, the longshort distinction doesnt exist, final vowels are not given an underdot although they are (predictably) short. For example, the word ya I has two short vowels, even though only the first one is marked as short. 2. Another class of vowels is actually short, despite the fact that the CED uses no underdot. These are vowels in closed syllables. What is a closed syllable? Syllables which end in a vowel are called open (e.g. ga in gadu bread) and those that end in a consonant are called closed (e.g. gahl in gahljode house). Note how the word house is represented in the dictionary:

The a is not given an underdot, although it is short! That is because it is predictably short. 2.5. Tone in the CED

It was the creators of the CED, in collaborations with linguists, who first gave a full account of the tone categories found in Cherokee. Before this time, there was a general awareness that Cherokee had some kind of tone system, but it wasnt clear what those tones were. According to the present knowledge of Cherokee, a vowel can carry one of 7 tones, i.e. it can be pronounced with one of seven different pitch contours. What does this mean? When you pronounce a vowel you can do so it with a higher or lower hum or pitch. You can also pronounce it with a moving pitch, i.e. a pitch that goes from high to low or a from low to high. The pitch range that is needed to describe Cherokee can be divided up into four levels. You can think of this like a musical scale: The lowest pitch level is called 1, and the highest pitch level is called 4. The tones of Cherokee inhabit this pitch range between 1 and 4. The 7 tones, and how the CED writes them, are summarized below: low high rising falling extra low fall extra high rise extra high fall
a2 a3 a23 a32 a1 a4 a

Tones 2 and 3
2 3 (short vowels) 2 3 (long vowels)

Tones 2 and 3 are easy to understand, because they are level tones. A level tone is a steady, non-moving tone. You can think of it like holding a tune. The pitch stays at one level. The simplest tone is a tone at level 2 because this tone is the normal pitch. Slightly further up is level 3. Tones 23 and 32
23 32 (always on long vowels)

The next two tones are called 23 and 32 because they represent a rise from low to high, or a fall from high to low, respectively. Such tones are known as contour tones. Tones 23 and 32 are fairly subtle. They are easily confused with level tones. While the 23 tone is fairly common, the 32 tone is rather rare. Tones 1 and 4
(always on long vowels)

Unlike what their name suggests, the tones known as 1 and 4 are not level tones they are also contour tones. They are easier to pick out than the other two contour tones because they reach into more extreme pitch ranges. The first of them, tone 1, is a falling tone that starts roughly at level 2 and falls from there. It is the only tone that falls lower than level 2, and therefore easy to hear with some practice. Tone 4 rises higher than the 23, i.e. it goes up further than the normal high level. That is why it is called 4. Where this tone begins depends on the preceding tone. If the preceding tone ends at level 2 or lower, than the 4 tone will start roughly at level 2. If the preceding tone ends at level 3, then tone 4 will start at level 3 and rise from there. Tone 4 can be recognized by its very steep rise, which is often accompanied by some additional loudness. It may appear that there is a stress.1 Tone on word-final syllables
(always short)

Tones in the final syllables of words (e.g. wesa cat, h?a this) are unmarked. This doesnt mean that there is no tone here. Such syllables are pronounced with a distinctive
There is no such thing as stress in Cherokee (despite what some people may tell you). What you find is tone, and it is extremely important to pay attention to tone distinctions from the first day of your Cherokee studies even if it is very hard and frustrating to do so at first, while your ears are not tuned to it yet.
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tone, which only occurs here. This tone is very high and falls shaply, described above as an extra high fall. It should be easy to remember this tone because it is found only on the last vowel of words, and also because this is precisely the vowel that is normally omitted. Different tone notation systems The pitch notation system is only one of many ways in which these categories can be marked. The numbering system may appear cumbersome, perhaps even confusing, to you. You may find the visual system, which was newly developed for this guide, easier. Below is a summary of the 7 tones followed by some examples of Cherokee words written in this format.

23

32

da

wood (also: ma water)

jisgwa

jisgwa (also: ama salt)

nvya

rock

wlosi

frog

kmama

butterfly

wesa

cat (also: yona bear, doyi outside,

gadu

bread (also: osda good, egwa great)

gd?a

its hanging

dihnwo

clothes

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gisdi

something to eat

3.

Looking up words in the CED

Although its name would suggest the opposite, the CED actually works both ways: from Cherokee to English and from English to Cherokee. The Cherokee-English section is the first part. It is far larger than the second. In this Guide, we are concerned exclusively with the first part, the Cherokee-English part, because it is here that the crucial grammatical information about the Cherokee words is listed. Nevertheless the English-Cherokee part is important as well. It may happen that you dont know the Cherokee word that you want to find information about. More likely, you may know the word, but you may not know what form it is listed under. In those cases, you will want to take a detour and go to the English-Cherokee part first. You look up the English translation of the word youre looking for, find the Cherokee word (hopefully), and then look that up in the first part. Lets start by looking up a word. Well keep it simple and begin with a noun. Imagine youve heard the word digwenvsv, which someone has told you means home, as in I went home. You want to find out more information about it, for example how to pronounce it. So, you look it up the the Cherokee-English part but you dont find it listed. Does that mean that the word home is not in the Dictionary? Or that youve not heard it correctly? Perhaps, but not necessarily. To be sure, you go to the second part and look up home. You find juwenvsv?i. Now, you look this up in the Cherokee-English part. As you look through the Cherokee-English part, note that the words in the CED are arranged alphabetically. You can look words up using the familiar order of the alphabet. However, one letter, the glottal stop, is new in that it is not part of the Latin alphabet. This sound is ignored by the CED order. That is, words are listed as though it was not there. For example, juwenvsv?i comes in the same spot where you would expect the word juwenvsvi. Now that you have found the word juwenvsv?i, you see that it means his home. (Actually, it could equally well mean her home the CED always gives only the masculine version in cases such as this.) What happened? It turns out that you were looking for the word my home, but the CED has such words listed under his/her home. 4. What information goes into a dictionary entry?

Now lets look at a dictionary entry in more detail. Compare the entries for hlgv?i tree and alsdvhnha Hes shaking his head.

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What is the main difference between the two entires? Obviously, there is a lot more information contained in the verb entry (shake ones head) than in the noun entry (tree). In fact, the additional piece of information that is found in the noun entry besides the example sentence Cut down all the trees is the plural form trees: dehlgv?i. You may wonder: Why is he plual included? The answer to this question also gives you the answer to the question, why are noun entries so much simpler than verb entries? Essentially, a dictionary entry includes all of the information which a student needs about the relevant word that cannot be derived from general rules of the language. As it turns out, there is no general rule of plural formation in Cherokee. Different types of nouns form the plural in different ways, and some nouns have no plural form at all. What this means is: In many cases it will not be predictable how the plural is formed. Therefore, this information needs to go into the entry. Compare this to English. There is a very general, and almost completely regular rule in English by which the plural form of nouns is formed by adding s to the word, e.g. shoe, shoes and test, tests. Once you know this rule, plural formation is no longer an issue, because it can be predicted for any nouns (with a very small number of exceptions) what it will be. How does this help us understand why verb entries are so complicated in the CED? Again, think about English. In English, verbs dont change their form very much to begin with. Moreover, to the degree that the do change, these changes are very predictable (although the number of irregular verbs is larger than that of irregular nouns). There are only a handful of endings that can be attached to a verb, and once you know these endings, almost any new verb can be dealt with. He wants to jump (work, listen, etc.) Hes jump-ing (work-ing, listen-ing, etc.) He jump-ed (work-ed, listen-ed, etc.) He jump-s (work-s, listen-s, etc.) Of course, there are irregular verbs in English, such as see, which changes to saw. But the vast majority of verbs work this way. As a consequence, once a student of English has 11

learned how to attach the endings ing, -ed, and s they can create all verb forms. All that needs to be learned is the verb, e.g. work, and the rest will be 100% predictable. In Cherokee, different verbs change in largely unpredictable ways. In other words, to form the different verb forms, you cant just memorize one basic form and a small set of rules (as in English). Instead, as it turns out, you need to memorize 5 basic forms (see the discussion of aspect stems below). This is why all of these forms are listed in the dictionary. 5. The architecture of a verb entry

Next, lets see in more detail how verb entries are organized. We will deal almost exclusively with verbs from here on because verbs in Cherokee are by far the most complicates word class. Once you have fully understood the way in which verbs change, noun structure will pose no problem. Take a minute to look over the entry for the verb speak.

As we have seen alreay, not one but about half a dozen forms of the same verb are listed. Of these forms, only the first one is translated into English: gawonha s/he is speaking. Moreover, this form is given a privileged position: it is the form which the verb is listed under. In other words, it functions as the name for the verb as a whole within the CED. Because this form is used to represent the verb, it is called the citation form of the verb. In the CED, the citation form of the verb is the 3RD PERSON SINGULAR PRESENT form of the verb. What does that mean? It means that this is the form used to say that a person is doing the action right now (for example, hes speaking, shes jumping etc.). We will look at this verb form and what it is made of in more detail below. You may wonder why is should be this form of the verb that was chosen as the citation form? The authors of the CED explain that this is since verbs occur very frequently in the third person singular and because third person singular forms are relatively short and grammatically simple.(page xii)

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To the right of the citation form is given the syllabary representation of the first form. And to the right of this you find the word class in this case, verb and information about whether the verb is transitive or intransitive. In the case of speak, you read v. i., which stands for verb, intransitive. What does it mean for a verb to be transitive, or intransitive? Essentially, a transitive verb describes a situation involving two people or things, whereas an intransitive verb describes a situation involving only one person or thing. For example, the verb see involves someone who sees, and someone (or something) that is being seen. This second participant is what makes it transitive. Our example verb speak involves only one person, the speaker. That is why it is intransitive. Other examples of intransitive verbs are jump or sleep. Next, you see a very short translation of the citation form. This translation is very brief, and more like a practical gloss than a true definition. The dictionary doesnt provide a more extensive definition of the verb because the creators of the CED had to save space here. Incidentally, for the same reason only the first verb form, the citation form, is translated into English. The other forms are not given a translation. You simply need to know what they mean. But figuring out their meaning is easy to do once you become familiar with the basic architecture of the dictionary entries, which we will outline in the rest of this section. Below the citation form are five additional verb forms. These are not any five forms of the verb. There is a good reason why these particular forms are given for each verb. Together with the citation form, these particular forms make it possible to construct all basic grammatical forms of the verb. In particular, they make it possible to isolate the five stem forms (aka. aspect stems) and to create new verb forms from them. This is the subject of the next Section. For now, lets run through each of the forms.
5.1. The Present form

The first two verb forms in every verb entry go together. They both illustrate the Present tense form of the verb. This is the form used to say that the action which the verb describes is happening right now. This is why the form typically translates into English as He or she is doing X. The difference between the first and second form is that the first is is the 3rd person singular ( = someone else, i.e. he, she, or it), and the second form is the 1st person singular ( = I, the speaker ). For example, in the entry for speak we find gwonha Hes speaking as the first, and jwonha Im speaking as the second form.

You may wonder why the authors decided to include both of these forms. After all, looking at the verb speak it would appear that one could derive the second form by simply exchanging the pronoun prefix ga- he/she/it with ji- I because apart from the prefix, the two verbs are identical. In other words, their stem ( = the part which the prefix is attached to) is exactly the same, which is not surprising because they both illustrate the

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PRESENT stem. In other words, for speak the second form is predictable from the first form and this is precisely not the kind of information that we want in a dictionary. To see why it is useful to include the second form, take a look at the entry for the verb shake ones head.

In this case, note that the two verb forms differ not only in their prefix, but also in their stem. If you remove the pronoun prefixes (a- and ga-) there is still a difference! Take a close look at the stems you will see that, depending on which prefix is put on the verb, the verb changes its form slightly. In those cases where the two forms differ, the first form shows the stem in the h-mode (or: h-grade), while the second shows the stem in its glottal stop mode. For more on these terms, ask your Professor about h-metathesis and glottal stop lowering. These changes are extremely difficult to anticipate (although they do in fact follow regular rules). For this reason, the authors include the first sigular form here. As long as you deal with intransitive verbs like these, you will have to worry about these changes only in connection with the 1st person singular prefixes ji- and g-.Therefore, for beginning students it may be
easiest to remember that this happens with the 1st person singular prefixes. 5.2. The Remote Past form

Lets go on to the next verb form. The third line of our sample entries speak and shake ones head is the form of the verb which describes the action in the past.
S/he shook his head. S/he spoke. Again, no translation is given. But its easy to remember that this verb form corresponds roughly to the English Past tense (He spoke) or Present Perfect (He has spoken) both translations may apply, depending on context. This particular form is called the Remote past in Cherokee grammar. The word remost means distant or far. The tense form is called remote because it differs from another verb form, called the Recent past, which is used to describe an action as having occurred just now, as in She just spoke. We will look at the anatomy of this verb in more detail in the next Chapter. For now, note simply that this form ends in the Past suffix v?i You can see this by comparing what the two verb forms above and seeing what they have in common. 5.3. The Present Habitual form

Take a look at the next verb form in the list. This form form describes the same action as occurring periodically, i.e. on a regular basis.

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S/he speaks (regularly). S/he shakes her head (regularly). This form practically always translates into English as the Present tense, as in examples like He speaks (fast), She shakes her head (whenever she sees me). Another way of saying that something happens periodically is that it happens habitually. That is why this Cherokee verb form is called the Habitual Present. Again, lets ignore the details of these verb forms for now. But note what they both have in common: They end in o?i (with a long o in the first and a short in the second case). 5.4. The Imperative form

Now consider the fifth form in the list. This verb form is used to ask someone to perform the verb action. Shake your head! (talking to one person) Speak! (talking to one person) This verb directly translates into the English imperative, i.e. as the form Speak! or Shake your head! In Cherokee grammar, this particular form is also called the Imperative. There are other ways of asking someone to perform the action in Cherokee, and this is only one of them. To distinguish this verb form from others, it has been called the Present Imperative. 5.5. The Infinitive form

Now look at the last verb form entry. The fifth, and last verb form is what is called the Infinitive. for him/her to speak for him/her to shake his/her head Here, there is a direct parallel to English. Just as in English the verb want goes with an Infinitive verb form, the Cherokee verb want goes with the Infinitive.
uwonihsdi udulha ulsdvnhdi udulna

He wants to speak He wants to shake his head

This verb form is the only form of the forms listed in the dictionary that cannot be used by itself as a complete sentence (at least not with this tone pattern). The Infinitive form is not used by itself. Rather, it functions in connection with other verbs. This concludes our run-down of the verb forms in the dictionary.

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6.

How to put together new verb forms using the CED

To create a new verb form means to put together existing pieces in a new way in order to express a new meaning. But recall that the CED only lists complete verb forms, i.e. forms which are readily usable by themselves as complete sentences (with the exception of the Infinitive form). What this means is that, in order to put together new verb forms, you first need break down the forms that are given in the dictionary into their component parts. After this, you can change some parts, while leaving others the same. 6.1. Isolating the left end of the verb stem

Perhaps the first thing you have learned in your Cherokee course when it comes to the structure of verbs is how to put a different pronoun prefix on a verb. For example, you will need to know how to change a form that means I know to a form that means He knows. Obviously, in order to create such a form we need to find the boundary between the prefix and the stem. Which part means I and which part means know? Then, we need to replace the I prefix with the s/he prefix. The problem is that the left end of the stem is not always clear from simply looking at the citation form, i.e. the first form. The problem with this form is that the 3rd person singular form often changes the form of the stem. To see exactly what this means, lets look at an example in which the verb stem is changed. Compare again the two verb entries for speak and shake ones head.

What would happen if we tried to isolate the verb stem simply by subtracting the pronoun prefix of the citation form? We know that the two prefixes are g- and a-. (You should have a chart that gives you this information). We would have to assume, then, that the verb stems are wonha and lsdvhnha. But this would be wrong. The verb stem of shake ones head actually starts with an a. How do we know? We can see this if we look at the Imperative forms: hwonihi Speak! and halsdvhnga Shake your head!. You know that the 2nd person singular prefix ( = you, when speaking to one person) is h- and that this prefix is reduced to h- before a vowel. Looking at the form of the prefix in halsdvhnga, we must assume that the stem starts in a because the prefix is not h- but h-! Thus, we isolate the following Present tense stem form for shake ones head: alsdvhnga. Now that we have isolated the left end of the stem, we can use this stem with any of the large set of Cherokee pronoun prefixes. 16

In conclusion, when isolating the the stem, look at the Imperative form this form almost always starts with h()-. (The only exception are cases where h()- has metathesized.) An alternative strategy is to look at the second form, which works even where metathesis has occurred, is to use the 1st person singular (I) form. This prefix also never affects the stem. You just subtract j- or g- (depending on which prefix you find) and you also get the same stem form. Try it for shake ones head above it works! 6.2. Working with the 5 aspect stems

Lets now turn to the right end of verbs. Just as we can separate out a piece on the left, we can separate out at least one piece on the right. Speaking more technically, each of the verb forms listed in the dictionary includes a suffix, which is attached to a stem (just like the lefthand part of the verb can be separated into a stem and a prefix). In the rest of this section, well take a look at each of the verb forms, see what the suffix is, and then try to see how this suffix can be varied, and what the resulting grammatical forms are. Another way in which verb forms differ is in their tone pattern. 6.2.1 The PRESENT stem

Look at the Present form of the verb. Recall that this is the form which is found in the first two verbs in the list. Flip through the dictionary and see what all Present forms have in common. As you can see, there is not much that they all share. Still, you will probably have noticed one thing: almost all of them end in a, and a small number of them end in i. Technically speaking, this final a (or final i) is a suffix. In other words, one can separate Present Tense forms into a Present stem (everything between the pronoun prefix and -a / -i) and the suffix, as shown below:
PRESENT FORM gPronoun prefix wonh PRESENT stem -a PRESENT suffix He is speaking

It may seem unnecessary to you to separate out a Present stem and a Present suffix like this. After all, they both include the meaning of present. And its true practically speaking, it is perfectly okay to ignore the fact that the Present tense consists of a stem + suffix at the beginning studying Cherokee. In fact, it wont be necessary to know this to understand any of the verb forms discussed in this Guide. You can simply treat the Present Stem + Present Suffix as a single unit which happens to always end in a (or i). You might wonder which verbs end in a and which verbs end in i? For one thing, there is some variation between speakers. Some people will prefer a where others prefer i. In addition, there is some regularity. Many (though not all) verbs of motion take i, while verbs which are not describing motion never take i. You can see this as you flip through 17

the dictionary. Verbs which have a Present form ending in i include, for example, walk, run, and fly. 6.2.2 The PERFECTIVE stem

Recall that the next verb form in the list is the Remote Past form, e.g. S/he spoke or S/he has spoken. As weve seen earlier, this form ends in the Past Tense suffix -v?i. But note that this is not the only difference between it and the Present form. In other words, you cant get from the Present to the Remote Past form simply by switching the suffix.
guPronoun Prefix wonh wonis Stem -a -v?i Suffix S/he is speaking S/he spoke / has spoken

Not only the suffix, but also the stem the part between the pronoun prefix and the Past tense suffix is different. The stem which is used to build the Remote Past verb form is called the Perfective stem, or Stem form II. (Well call the Present stem Stem Form I.)
REMOTE PAST verb form uPronoun prefix wonis PERFECTIVE stem -v?i PAST TENSE suffix

S/he spoke (reportedly)

Lets see what else we can do with this stem form. We can, for example, replace the Past tense suffix v?i with the reportative suffix e?i. As explained in the Outline of Cherokee Grammar (p. 290), this suffix is used to express that the speaker who says the sentence did not witness the action personally. Instead, it implies that the speaker is merely reporting the event, perhaps after hearing it from someone else. For this reason, this verb form is called the Reported Past.
REPORTED PAST verb form uPronoun prefix wonis PERFECTIVE stem -e?i REPORTED PAST suffix

S/he spoke (reportedly)

You may be wondering about the change of pronoun prefix here as well. The last two verb forms which we discussed take the 3rd person singular B-prefix u- rather than the A-prefix g- / a-. This is a requirement whenever the Perfective stem is used to talk about a past event with v?i or -e?i. This goes for all pronominal prefixes, or, more precisely, for those pronominal prefixes which switch back and forth between A- and B-prefixes. 18

Another verb form that is based on the Perfective stem is the Future tense. This verb form requires not only a particular suffix (here, the Future suffix i) but also an additional prefix, the Future prefix da-.
FUTURE verb form dFUTURE prefix gPronoun prefix wonis PERFECTIVE stem -i FUTURE suffix

S/he will speak

Please be aware that the Future suffix d- changes its form somewhat depending on the following sound. For the varying forms of this suffix, see the Outline of Cherokee Grammar, pp. 249-251. Also, note that although we are calling the suffix i a future suffix, it does not do the job of indicating the future by itself. Rather, when it is used to express a future event, it is always used in connection with the prefix d-. You will find that some verbs dont form the Future in this way. That is, rather than being used with d- i, these verbs have a simpler way of forming the future: they use the Future suffix -esdi. Moreover, verbs which have a future form with d- i also have the form with esdi. For more on this topic, see the following section. 6.2.3 The IMPERFECTIVE stem

Next, consider the Present Habitual form, which is the fourth line of our verb entry. As we saw earlier, this form ends in the suffix o?i. This suffix is called the Habitual suffix, because it portrays the situation described by the verb as recurring regularly. From this verb form we can isolate another stem form: the Imperfective stem. The strategy to do so is the same as before. The stem consists of everything in between the Pronoun prefix and the final suffix.
PRESENT HABITUAL verb form gPronoun prefix wonisg IMPERFECTIVE stem -o?i HABITUAL suffix

He speaks (habitually)

Dont be confused by the term imperfective. Perhaps you can make sense of it by thinking back to when you learned Spanish or French, and your teacher talked about the corresponding past imperfective forms. In any event, you can also remember this stem form as Stem form III.

19

Lets see what else can be done with this Stem form. One thing we can do is to take the past tense suffix v?i. and attach it to the Imperfective stem. This gives us the Past Progressive form.
PAST PROGRESSIVE verb form gPronoun prefix wonisg -v?i

IMPERFECTIVE PAST stem suffix

She was speaking

As a result of switching the suffix, we get a different meaning. Now the action of speaking is portrayed as ongoing at a moment in the past, as in the English past progressive (S/he was doing x). In other words, this form is the equivalent of the Present, but transposed into the past. Rather than saying that the action is ongoing right now, it portrays it as ongoing right then. The imperfective stem can also be modified by means of the Future suffix esdi. As one would expect, the result of using this suffix is that the action of speaking is said to be ongoing in the Future.
FUTURE PROGRESSIVE verb form gPronoun prefix wonisg -esdi

IMPERFECTIVE FUTURE stem suffix

She will be speaking

Note that we now have two ways of talking about the Future. Just as there are several ways of expressing an event in the past, there are several ways of referring to events in the future. In other words, there is no one Past tense in Cherokee, as well as no one Future Tense. At this point, you may wonder what construction is used to talk about past habitual actions. In some cases the same construction as the Past Progressive also applies here, but when youre talking about people and their actions, you may need a different construction. This construction is also based on the Imperfective stem, so we will deal with it in this section. You may already be familiar with this construction because it is also used to create nouns from verbs. For example, to say that someone is a speaker, in the sense of someone who speaks regularly, e.g. for a living, you can take the Imperfective stem and use it in connection with the A-Pronoun prefix and the nominalizing suffix i and create the noun: g-wonisg-i speaker. Now, to say that someone used to speak would require the same form as to say that he or she used to be a speaker in addition to the verb be with the Past suffix -v?i.

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PAST HABITUAL verb form gPronoun prefix wonisg IMPERFECTIVE stem -i PAST suffix gees-vv?i s/he.was

She used to speak

As you can see, the Imperfective stem form is very versatile. It can be combined in various ways with other suffixes to create a range of grammatical forms. It is in particular the Imperfective and the Perfective verb forms (Stems II and III) which get used in these multiple ways. The other three stem forms (The Present stem, as well as the remaining two stem forms) do not work like this. Rather than taking different suffixes to arrive at different meanings. They carry the same suffix. The tricky part of working with them, as well see, is that they undergo tone changes. 6.2.4 The IMMEDIATE stem

The next verb form in the list of verbs provided in each entry is the Imperative. Recall that this is the form used to issue a request or command, to someone. We can break this form down as follows:
IMPERATIVE verb form hPronoun prefix Speak! wonih -i / -a

IMMEDIATE Suffix stem

In this case, we have a similar situation as with the Present Form. We dont really have any need at this point to distinguish a Stem and a suffix here as long as we deal with the simple verb forms which are covered in this Guide. The only reason for doing so now would be to take account of the fact that speakers often substitute -a for i. But of course, you could equally well remember that the Imperative form sometimes ends in -a and sometimes in i (depending on speaker and on dialect). Note that you can use the Imperative not only with the prefix h- you, but with other pronoun as well, to make various kinds of imperatives.
Other IMPERATIVE forms hinigPronoun prefix wonih wonih wonih IMMEDIATE stem -i / -a -i / -a -i / -a Suffix Speak! Let us (two) speak! Let him speak!

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The same form, if pronounced with a slightly different tone pattern, gives you another tense form: The Recent Past. This is the counterpart to the Remote Past verb form. If you refer to something that happened fairly recently (roughly, on the same day, but especially just before), you need to this form.
IMMEDIATE PAST verb form gPronoun prefix wonh IMMEDIATE stem -a Suffix He (just) spoke.

Another usage context for the Immediate Stem is in expressions which translate into English as can, may, or might. For example, to express that someone can speak, or might speak, you can use the word eligwu its possible, in connection with the Immediate Stem (with the suffix a) and the conditional prefix yi-.
eligwu y-g-woniha S/he may speak!

Note the different tone patterns of these different ways of using the Immediate Stem form. Also, note that in some cases the vowel length may change.
h-wo1ni4hi g-wo2n2ha y-g-wo3ni2ha Speak! He (just) spoke. He may speak.

eligwu

6.2.5

The INFINITIVE stem

The last stem form in the list of verbs given in the Dictionary is the Infinitive form of the verb. This form can be broken down into an Infinitive Stem and an Infinitive Suffix, but, as with the Present stem and the Immediate Stem, this not of particular importance at this point. So, just for the record:
INFINITIVE verb form uPronoun prefix wonihsd INFINITIVE stem -i INFINITIVE suffix

for him/her to speak

The Infinitive stem has at least two uses which are important at this point. As in the case of the Immediate stem, the different depends on the tone pattern. The first is the use which we already saw, and which corresponds fairly closely to the Infinitive in English. This is the form used, for example, in connection with the verb want.
uwonihsdi udulha He wants to speak.

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The other use of the Infinitive form is a way of expressing the idea of of have to or need to, and related notions. This form can be used all by itself as a sentence:
uwonihsdi He needs to speak.

Or you can use the word ase to stress the idea of must, i.e. the idea of obligation.
ase uwonihsdi He must speak

Again, note that the difference depends on the tone pattern:


u2wo1ni23h3sdi u2wo1ni23h2sdi udulha He wants to speak He has to speak He wants to work He has to work

ju2lv23hw3sdahn1di ju2lv23hw2sdahn1di

udulha

6.3.

Summary: Stem forms

Cherokee verb stems always appear in particular stem forms. There is no single, neutral form of the verb. For most verbs there are 5 basic stem forms, which are then combined with a final suffix to make a complete verb stem. Stem I: Present stem Stem II: Perfective stem
g-wonh-a he/she is speaking (now) u-wonis-v?i he/she spoke u-wonis-e?i he/she spoke (reportedly) d-g-wonis-v?i he/she will speak g-wonisg-v?i he/she was speaking g-wonisg-esdi he/she will be speaking g-wonisg-o?i he/she speaks (habitually) g-wonih-a he/she spoke (just now) h-wonih-i Speak (now)! u-wonihsd-i for him/she to speak u-wonihsd-i he needs to speak

Stem II: Imperfective stem

Stem IV: Immediate stem Stem V: Infinitive stem

6.4.

Summary: Suffixes which go on different stem forms


-v?i -e?i -o?i -esdi past tense reported past habitual future

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7.

Special cases

Given what we have said so far, you will be in a position to create and try out a lot of novel verb forms. However, you will also find out that not all verbs work in quite the same way. In this section we will go over some additional complications arising in connection with forming new verb forms. 7.1. Verbs with partially identical stem forms

This is not really a problem, but it should not surprise you that some verbs dont distinguish all 5 Stem forms. Most frequently, the Present and the Imperfective Stem are the same, but in other cases the Present and the Perfective may be identical. 7.2. Verbs in which pre-pronominal prefixes are obligatory

There are also verbs which are always used in connection with particular pre-pronominal prefixes. Most frequently, this involves the plural (aka. distributive) prefix de-. For example, the verb work requires this prefix in all cases. It is not be possible to omit it.
daglvhwsdanha (not: aglvhwsdanha)

The reason why this matters when you use the dictionary is that such verbs will be listed under d, rather than a, g, or u, like most other verbs. 7.3. Verbs which lack certain or all stem forms

There is a small class of words in Cherokee which do not have different aspect stems at all. Some of these still distinguish an Infinitive stem, but all other stems are the same. This does not mean that all grammatical forms are the same. Rather, suffixes are attached directly to the stem. As an example of such verbs, take a look at the verb to stick out.

If you subtract the Present Suffix -a, the Past Tense suffix v?i, and the Habitual suffix o?i, you see that all stem forms, except that the Infinitive, are essentially the same (with a

24

small tone difference in the first form). Note also that this verb forms the Imperative (Be sticking out!) with -esdi. Other verbs work the same way. 8. Additional Information

This guidebook provided a brief description on the Cherokee-English Dictionary regarding its uses, organization, and basic ideas. With the CED, students can produce a wide range of forms in various tenses, grammatical complexities, and with proper tonal structure. However, the CED does not provide all of the information useful or necessary in creating forms. While it is not possible to account for all of these other areas here, a few of especial significance can be highlighted. The first deals with phonological rules in the language, the second regarding concepts of speech for Cherokee, and the third and final covers next steps beyond the CED. 8.1. Phonological rules

Phonological rules (Sound Rules) are an important part of language learning since, in Cherokee, many forms will sound and look different than what the grammar predicts IF these rules are not used. Many of these rules are basic and common processes that occur in daily speech, and the rules given here fall within that range. Note, however, that this is not a comprehensive list, and there are many other rules relating to other phonological rules and what are called morphophonological rules (sound rules that occur due to the use of affixes on words or forms). The rules you see here are not given in any particular order, but there are a few that are more important in terms of their frequency. /agi-/ I becomes /ak-/ before the consonants /t/, /d/, and /s/ (verbs, nouns, adjectives, adverbs)
/ak-tvdasdi/ Im listening /ak-sganoli/ Im slow /ak-dlvga/ Im sick /ak-sdayvhvsgi/ My wife /ak-tadegia/ Im thirsty

/ja-/ You becomes /ts-/ before the consonants /t/, /d/, and /s/ (verbs, nouns, adjectives, adverbs)
/ts-tvdasdi/ Youre listening /ts-sganoli/ Youre slow /ts-dlvga/ Youre sick /ts-sdayvhvsgi/ Your wife /ijch-tadegia/ You all are thirsty /u-anhta/ S/he knows /ts-tadegia/ Youre thirsty

/iji-/ You all becomes /ijch-/ before the consonant /t/


/ijch-tvdasdi/ You all are listening /u-aduli/ S/he wants it /u-adegi/ Pitcher

/u-/ S/he deletes the vowel /a/ on any word (verbs, nouns, adjectives, adverbs)
/u-adanhta/ S/he is feeling /u-atana/ big /u-adanhti/ friendly

/hi-/ You Set A Form moves when any of the prefixes of /yi-/, /wi-/, or /ni-/ are put in front of it (known as h- metathesis in the literature)

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Verb Doing /ni-g-advneha/ I /h-n-advneha/ You

Verb Saying /ni-ji-wea/ I /h-ni-wea/ You

Negation & Movement /h-ega/ You are going /tla h-y-ega/ You are not going /h-w-ena/ Go (away from me)

/di-/ Plural Command marker deletes /a-/ S/he Set A Pronoun and the initial vowel /a-/ of /ani-/ Set A Pronoun
/di-aktosda/ Let him/her watch them /di-anaktosda/ Let them watch them /di-agowata/ Let him/her see them /di-anigowata/ Let them see them

*Note that this ONLY deletes /a-/ if its the pronoun marker; if the vowel /a-/ is part of the verb, /a-/ does NOT delete on the s/he. However, since the Set A Pronoun /ani-/ They uses /a/ as part of its form, this will always be deleted on all forms.
/d-ahltaduga/ Let him/her jump /di-n-ahltaduga/ (di-an-ahltaduga) Let them jump /ju-weda/ S/he went there /d-asega/ Let him/her count /di-n-asega/ (di-an-asega) Let them count

/ji-/ Past Time Marker becomes /ju-/ before the prefix /wi-/
/ju-waniluhgi/ They got there

/wi-/ motion distance marker becomes just /w-/ when /ji-/ Past Time Marker or /yi-/ conditional marker precede it
/ju-w-geda/ I went there /tla yu-w-jiluhgi/ I didnt get there /tla yu-w-gena/ I didnt go there /yu-wena/ If she went

/yi-/ Conditional Marker becomes /yu-/ before the prefix /wi-/ /a/ and /a/ will combine to make one sound /v/; this occurs when any prefix ending with /a/ is next to a prefix that begins with /a/ or a verb stem beginning with /a/ - the three pronoun prefixes this happens with are /a/ S/he Set A, /ani-/ They Set A, and /agi-/ (or /agw-/) Set B; it also occurs in normal speech when one word ends in /a/ and the next word begins in /a/
/tla yi-g-v-ga/ S/he cant eat it /ga-/ prefix and /a/ S/he Set A Prefix: /ga-a-/ = /g-v-/ /tla yi-g-v-ni-gowata/ They cant see it with /ga-/ prefix and /ani-/ They Set A Prefix: /ga-ani-/ = /g-v-ni-/ /g-v-gw-alenhdi gaisvi/ since I started walking with /ga-/ prefix and /agw-/ I Set B Pronoun Prefix - /ga-agw-/ = /g-v-gw-/ /utan v-chuja/ big boy with /a/ on end of /utan-a/ big combined with the initial /a/ on /a-chuja/ boy to make /v/

/de-/ Plural Marker becomes /di-/ after the prefix /wi-/


/widijigi/ I got those things /widigutagi/ I went and picked those things up

8.2.

Cherokee language in conversation and speech

Another aspect of language learning to note regards Cherokee in conversational and speech form. As with any language, the cadence and rhythm of spoken speech provides a different 26

pattern that with words given in isolation. Thus, a word given by itself may have certain features, but when spoken as part of a longer statement, will have others. One dominate feature of spoken Cherokee is the practice of shortening words. Often, final vowels are dropped, words will be combined when possible, and other vowels within words will often drop as well. Only through conversational practice can this area of Cherokee be learned and mastered. 8.3. Next steps in learning Cherokee

This guidebook and the CED are a good starting point for learning Cherokee, but obviously it represents only an entry into the process. Beyond this, there are other concepts that learners will need to develop in mastering Cherokee. These include acquiring conversational conventions of speech (how ideas are expressed in Cherokee in everyday conversation), learning about semantic categories of knowledge, but also learning how to apply grammatical processes to speech. The next section, Further Reading, offers a list of sources useful in this basic endeavor. 9. Further reading

The most useful book for you to continue with is the Outline of Cherokee Grammar, contained in the same book as the Cherokee-English Dictionary. The outline gives a brief, yet extensive, overview on the basic grammatical concepts as they apply to Cherokee language forms. Outside of the CED, the following titles provide linguistic descriptions of Cherokee grammar which may be useful:
Cook, William H. 1979 A Grammar of North Carolina Cherokee. Ph.D. Dissertation, Yale University. Feeling, Durbin 1994 A Structured Approach to Learning the Basic Inflections of the Cherokee Verb. Muskogee, OK: Indian University Press, Bacone College. Feeling, Durbin, Craig Kopris, Jordan Lachler, and Charles Van Tuyl 2003. A Handbook of the Cherokee Verb: A Preliminary Study. Tahlequah, OK: Cherokee Heritage Center. Holmes, Ruth Bradley, and Betty Sharp Smith 1976 Beginning Cherokee. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press. King, Duane H. 1975. A Grammar and Dictionary of the Cherokee Language. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Georgia. Montgomery-Anderson, Bradley 2009 A Reference Grammar of Oklahoma Cherokee. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Kansas.

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Scancarelli, Janine 1987 Grammatical Relations and Verb Agreement in Cherokee. Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Linguistics, UCLA. Van Tuyl, Charles 1994 An Outline of Basic Verb Inflections of Oklahoma Cherokee. Muskogee, OK: Indian University Press, Bacone College. Walker, Willard 1975 Cherokee. In: James M. Crawford (ed.) Studies in Southeastern Indian Languages. Athens: University of Georgia Press, pp. 189-236.

28

CWY
Jalagi Cherokee

- fins - Yonega

English

?-

n.pref. third person animate (see Gram. 11, A) v.pref. third person subject (see Gram. I, B) v.suf. present tense (see Gram.
1 , Dl
D ~ C boy n.

He's thinking about raising chicks. cf: agina a1da2de3ga DLSS v .i. it 's bouncing ga2d?2de 3ga S LSS u1da2di23nv32sv237i BLJORT a1da2de3g037i u2da2di23nv32di
DLSAT B L JDJ

a-a ?'chu4ja

?2ni2chu4 ja DhdC Na anichuja sgwahlesdi dananelohvsga.

The

D M C axLaJ

are playing ball.

Lomaas.

a2chvZya DC@ n. male (animal) ?2ni2~hv2ya DhC@ Jitaga anichvya ugitsdeyi anayhgo7i.
IrWS DhC@ BYbaSJ3 DBB AT.

Eladi wudina sgwahlesdi udadinvsv7i. RWI 9 1 e a n a r a. = r When he threw the ball down, & bounced. cf : a1d?2de3ga (limp), adadinvdiha a1d?2de3ga DLSS ga2d?2de 3ga u1d?2de3sv237i a1da2de3g037i ha2da2du l ga v.i. he's limping
S LSS

Roosters crow at dawn. cf: julichvyasdi a2da D L n. wood Hila jugvwahldi sagwu igasvti &? AW dEGGJ t13 TSRa How much does one rick of wood cost? -

BLSRT DLSAT +LSS

. .

a?

~ ~ d a ~ d i ~ ~OL1OJ ~ d i n v ~ Ayo'uhli asgaya adadegv jigowhtiha. D m D @ S 3 DLSE IrAG2.L. I see a lame man limping. cf: a1d?2de3ga [bounce) v.t. he's

D L n. young animal (animal born in litter or hatched)

a2ni4da DhL Jitaga anida jutvhisdohdi adanhteha.


IrWS

d V B V 1 DLD-a+.

a1da2di23nv32di2ha DLJO1.L bouncini it g?2da2di23nv32d12ha

S LJOJ+

adadlohiha ha2da2d02 lilsda


C-6 VP@L

Jo?i iyuwakdi ad;ldolisdisgo siga.


KT T G G Y A D L V P J A m A b S .

Na alasgalisgi sdayi adadinvdiha sgwahlesdi. 0 DW@SPAY 2 1 ~ 5D l A 0 ~ f . G, 2 8 L @ A . The ball player is bouncing the ball hard. cf: a1da2de3ga (bounce)

He - prays

three times a day.

cf: adadclisdi, gadoliga g3da2ge4?i D l k T adj 1. tender 2. very young, new a2ni3da2ge4?i D h L P T Anidage tuya anije duhwasv didana?nv?i. p h l P S 3 DhY SGR A L e D T . She bought tender green beans at the store. Adage ayohli unvdigwu iga aditasgo7i. D & k DfiC (PO-.& TS DIWAAT. A - very young child drinks only milk. ?'daZgeyh2di D L k G A n. love Adageyhdi ulsgeda. Love -is cf:
DLPG.1 O l : , F l . .

a1da3dlo2hi3ha DL-IA.t. v.t. he's a putting 0,. belt g?2da3dlo2hi3ha


5 LefM

~ ' d a ~ d l o ~ h l v ~ ~QLrfP P ?i a1da3dlo2hi2h03?i D L6,3j T ha2da1dlo23ga u2da1dloZ3sdi


G l. tf .S
Crl f 3 A

Uwoduhi adadlosdi ~ldadlohlv?i digaduhv uwena.


Q C S J D L d J A O ' l t X 7 .dS YG Q&8. She put - on a belt -when she -

important.

pretty

udageyuha n. thing that kills


D~L.~,Q

went to town. cf:

adadlosdi, gadlohiha

a2da23hi2hi D L 4 4 a2na2da23hi2hi

Igada dikisdi anadahihi tsgwisdi yidakisa. Adadlosdi zginesv Danisdayohihvvi. D L d 3 A DY. lR L h2L f i G > T . I got a - for Christmas. belt cf: adadlohiha
DLVP3.d 7 5 6 A Y N A D B L A A b P 2 A :5L.Ybr.

Some pills are killers if too many are swallowed. cf: ahiha, didahihi a2da2hli2ne3sah12di D L C M P A purse di2da2h1i2ne3sah12di
AbC:WPJ

?2da2d0231i32sdi

n. prayer

n.

Adadolisdi utayahlv ahljadohvsgi.


DL 1. P;3A BWfiP l)l-'CVdi.L~.

The preacher asked for riayers, cf: adadolisdiha, gadoliga a ' ~ i a ~ d o ~ ~ 1 i ~ ~ s DLVP2.d.I. di~ha he's praving ga2da2d02 31i "sdi2ha
?1;i;'do231i32~di25gcj'i.

v. i.

Ije adahlinesahldi unvnelv usdayvhvsgi. IY DLCIWPJ @@A*? Q 3 L B C 2 . He gave his wife a new purse. cf: kanesahla
DL./LI

S G V P.2.1.G
Pl.!,!Ji).I,;,17

?2da2%neh2di di3(!a2'hneh2di

n. gift
I

u1dn2d0231i32stB2nv23?i Q L L T f 2 U 0 T

JLAA
i

3a?isdayohihv na7v yigi, didahnehdi

adahyoneha anadananesvhvsgo yvwi. Lh,?Lfi.%r Qi h Y d u D8LBilR115tA B 8 . When ~ t ' s close to Christmas, people shop for gifts. cf: ahneha a1dg2hno3ye2ha D1,ZB.G v.i. he's fanning himself ga2da'no3yc2ha
S 1, Z8.E-

Usgwa'da gohweli degohwelisgv, udahvastanv'i Nhen he finished wrlting letters, he stretched. a2da2hye4sgi D L B A Y n. cancer Adahyesgi udlvgv ajinvwanv'i. D L B H V OPE D b K Q T . He was cured of his cancer.
-

RerP SRT/PJE .. QLGLWOT.

~ ' d ~ ~ h n o ~ y e ~Qh Z89,7. ~ i L v ~ ~ a1da2hno3ye2sgo37i D L U S A 7 hs'dg2hno2yv231a .GL ZBM' Udahnoyehdi uduli yuwzya. asehnv hla adahnoyo

cf: gahye'a,

gahyesdi v.t. he's denying

@ I , L B . ; QSP 0 4 0 P D b Z f i GG2. She wants -- herself, but she has to fan no fan. cf: adahnoyo, kanoyeha

a1dr!2hyi3ha i7L.W him, it

g2da2hno2yo D L Z f i n. fan ~ i ~ d ? ~ h n o ~ JLo f i y Z Udihlehga. Hudalv7vga adahnoyo


QJLS.

fan. It's hot. Plug in the Unosgisv agu9istana, udahyilv7i.


QZAYI< DJTAWQ. QGJ39T.

rL4iS

u i f .

cf: adahnoyeha, kanoyeha a'da2hwah2tv2hi2 3do32ha DGG6"AV.C. v . i . he's visiting S L G PA\' ~JJ g?2da1wah2tv2hi23d032ha u1da2hwah2tv2hi23d0321v23?i QLGPAV97 a1da2hwah2tv2hi23d032h03?i DLGPAL-8 T

When he was accused of stealing, he denied it. Jiyada?yiha, hlahehno yijiyoliga.

I+ i am him - - enylng. because I don't


know him. a1da2hyo3ne2ha Dlfi.4.C v.i. he's committing adultery

3164. C3Z h f r f i f S .

Hla ayv agwenvsv yigi ahani. Gadawahtvhidohagwu. c DB ~566~53.'. ~ . s LGVAV.GJ. D.c This isn't my home. -j s I'm u t visiting. cf: ahwahtvhidoha a1da2hya32sd12ha DL&d+ stretching v.i. he's Chaneline dikanowadvsditlhlesdijadahyonelv'i" adiha. c n r ~ @ Z G ~"Lad CLBA4T"DJ.G. J J 'The eighth commandment says, "Thou
L

adahyonehdi shalt not commit adultery."


cf:

adahyonehdi, adahyonehi

g2da2hyo2neh3di D l fi/U n. adultery Galvkwdi gohweli asgaga adahyonehdi.


S W I ADP D@Sf D L f i I U .

Dlv uwenvsdi yadvnv7isdi adakesgo7i.

The Bible reproves adultery. cf: adahyoneha, adahyonehi g2da2hyo2ne4hi D L f i A A n. adulterer Jani osda kanohedv chaneline ayatohlv ajine7isdi adahyonehi agehya.
Ch 6 @ L a236 C/U'A DLfiAB DF3.

P 860a W T @ J D L F a A T .
When he's getting ready to go somewhere, --he uses a mirror. cf: adakehdi ?2da2keh3di D L F J n. mirror di2da2keh3di J L f J Utana adakehdi nuwanhdi disehisdivi. @We D m 9 G 0 J 1 4 B J J T . She has a big mirror on the dresser. cf: adakeha a1da21e2ni3ha D L G h + v.i. it's beginning

D3VP DkAT@J

An adulteress is mentioned in chapter eight of the book of John.

cf:

adahyoneha, adahyonehdi

a1da2ja2g?2113ha D L C S P . 6 v.i. it's ripping g+2da2j?2g?21i 37a S LCSP.6 u1da2j?2gg21v2hv23?i Q L C S 4 G T

Uwet i ahnawo ahida geso udajagahldi.

Unalasgahldi yuhli7ilohla adalenisgo analasgalisgv7i.


@0W@f P J GC TGC D L G h a A DQWaS P 2 E T

a m ~ t Ds L A

An old cloth is easy to cf: gajagaliha


6

F+ a c e s r - I .

a.

When it's time for them to play ball, the ball game begins. cf: aleniha, didalenisgv7i a1da2na2ne3sv2hy3sga DL Q M & f v . i he1< shopping gg2da2n?2ne3sv2h~3sga f L Q M & f u1da2na2ne3sv2hnv2 37i O'L Q M 0 T a1da2na2ne3sv2hy2sgo3?i D L O M Q A T

a2da2jvy4sgi 0 stings

~ n. something that 7 ~

Gohusd usdi tsgoya adajvysgi uwajvhyv Some kind of a stinging bug stung him on his hand. cf: gajvysga a1da2ke3ha D1k-G v.i. he's looking 'at himself in a mirror

h?2da2n?2ne1sv2hv lga +L Q M $ f ~ ~ d a ~ n ? ~ n e ~ s v ~ ~ h \ ! 0 M &i QL ~ s d A Tsgwisdi udananesvhvsdi uduli asehnv tsgwisdi dagvwahldida7na.


h T @ J O'L Q M & J d O'SP D 4 0 I r V a J LEGPJLO.

adanhteha She wants to do a lot of shopping, but the prices are too high. cf: adana3nvVi a1da2n?73nv43i DL007 n. store

Duyaweja ahyvki aktiyv, unali'i udanedliyvstanv'i. S a C DBY D S J B ~ When he not tired of guarding the prisoner, his friend iook hi; place.
B8PT B L K B @ W O T .

--

cf: Adanavnv dagilvhwisdaneho gogi yinulstana.

adanedliyvsdisgi, ganedliyv7a
DLKB@JAY

2d? 2ne23dli3yv 1 sdi4sgi

DL80 - LY4B@LAJ AYind?P@W8. I work in a store the summer.

cf: adananesvhvsga, udanavni a1da2naw32sd~3ha D8L BG@J.G v. i he's taking off running ga2da2naw32sdi3ha S L 8GJJ.G

n. 1. alternate 2. substitute a2na2da2ne23dli3yv1sdi4sgi D 8 L K B a J A Y Anadanedliyvsdisgi danhtihneho analasgalisgi.

. . .

DBLMB@IAY L8;IAI DBW@SP@Y.

. .

The ball players always have substitutes. cf: adanedliyvsdiha a1da3ne2hlv4?i DLAPT supplies n. provisions,

~ l d ? ~ n a w ~ ~ s t ? ~ n v B ~ eG@WOT ~L ?i a'da2naw32sdi23sg?37i D L 8G@J@AT ha2d?2naw1sda


.GL @GAL

YC LGQ@E 86"s 8 . 8 1 8Q@WOT.

Gihli dasuhwisgv utvgana, udanawstanvvi . When he heard the dog bark, -he ran. v. i . he,

E.lsdayhdi adanehlv duhnelv juniyosisgi. He gave a supply of food to the hungry. a1da2ne231v43i DLA4T n. building ~ I a ' d a ~ n e ~ ~ l v ~ 3LiL A 4 1 Unole uyostanohnv adanelv7i.
B Z 6 BfiJWZD DLA4T. DP@LBJ SA4 d h f i b z .

a1dg2ne23dli3yy23a D L K B D it's changing

A tornado destroyed a building. cf: didanelvvi


DLOV

?2danh2do Gigage ajvstv adanedliyvna.


Y S j DC36 D L K B B .

n. heart

The red l i g t cf:

changed.

di2danh2do JLOV Adanhdo yulehwistana, ayohusgo yvwi. Whenthe heart stops, a person dies. cf: udanhdo
DLOV G6B@Wi8, DfiF3A B B.

ganedliyv3a

a'dB2ne23dli3yv'~di2ha D L K B 2 J . G v.i. he's taking turns with him ga2da2ne23dli3yv1sdi2ha

a'danh2tg3ha D1OE.G v.t. he's thinking ~ ~ d g ~ n e ~ ~ d l i ~ y v ~ sBLKBaWO7 ~ ? i tg~nv~ a1dg2ne23dli3yv1sdi2sgo39i D L K B 3 J d A T ha'd?2ne2dli2yv'sda +I K B d l . 23.. . c i l "y~l\-1sdch2di Pl.!K8;\ -1

. .

S LKB2J.G

adanhtehdi

Gad0 usdi hadanllteha? What are - thinking about? you cf: adanhtehdi, adanhtehilo?a Utana inada adansini. a2danh23teh2di D L Q ~ J n. thought Gosdigwu ijadanhtehdi ijvneha. I'm just giving you something to think about. -cf : adanhteha a1danh2te23hi31p2?a DLQT,!WD v. i. 1. he's pondering 2. he's considering
.4 2JL PC L 0 % "1 :%A-G

sv s , . G~Q ~ . G S I

OW8 TO1 DL8bh. A big s n a k e c r a w l i n g . -

cf: gansini a1da2nu3te2yp3ha DL'1Zifi.G twisting v.i. it's

Agaluga uwahnila hlgv?i udanuteyolv?i.


D S M f BGhW 8 E T B L 9 6 f i ; 7 T .

When the twister hit the tree, it twisted. Gosdi jinohiselv adanhtehilo?a. .~a.l z ~ 4 9D L Q X , ~ h He's considering something I told him. cf: adanhteha a1dg2n02hyv2h1~2sdi 3ha 1 L 7 B C d I/ 1 v.i. he, it;s making noise g?2da2n02yv11~2~di 3ha
S I Z B PC,) I+

cf: ganuteyoha a1da?3ny2?a D L Q D v.i. he, it's moving from one place to another g?2da?3ny2?a S LQD ~ l d ~ ? ~ n v l s v ~ 8 1? i T ~ QR

~ ~ d ? ~ n o ~ h y v ~ h l ~ ~ s t8? ~ B Cv L~9 e 1i [, n . ? 7 a1d?2n02hyv2hli2sdi23sgS,3?i

Dl,7 B C C k . l J , i 7

Sgohi judetiyvda uneladv?i Daligwa, kila udulvhv uda?nvsdi?i .


J A A d S J B L BACVGT l f 2 . .YIY 0'5;79, 0'CQ;;IJT.

Doya na?v yiga?luchela adanohyvhlisdisgo?i. Vu? Oi v3SMYW D l ZB(;311Kl.1T. When you get close to a beaver, it makes noise. -cf: ganohyvhlisdiha, unohyvhga a1dan2si23ni D L O b h v.i. he's crawling ga2da2na1si23ni f L O h h

He lived in Tahlequah for ten years, then - wanted -he to move. a1d?2nv23sga D L Q J S v.t. he's ordering it g? 2d? 2nv3sga SlQ23 ~ l d ? ~ n v ~ ~ s v ~8 L O R 7 ?i a1d?2nv23sgP3?i DLOAAT ha2da2nv231a
C LOW

~ 2 d a ~ n v ~ ~@ ld i j A s @ Sudetiyvda iyudali ije dagwalela adanvspo7i. esnBc TGCP 77' CZ6W DC02A7. He orders a new car every year. a2da2sdayh1di4?i
~ d 3 C A ~ f 7n , kitchen

a1da2we23183gi3'7a D(,J(C(\.n burning (flames) g?2da2we2 la3gi2?a u1da2we231a3gv237i

v.i. it 'S
S IBMYD

819(KLl

a1da2we231r?3gi1sgo37i DLLJIJMYdb47

Adasdayhdi aya?a ditelido degvdiye7a. & & J D 2 D ..&PI' S F-131). & & She's in the kitchen washing dishes. cf: adasdayvh~isga,didasdayvhvsgi a1da2sda32yv2h\!3~ga [)/,&[,86& she's cooking a meal
V. i.

Aj ila gohlvhdi adawelagi7a.


DkM' '4P.I

The match - burning. is cf: a2da2we231a2gi lsgi (flame)


DIPW.YnY

DLScM'YD.

a2da2we2 31a2gilsgi di2da2we231a2gi'sgi

. .

n. flame

d69@MYo3Jr

Adawelagisgi duleyhtanv gasohivi.


DGSCM'Y~IC Scr7'WIk 5-1-47.

The flame burned his back. cf : Hla ase jadasdayhdi yigi, hlaheno yagiyosiha. You to cook, -d o n m e -- because not hungry. cf:
C D CC@f B.1 hY, C r ' 7 u Y f i b 4 . 4

ad~welagi ?a, ?2da2we21a2gi'sgi (gunpowd 1 ;


,T

a2da2we21?2gi lsgi powder

DGdMY&,\'

n. gun-

I'm

Adawelagisgi ullohlvhdi jul~hwisdanelv edoda.


!lC9(M'YAs\' PZPJ J90fiC.l:? R i ' i . .

adasdayhdi?i, didasdayvhvsgi, gvh~lisdiha

My dad has worked at a piace where they make gunpowder. cf: adawelagj7a
I

a2da2 3we3hi nl,fi.g n. magician a2ni2da23we3hi p h [ , g9 Igada Anijalagi unilvkwdi anidawehi junihnohehdivi. 7 S 1% 1)11(.12.\' Dh9YJ DllLQi3 d h 7 ? J T . Some Cherokees like to talk about magicians. cf: ?'daZ3we4hi a2da23we4hi Dl.L(.J (magical) adj . magical

a'da2we3s021v23sd~ 3ha DI,d .fv.i. he's resting

i J

? % ~ i ~ d a ~ ~ w e % i DhGSc3 Doyu anidawehi geso igada Anijalagl.


I'G U!,1,6(1)

Hadawesolvsda. Dotastaye-ega, : I \\ >c\\ ' 3: 5 - iii-I-'f,, 1 Rest. You'll eet exhausteu

ti-I S 1

ph(:M')'.

~ o m e C h i o k e e sare very magical. cf: a2da23we3hi (magician)

cf:

gawrsolvsdiha
I. :

.' ' a 3wi 1)I.C: 4 d

.4dar2

nohehdi. A man named Adam wants to speak to you. a1dg2w03"a DLUD v.i. 1. he's bathing 2. he's swimming ga2d?2wo 37a SCUD ~ ~ d ~ ~ w o BLUi Tv ~ ~ ~ i ~ 7
d V T L D J f 3 BSP @LCZ?1.

Tje digohwelodi udelv didehlohgwasgi.


TT nmon He - gave the

student a new pencil. cf: ahneha, gakaneha, ganehneha, ganvneha

nsaxa .

Jalvkwdis jadawosdi ?

cw12

Do you like0 swim? -cf: adawosdi'i, dadawo?a, g w ' aoa

CLU21?

a1de2hloh2gwa3?a DSdXD v . t . he's learning, hers learning it g?2de 110h2gw?37a f SOXD BS ~ ? T ~ ~ d e ~ h l o h ~ g w a ~ ? v ~ dXii a1de2hloh2gwa32sgo 37i DSdX2AT ha2de2hloh2gwa +SdX u2de2hloh2gwa1sdi ~~pf121 Ahidas adehlohgwasdi Jalagi gawonihisdi? Is it easy to learn to s ~ e a k Chero' kee? cf: didehlohgwasgi, junadehlohgwasdi?i a1de2h023hi3sdi2ha DSb,g@I+ v.t . he em6arrassing him ji2y?2de2?023hi 3~di2ha kJSbjA@l+ ~ l d e ~ h o 2 3 h i ~ s t a ~ n v ~ ~BSbA2WOT 'i a1de2h023hi 3sdi2sgo37i DSbA212AT hi2y?2dc2702hi2sda AJSbjA2 L 3sdoh2di BSIA2VI Udehohisdohdi anehldiha.
DAL2 DSdX21 CWY f B h A @ l ?

. a2da2w01sdi47i DLPJJT pool

n. swimming

--

Uweyv agwadawosdi ugodi agilvkwdi sihnv adawosdi gesv7i. 0 9 9 B DXLB@l


0iZd DY9YI 6 0 D L C @ l F R T .

I like to swim in a creek more than in a swimming pool. cf: adawo'a ?2da2yv231?2ty2sgi DLBWPJY n. television di2da2yv231?2ty2sgi ALBWo12Y Hadlv jagise na ulsuhwid adayvlatvsgi? +P CY4 8 BPK8L L B W 6 Y? Where did you get t e color television?

e s trying - embarrass him. to cf: adehosga

1 DACd+.

cf: udayvlata a1de3ha DS+ v.t. he's giving him a long object ji2de3ha hS+
BS 9 T

a1de3h037i hi2di1si u2deh3di

DSb T Adb
0.31

a1de2h023sga DSb@f v . i. he's embarrassed 2d$ 27o 23sga g? SSbj@f ~ l d e ~ h o ~ ~ s v ~ 7 RT BSb i a1de2h023sgg,3?i DSb2AT h?2de2h02 3hi +SbA ~ ~ d e ~ h o ~ ~ h BSbA@-Ii i~sd Agehyuja uktasdanela udehosv'i.

When the girl winked at him, -he got embarrassed. cf: adehohisdiha, udehohisdi, udehosati

DFGC BS \Y2LAW O'SFRT

Udelohosv ajilonu?esgv?i. O'SGF R DbG 9RZE7 He found --- out that he was being cheated.

a1de2hv3sga DS&@S v.i. he's being born ga2~e2?v3sga f S i a S ~ l d e ~ h n v ~ ~ ?@SOT i

?3de21v4?i

DY4T

n. dollars

nn ~rarzsc.@A o . ~ E G C I . s1
cf: adela, uhnosda a1de2tv3sga D.Sb'oc,S v.i

Hi?a alsgwetuwo sgo adelv jugvwahldi. The price of this hat is ten dollars.

he's diving

Hisgi iyuwahnilv jigesv kohi sunale He was born --morning. at five o'clock this

a'de231a DSW n. money "Adeia ageyhdi gesv didaleni asgahni." "D.CH' D f G 1 F R J L c f h Dash." "The love of money is the root of evil .I1 cf: adelvvi 32de123diyh2di4?i, a2de123ju2niyh2di4?i ' ll,SlV_117, D.Y u d h d f n. bank Yijadulas adeldiyhdi dijalvhwisdanhdi?
LICSH';: DSlY11 1 C 4 8 @ L A l ?

Agwadetdi agilvkwdi yigadawo7a.


DZS.21 DY4tTJ hf 6GD I to dive - like -- when I ' m swimming.

a1de3y92ha D3fi.G v.i. 1. he's going around a curve 2. he's turning off the road 3. he's circling it ga2de3y02ha ulde23y0321V23?i a1de3y02h03?i ha2de2ya2ga u2dey23sdi Adanelv gadeyoha.
-

S Sfi+
(j'.f

fi q'!'

Would you like to work in a bank? cf: adela, ahvsga


DSKdPT

D.S'fiJ T
+.f G'S
@ .$;JJ

a'de123ju23hlv4?i fornia
DSH P J

n. Cali-

Adeljuhlv uwenvsdi uduliha. She wants to go to California.

a,r(oa~ s p + . a

Dl.,'lq I am - - circling a building.

cf: adeyohv?i, gadeysdiha a1de3y92hv4?i W f i d 1 n. curve da1de3yq2hv4?i L . S f i 8 7 Ayanuli ahi?lisv iyusdi dunvdv adevohv?i .
D;qr D9PR T G A l SO6 D 3 f i d T .

cf: adela, uhla


a1de2102h02sga DSGJ3S finding it out v.t. he's

Because he was driving fast, he mis5t d the curve. -

cf: a'di3?a

adeyoha D A D v.t. he's laying a long object down

scattering

a1di32sgo3?i Dd1,1A7 hi 'a d HI u2di sdi QA2d Ahani daji?di hi?a suhdi. DLh ..Ill Cd. I am going - -lay this fishing pole to - -here.

'

Ahnawo uligvhaluhyv udigaleyojv sdaya unolvna . Dt8 B P E G M B BdSdfiC L B Z 9 8 . 2 Pieces of cloth scattered xhen the wind blew hard.
, t

!!
i

cf: adigaleya?a a'di3gw+21~2de3y02ha DdT'3Sfi.G he, it's spinning, rotating

II

-..

cf: ahvsga, gakqtv;ga, ganehvsga, ganvysga a1di2di3ha Ddd,L- v.i. he's rising from a prone position

ga2di 3gw?21v2de3y92ha jdS7Sfi.G u'di3gw~21v2de23y0321v237i BJTqSfi 11. a1di3gw~21v2de3yq2h03~i D l T 9.Y fi T 6 ha2di 1gw?21v2de2yg2ga u2di ' g ~ ? ~ l v ~ d3sdi ey~ .GATqS.2S QdX'3SA,?,[

Sudali iyuwahnilv sunale gadidisgoTi. 68 CLI: T G G h ? Z ' S 162.47. I rise at six a.m. -cf: dalehvsga a1di2ga21e23ya39a fl-i~d;j~ t. he's v. scattering it g?2di2g?21e2 3y?3?a S AS en3D

Ayanuli adigwalvdeyoha gagwatv al5hwisdohdohdivi. D34P 0dTq.Yfi.G SX6" Dd82VL'A T The wheel - spinning too fast to is stop. cf: gadigwalvdeysdiha

a1di2ha Dd+

v.t. he's saying it ga2di 3?a SAD ~ldv~hnv~~?i QfQT a1di23sgq37i D,1JAT

'+ L ~ ~ d i ~ ~ ~ ~ B1 f cfB T ~ ~ v ~ ha2da~ 1 d e ~ a1di2ga21e23ya32sgo3?i ,,/sc*2&1T u2tdi 8 6 3 Gado usdi adiha? h?2di2g?21e2 3ya PdS d@ ST.; QJd Dd.G? ~ ~ d i ~ g ? ~ l e ~ ~ y a OAS8&d i ~~sd What is he saying? Digohwel gasgilv duhlaTv dudigaleyv digohwelcd uhyala. a1di23nv32di2ha ~ d O d + v.t. he's .I IdP S A Y ? Sf i Ydf oqB d t i iJ B I j LP running over him, it He scattered the papers on the table -j i2y?2di23nv32d12ha, ga2diL3nv32di2ha when he looked for his pencil. kZd@d+, S d@J+ af: adigaleyoga Bd@w@T a1di2g+21e23y032ga DdSdh'S v.i. it's a1di23nv32di2sgo3?i D.I@d,?AT

--

a'di2ta3sga it Nvnohi dejinadiwsgv ale dagwalela nagwadinvtanv3i. 02,9 .Qh.O.lQJE D$ IXJM' &Z'dO.WDT. Crossing the road, L w a s almost run over by a car. a1di2sgS2hlY3sga DJ;SP;IS hiding g?2di1sg?2hly3sga v.i. he's
SJZ'SPAf

DAYn\..,S

v .t. he's drinking


S d\Y12 S

ga2di'ta3sga

~ l d i ~ t ? ~ h v ~ ~ ?b d T BJ i a1di2t?2sgo3?i h?2di23ta
DJ\\ ,?A1 +A\\'

u2di 2ta2sdi OJW~L~ Kemili tsgwisdi ama anaditasgovia


I.HP kPZiJ D8' OJ\\I'L!AT. Camels drink a lot o water. cf: aditasdi

e_T
diI/d

a2di2toh3di D L r di2di2toh3di Dinadaniyisgi dugoha didahihi udi-sgahlanv?i. .


m ~A + d c n n m. S V!hn the killer saw the police he ;' r
cf:

n. spoon

Aditohdi gvhdi aditasga ugama.


Ed DJ1'2S O T. k%' J drinking soup' Y with a spoon. W a2dla D n. 1. rubber 2. chewing gum Adla agoh-sgv duks\:sdv jigowhtiha.

../or,h
h: i. -.( .

gvsgahlvsga, udisgahla

Do% D;',ICJE
-

SSR13.Y kAG..i'+.

I see smoke from burning rubber.


v.t. he s

h-.di32si2ya3?a Ddb@D v. t. he's leaving a long object behind

ji2di32si2ya3?a uldi 32si2yv23?i

kJb3D QJbBT

a1dla2g02ssga DhA@f scratching

Hidisiya gasgilo. Hla yudlanvda galadisdi dagwalelu'i. A J b 2 S3YG. C GAOL SM'J3J I.TFMP. Leave the chair. There isn't room to put it in the car. cf: ahiya?a, gakahiya'a, ganehiya'a, ga?niya?a a2di23ta2sdi drink
' 2 n. something to

Dosa usga5: jv adlagosga achuja.

17u O
cf:

X PC D h A X

DJC.

The boy is scra7chj~r;g where a mosquito bithim. gajaligosga

a'dla23wc??3dv4?i DoSC$>T n. pocket da1dla23wa?3dv4?i l 0 3 G 3 ~ 1 Gasaleni adlawa?dv degahla adela.


SH<'f.

di2di23ta2sdi

J.iW,AJ

Gado usdi aditasdi jaduli? S l ' @2,J DJ\\'i -f CSP'? What kind of -a drink do you want? cf: aditasga

The r!oney is in the coat pocket.


,

S S P DSM'.

'dIe3,,:
: !.c

D I P v i . he's turning off

road

12

adlecheha

I didn't see the turn-off.


cf: adle?a, adleyo?a a1dli3?a DCD v.t. he's pouring liquid into a container Hadlv iyv udlese?i?
W TB @L4T?

Where ---- off? did he turn cf: adlesgv?i Gado usdi adli?a? Ama, unvdike? SV 0 2 D C D ? Dd", QDJI-? '1 What - is sKpouring? Water or milk? cf: gahlvsga, galadi?a, galvysga
-

a1dle3che2ha D L Y G v.t. he's taking revenge against him

a1dle3che2h03?i

DL?" i

g2d1i2??2do DCDV n. earring di2dli2?a2do JCDV

. .

Udlechehdi udulvhv asesgini hla vsgi yinudvnele?i. O L Y J Q S U D 4 2 Y h L i 5 Y h46"/16T. He to take - wanted -- revenge against him but he didn't do it. cf: adle?isdi, udlega ?2dle'?i 3sdi DLT2-l n. revenge

Juwoduhi didlivado duniha Anijalagi Unohlvhnvnv Unadana?nv?i Daligwa. JUSA J_CDV S h G D h C W Y B Z P O U QBleD-T LET. They have some pretty earrings at the Cherokee Arts and Crafts in Tahlequah. cf: udli?ada a'dli32ga DCS v.i. 1. it's pouring into a container (liquid) 2. 2. it's filling

Hlesdi adle?isdi yijahyohesdi LAJ D L 7 2 1 iXfi?Ad. Don't be looking for revenge. g2dle1sg2do D L B V n. apron di2dle'sa2do JLBV Adlesado adlesadvysgo adasdayhdi yidulvhwisdanela. V&D DLB572A Dl21 8 6 dS98JlAW. She puts on an apron when she works in the kitchen. a'dle3sgv4?i DL@ET n. turn-off

Gadawosgv, ama udlijv ji?leni. Slt"JE, D T QCC b6h. While I was swimming, water filled my ear. cf: adli?a a'dli23ha DCG v.t. he's drawing a liquid out of a container

Hla yijigowahta adlesgv?i L &AGW DLJET. .

adolanvsdi

13

a1dloy3sga 06725 v.i. he's getting off ga2dloy3sga Ama adliha svdoni7i. D$ RVhT. He's - drawing water from a barrel. cf: adlila, adlisdiha a1dli32sdt2ha DC2d.G v.t . he's pouring a liquid into a container ji2dli32sdi2ha h.C@d.G ~ ~ d l i ~ ~ s t ~ O'C2WO.T~ ~ ? i ~ n v hi2dli1sda a1dloy3sgo37i 56725 DtTTJAT ~ ' d l o ~ ~ s v8tJTRT i ~ ~ ~ hs2dlo1hi dd.9 u2dlo1h13sdi BtTA@d Agayvliyv iyusdi, segajv udloysv sogwili7i. pT 'P DfBPB TGJd 4 S C B f R + P 7 . Because of his old age, he barely got off his horse.

--

a'dl~~~kwsgaP P ) D';f bragging

v.i. he's

ACJC

Gado usdi adlisdiha? ulvsa7dis, guguke? SV B@d DC@d+? B 4trJ2, J J P ? What -- pouring it into? A glass is she or a bottle?

--

g?2dlv23gwa32sga SPZaS DP ? i ~ ~ d l v ~ ~ k w s v ~ ~ XRT a1dlv23kwsg?37i DP P 2 A T h?2dlv2 3 k ~ a +P Z ~ ~ d l v ~ 3sdi w i DPPJJ ~k Adlvkwsgvgwu iga geso yuwonisa. DPP?E3 75 P.1. GOhtr. does is j s brag when he ut speaks.

cf: adlisdohdi, gahldiha, galadisdiha, galvdiha ?3dli1sdoh2di DC,?Vd (for liquid) n. container

All

a1dlv2ta3sga DPWaS v.t . he's catching up with him, it

Hisgi go?i didlisdohdi dagwaduliha. AJY AT d l LXSP+. I want five oil containers. cf: adlisdiha, gahldohdi, galadisdohdi, galvdohdi a1dlo2hy13ha D6JN v.i. he's crying Eligwus hyiyadlvta heli? RPJ@ E W ? ) I? Do you think'you can catch I L -J him? 2do 21%2nv3sdi DVWDZd cane Hlesdi jadlohyilv7i. LJd C d h . 7 T . Don't L crv. cf: dadlohyiha with -

n. walking

di2d021a2nv3sdi dl/~O;~d Didolanvsdi degohlvsgo ada day.~illvsgv?i.

.IifCI/Oc2,1C.lP f i l l ])I. L f i P J E T He makes --- canes by carving wood, walking a2d023ni'+sgi 1 n. sorcerer

a2dv1ne231i4~gi DII'..IP*I.Yn. actor a2na2dv1ne231i4sgi

. .

DOj7/Ip>Y

Hiyoligis kilo adonisgi adehlohgwasgi?

.t~firya YC;

PI~.~;J' D.;+JTJY$

Advnelisgi iyulsdohdi adehlohgwa?a didehlohgwasgi. DsT:lPi1.Y -PGP O'V"1 D.SdXD . I S ~ T ; I Y The student is studying to become an actor.

Do you know anyone who is an apprentice sorcerer?

cf: advneliha a1dv2nv3?i2sdl3ha DbVT3d.G V. t . 1. he's preparing it 2. he's getting ready g?2dv2nv3?i2sd1 3ha SPOT2J.G

a2du2da21e4sdi 1 , n. freedom Hadlv ahwahtvhdi ad~idalesdi? 4-P D i . DSL(T2-I? (T1 Where does one find freedom? cf: gudaleva +'dy2ji
D6-h.

n. 1. Dutch 2. German Dlv agwenvsdi gadvnv?isdiha S 6W7.2-I+. I'm getting ready to go somewhere. Tsgwisdi alsdayhdi advnv?isdisgo Danisdayohihv?i.

.JD D , P ' I T ~ S . Y O. - I I
a1dv3ne2ha DiYjlQ gg2dv b g 2 h a u1dv3ne21v237i a1dv3ne2h03?i ha'dvl ga

~ ~ n i ' j i~ ~ D h~i,'~ d Hi?a Advj i oginali7i. ~ h i s y e r m a nis my friend. v.t. he's doing it Soi,l&
85'11 37

P D;dd ;O?

DKlk I
l.7 s

She prepares a lot of food at Christmas. cf: udvnv?isdi a2ga2da2ha47i DS L +7' adj . dirty (animate) ?2ni2ga2da2ha4?i DhS L,&T Gadohi yidunanelohna diniyohli, anigadaha nanalsdisgo?i. When children play on the ground,

u2dvnh1di iYf'A.1 Gado hadvnehesdi Dodagwidena? Slf h W . 1 1.1 @ P O ? What will you be doing Saturday? aldv3ne21i3ha 1 siilY ga2dv3ne2113ha u ldv3ne21v2hnv237i ha2dvlne231a
\i.

i. he's actl~lg

S ):lPC
8o7/l X?l

they become dirty.


cf: gada, gadaha?i adj . , adv. eager DhSCh a2ga2hli4yi DSC.5 62ni 2g? 2hli4yi

a l d ~ ~ n e ~ l i ~ ~ s g ? ~ lP,AT DY ? i
1 bTi CV

u2dv1neh123di Br,fC,I Ajiyejasdohdi udulisgv iyusdi advneliha.


! 7 , E 1 IPP. D + h He's -acting silly becau,e e wants to

Nigohilv agahliyi geso udasdehldi9i h.4.94 D S C h I-$ 0 L,ilSCdT. He's sa eager to help. 31ga31i2ha Df/',b v.i. it's (sun or moon) shining

be laughed at. c f advneha, advnelisgi

cf: ganhlga (tongue) ganhgo7i


92ga?3na2kti
D f O f 2 n . doctor
DhSOf2

a2ni2gg?3ng2kt i
~p

Usgosdi agalisgo nvda iyuhno kali nvda yigi.


BJAad DSPa7A O TG2 a P @ L C

Agavnakti uyvsdi wi jiya3v?i. D S 19s 2 T B G ~ Oh32 7 I was in the doctor's office.

-~f

H.

The moon shines brightly if it's a full moon. a'ga132sga D ~ W v.t. 1. he's J ~ breaking a flexible object 2. he's cutting a flexible object j12ga132sga u1ga132sv23?i algal 32sgo3?i
I ~ WAS S BS WRT D S M1@A7

a1ga2nawh2d?3ha warming it

W A G v .t. he's

ji2ga2n92wo'di3ha, ji 2ga 2n+2wo'di3ha


h f 0Cd.i., h.E%d+

t11ga2nawh2ta2nv3?i @ S %\I OT z1 ga2nawh2di23sg5,3?= D f E 1 d 2 A T

hi2gg?'1a ASW u2ga11sdi B f W@d Na agehyuja ustihgv ugalsdi uduli.


8 D K C 0a B f W@d BSP . E

Julasihdeni daganawhdiha.
JB:b.Eh I f 8C>d.I6.

The girl wants -- her hair. to cut Juwoyeni gvhdi ugalsv asti.
dC8h Ed BSU'R

3e's warming his feet. .f: aganawosga, uganawa


3

2 2 :;a*-ngwo sga getting warm

D ~ @ ( ~ J s v.i. it's

He broke t h e t r i n g with his hands. -cf: asgwalsga a2g?21u23ga D f M f n. twister Igada agaluga jusdi geso, igadahno jutana. T f C D f M f d@d k?. T f I 2 dWQ. Some twisters are small and some are big. a1gg2naZ3di3?a D f 8dD licking it ji2gg2naZ3di3?a v.t. he's
h f OdD

Dan.

Gogi yinulstana aganawosgo7i.


AY h?Pa'W'8 i l S 8 f " J A l .

When it becomes summer, - g e t s w a m . it cf: aganawhdiha, uganawa, uganawosga a1ga2sga


~ ~ ; r ? v.i. f

it's raining

u'gg2na 3dv237i B f 8GT a1gg2na23di32sgo3?i DS8dJAT h12g?2na2 3da u2gg2na23di32sdi


Ama

- - - - -- -

-- - - --O,S@d

ASQC B f 8dJd

u2ganh2di

Tsgwisdi agasga dlv envsdi kohi iga.


h a , d DSdS P RO,>.d A.0 T f

uniganadisdi unilvkwdi wahga.

Dg B h f 8dAd Bh4lrd G S Cows like to lick salt

It's raining too much to go some-h e r e today.

16

agasuyeda

adj a person ?2ga1su2ye4da DSZ8 L who has been chosen Hi?a asgaya ase agasuyeda uwonihisdi7i.
AD D 2 S 3 0 4 DSe8.I O'@h,9@lT.

g2ge2hyu4ja D ~ G C n. girl 82ni2ge2hyu4ja Dh f - ~ ~ Anijalagi anigehyuja unilvkwdi unalasgahldi7i.


DhCWY D h K C B h W l O'QWJSCJT

This man is a specially selected speaker. cf: asuye?a ?2ga2y?21u3di


D f @,\lJ n. seine

~herokees like to play ball cf: agehya agi- v.pref. first person singular subject (see Gram. I, B) a1g13?a g y g v.t. he's eating it (a single solid food) jt2gi37a u1gv23?i a1gi32sgo37i hi2ga u2gi1sdi
~ Y D
O'ET DYJA7 AS O'YJd

di2ga2yg21~3di J S 3 M . l Agayaludi anhdisgo jisdvna daniniyisgv Anijalagi.


DSaMJ DOd2A 6J6-8 L h h m E DhCWY.

Cherokees use a seine to catch crawdads. ?2gg2yv41i D S B P adj. old (animate)

Agayvli saloli juhyo gihli uwaka eduj i.


m P brGP J f i YC O'Ga RSh

Selu gadu unigisdi unilvkwdi Anijalagi.


4 f S B h Y 2 l O ' h W J DhCWY. M

My uncle has an - squirrel dog. old cf: uweti q2gg2yv231i3ge4?i D S B P P T woman g2ni2gg2yv2 3113ge4?i n. old

The Cherokees like -- corn bread. to eat cf: agisdi, asdigi?a, gahye?a a1gi3?a DYD v.t. 1. he's picking j t . up 2. he's getting it j12gi37a
hYD

Dhf BpI.7

Na agayvlige talsgohi nadetiya nidigvdehyohvsgo7i.


8 D f B P I . WP@AA 8S.23 hJESfi8J24T.

~'gi~sv~~?i BYRT

The -- has been teaching for old woman twenty years. cf: agayvli Adel ugoha gadohi ahv ugisvqi. a3ge4 DI. adv. over there
D.YW @A+ SVA D 8 B A T .

& widagedoli hlega.


8IFVP L f . 1 a m going -- for a while. over there

When he saw money on the ground, he picked it up. Tavli ijudetiyvda iyudali ije dagwalela agisgovi.
W P T J S J B I TGLP TY ITdW D Y d A I .

?2ge23hya D I . 3 n. woman g2ni2ge23hya DhI.3 Gag vsgina agehya?


SA

He - gets a new car every two years. cf: ayiha, gane?a, ganegi?a ?2gi2hli4yi DYCA n. agony, pain

i z e -? DG

Who is that woman? cf: agehyuja

Anijalagi Digeji3ilvstanv agihliyi. Gese?i.

DhCII.J' .lkh.T 92\'!?\YO DYC45 k 4 T .

The Trail of Tears was agony for the


Cherokees. cf: agihliyoga

g2gi23si DYb
.2 .23si g 2nl gi

n. female animal
D ~ Y L

Sgohi iyani7j j itaga anigisi dejigowhtiha, sagwuhnv achvya. MALI T 2 h 7 h . U f D h Y b SkAG.T.G, tl>@
T ) cj ;

a1gi2hli23y032ga DYCfif v.i. he's in agony, pain j?2gilli?3YO 32ga IrYPfi S .lgi2h] i23y032jv23?i a1gi2hli23y032g037i
O'YcfiCT DYCfiAl

I see ten -and one rooster. hens


a1go3hY2sdi3ha DA@,tJ.1 v .t . he's burning him, it ji2ya3g02hv2sdi 3ha, ga3go2hv2sd? 3ha

. . .

1r;,4dMiJ.L ,

s .4d;d.[
DAdZJJAT

~ ~ g o ~ h ~ ~ s t g ~ n v ~,?\'!'@T O Ad ? i a1g?3hy2sdi23sgp3?i Ta7li jusvhida igohid ugihliyojv7i.


He was in --- pain for
\\'/-

JTi.9 L

1A.O L OYCfiCT

two days.

hi2ya2gq2hY2sda, h92g02hv2sda
HSAL, L

u2gp2hv3sdoh2di
J M P d&(a 1, AS.Z.1.C..

+AhdL 8A&,,17d

cf:

agihliyi

Digohweli juweti dagohvsdiha. He's burning old papers. cf: agohvsga

g2giL'na DJ'Q n. young animal (not born in litter or hatched) Sogwil agwajeli agina uwakaha.
DTYP m O C u f , . 8 My horse has a colt.
$'Pf

a1gp3hY2sga ~ ~ 1 1 5 v.i. he, it's ; ~ burning

cf. a?da a3gi1sdi DLYkll n. something to eat (single solid) Gohusd agisdi higisv didana?nv?i. 11rJ.1 DYZlJ &Yl{ JL 807. Get something -- at the store. to eat cf: agi?a

: 'gi32sdo2?a ,

D,\';,IrD

v. t. he's chewing

it

Dagwalela duhlihgwadina agohvsgv udalenvhv7i. 1. 7 ; y n M . SC7.10 DAS, P @1,d'@61 . \Then the car overturned it started burning. cf: agohvsdiha n. perch

?2g021a 4

Anigola anosda digahyesd,.


DhAH
Na agehya nigohilv j j lali agisdosgo'i .0 1 1 . F ~ 1 1 4 3 q Irll./ L \ r l L141

DZotL. J f B 2 d .
,

Perch are good to eat.

The woman always chews gum. cf: agi?a, asdo7a

aLgo'li"ye3?a D l / - 8 D v.t. 1. he's reading 2. he's examining him, it

18

agona

Oginali7i nidayunvnv gohwel jigoliyeva.


,5,Y8['1

hl,G00. lL(P !r lP,311.

I am friend. - - reading a letterfrom a udlvgi. Aga7nakti ugoliyedi udulisgv The patient wanted a doctor to examine him.
DSBSJ

BAPXIC P ~OF Y . B T

Hlas hyigowhti? LZ & J , &? Don't --you see it? cf: agowhtvhdi , agowhtvhdiha 62gowh2 3tvh2di DAG6'.,1 n , sight

Ije ganulvsv dohiyu uwoduhi agowhtvhdi * geso7i.


7~

Agonas jalosvhi?
CGlt3?

Have you gone through famine? a 3go2ni3ha D.4h-G v.i. he's target practicing ga3go2n; 3ha u3g02nv2hv237i a3g02ni23sgo3?i ha1g023na u lgonh23di
SAh+
@,,10.8.7

=\ ,

ssqn

b 3c

s c s ! ~L

I ~ G ~ J~ T . F

The green grass is really a beautiful sight, cf: agowhtiha, agowhtvhdiha v.t . he Is

;
a

a1gowh2tvh2di3ha D,-lG6.l-L showing it to him j i2gowh1tvh2dl3ha u1gowh2tvh2ta2nv37i hi2gowh1tvh2da u2gowh2tvh2doh 3di -

h.iiLo7.1,G

@.4C,r\VD7-

LI.4h.2.47 ;G.1 H
0.i0.J

a1gowh2tvh2di23sg5,3?i Dtl(X'.l< AT

BAG S'I,
Q AG S"V "1

<

Ije gahlja7di gvhdi agoniha. 1 S I ' C . 1 E.i M I . 7 He's target pacticing with a new bow. a2g03sda2gi 32sdi D l,Ly,~( n. lettuce Jisdu gvwsvhnelv agosdagisdi.
1 r i S E(;kL 7 D 3 4 x L Y
r

Jej ahlilostanv ugowhtvhdi uduli jaj i . YCCR,,W/O @,lGT'J B SP C h . Your mother wants -- a pictcre to see of you. cf: agowhtiha, agowhtvhdi

(.

Rabbits ate up her lettuce. cf: agisdi, agosdi

.!2g~23sa D J n. Creek t2ni2gu23sa ~ h . J u Hi7a achuja Agusa Ayvwiya?i.


ID DJC
nl?@&lT.

a2g04sdi

D I d 1 adj . raw
Dh 1, 1

a2niLgo4sdi

This boy is a Creek Indian. cf: Guso7i

'The lion c.te some raw meat.

?'gv2d?2ge4ni
5,:t-s

n. his forehead

I
!

a 1g o h t ~ ~2 t -h-i
7

1) l(.,.l i

11. t

. he

im ,

i7

Ga?ni;.isgi sgwahlesdi gaoniyisgv dunvda agvdageni uwahni lv7i. 1; 5,,'.\. rL.r.i S t1.5,; YO;' D F L F h F

BCh.)l.

When the catcher missed catch in^ the ball, it hit him on -his forehead. a1gv2hB21i3ha DE4.P.C. v.t. 1. he's cutting it 2. he's slicing it ji2gy2?+21j3ha u'gv2h?21v2hv2 3?i a1gv2ha21i23sgp3?i
hLDP+ 0E.L~S-T DE.LP3.47

Dfi./lS 2 G l l . l ' T , D E f f - T I - ?

Is your friend a white person or black? cf: gvhnagevi a1gv2sgo231v32sga DE2A92.S scolding him v. t. he's

i3E.IU' l-Li'gv2h?21a @ E,.l.C .I u2gv2hah12di Asano uwohlvhdi ugvhalvhv?i. Dl3 7 B ( ' ~ ' P P E.l, 9d. T .I She cut a pattern for a dress. -Hayelsdi gvhdi agvhali g a d ~ uganasda. ..E.dPiA LA - SLY B f 0 2 1 . . DEOGO She's slicing the cake with a knife.

Na asgaya uweji achuja agvsgolvsga. 8 D 2 5 3 Q S ' h D d C DEG,A*?;;S. The man is scolding his son.

cf:

agvhaluysga, agvhalvda v.t. h e r s

a1gv2sgwo3?a DEG)I'"D v.i. h e r s washing his face

a1gv2h?31uy32sga DL.I.Ff;AS chopping it up

j ~2gy2?~21~y32sga hEDMZ,S

u1gv2h?21u32hyv23?i 0 E . L M B T u2gv2sgwo1sdi
8 E21f'~.d

u ~ ~ sdi v 0 E.E.MG.2;jl ~ ~ ~ Juganhdena gvhnisdohdi higvhaluhya.


JSOSO E h x j l ' l AE.LhI;.

Wesa yulsdayvhnohna agvsgwosgo?i. L l GP211. B Z t D E21rJAT c3 ~ ~ its - after it eats. A cat u washes - ~ face

agw-

Chop u l some cabbage to cook. cf: agvhaliha, galuysga ?igv2ha21v4da DE+?L adj a piece of something that's been cut Gadu uganasda agvhalvda skvsi.
S $ @ S G x L Dt.t.7L

(see agi-) ~ . ~ r e first persbn f, subject (see Gram. I, B) n. loudmouth


dh.~-Mi.

a2ha21a4da D$II b di2ni2h?21a4da

. .

Hla kilo yulvkwdi ahalada. C ,YG C.)lrd D a . Nobody likes a loudmouth. a1h?21u23gi3Ta D+,Z~.)-L) v.t. 1. he's diverting him, it 2. he's flagging him, it down ji27a21u23gi37a 32sv23?i a1hG21u23gi 32sgo3?i hi2?a21u23gi
h.DM<YD 0+41Yli7

@Eh.

Give me - piece - cake. a of cf: agvhaliha ?2gv23hn?3ge4?i D E - t f I person, Negro n. black

62ni 2gv23hn?3ge4?i DhEtfT Ayonegas sdaliTi, agvhnageTihe?

. .

D6MYG A 7
.3Dh1\

20

ahani; ahni What do you have in your hand? -----

dDMY 8 -thatLJ'dW. down. Flag car 3ha2ni, g3hni

Hi?alugi na dagwalela

cf: gahnidoha, ganhjidoha, ganidoha a1hi3ha Dd+ adv. here


j i27i3ha

v.t. he's killing him, it


h. T+

~ + h , ~h

Ahani donadlosv?i kohi yv?i.


V W R T '4A B T .

~ ' h l v ~ ~ ? iB P 7 a1ht2h03?i Ddl T hi21ulga u2hi2sdi ,911f

Let's meet -after a while. here cf: na a2hg2wi, ?hi 'w D+@, D @ n. deer Ahwi -hawiya osda agisdi.
D8 - G83

6031 l?,Yd.l.

Deer meat is good to eat.

a1h?2w03sdi2ha DK;d.d.G v.t . he's smothering him, it

B9cd .u' Gahlgwogi iyani?i saloli degajilv aginohalena. S P V Y T2hP t / G P SSh- "?YZGde. I - killed seven squirrels when I went hunting . cf: adahihi, didahihi
a1h;T31e2ha DAd+ v.t. he has possession of a vehicle ji2?i31e2ha
h 70%

hi2?g2wo sda

dD E 2 1

When I closed the windows, I smothered it. ?'hi4da 0131 adj . , adv. easy di2hi4da -1.41 Igada inada hla ahida yigi digowhtvhdi

Udoda ujeli dagwalela ahi?leha.


QL'L

8 ' 1 -6dW DddG. 7P

He's - driving his dad's car. cf: ahi?lvsdi?i a1hiT31i 0 3 P v.t. he's driving it (vehicle in motion or animal) ir 7-P j 127;31i ~ ' h i ? ~ l v 3 s v ~ 3 ?B.9'1RT i a1hi?31i3s03?i

P S L T 8 6 'L

027. .3JV AilGI)",[.

Some snakes are not

easy to see.

a1hi23d032ha DAV+ v.t. he's handling it, he has it in his hand . 27i2 3d032ha
I?
'

--------------

DAPI. T

hll L

u1hi23d0321v23?i a1hi23d032h039i hi2hiZ3da u2hi2 1da32sdi Gado xsdi hihidoha? S ! 9' i .>"I L ,; ,;.. 1; --~

84Lr9T
DBVI P
1 3L

~~hi?~lv' sdi B A 32.1 Dlogesi didla dahi7li wahga


d k h -MI 6 4 P G S .

83 1. ,?A

He's drivxg the cattle toward the pasture. cf: ahi?lvsdi?i a2hi?21~ lsdi4?i 1 , . n. steering wheel ~li?hi?~lvlsdi~?i. [ L ] ~ , ~ - [ T

Gohusdi galsda ahi?lvsdi7i. .lr,?.l sf21 ~.-3q;'.11 Something happened to the steering wheel.

cf:

ahlawidisgi, ahlawitdiha n. something


Y

?2hla2~i2di 4sgi nLFJ.ld.\ that flies di2hl?2~i2di4sgi


.dL?(4.lF

cf: ahivli a'hi2ya3?a n.3;n it behind v. t. he's leaving

Gohusdis ahlawidisg jaduli? 41; dd DPF.I,V (. S P ? Do you want something -that flies? cf: ahlai,ridlha, ahlawitdiha a'hla2wi2tdi3ha l?ffJ.l.II. s a t . he's making him, it fly
j i 2ya2dl?2wi2tdi'ha,

ga2d1?2wi2tdi3ha

Hihiyvvi na dagwalela ihahnigisv?i.


.3!3R 1 0 1,lci"M 7.11 ''1; 1 1

Leave the car when vou ao back. cf: adisiya?a, gakahiya?a, ganehiya?a, ga?niya?a a1hla2hY3sga D P & ; S v.t. he's placing it on something

Jiyu dinehldohdi ulvkwdi uhlawitdohdi. Ir(; .lAC17.1 0 91".1 O,L'031..6 . ' He likes -- a tov airolane. to flv cf: ahlawidiha, ahlawitdisgi a2hla'wi2tdi4sgi 1 who makes it fly n. person

Gasgilv hihlahvga na gugu. YoL.'-'7 .3pcs 0 J J . Put the bottle - the table. on cf: ahlohdi a1hl;!2~i2di3ha 1 v . i . he's taking off'flying, it's flying away

Nihis hahlawitdisgi hi?a jiyu?


h.% , ;

4.r @.7..J;,'T .9 /rc-'! P --

Are you ---- this plane? the one who flies cf: ji.yu dihlawitdisgi a1hliZgi3?a T)C.iT1) 11.i . h e t s having a nightmare

Gohusdi yusgasdanela jisgwa, ahlahidi sgo?i. 4rK.l , X S , , ~i ~ i I I H I , P L P / , , 11. ( When sorncth~ngscares a blrd, it flies aha?. --

Tsgwisdi ulsdaphnv yigi ahligi5go7i. h.3'fl.f 61f,tl.l10 "5.i' I)Cl',c 1 1 -

When he has eaten a nightmare.

. lot, --he has

3 -3

ahli3il idoha

a1hl~33j21i23d03'ha [ ) C T p L . C taking timi.

v. i . it's

getv, uhliyvhgwid~nv~i.

r. iu'lt' r.f

O'G h\\. \/ VY,;"

, PCB ~ ' 1 ' 0 7 .

When he hit the steel post with a car, -it bent. cf: ahyvhgwidvsga a1h1~2yv23s?3na,1sdi3ha DCBUr)G3A1.(. v.i. he's snorting

Hila igohid uhli?ilidole etsdoyesgv? 11.v 1 1.11. qc*rrr RC,Lr8Jf? How long --did it take for you to get a haircut?
cgn

cf:

hila ahli?ili, juhli?ilvstanv3i v. t. he's measuring Gohusdi yasgasdaneh ahwi, ahliyvsanawsdisgovi. . I , l l , , S31:1 D 8 , DCBUOG;Zilfir4 7. , r Y . 1, Khen a deer is trying to scare something, - snorts it

a1hli2103?a D C G D it

Dihnesgesgi ahlilosdi kdisgo ahlilosgv iyv usgwalsdi3i hyahtena. ul.'\,ckG,J' 1lCG0al f-.I;!.-l DCGG)F T B
L .

ah11j?2d023hy3sga DrCr/&.;S preaching

v.i. he's

;iao.

A carpenter uses a ruler in measuring the place where h e cut the board. cf: ahlilosdi
a2hli2104sdi Dc; C:J Ahlilosdi esgidisi lc:cI R*ir.ltl. l(,. Hand me a ruler.
-

n. ruler

Suhliloda igohida uhljadohnv?i.


ZCc; 1. 7 2t31 @PC-C'QT .

He preached for one hour. cf: ah1jadohvsgi ah12ja2d04hv2sgi Df(,i S v .i .


c,v

n. preacher

cf:

ahlilo3a Jo3i iyani3i juwej i anichuja anahljadohvsgi nunalstanv?i. Three of his sons became preachers. cf: ah1 jadohvsga

a1h1~2yvh2gw~2dv32sga DCRV8,7;)s it's bending

--------------

u2hli2yvh2gwi2dv 'di

O.C'RPY.1

ah11k02dv2sga DPdS?GsS v.i. it's shattering

Dagwalela gvhdi ur~ahnilatalugisgi

ahl1ta2wo3?a DI"\\('n his hail. gp21i1tp2wo"a &I 1ta2,,r03?v23?i ah11ta2w03sgo37i Sgwahlesdi uwahnila jolani, uhlkodvhnv7i. d1'Li.i PGhM' K M h , BfAi'OT. When a ball hit the window, it shattered.

v.i. he's combing

s I-\\'('

@f\\ CT'jT

DP\\(.,iiAT
&(.\kc C:

cf:

hah12ta2u023ja uh12ta2u01sdi

0. \\/Ck "i l;

Nigohilv ahltawosg~,vsgihnv iyusdi uwoduhi justihga. liA.39 DF\\'(";AT.


i i ? . O IC',i;.l BC:.YLJ J
,dJS

ahlkotdiha

ah11k02tdi3ha i)l;Af'.l.l. v.t. he's shattering it

She combs her hair ---that's why she has

all the time, and pretty hair.

cf: ahltawosdi , atal,,07a ah12ta2w03sdi Dl;\YICMd n. comb dihl 2ta2woSsdi


.IP\'c/C'l,d

Ahltawosdi akiwahisdi agwaduli


DPGt7J.d D3GJ9,,Ld D d S I - . 1 want to buy a comb.

Dayohihv dahlkotdisgo gugu. L fi2a I PAGJAA J J He shatters the bottles by shooting them.

cf:

ahltawova, atawova

cf:

ahlkodvsga n. phonograph record


dd.d

ahl'te'lv2hy 3sga 01-L .lLdS v.i. he, it 's moving (without changing location) ga21i1te31v2h23sga
f f 9~ x L

a3hloh2di D9.I diZ3hloh2di

uh11te31\,2hn\~2371

BP b 407

Dihlohdi digwanehldohdi agilvkwdi


J.JJ .i,r./lcrd DJ-+WJ

I like to play records.


cf: ahlahvsga Hla ulihwojv yigi na inada. Si ahltelvhvsgagwu. J? O f f C0 f OT. . h DI-Ti'dd 2 s ~ The snake isn't dead. -still It's movine .

a1hlo2sga DYT;s v.t. he's beating him at a game

cf:

atelvhvsga v.t . he's


S hGIHD

a1hna2w?39i2yv3?a D t i ; T R changing his shirt ga2ni1w? 37i'v 37a y Oginvsa oginalasgalvha, jihlosv7i.
13.vU.U j3.j R l l d S ?-I, h J R l When we * laved ball bv ourselves. I

u1hna2wa3?i2yv3~~23?i BtG7HI(7 a1hna2w?37i2yv3sgo3?i D t G . I f i n ha2hna2wa27i2yv23na u2hna2wg2?j 3p32sdi


.41

beat him. --

,I,&(; T08

(kf,~7~fi:~,/

Gadaha nulstana uhnawo, uhnawa7iyvsv7i. fl.~P J Y E B ~ C , ~ J Brir. When his shirt got dirty, - changed he it. cf: ahnaweTa, ahnawo, ahnawo7a a' hna2we37a DtScD v.t . he ' s taking his shirt, coat off

a1hne2ha D.li. v.t. he's giving it to him j i1ne2ha a1hneZ3ho3?i hi2?v2si u2hneh3di
hi1;G

~ ' h n e ~ ~ l v8fl"lT ~ ~ i DAET


.3i 6

. .

B~ld

Sgohi adelv uhnelv uweji achuja. ZilA DS.? 8 1 @Oh. DJC. ,4 He gave his son ten dollars. -cf: adeha, gakaneha, ganehneha, ganvneha Uganawosa, uhnawesv gasaleni. BSQC'H, 8 t U R S H r ? h . W e n it got warm, ---off his he took coat. cf: ahnawa?iyv?a, ahnawo, ahnawo7a uhnawo

62hn62wo DtC; n. 1. shirt 2. cloth Wahga ganega gohlvhtanv ahnawo agina?a. G f fAf .qP\Y/D DYOD. I have a shirt made of cowhide. cf: ahnawa7i)v7a, ahnaiv.e7a,ahnauo7a uhnario Aniyvwiya unilvkwdi unahnesdi. D hB 021;h W.l OOldl I '!,.. Indians like - wrestle. to cf: dihnehihi s1hneh13di2ha D/IC.l.l- v. t . he's interpreting, translating it ga lnehl 3di2ha S ,lC.I+ ulhnehl3ta2nv237i alhnehl3di'sgo3?i ha2hnehl 2da u2hnehl 3doh2di BLlC\kO-I D,IC-l,L!T C1 L :C @,ICVul

a1hna2w037a I ) t C , l l i.. t . he's putting on a shirt, coat

Tje gasnlcni a j invnelv ti5eh.n~ h:n yilhna:~o"e'?~ . ? t ' ' ; l j ' . ~ / ,Ill?!. .!, '7 /)'LO r (: I , , --l , R -She \+!asg ii.cn a new coat , o i ~ t.qhe -i ~ . d r i ' t - i..r.. bear .

Gawonisgi gawonisgv ahnehldiha. S [ ' : h , ~ , v S C ' h,?L D/1C.I,C tle's interpreting the speaker's speech.

cf:

ahnehltanv7i

;12hneh1 3ta2nv47i D.'1C\\'DT n. interpretation, translation

Hi'a

gc8t,rqeli a h n e h l t a n v a g w a d u l i h a .
A[(/. D

nn
cf:

lruo nssr+.

--

--

TY DOf PLY @ L O , D.31. 8 h Y R LTdU

I want a t r a n s l a t i o n o f t h i s l e t t e r .
ahnchldiha

When h e p u t a new b a t t e r y i n t h e c a r , it - s t a r t e d up e a s i l y . cf: ahnigisdiha

a1hneZJp3sga D l l K ~ f v . i . he's frolicking ga'ne' j u 3 s g a


f ,'lKK!S

a 1 h n i 2 g i 3 2 s d i 2 h a DhY2J.i. s t a r t i n g it

v.t.

he's

~ l h r , e ~ j o ~ n v ~ A K 0i1 O~ ? a1hne2103sgo3?i ha'hne' J027v1ga u 2 h n e 2j o l d i

D f K H A7
+AKi S

BAK J
Dagwalela u h n i g i s d o h d i u d u l i , asehnv h l a d i s d u 9 i s d i yiduwaya. 1Su"M' BhYAliil C L S P , D 4 0 C J 2 S T A J J~SG 3 He w a n t s -- r t t h e c a r , b u t h e t o sta d o e s n ' t have t h e keys.

Ganulvhi anahnejosga d i n i y o h l i . S4.7,3 LIOAK2f J h f i C . The c h i l d r e n - f r o l i c k i n g i n t h e are grass. ~ l h n e ~ s ~D,q,,)f.t- av . t . h e ' s ~ ~ h building a house

cf:

ahnigi9a

a l h r ~ ~ ~ h l i ~ ~ DZC.'lf ~ v eat . h e ' s n e ~ g c a r r y i n g a l o n g o b j e c t on h i s shoulder g a l n o 2 h l i 23nc32ga


N3 dihnesgesgi utana j i t a g a u n i p s d i uhnesgehv7i. 8 .I,l;.f,.v 8U10 h.\lf 8 h R i : . . l CL.'l92jfST The c a r p e n t e r b u i l t a b i g c h i c k e n house.
S ZC/1 S

8ZC0RI a 1 h n c L h l i 2 3ne3'Fo37i ha'hnn2hl i 2 n u ga D7C,lAI .E2C 9f

~ ~ h r ~ ~ h l i ~ ~ n v "O.IC@x.I ~ d i
h 7 .1

cf:

dihnesgesgi D h y n v . i . 1, he's lealring 2 , i t ' s s t a r t i n g


f hYD

!':li2gi39a

JoTiha d i g e t v s d i duhnahlinvsv7i. IF6',, 1 5 Z C I ) R T . He c a r r i e d t h r e e ~ o s t s n h i s o shoulder. n . h i s mouth

gainf ' g i 3 9 a
a ' h n i 2gi" s g o " ~
ha2hni 2gl u23h;i 3gil s d l

O.h?/l<T DhY2.17 i-hY


0,hS
. L

a2h041i I J k f

%.hi s u n a l e j i g e s v j u h n i g i s v ? i . Rli cYOir / r f R 3 h Y R 7 Hc -f t y e s t e r d a y m o r n i n g . - le I j e anaga l i s g i u h l a n a , a h i d a uhni g i 3 \ dagwalela.

Aholi u l e p s : . u d i h l e L , g i u g w a a d i t a sgvTi. nfir O'CI'BR CY.ILY P S j LI/T\\ J ~r . He b u r n e d -- d r i n k i n g h o t s o u p . h i s mouth

a1hu'di3"a D l 1r.t. he's putting a long o b j e c t i n l i q u i d

8r3h,r.lDSPJijF, D 4 0 c~.,f'Il . He - wanted to hit him on the mouth, but he got scared. a1hv3"a DPD v.t. he's moving it from one place to snather i 11?v3? a hi D
J .

h a alidlisgv dahudi7a selu. ,!IS^ ,!IPC,<E 41 1. She's putting some corn - the boiling in water . cf: guhvsga

~ ' h v ~ s v ~ ~O'J~RI ?i a'hv3sgo3?i 5i2hv23na u2hv1sdi


DJLK.i1

I$-0

a2hu1ja2wo?3!a3dv4di D~CYCC'P..~ stove n. pipe, iar,? chimney ~~ di2hu1j ? . ' w ~ la2dv4di .lr(,f:CYr.l Hadlv yidejiyvwahta osi dihujawoladvdi? LP .P5SlrBG'L ,51> ([I. -~ W"" - "J,.? Where can I find some stove pipes? cf: ahujawoladv?i
D~-c:e'kVf'T

Qd,,.I

- ,

L I E 5 .n ~ t . l Move the car. It's in the wav. -

a1hy3sga D~.,,,s v.t. he's s.:tcir~g i c down n.


1 ,2?y3sga
,!r i L S

a1hu3j?2wor31a3dv"?i chimney da1hu3jarLwo231a3dv'?i

[.rJ<KI?T

. ~ l h n v ~ ~ ? i 1,)'3 7 a1hy7sgo3?i hi 'hviga ~~'kidi


/)LC, .i/
.).C C

Sdikidagwu aksgaili didla y ~ djakahnana, i ahuj :iwoladv7i . yuhwigot.;.nhta,c,.lY[,A .;S h .lo% (".l~;dtzOG6I:lC\Yi D'j

n cc

left, you cf : ?'hu21i

+-,

. .! j'' you+ will


\

{r I
Jowr

:1 1 see

lcok just a little to the 3 chimney. Set -- the grcceries

ahuj awoladvdi

Dr/, r.. drum .I[ F di2hu21i


Indians use a -~ h e n drum they chant.
DhU67.Z

a1hwah2ti3ha . him, it
,!If? 1,

v.t. he's tlilcii;;

.\niyvwiya anahyvlegv ahuli anhdisgo7i.


D O B , ; r -Pit IT

j i 'wah2ti3ha

hC.3i.

a1hu21v3ni2ha D[':lh I- v . t. he's hitting him on tk,e rnauth

~ ' h w a h ~ t v ~ h v ~ ~ ? i C? G ; I 'dm. a ' h ~ a h ~ t i ~ ~ s ~ ? ~ ? iD G J >,)A I' hi lwah2ta, hi2hwah2ta u'hwah2tvh2di

j i2'u21v3ni2ha ulhu:lr23ni3?lv23?i
a1hu21v3n?2h03'i hi.-'-qu:lv'nilga u2hu:!1v2 ? n i2.i 3,d

MY :It, 6

..)G\\;. , .?(;\\ (PCZ'.I

(pr

:]r

Di ,') hfi 1
.D '4 11,<
(?/- :I
11 , < ' . /

Gohusdi yag~sgalanelaahida ahwahtis9137i. -- l L - ~ , L L %S H ~ , ~0 1C1 clLr K I I r C hhen something L S hi 'den from ' . ~ m , k- -- it ea7; 12. : finds o

ahyaniha a l h ~ a h ~ t \ . ~ h i ~ ~ D G " ~ 1~. ih a v.t . do d he's visiting him j i l ~ a h ~ t \ . ~ h i ~ ~ d o ~ /,.i,'[i':>\'i. ~ha


u 1 h k l a h ' ~ ~ r 2 h i 2 3 d 0 3 2 1 \37j r2
&C.j1):)1' q - J

27

a1hyah2keZ3tsga D i 3 . i , L S peeling it ji1yah2ke23tsga u1hyah2ke23ts\f37i a1hyah2ke23tsgo37i


Lr,z

v .t . he's
fJ2S

O > $ f . i R 7' 11a'f.4sL'4 I

a ' h ~ a h ~ t v ~ h i ~ ~ d o ~ l)C'h :31'~. ~ i ~ To 1 I

Gago hi~<ahtvhidasdijaduli? Who du you want -to visit? ci: adahwahtvhidoha, ahwahtiha a1hwi2di3ha D8J.t v.t. he's taking it somewhere
> 1

Nuna tihyahketsa.
S O JaF.4R.

;',lL;-!

CSP?

Peel -some potatoes. a3hyah12di DJC.1 n. necklace

Uwoduhi ahyahldi ugisv udetiyisgv7i. OC' 7 13 D ~ Z 0J.n n snlsx~ . I7 She recelved a pletty necklace for her birthday. a1hyah'tv23hy3sga 7 2 d L 5 v .i. it's (the ground) becol?ing frosty

a'hw>.qdi23sgo3?i hiihwiZ3da
u21 1 .

D@.l
.,? C? 1,

.I

!I

,'tdi

am-f

Ju\\,envsv uhwidvhv sgwahlesdi .


!ic took - - the ball home with him.
cf:

. rcon

o m . .,IILJJ .

ayvhwidiha, ganehwidiha, ganawidiha Uhyahtvhne?is usv j igesv?


D@&S

a1hwi2sga it

v.t. he's planting

m ---

frost last nigh:?

OR hfR?

a'hyg'ni3ha Duhi v.t. I , he's calling, inviting him 2 , he's receiving, getting him

Anij ilvsgi d u h w i s ~adanelv na?v?i


Dhh9,4).Y S L R DT.il'l Q i 7 .

She -planted flowers near the building. a2hyG2dlv4di


1);~P-l

n. necktie

Ahyadlvdis chawahisdi jaduli? DuP.fx CG 3.r.I ('SF? Do you want to buy a necktie? cf: gahya7dlv?i

Wahga uhyona gvhdi ahyaniha gihli. GS O'fiCI t . l D;hC . J C . He's calling the dog with a cow horn. - hiyanvhe hi?a gihli? Hadlv
.(,P ,'3;r?07 .9D .YC?

Where did -- this dog? you get

28

ahyega ~ ' h y e ~ ~ h l ~ ~ l v B C 4? i B~ ~ T a1hye23hlo3h03?i Dddl T hi'ye2laZga, hi2hye21?2ga


ABWS, 98WS
I

a'h~e~~a DBS v.t. he's taking it somewhere by hand ji'~e~~a hBS O'BRT ~'hyv~sv~~?i DBAT a1hye3g03?i hi2hyu' ga K S u2hyv'sdi
+P - J X L d d ? A8S

~~hyel~~sdi 0 8 P@d Didahyehlohi udlvgi ahyehloha.


.ILEefA O P Y DBpf.G.

I
I

8B @ d

Hadlv hihyega sgwahlesdi? Where - you taking the ball? are cf: ahyeha, gahnega, ganega, ganhjega a'hyg2ha his hand
ji'ye2ha
D8.L v.t. he's holding it in Ir 8 .t. DBaT DPII'

The surgeon - operating is patient. cf: ahyelsdi

on the

a1hye21i3?a DBPD v.t. 1. he's imitating him, it 2, he's mocking him ji'ye21i3?a a1hye21i3sgo3?i
h8PD D8 P A A T

~ l h y e ~ l i ~ s v ~ 8 8?Pi T ~ R

a1hye2hv23?i a'hye2h03?i

--------------

hil~e~~la u2hye21i'sdi 0'8 P d d Jisgwa dahyelisgo gasvhgv?i.


h d X LBP,?A SA ABPD?
~

nsw

Sgohi adelv jugvwahldi sagwu iyanadanhtehdi dahyehv?i.


2 A 2 3 D S q J E G C d t/2 T 3 0 L & d

SRET.

&T.

He - imitates birds with his whistling. Gago hiyeli?a? Who - you mocking? are B2hye12sdi, h+2ye12sdi n. knife
GE P J d , .GE P J d

He had - - ten dollars worth of pennies in his hand. --cf : gahneha, ganeha, ganhjeha v. t. he's a'hyeh2ga2hlv3sga D B S P 3 S &lting it

Jino?alidohv agiyohuselv hayelsdi.


b Z D P V B D Y f i r 4 4 .LBP@d.

I lost my knife while hunting, cf: a'hyeh2g?2hly 3sgp37i D ~ S P J A T hi2hyeh2ga2hlv'ga AESPS u2hyehZgahl 2di BBSC-I Unega ujilv gvhdi uhyehgahlanv?i.
I)',.lS BIr 4 E d B B S C O T .

ahyehloha

She it - quilted - with white cotton. cf: hyehgahli a1hyeZ3hlp3ha D R d G v.t. 1. he's making an incision 2. he's operating on him

a'hyp3ha Dfi+ v.t, he's looking for him j ilyp3ha hfi+ ~'hy?~lv~~?i 0'284T a'hy92h03?i DfikT hiyhlga Afi S uy2sdi 8,226 Oginali?i jiyoha, Hadlv wigalohi?
75YOPT

h.fi.L.

+ P

@SOB?

m m -

I'm looking for my friend.

Where

ahyvhteva cf: uhyoha

29

a1hyS13?i2ne3ga DGTAS v.i. he's swimming (propelling himself through water) galF37i2ne3ga
SCTAS O'GTQRT

Sudal ilasihdi iganvhida ahyvhdlo uwohlvhnv?i. r 1 P 7161 T f QAL m B W Q T . d He made a six-foot ladder. a1hyvh2gw?3dv32sga DBPPZS v .t he's bending it 2 . she's hemming it

1.

a l h E3?i2ne3g03?i DGTAAT ha2hE2?i2nu1ga K T 4s ~ ~ h ~ ~ ? i ~ ~ n v ~ ~ s d i O'GT026 Hila iyudanvhida eligwu hyahuvinuga?


A TGLQAL R P J X T 4 S ? W

How far can you swim? a1hyv2dg2gwg2103?a thundering


DBLEGD

v.i. it's

Hlesdi jihihyvhgwidvni!
Ldd IrABPPh !
- -

Don't bend it ! J i s g w a ~ j i y e w i s g vhyehgahli dajiyvhgwidvni

-------------~ ~ h y v ~ d ~ ~ g w ? ~ l o ~ D'B Li s d ZG@d Hatvgivas ahyvdagwalosgv?


W Y D J DB L XG@E?

When I finish sewing the quilt, - I am going to hem it. ---cf: ahliyvhgwidvsga ?2hyvh2je4ni DBYh throat n. his neck,

ba7X'G b 8 8 d E 8 f C L b B P r h .

Do you hear it thundering? cf: ahyvdagwalosgi p2hyv2d?2gw?2101 sgi DB L XGJY thunder HisgahoTis ahyvdagwalosgi?
A@SE T@ DB b EGJY?

n.

Ahyvhjeni dajiyolisv j isdu asehnv dejinvdvvi.


DBYh LhfiPR h 3 S 04.0. S h Q P T .
I was going to shoot a rabbit in

his

Are you afraid of thunder? cf: ahyvdagwalo?a g2hyv2dlg2di1sdi4sgi D B l d J d J Y n. 1. refrigerator 2. air conditioner Ahyvdladisdisgi uhwahisdi uduli gogi iyv?i.
DBld2d@Y O'G,92d WSP AY T B T .

throat but I missed. cf : uhyvhjinvtga a1hyvh2te3?a D B X D v.t. he's kicking him, it jiZya1yvh2te3?a, ga1yvh2te3?a
'r=B%D.

SBXD

~ l h y v h ~ t e ~ s v ~DBZRT ~?i

He wants to buy an - conditioner air in the summer. cf: u1hyv2dla (cold, v.), u2hyv4dla (cold, adj . ) a2hyvh2dlo DBJ n. ladder

Askoli galvladidla uhyvhtesdi unehltanv7i. He to kick - tried -- above his head.


D,>A/- S qCl.[o% OBa2.l WAC\ QT ,

30

ahyvki cf: ahyvhjeni a37i DT v.i. he's walking ga37i ST a37i2sv237i a37i2s037i
DTRT DT+T
I

a2hyv4ki DBY n. prisoner, captive Igada aniyosgi anihyvki nunalstana. I f L Dh152Y D h B Y 9 8 P 2 W B . Some soldiers have become prisoners. cf: ahyvkidi7a
D~ 7 D a I h y ~ ~ ~ k i ~ d i B Y J a v.t. he's capturing him jilyv23ki 3di27a h-BYJD ~ l h y v ~ ~ k i ~ d v Q B~ P T i ~ Y~ a ' h y ~ ~ ~ k i'sgo37i ~di DBYJSAT hily~~ki~~da ABY L ~ ~ h y v ~ ~ k i ~ d i ' s d i Q B .Y &..I Dinidahnawi uhyvkidv a7yosgi. d h L 28 DECAY.

I 1

Didanelv didla wa7i kilo.


J 6 A 4 J d GT Y

Someone iswalking toward the building, g2j?72di D C J n. fish Hila iyani7i aja7di dehiniyvhe?
AW T 3 h T D C J S A h B ? ?

How many -did you catch? fish b2jah2da DCL n. Choctaw

The soldier captured his enemy cf: ahyvki

Ajahdas na asgaya, Ajalagike? v.t. he's hitting him on the nose jilyv23sde31u2hy2sga hB2.SMdLAS ~'hyv~~sde 31u2hnv237i QBi2S!rfQI a1hyv23sde31u2hy2sgo3?i DBJSMSr,,;.41' hi 'yv2sde21u2hv1ga Gago uhyvsdeluhne?i?
S A QB@SMAT?
~3 2.9 IMQ S B

1 s a t man a Choctaw or a Cherokee? a1j?37i27a DCTD gg2jg37i27a u I? 3?i1sv23?i v.i. it's hatching
f CTD

D C I 2 8 D a S 3 , DCWYF?

QCTRT

Who hit him on the nose? ----a ' h ~ y ~ s ~ i ~ ~D~ 3 Y~W a v.t. he's Bi . h choking him

hC2ja27i W T u2ja27i1sdi 8CTad Hila iyani7i jitaga anida unaja?iseTi? &W T 3 h T b W f D h L 8 h82F4 T? How manv chicks hatc e . cf: aja7vsga
. a 1 1%2nv 2sga DCOJS v.i. he's dressing up g? 2. 2nv 1sga. 1% f COAf u1j a2nv2hnv237i 8 C W T a jg2nv2sgo37i ' DCD.,?AT ha2ja2nv23na +~OO u a2nvh2di ' j 8COd

Ahnawo gahyadlv uhyvsgiyiha.


-

D t V f 2 QB2YJS.G.

The shirt collar - choking is him.

a ji lvhi Utana digaduhv yuwena 8 8 ASS9 G Q 8 DCOJA W When h e goes t o t h e c i t y , - d r e s s e s he

31

pouring i t on t h e ground ( l i q u i d o r non-liquid) 3 . h e ' s being w a s t e f u l ( o f money, e t c . )


g?2 j e 2 3 ~ 1 3 7 a .l je3,237i
SYBD 87'6 7

9.
a' jB37y2sga D G i J S v . i . h e ' s g e t t i n g i n a c a r , box, e t c .

Dagwalelu h a j a7vga GIdM + C I S . Get i n m c a r . -cf: aja7i7a


DYf%6,7

Gadohi a j e w i 7 a ama. SV.9 D y B D Dr. He's s i l l i n water on t h e ground. Tsgwisdi a e l a y i d u h a , d a j e w i s g o 7 i g w . ~ ' I P ; - I DSM' AS+, I Y ~ Z A I L C . When h e ' s g o t a l o t o f money, - just he wastes -. it

- a 9 g
?2ji231a n . grave

D ~ W . fire n

a1je231i32sdv4'i

A j e l i s d v duhlvnv a n i j i l v s g i . DYPZZ' SPO 8 hh ? ' 3 . She p u t f l o w e r s on t h e g r a v e . a 1l. e 2 l v 2 s g a 1 ) 7 / 9 ~ v . i . h e ' s a c t i n g ~ l i k e him gg j e l v sga u1 j e 2 1 v 2 h n v z 3 7 i 8Y.?OT a1je21v2sgo37i
DY?,ll
2
2

A j i l a ahv anadeyoho a n a l s g i s g v gatiyo7i. J J D9. D e S f i j DOPJYfilE S 3 f i T . b' A t t h e stomp grounds, t h e y dance around t h e f i r e .

.. g 2 ] I 2 3 l a Dl,&

n. watercress

f Y.7,; S

Amayi e h i a j i l a i g i h y a l u g a . 3,y/j R.1 D W lY=MS h L e t ' s g o x k f o r some w a t e r c r e s s .

cf:

amayi, e h i

t 2 j i 231a ~ e ~ h l ? ' h i DhH' k d 9 n. Catholic A j i l a Gehlohi uwonisv d a n a d l o s g v 7 i .

Ayvwiya a j e l v s g a . He's -a c t i n g d i 2j e2sdo


DB83 D Y ? A s .

like -an
JYJV

Indian.

DW f e f A h - - 80"hR L W , m E T . A C a t h o l i c spoke a t t h e meeting.

? 2 j. e 2 sdo DYJV n . m a t t r e s s Aj esdo gana7v anahnehihv a n i c h u j a The boys were u r e s t l i n g on t h e mattress. a 1 j e 2 3 w i 3 7 a 1)7.81) v . t . 1 . h e ' s s p j ! l j n g i t (a l i q u i d o r nn:; l i q u i d l i k e s a l t , s ~ g a r )2 . :

cf:

g 2 j i 2 3 1 a ( f i r e ) , gehloha
DhM' AP.1

a 2 j i 2 3 1 a go3hlvh2di match

n.

d i 2 j i Z 3 1 a di2g03hlvh2di A j i l a gohlvhdi s g i d i s i . Give me a match.


DblZ IP 1 - - ,d'.lb .

.l/~Il . / lP.1

32

aj ilvsga

Ajilvhi wudinvsv chinosga.


Dk ? A J l o R h. Z J S

He threw coal --into the fire. cf: ?2ji231a (fire)


D ~ ~ Jv.i. it's blooming S

Kahwi udihlegi ajotasga.


9 8 O I L Y DKWJS.

a1ji21v2sga

He's blowing on the hot coffee. a1jv2sty3sga DC3oTa?S v.t. he's turning on a light

Gogeyi anijilvsgo anijilvsgi.


AI.4 Dhh42A Dhlr92Y.

Flowers bloom in the spring. cf: ajilvsgi g2ji21v4sgi ~ b q an. flower g2ni2ji21v4sgi ~ h b q ~ y Anijilvsgi dunvsi kilo'i.
Dhh9AY S o b Y G T .

Sudali iyuwahnilv sunale dehijvstanv?i .-.

-.
? TGG h 9 C 8 6 SAC2VOT.

Turn on ---the lights at six o'clock in the morning. cf: ajvysdi ?'jvy4sdi
DCJl

someone gave her some flowers.

n. lamp, light

g2. .2 1 na :

Db8 n. cedar

Ajina nigohilv ije geso'i.


hR94 TY F f T .

Unagalvha, anagalisgi dijvysdi duhdlosv?i.


P O S ~ . + ,Uosrrn'Y l m

A cedar is always green. a1ji3slY2sga ~ b J . 1 2 5 v.t. he's lighting a fire, match.

WRT.

When lightning flashed, the electric lights went out. cf: ajvstvsga ak(see agi -)

Ajil gohlvhdi gvhdi uj islanv?i goksdi.


D b W A P l E l @b@WOT A Y J l .

g2k?2ne23sdi D9,1@l n. 1. badge 2. pin di'kg2ne'3sdi .19A,i,l Akanesdi ajjnelv eidaniyisgi.


L)9112'~1 '2 .i l. h. 'J,, Y 9tf!l

He lit -- the cigarette with a match. cf: ?2ji231a (fire) a1j03tg2sga DKWZS v.t. he's blowing, he's blowing on it gg2j03tg2sga u1jo3tg2hv23?i a1
SKWKS

The policeman was given a badge. i Z ~ ~ 2 s :1i e i ~ oJ k / ~ n. h i s hip g r a g /I&

Bk\\ 9 r

He hur: his .

- ;k /, 02,):; -

e 11~~vja. - ~iwc!iisdarlel~'
!,.

0 L( L;

when he fell

DK\\

,.I r

alke23he32ga D P P S him, it

v.t, he's chasing

a1ki2sgo3?i hi2ki2hi u2ki2hi2sdi

DYdAT AYB @YA@d

. . . .

Jiyvhjeni agwehisdanehv iyusdi segajv . jivgisga. Wahga yidugoha gihli, dakehegoTi.


G f ASAQ Y C , 1 I . P A T .

When the dog sees cows, - chases he them. -

h B Y h Ds,Q3LAd TG@d 4SC I am - - barely swallowing because my -

B.

throat hurts. cf: akisdi

a2ki2h193~~1~di4?i DYPfRdd7- n. steps, stairs Hadlv iyv gohlv akihlosvsdiTi?


d-P 7.B AP DYdRJdT?
-

. .

a2ki2yu2sge DYGJI. n. elbow di2k?2yu2sge dyG@IAkiyusge agigohv galohisdi wudlanvdv?i.


DYGAI- DYAS. SGB@d J 0 8 W T . I saw an elbow through an opening in

Where are the stairs? cf: akihlosga a1ki21v32di2ha DY.7d.L v.t. he's riding it (anything that can be straddled) ji2ya1ki21v32di2ha, ga1ki21v32d12ha

the door. cf: akiyusgeni a2ki2yu2sge4ni


DYGaf-h

n. his elbow

di2ki2yu2sge4ni

dYG3I- h

Dikiyusgeni digadaha nidulstanv udansinvsa.


dYG2I.h d S d + hSP2YO B L e b D t l .

His - elbows got dirty when he crawled. cf: akiyusge a1koZ3dc3?a DASD Tavli digagwati ukilvdohdi ulvkwdi.
WP AS XJ QY4Vd O'Qtrd, He to ride - likes -- a bicycle.

v.t. he's shoveling it


hASD

j i1k023d$3?a

g3ki2sdi DYA4 n. pill diZ3ki2sdi AY2d AgaTnakti dikisdi duhnelv udlvgi


D S Q f J d a A SA.7 8 P Y .

u1k023de32sv23?i 0'113RT a1k023de32sgo3?i DASJAT hi2ko2daZgi AALY ~ ~ k o ~ ~ d e ~ ~Bs d i AS@d Anijilvsgi juwakohdi akode?a.

The doctor gave the patient some pills. cf: akisga a1kl2sga DYJS v. t . he's swallowing

Dh h 43Y JG Ad D & D
-

She's shoveling a place to set out flowers. cf: akodesdi

34

akodesdi n. 1. shovel ?2kta D S W di2kta n. eye


JSW

+2k023de4sdi DAS@d 2. spade

di2k023de4sdi dASd7J Akodesdi guhahldi gohlvsga.


DASaA J K d AP@S

He's making a handle for a shovel. cf: akode?a a2ksga2ni D a s h n. left Aktisi didla wudlesv anisovihno aksgani didla wunadlesv7i.
D f 3 b 60% L R DhITZ DSJSh JO% J B L R T . J

Akta ayelvhi akahna sagwu7i. DSW - D84A D Q f t13T. He has one artificial eye. cf: aktohdi, aktoli a1ktg2ha DSW-G jlzga1tg2ha v.t. he knows how
hSW+

He turned right but the others turned left. cf: aksganida, aktisi ?2ksg?3ni4da Df@ShL handed adj

Hiktahas Jalagi jawonihisdi?


ASW.GJ CWY c v m a d ?

left-

Do know how - you --

to speak Cherokee? cf : aktahi , aktahna?i

Hi7a alasgalisgi aksganida.


AD DWJSPJY D S a S h L .

This ball player is left-handed. cf: aksgani a1ksQ3sga DSIJS hi1 1 v.i. he's going down

?3kta2hi D S W B n. witness ?2ni23ktg2hi D ~ S W A Gaeo aktahi nulstanidolv?i.?


SA" -.D S W ~ ilP@WhV4T?

Who is a witness to what happened? cf: aktaha g3ktq2hn?27i D S W t T able adj knowledge

j12ga 1sp 3sga hSIo3S u'k~p~sv*~?i O S I R T a1ksq3sgo3?i hi2kso1hi


DS+@AT ASIA

?2ni23ktg2hnB2?i D hSWtT Hi7a asgaya udohiyu aktahna?i.

AD D J S QVAG D S W ~ T . ~ u2kso1hi2sdi BS+A@-I This man is very knowledgeable. Ganvhida aksosgv aksosgo ama yunegisena. cf: aktaha, aktahi SORL DSI@E DS+@A Dd" GAY3B. He down hill - goes -- a long -when he goes a1kt?2hv3?a DSW&D v.i. 1. he's after water. turning back 2. he's turning (his head or body) cf: aksosgv?i

a1kso2sgv4?i DSIaET n. down-hill route da1kso2sgv4?i L S,F@ET Aksosgv wuwasadohyv dagwalela.


D S I J E JGEIVB LZdW.

gg2ga1t?2hv37a u1ktg2hv3svi3?i a1kt?2hv3sgo37i

S S W&D 8 5 W&RT DSW&@AT

He pushed the car down-hill.

aktiyi Kilo uhyanisgv utvgana uktahvsv'i. '5 YG 0'3haE 0 6 8 QSW8RT. When he heard someone calling him, he turned around. Winuluhjvnagwu uktahvsdi udulvhvTi. 84MCm Qf W8aJ QS49.T. He wanted to turn back before he got Z e r e. cf: akta, ahv7a

35

---

a'kta32sd12ha DSW3J.G v. i. he's winking gg2ga1ta32sdi2ha SSW.1.G QS ~ ~ ~ ~ ' k t a ~ ~ s t g ~ n v W2W0Ti

Hla gohusdi yagwaduli. Jigatenolidohagwu . t ATaJ 3ISP. bS5 ZPV.G3. I don't want anything. I'm just looking around. cf: aktenasdivi a'kti2ha DS3.G v.t. he's peeking through gG2ga'ti2ha S S2.6 ~'kt?~hnv~~?i 0SWO.T a1kti23sg937i DS3dAT hf2kta +SW u2ktoh2di P SV J Jolani aktiha kilo7i. Kwh YGT. Someone - peeking through the window. is cf: akta, aktohdi a2kti2si DS3b 1. n. right position, right hand 2. adj . right-handed g2ni.2kti2si Aktisi gvhdi udego sgwahlesdi. D x b EJ QSA JILaJ. He throws a ball with his right hand.

Na achuja agehyuja aktasdaneha. 8 D J C DFGC DSWa1A.G. The boy is winking - the girl. at cf: daktanawsga, daktasdiha

a1kte21u2hy3sga DSTM9.aS v. t. he's hitting him on the eye ji2ga'te21u2hy 3sga hS% M&aS ~'kte~lu~hnv~~~i PS5MQT a'kte21u2hy2sgo37i DSX M8aA7 hi2ga1te21u2hv'ga AS5M8S Nvya gvhdi ukteluhnv achuja. Q@ EJ BS5MQ DJC. He hit with a rock. -- W o y in the cf: akta, aktoli

--

a2kte23na32sdi47i DST 8JJT n. scenery Uwoduhi geso aktenasdi gogeyi. @USA PS Df582d Afd. The scenery is pretty in the spring. cf: aktenoha a1kte3np2ha DSTZ.G v. i. he's looking around ji2ga1te3nq2ha 1r53Z+ 0 s Z ~~ T

a'ktiZ3ya D S 3 3 v.t. he's waiting for him, it .23 ji2ga1ti23ya, ji2ga1tl ya Irsaa, h S 3 3 ~'kti~dv~~7i QS3PT

Sgiktiyesdi. Kilagwu dvji l h i. 'uj aYS382J. Y O 6 I M . 'rh Wait for me. I'll be rieht back. q2kti4yi D f J d n. guard

36

aktohdi
C W.62 D L B WVaY b fV J V J ? Do vou like to w a m e v i s i o n ?

Adela diyhdi aktiyi agasuyesv?i.


DSW J J D s n n DSeL3RT.

He was chosen to be a guard at the bank. B3ktoh2di D S V l n. telescope Aktohdi uduli udetiyisgv'i.
D S V l B S P BS-7&JET.

?2ktc2?y2hi3~di D f Vi,Q,JJ n. wisdom Igada Anijalagi akto'vhisdi uniha.


TSC DhCWY D f V i B @ l B h b .

Some Cherokees have wisdom. a1ktv31e2sga D S S 8 2 S v.t . he, it's going through it

He wants a telescope for his birthday. cf:. akta, aktiha, diktohdi a1kto32hy2~ga D f V&@S becoming wise v.i. he's Segajv uktvlesv usdi udlanvdv'i.
4SC BSV6R 8 2 J B W T .

He - barely opening.

went through the small

kovvi Achujagwu jigesv ut's'


DJQ b f R BS V i R T .

He - became boy. g2kto41i

wise when he was just a n. his eye

a1kuZ3gi3'a DJYD v .t. he's dipping iiquid ji 7 2 g ~3g13?a 2 ~ J Y D u1k~23gi32~~23?iJYRT B a1kuZ3gi32sgo3?i DJYJAT h?2ku23gi AJY u2ku23gi32sdi BJYJl Svdoni akugi'a ama.
R V h DJYD

DSVP

Aktisi aktoli nigohilv udehyahtohdsoi . ig' DfJb W P h a 9 OS3VlJAT. His right eye is always bothering him.

DS.

She's dipping water from a bucket. cf: akugisdi ?k2 'u 3gi4sdi D J Y J l n. dipper

a l k t ~ ~ ~ sD fi d V2-J v .t. he's looking at him, it ji2y? 2ga'toZ3sdi, g?2ga1t023sdi


~ S V A J SSVJJ ,

Hadlv akugisdi? Ama aktadegi7a.


bP DJYJJ?
DS DXWSYD.

~lkto~~st~~nv~~7i OSVAWDT aI:kt~~~sdi~sgo~?ialaAT DSV hi2y?2ga1t023sda, h?2kto23sda


A 3 S V A L , b S V@L

Where's the dipper? I'm thirsty (for water) . cf: akugi?a a1kwi2yi3ha
DPJ5.G

v e t , he's paying

Jalvkwdis adayvlatvsgi haktosdohdi?

alasgalisgi
-

37

a1kwi,2yi23sgQ33i D'P&AT ha2kwi2ya M3 u2kwiyh2di B'PBJ Sudalsgo adelv gagwiyiha dagwalela sinvda.
cYIPJAA DSq

Nigohilv yvwi dalasda3esgo?i.


hAA4 B8 LWJLRJAT.

He - always speaks badly of people cf: alasdvysga a1 la32sdy2sga DWaPaf v.t. he's stepping on him, it ji2y?21a32sdy2sga, g?21a32sdy2sga

I'm paying sixty dollars a month for my car. cf : akwiyv?eha a'k~i~~v~?e~ha D'PBRG v.t. he's paying him ji2y? 2gwi2yv3?e2ha b X ' B R G ~'kwj~yv~?e~lv~~?i OBBR9T a1kwi2yv3?e2h03?i DBBRl T 2y? 2gwi2yv1 si A&TB b hi u2kwi2yv2?eh3di DBBRJ Hila iga hiyagwiyv?ele? How much -you did cf: akwiyiha ?2kwsdo
A TS A X B R g ? W

l I 6 W b0.l

h a w s a s , s wxas

Tsgoya adansini. Hiyalasdv?vga!


6Aa DLBbh.

AmTJ6iS:

There's a bug crawling. Step on it! cf: alasdaveha a11a32sg921 j3ha DM'JSPG v.i . hefs playing ball g321a32sg?21~3ha S WAS P.G u1la32sg?21v2hv23?i @WAS 91eT a11a32sg?21i23sgg3~i DWaSPaAT hg21a1sg?21a W a sw Uwoyeni uwehisdanehv iyusdi hla yulasgalvhe?i.
0'08 h 0'99AJLflB TGJJ I GWAS 9 3 T . ?

him? -

DBA1/' n. pillow

Jugidahli diganhdi dikwsdo dunilvkwdi Ani jalagi.


d Y l C JS0.J J S V S h w J DhCWY.

Cherokees like feather pillows. a11a32sd?2?e2ha DWJLR.G v .t. 1. he's tromping on him, it 2. hefs speaking badly of him j i2F21a32sd?2?e2ha, g?21a32sd?2?e2ha

He ball - didn't play -because his hand was hurting, cf: alasgalisgi, unalasgahldivi

?21a1sga21i4sgi DWJSPAY player

n. ball-

Alasda7esgv uhlv inada.

He killed the snake ktromping it.

pwa~m~ ap

T ~ L .

Judodagwvda analsinahvsdisgo analasgalisgi . d V L E L D Q P b e A J J J A DBWJSPJY. The ballplayers practice every day. cf: alasgaliha, unalasgahldi3i

on

a11a32sgv2?a DWJED a'step g?21a32~gy2?a

v. i. he's taking
S WAED

BWJERT

a1la32sgv1sgo3?i DWZEJAT ha21a1sgv23na W@E9 u21a1sgv1sdi B W 2E @ l Ayo?uhli asgaya uksesdi alasgvsgo?i.


DfiBC D @ f 3 8 5 4 2 1 DWGIEJAT.

Talugisgi gageda ulehdohdi unehltanv?i. W M Y a f f G 8 6 V J 0ACWO.T. He tried to stand a heavy piece of steel -- upright position. in an cf: dalehdiha

--

A crippled man takesa step carefully. g21a1suh123di D W N I n. law suit Alasuhldi dulvhwisdanehv ulenvhv ditiyohihi. The lawyer began working on a law suit. a21a1su2310 DWrG n. shoe
D W K I S 4BJGA8 B f P 8 J J f i A A

--

a11e2hy3sga D f D @ f v.i. he's standing in a certain spot gC2102?y3sga u11e2hnv23?i


f 6i@f

0d'O.T

Ahani ayehli halehvga.


D+h D-BC

s.

Dilasulo iulonedi uwakewa.


d G A l @GI-G

Stand here -- in the middle. cf: dalehvsga a11e2hwi2sdi3ha Dd'8Jl.G v.i. he, it's stopping gg21e1wi2sdi3ha f d'@@l+ u1le2hwi2st?2nv3?i Bd'8.JWO.T a11e2hwi2sdi23sgp3?i Dd'@@l@AT hG21e2hwi2sda W@J G u21e2hwi2sdoh3di Bd'@@VJ Kilo uhyanisgv utvgana, ulehwistanv?i. When he heard someone calling him, he stopped. cf: alehwisdoiidiha a11e2hwi2sdoh3di3ha D&@@Vl+ v .t. iets stopping him, it j i2y?21e1wi2sdoh3di3ha, g?21e1wi2sdoh3d13ha
h3d'@@Vl+, fd'B@Vd+

He forgot to polish the shoes.

g21e Dd' adv. almost Ganulvhi galisv - inada nijiyalaale sdvtanv?i. f 4 4 A S T R L T9G hhi2WJGWO.T. 8 As I walked along the grass, I almost stepped on a snake. ?21e Dd' conj . 1. and 2. or ale Anisgaya - anigehya gajigowhtiha.
DhdSJ D M J fhi1GJ.G. I see men and women.

YG B3h@E B V f 9 , 0'682W0T.

I
1

Jenvsdi yijaduli, ale hla yigi osigwu. Y@AJ h C S P , D . 6 f 663. If you want to go - not, that's just or fine . a11eh2di3ha D f l + v.t. he's placing long object in an upright position g?21e1di3ha f d'l+ u11eh2ta3nv3?i B dW1O.T a l ~ e h ~ d i ~ ~ s g ? Dd'AJAT ~?i

u '1e2hwi 2sdoh 3tg3nv231i @&@@vWQT

hi2ya21e1w~2sd~h2da, ha21e2hw?2'sdoh2da A ~ $ @ ~ v L. G ~ B ~ V G , u21e2hwj2sdoh3doh3di 8fBJVVd Halehwisdohda dagwalela. 968aVG LXdW. Stop the car. cf: alehwisdiha a11e2ni3ha D8h.G 'beginning ga21e2ni3?a ulle2nv2hv23?i v.i. he's starting, S8hD 88DieT

a21i2gv2du210 DPESO n. mask d i 2 1 ~ 2 g v 2 d ~ 2 1 JPESO ~ Dinhdladisgi dilsdehldohdi diligvdulo danhdisgovi . -fD.daJa~~ JPaS?VJ dl)ESG G DJ@,41'. Firemen use protective masks. a11i2he231i32~hp2ha DP?PW v.t. he's thanking him ji2ya21$2?e2 31i32ch92ha b3PRPY.G 8P?PY4T a li2he231i32che2h033i DP?P7'J T ' hi'yg21~2~e21i1~h12si A3PRPh b ~ ~ l i ~ h e ~ ~ l i ~ ~ c h 8P?PYd i eh~d Uweji achuja yusdelvha dulvhwisdanehv, alihelichehovi . 8 d h D J C G2S4.G S 4@@LA& D P 3 P W T . When his son helps him work. he thanks him.

. .

a1le2ni23sgf,3?i D$h@AT ha21e23na .G88 u21enh2di 88C-J Hilayv eligw h alen dejalvhwisdanehv? AWB RP3 3$8 SC @@GAB? When can you start working? cf: adaleniha

a21i D P n. sweat Ali - dutevesv uhnuwvvi . LP SERR 846T. His shirt was soaked with sweat. a11i2dli3ha DPC+ v.i. it's boiling

a11i2he231i32ga DP?PS happy, thankful

v.i. he's

2 2 ~ g? 21 2 ~ ~ 2 3 ~ ~ f PRPS ~ : ulli2he231i32jv23?i 8P?PCT

a11i2he231i32g03~i DP?PAT +r?PY h?21i2he21i'gi u21i2he21i3sdi 8P?P@d Gado uyehldi aliheliga? SV 8 B C d DP?PS? For what reason is he happy? -cf: alihelicheha a21i2?i D P T n. friendship Ali?i ulsgeda yvwi anehvvi. - QP2FG BQ DA9,7. DPT Friendship is important in the lives of people. cf: unali?i a11i3?i2di;3?a DPTJD v.t. he's exchanging, trading it ga21i3?i2di3'?a SPTdD

Kahwi alidliha.
96' D. m

The coffee is boiling.

?21~2gv2da2n~23~doh2di DPEL ZJVJ n. headband di21i2gv2da2n023sdoh2di JPEG a v J Na ganvhida ustihgi jigi Ayvwiya aligvdanosdohdi uduliha. 8 S0f36 @GUY b Y D B Q 3 D PEL Z2Vd 8 P.G. T e Indian with the long hair wants a headband.

2'

cf: aliyesusto, aliyesustvsga, uliyesustga 621~2ye1su23sto DPBCJV Inalivida hayelsdi. TOPTI .GBPJJ. t t s trade e' --knives. a11i2ti37a DPJD v.i. 1. he's running away 2. he's escaping g?21i1ti37a SP J D ~ l l i ~ t i 3 s v ~ B P~ i T ~ JR n. ring

I I

Utana aliyesusto gohlvsga.

OW8 DPBCaV M A S .
I am making a big

ring.

cf: aliyesustgiva, aliyesustvsga, uliyesustga

a11i2ye32su2sty 3sga DP8CX'X v.t. he's putting a ring on his I > finger 3 g?21i2ye32s~2sty3sga SPBC~~S : i ~ ~ l ~ ~ y e ~ ~ s u ~ s t ~ ~ n v ~ BPBCAWOT

a21i2ye1su210 DPBCG n. glove di21i2ye1su210 JPBCG Diliyesulo dagiyohusi. JPBCG IYfiTb I lost -gloves. some

. .

Jisdu jiniyvhvvi svhi asehnv ~ w a l i tivelvvi. h J S hhBBT IUI 040 DZPJR4T. I caught a rabbit yesterday, but it from me. ran away -Junadasdudi ayavv ulitisvvi. d8lJSJ D3i BPdRT. He escaped from jail. -

jugvwahldi aliyesuJovitsgwa adelv . . sto uliyesustga. K T h Z D S 4 JEGCJ DPBCAV BPBCXIS . She has a three hundred dollar ring EThherfinger. -cf: aliyesustgiva, aliyesusto, uliyesustga a21iZ3yo D f n. sock Pi di21iZ3yo J f Pi Digigage diliyo duliyoha. JYSF SPfi+. He has on red socks. cf: daliyogiva, daliyohiha, daliyosiha, duliyoha a11ji3kwsga ~ p gal 2ji3kwsga ul 1ji3kwv23vi a1 l ji3kwsgo3v.i ha12ji1kwa h v.t. he's spitting p ~ ~ SP~~V~S Bph&T Dl) hVJAT +PhZ

:I II

cf: daliyesuleva, daliyesuliva, duliyesula alli2ye32~~2~tgi3va B C a Y D v.t. he's DP taking his ring off

Yudawovena aliyesustgisgo?i. G 6 V R 8 DPBCXIYJAT. When he goes swimming, --- his he takes ring off.

Hlesdi hyaljikwidohesdi. LJJ 3PbVV3JJ. Don't go around spitting.

a11sg21g2di3?a DPtlWlD v. i. he, it's asclnding, raising gg2li1sg2lg2d?3'7a SPtlWl D ullsg21?2da32nv23?i a1 1sg2192di32sgo3?i ha12sg21?2dv1ga Halsaladvga hlega.
+PBRGS LS QPblCt LOT DPblHIaAT +PtlWGS

h a ~ ~ s d e ~ ~+PaSW la u12sdeh12di 8 P a S 4 l Gahljode danahnesgesgv ~ P K S ~ A J F @ ED P ~ S P ~ L He helps in the building of houses. cf: alsdehldohdi all~du~~l$~?a DP@S8D v.t he's taking off his cap g?21i1sdu231e3?a SPaS8D 3?i Q P a S 8 R T a l ' s d ~ ~ ~ l e ~ ~ s g oDP@SfaAT ~?i

Raise awhile. cf: asaladiva a13sdayh1di D P a L B I 2. groceries n. 1. food

Alsdayhdi udananesvhvsdi uduliha.


D P ~ L B IQ L e A R a a d QSP+.

ha12sdu21?2gi +P~SWY ~ l ~ s d u ~ ~ l e ~ ~ s d~ a s ~ i Gahljode uyvhla ulsdulesv?i.


S PKS Q B f @P@S$RT.

~ a l

She wants to shop for groceries. cf: alsdayvhvsga a11sda32yv2hy3sga DPaL Bd@S v.i. he's eating a meal g?21i1sda32yv2h?r3sga f P@LBd@S
BP@L BOT

When he entered the house, -he took --3. off his cf: alsduliva, alsdulo, ulsdula all~du~~le~ha DP@S8+ v.i. he's washing his hair

a1 1sda32yv2hy2sgo3?i

DP@L Bd@AT

ha12sda1yv2hv 1 ga +P@LB&S u12sdayh1di QPJLBI Svhiyeyi utana alsdayvhvsgo?i.


R R B d Q\Ve D P J L B d a A T .

In the evening he eats a big meal. --cf: alsdayhdi, junalsdayhdivi a1 2sdeh123doh2di D P 2 S q V - f n. aid, assistance (financial) Alsdehldohdi utayohlv didehlohgwasgi. The student asked for assistance. cf: alsdeliha a1 lsde21i3ha DP@SP+ v.i. he's helping g?21i1sde21i3ha S P@SP+ ul l ~ d e ~ l v ~ h v ~ ~ P ai . 1 8 T 8? S a l l ~ d e ~ l i ~ ~ s g DP@SP@AT ~~?i
D P ~ ~ V owylfi~J S e f x a Y . S J

Hila igohid ahilidoho ~lsduleha?


AK T A A L DAPVI GP@S8+?

How long does it t a k e e n she -washes her hair? a l l ~ d u ~ ~ l ; ~ ? aJ S P D DP v,t he 's putting on a cap g921i1sdu231i3?a S P@SP D ul 1sdu231a32nv23?i QP@SWL)T

Halsdulanv hinugojv'i, doyi.

uhyvdlaheno

42

alsdulo

+raswa A Q A C T , O B M Z V J ~ . Put on a ---coldcap when you go out because it's outside.


cf: alsdule?a, alsdulo, ulsdula a12sdu210 DP@SG n. cap di12sdu210 I P a S G Hadlv janese hi?a alsdulo?

Igada Anijalag anigehyuj unilvkwdi unalsgisdivi. Some Cherokee girls like to dance.
a -

TS L DhCWY DhfGC O h 9 Y J 8 8 P 2 , Y a J T .

+P C A 4 AD DPJSG?
Where did you get this cap? cf: alsdule?a, alsduli?a, ulsdula a11sdv2hly3sga D P m a S v.i. he's taking a seat gg21i1sdv2hly3sga SP&5T@S u11sdv2hly3nv3?i O P J 5 V O T a1 ' ~ d v ~ h l ~ ~ s g m @ A Ti DP~ ~ ~ ha12sdv2hlu1 ga +Pam' S u12sdv2h1y3sdi OP2PO'@J Gawonisgi gadogv na?v ulsdvhlunv?i.
S O h a Y SVE 8 i O P m O T .

all s g ~ h l ~ d a ~ ~ n ~ ~ h a DPaA9LA.C v.t. he's permitting him ji2y? 2l i ' s g ~ h l ~ d a ~ ~ n ~b3P@A4LA+ ~ha ul ' ~ g o h l ~ d a ~ ~ n e ~ l v ~ ~ ? i LA 4T OP@A4 a1 ~ g o h l ~ d a ~ ~ n e ~ h o ~ DPaA9 LAic T ?i hi2y?21i1sgoh12da1si B3PaA 4L b u12sgoh12da1neh3di OPJA9LAI Sgwalsgohldasi agiwonihisdivi.
@XP@A9 L b DYV h A @ J T .

permit - to speak. me

He sat down --- close to where the speaker was standing. . cf: uwohla a1 l sdv2hni3ha D P 3 h . G v. i. he's shaking his head gg21i1sdv2hn~3ha S P 3 h . G ~l~sdv~hni~lv~~?i OP@6'h9T a11sdv2hni3hg3?i DP,;3G'hET ha1 2sdvnh2ga + P a p hS u12sdvnh2di OPX'hJ Gohusdi uwahnil aktol, ulsdvhnilv7i.
AT@I OGhW D S V P , B P 3 h 9 T .

a11sgu32sga D P U @ S v. i. he's nodding his head ga21i1sgu32sga S P ~ J S ul 1sgu32hyv23?i O P ~ B T a1 l ~ g u ~ ~ s g o ~ ? i X J A T DP ha12sgu1hya +Pa3 u12sgu1sdi OP2JaJ Halsguhya dehadanilvgesdi. Nod head -your -if you a1 l sgwa2di37a DPaXJD ending
+ P a 3 S+L h 9 f J I .

accept. v .i . it 's

-- --------- --~l~sgw?~di'sdi O P ~ X J ~ I Kila agi?luhjv ulsgwa?dv daniwonisgv?i.


YW DYMC OPJX6' L W h a E T .

When something hit him in the eye, he shook his head. ---

a11sgi3?a DPJYD v.i. he's dancing gg21il sgi37a SP a D ~ l ' s g i ~ s v ~ ~ ?O P a Y R T i a11sgi3sgo3?i DPaYaAT ha12sgi
+pay

I had just arrived when their speeches ended. cf: asgwadiva a11sgwg21u23di3?a DPJXMJD v .i. he's sticking his head out

Hila iga jakwiyvhe na alsgwetuwo? A W TS CBB? 8 DP@JSU? How much did you pay for the hat?

cf: alsgwetuhgiTa, alsgwetuhvsga,


ulsgwetuhga Jolani ulsgwaluda usdi achuja. K w h O'P@XML Q@J DdC. A little boy is sticking -his head out the w i n d o r a11sgwe3tuh2gi3?a DP@JSYD v.t. he's taking his hat off a l l ~ o ~ ~ s d i DP.I.@J+ v.t. 1. he's ~ha setting a goal 2. he's aiming ga21i1s023sdi3ha SP$@J+ QP.I.JWOT u~'so~~st~~nv~~?i a l ' s ~ ~ ~ s d i ~ s g o ~ DP.I.@J@AT ?i ha12s02 3sda +..l PI@ ~l~so~~sdoh~di QP.I.@VJ Gado udvnhdi alsosdiha? S V QPAJ DP.I.SJ+? What - - aiming to do? is he cf: dalsosdiha a l l ~ v ~ ~ s d i DPR2J.G ~ha v.t. he's smelling it (sniff) g?21i1sv32sdi3ha SPR@J+ u l ' ~ v ~ ~ s t ? ~ n v ~ BPR@WOT 37i a l ' s ~ ~ ~ s d i ~ s g o ~D P R J J J A T ?i +Pn;3L ha12sv1sda u12sv1sdoh3di QPmVJ Anij ilvsgi julsvsdohdi ulvkwdi. @ D hh q Y d P R J V J Q 9V"d. She to smell flowers. - likes -a2ma D8' n. water Ganugogv ojinegisgoama ogaditasdi. S 9 A E h h A Y 2 A D8' dSdW/@d. We get our drixing water from a spring .
~

u12sgwe1tuh2gi1sdi

QP@J,SY2J

Halsgwetuhgi. Jigoliya. GP@JSY. hAP&. T a k e o u r hat off. Let me look at ---it. cf: alsgwetuhvsga, alsgwetuwo, ulsgwetuhga allsgwe3tv 2h 3 sga DP~LSS,ZS ! v.t. he's putting his hat on

Digaduhv yuwena judanvgalvda dahnawosgo?i osdahno alsgwetuwo alsgwetuhvsgo?i. J S S B G d ( 0 dLOSqL LtC34T h 3 1 Z DP@JSC' DP@>SB;lAT. When he goes to town, he puts on clean clothes and a good hat.

cf: amayi a3ma D8' n. salt Ama higisv digaduhv hwedolv?i. FAYR J S S 8 99VqT. Get some -when you go to town. salt a2mah13di4?i DJ'PJT n , water well Gago usgose?i hi?a amahldi?i? f A QdA4T A D D P J T ?

cf: alsgwetuhgi?a, alsgwetuwo, ulsgwetuhga al2sgwe1tY2wo DP2JSW n . hat

44

amahldohdi

Who dug this water well? g2mahl 3doh2di D R V d n. waterbucket Amahldohdi hikalija.
DPVd BPC. h P J J B B D e L C b + d S S B A4 T S . A lot of people are gathering in

--

town today.

~ i l the waterbucket. c

4 2ma 3ye3hli
DrBC d=R

n. United States Amayehli digwenvsv ayv.


DrBC DB.

cf: gahlisiha a1 a g? 2 3ha D0SP.L n 3 2 li lightening

v.i. it's

Myhome is in the United States, cf: ?2ma (water), ayehli


q 2ma 23yi

adv. in water, into water Amayi witahltaduga.


@ BWPWSS

D5 r J

Tsgwisdi anagaliha doyi dinehldi'i.


h P 2 d DBSP% V & - I f l G d T .

Jump -the water. into cf: ?2ma (water) 92ma2yuh14di D K C d n. 1. shore 2. bank Amayuhldi daginawhtvhv h' ia dilasulo.
D G C d G Y 0 G 6 8 AD AWcYG. I found these shoes by the shore.

It's -lightening too much to play outside. ?2na'gg21i23sgi D e S P A y n. 1. lightning 2. electricity 3. battery di2na1g?21i23sgi d e S P 2 . Y Ulihwojv anagalisgi unulvhnv uhnigisdohdi dagwalela.
BPVC D G S P ~ Y 4 4 0 D

cf: ?2ma (water), uhldidlv7i B2me3gwo47i D W T n. ocean Amegwo anehi aja7di junatana gesovi
D / ~ ADCJ J e w e f t ~ .

ohyavd 1 x 8 ~ .

The dead battery couldn't start the car. cf: anagaliha ?2na2hli2nv4d1i DBCQC n. brothers (more than two) Hi?a hisgi iyanivi anichuja nigada anahlinvdli.
A AAY T 3 h T D h J C h S G D O C K . D

The fish in the ocean are big. cf: g2ma (water), egwa
a1ng2da2g02n?2tdi23~g~47i 0 G A 8 J d 2 E T D

n. contest Junoduhi anadagonatdisgv uteladv'i.


J Z S A DBLAGJJ2E DZWPT.
~

- -

She entered a beauty contest. a1ng2da3h1i2si3ha D0GCb.L v.i. they are gathering ~ ' j ? ~ d a ~ h l i ~ s ? ~ h a d3CGCb.G ~~n?*da~hli~s?~hnv~~7i 88GCUQT a1n?2da3hli2si23sgq37i D e G C b 2 A T i1j92da1hli23sa TCGCU ~~n?~da'hl iZ3soh3di 80GC-I.d Tsgwisdi yvwi anadahlisiha digaduhv7i kohi iga.

These five boys are all brothers. cf: dinadahnvhli a'ng21i3g02hy3sga DBPA&aS v. i. 1. they are getting together 2. they are dating (when the dual form is used) u1ng21i3g02hnv23?i i1jg21i1g02hv1ga ~~n?~li'kdi
8 BP AQT

T C P AillS ~ P A J

no

Hi?a agehyuja achujahno unalikdi unaduliha. This boy and girl want - together. to cf: unaligoha, unalivi, unalikdi n. doll
DFGC D J C Z s e r A r

sesr+.

~nh'd?~dv~ 3?i BOGPT anh1dg2di32sgo3?i DOG -GAT hi2ya2nv1da2da, hanh2da2da


A a L G , W'LC

a l ~ ~ e h l ~ DACd ~di

unh2dg2di sdi 001, Hanhdadi3as nagiwesv gohigip jigesv?


W G d D a BYDR ABYB hl-R?

Junsdi anigehuja dinehldi dananehldiSEO?~.

Do - you remember what I said long ago?

6821 Dhl-GC

A C l L BAClaAT.

Little girls play with dolls. cf: danelohvsga, dinehldohdi a3neh12di3ha D A C l + v. t. he's attempting it ~ ~ n e h l ~ t ? ~ n v ~ ?BACWOT i

g?3ni ~h n. strawberry Tsgwisdi a?ni anatvhisdisgo Sdilaweli .


hV@l D B G B a l a A 2dWSPP.

They grow a lot of strawberries in Stilwell. a1ni2d032nq2?a DhVBD v. i. they are standing (congregation) oj i2d032"021, ' 6hVBD a1ni2d032nq2?v23?i a1ni2d032n92?03?i
DhVBi T Dhl'OkST

Dagwalela uhnigisdohdi anehldiha.


GIGW B h Y a V l DACd+.

He's -trying to start the car. a1ne231q3di2?a DAWJD v. i. he's getting married ga2ne231g3di2?a f AWlD
B A WGT

Ta?li iyuhliloda igohid anidonavvvi.

They were standing for two hours.


cf: gadoga a1ni2hli3na D h C B v.i. they are asleep (more than two) 6hCB olji2hli3na

YVP TGCOL 1'AOL D h V B i T .

Neladugwu nudetipha uneladv?i oginalivi .


A W S J q S d B + BAWGT 6 Y B P T .

My friend ot married as soon as he turned eig teen. cf: anineli, ganeli

f-

Sa?du iyuwahnilv usv gayula anihlinv?i. At eleven o'clock last night, they were already asleep. cf: gahliha a1niv3na D h B v.i. they are sitting (congregation)
U S T G G h 4 O R SGW D h C D T .

anh1dq2di3?a D O L l D v.t . he's remembering him, it ji2ya2nv1d?2di3?a, ga2nv1dq2di3?a


h3QGdD, fOLdD

46

anineli
Ah 8

o1jiv3na a1ni?3nv23?i a1ni?3n03?i

DhDT DhZT Kvhli usadvnv asehnv hla yuniyvhe?i. EC PP Uf GB'. hiT He set a trap for a raccoon but he --- catch it. didn't cf: sadvdi n. her husband al~g~l?~di~?a DUWID v .t. he's liking, raising him, it hUWJD ji1s?21?2di37a u1sg21?2da32nv23?i QbrWLDT DbrWJaAT hi 'sa2la2dvlga, hi2sa21a2dv1ga AUWPS, AUWPS

Ehlawe ani?nv?i. RfO W T . They sat quietly. cf: uwohla ?%i%e41i DA' hf

Junadehlohgwasdi dadehyohvsgo anineli. deStfI03-f LSfiBJA phllP. Her -husband teaches at school. cf: aneladiva, ganeli +2ni2sgwa2ni4?i Dh@IhT n. Mexico Anisgwani dagesi gogi iyvvi. DhaIh LI-b A Y TBT. I'm going to Mexico in the summer. cf : Asgwani, sgwanijesdv?i
.2 DhfiAYl' n. military ? 2nl y93sgi47i service Jo7i judetiyvda agiyvhlv aniyosgi7i. KT dSJBL DYBP DhfiAYT. I was in the military service for three years.

. .

. . .

~ ~ s g ~ l ~ ~ d o ' d i QbrWVJ Jolani hisaladvga. K w h AbrWPS. Raise the window. cf: alsaladiva 42sg2ma4di DUTJ adj. smart 92ni2sg2ma4di Dhbr TJ Gago ugodi asamadiya, nihi ejadoke? SA Q A I DUTJ3, hA RCVI-? Who is smarter, you or your sister?

cf: avyosgi h1sgv2ti D h @ U n. May Ansgvti hisgine udetiyisgi eji. p h E A 2 A QSJJXJY R h My mother's birthday is fifth.

A2nv 2hyi DO-6 n. March Anvhyi ka?lv adalenisgo gogeyi. D@J5 3 4 DL Gh@A AI-~3. Spring begins in the month of March. a1sg2dv32sga DbrPJf v.t. he's setting a trap jilsg2dv 32sga hU6"JS

a1sg2no D U Z n. dress dil~?~no I U Z Ije asano agwaduli TY ~TDISP I want a new dress. cf: usano

a1sda2gayh2di3ha D@LSBJ+ v.t. 1. he's making it crisp 2. he's starching it ji'sdq2gayh2di 3ha h@G fBJ+ QJL SBWDT u1sdq2gayh2tq3nv37i a1sdg2gayh2di23sgp3?i D L SBJJAT @

Anineli juhnawo dasdagayhdiha. D M P dm L2LSBIG. She's starching her husband's shirts. cf: asdagayvhiha, usdagayvhida
2 alsd?2g?yv 2hi3ha D2LSBA.G becoming crisp

v.i. it's

--------------

~ ' s d ? ~ g ~ ~ y v ~ h l v@~ ~ ? i @ SBPT I a l ~ d ~ ~ g ? ~ y v ~ h ? ~ DAISBAB T ho~?i

u2sdalwa2dv lsdi @ I GF@1 @ Na usdi achuja udoda asdawadega. 8 0 1 D J C BVL D2GGSS. 2 The little boy - following his is father. a1sde21i3ha D2SP.G v.t . he's helping him

Agalisgv wunvna inada ganega usdagayvhlv?i. D S ~ s ~ TeL SAS B ~ L S B P T . E e When he put the snake skin out in the it sunshine-, - became crisp. cf: asdagayhdiha, usdagayvhida a lsda2nv2hnv4?i D 2 L W T n. line da1sd?'nv2hnv4?i L@LWT Hila dasdanvhnv tisdawaduga A D L 2 L W 62LGSS. Follow these lines. cf: asdanvhnvsga a1sda%v2hny3sga D@LW@S drawing a line Gahljode ahnesgesgv j isdeliha. SP K S DA@F@E h2SP.G. I - helping -build a house. him - am a1sde3y02ha D2Sfi.G v.t. he's braiding it ji1sde3yq2ha Ir2Sfi.G u1sde23y0321v23?i B@SfiqT a1sde3y02h03?i D@SfiB T hi2sde2y?2ga A@S@S ~ ~ s d e ~ 3 y o ~ ~ dB23fiJ i Ustihgv asdeyo agehyuja. Q,VE DFGC. The girl - braiding her hair. is cf: sdeyida a l ~ d i ~ ~ g i D@IYD v.t. he's eating ~?a a long object h@dY D ~ l s d i ~ g v ~ ~ ? i @@JET a1sdi23gi32sgo3?i D@JY@AT h$2sdi23ga A@lS ~ ~ s d i 32sdig i 821~21 ~ ~
ji ' ~ d i ~ ~ g i ~ ? a

v . t. he's

Gigage digohwelodi gvhdi usdanvhnanv?i. J M G I E l O'JLOdiOT. He drew a line with a red pencil. cf: asdanvhnv?i a l ~ d a ~ ~ w g ~ d e ~ g a v.t. he's DGLGSS following him, it

48

asdigisdi Gagama usdigisdi uduliha. The barber -- son's hair. trims his cf: didasdoyesgi, dilsdoyhdi

He to eat - wants --

f S &" O'@JY@J 0SP.G.

a cucumber. cf: aAgi3?a (he's eating it), asdigisdi, gahye?a n. something

32 alsdu hy 2sga D @ S d a f v.t. 1. he's closing it 2. he's jailing him

g2sdi23gi1sdi D @ J Y a J to eat (long)

Digohwelodi hla asdi isdi yigi.


IMGI
A

D~IYJ

pencil is not-something to eat. cf: asdigiva

+--

Hisduhvga galohisdi?i.
.A~S&S SGA~JIT.

a1sdo3?a D@VD v.t. he's crushing it ji1sdo3?a h@VD u ' s d ~ ~ ? v ~ ~ ?Bi V i T @ a1sdo3sgo3?i DJV@AT hi2sdo2 ja A@VC u2sdo1sdi B@V@J Nvyas usdosdi jaduli?

Close the door. Uhyvsdeda yigi kilo asduhvsgo?i.


BB@SL 2 Y Y B DJS&@AT. i

If someone is drunk, - jails him. he cf: didasdudi?i, sdudi

oa

Do you want him to crush some rocks? cf: asdosgi?i 82~do1 sgi4?i D@V@YT n. crusher di2sdo1sgi4?i I @ V a Y T Gado galsda asdosgiTi?
SV SP@L D@V@YT?

---

a1sdV3?i2?a DaSTD v .t . he's opening it h @ S TD jilsdy3?i2?a u1sdy3?i'sv23?i BJSTRT aAsdy3?ilsgo3?i D@ST@AT hi 2sd~2?i A@S T u2sdy2?i lsdi BAS T@I Gahlgwogi iyuwahnilv asdu?isgo adana?nv?i .
SCTY TGGh4 D@ST@A DLBDT.

What happened to the crusher? cf: asdo?a a1sdo2ye3ha DJV8.G v.t . he's trimming it (boy's hair, grass, hedge, but not paper, cloth)

He - opens the store at seven o'clock. cf: sdu3isdi, ulsdu?ida g2sdv23h92hli D 3 K n. sandwich di2sdv23hg2hli J X K Jo?i disdvhahli dugv?i.
KT IX+ SET.

He ate three sandwiches. cf: asdvhahlvsga a l ~ d v ~ ~ h ~ ~ h l ~ ~ s g a v.t. he' D@6"+P@S sandwiching it j i' ~ d v ~ ~ h ~ ~ h l ~ X . G P @ S h~ s g a u1sdv23hQ3h192nv23~i @@f%f@T

Na didasdoyesgi uwej achuja asdoyesgovi.


8 J L @ V B U B&h DdC D@V8@AT.

asgaha

49

--

Uwakewsv usesdohdi oginalivi.


BGF8R 8 4 @ v J biY8PT.

it - between the bread.

cf: asdvhahli a2se3dv3 0461 adv. maybe, perhaps Dagutahnis heliva? Asedv.
L JWh@ ?PD?

He forgot - include my friend. to cf: dasehiha, disesdi a3se2si3ha 046.6 v.t. 1. he's withdrawing (a motion) 2. he's withdrawing (his candidacy) 3. he's pulling it out (a drawer) ga3se2si3ha 546.6 ~~se~sv~hv~~vi 84RBT a3se2si23sgQ3?i D462AT hal~e~~sa u1seZ3svh3di
.64U 84RJ

D4r.

Do you think it's going to snow? Maybe. q2se4gi D4Y adj., adv. peculiar Asegi agwadanhdavdv hlega. D4Y - DXL066 LS. I felt peculiar for awhile. a1se2he3ha D4P.6 v.t. he's showing him ji2ya1sg2he3ha b34?%
84?qT

Ugvwiyuhi yigalsdisgi gesv usesvhvvi.


BEBGA A S P @ J Z FA 84RdlT.

He - withdrew dent.

his candidacy for presi-

cf: disehisdivi a l ~ e ~ ~ s vD4RL adj . withdrawn ~da dil~e~~si~da J4RL Na asaladv asesvda nigalsda.
8 DblW6" D

B hfP26.

Gavluhjv hiyasehelv uhna uhdi dagwalela.


SMC ,93424 B t 8 J L 1 6 W .

The motion has been withdrawn. cf: disehisdivi a l ~ g a ~ ~ g @ S S v.t. Da he'ereprimanding him ji 1sga32ga h@SS u1sga32jv239i B a s CT a l ~ g a ~ 3vi o D@S AT ~g hi1sgalgi, hi2sga1gi A@SY, A@SY u2sgay sdi B@S@J Achuja jolani uyostana, udoda usgajvvi.
DdC Kwh Bfi@WB, BVL 8@SCT.

When he gets here show him where to park the car. a2se3hno, a2se3hnv D4Z, D40 conj. but Doyi dagesisv asehnv do uhyvdla.
V A LFbR I was going to go outside - it's but

--

~-m.

too cold. a1se2sdi3ha D421.6 v.t. he's including him, it (in counting)

When the boy broke the window, his father reprimanded him.

al~ga~~ha DJS.6 v.i. he's afraid

50

asgahlga

ji l ~ ~ a ~ ~ b@f h a%
u1sga31v23?i B @ f 9T a1sga3h03?i D@f fiT hi2sga23ya A @ f9 u2sga1sdi B@S@l Na utana gihli jisgaha.
8 OW8 Y C b 2 f G .

f O a f QTaJ GSP%. He doesn't want - commit -to a crime. cf: asgahni


g2sg? 2ya D @ f 3 n. man a2 2ni sgg2ya Dhaf 9 Hiyoligas na asgaya?
A f i P S a 8 D@S9?

I'm - afraid of that big dog. cf: asgasdaneha a1sgah12ga D a S C f him, it v.t. he's biting

Do you recognize that man? ?2sg?2ye2gv4sda D @ f 8E@d some adj . hand-

"Asgayegvsda osdineli," udvhnv agehya. The woman said, "My husband is handsome." ?2sg?2ye2gv23sda Daft3E@d n. officer ?2ni2sg?2ye2gv23sda D & f S Ead Asgayegvsda dodvgoliye?i aniyosgi dunahnuwvvi .
D@SflEJd V 5 A P f l T D h f i a S 8 9 6 T . " D @ f f l E 2 d bj@JAP," 850 D I . 3 .

Asgaya usgalsdi unehltanv gihli.


D 2 f 9 B @ S P @ l BACWO Y C

The dog tried -- the man. to bite a2sgg2hni D 2 S h n. evil, sin Gado usdi wutanv asgahni?
SV 821 J W 0 D@fh?

An officer is going to inspect the soldiers' uniforms. 92sgi23na Day8 n. demon, devil g2ni2sgi23na D h a 8 Gado usdi dudalehna?a asgina, Sedanihno?
f V 821 S d d t D

What is the biggest sin? cf: asganvga a2sgg2na4?i 0 2 5 8 T n. sinner g2ni2sgg2na4?i Dhaf 9 T Kilovis eha asgana nigesvna?
Y G T ~R+

m e ,

4dhZ?

~ a f eFne? h

Is there anyone living who is not a sinner? cf: asgahni, asganvga alsg?2nv 32ga D a f Q f v.t. he's committing a crime, sin ji l ~ g g ~ n v ~ ~ g a 1raf0f u1sgg2nv32jv23vi 8 2 S D C T a1sga2nv32g03vi D@S@AT hi2sgg2nv1gi ,9af OY u2sga2nvy'sdi P @ f0 T a - I Hla usganvysdi yuduliha.

?hat is the difference between a devil and Satan? cf: dasginadiva, jvsgino, Sedani a1sgi2tsga D a J @ f v.t. he's dreaming about him, it

Gado usdi tsgitse usv jigesvvi?

sv

021 c a a 4 B R W R T ?

asgvdageni What did you dream about last night? a1sgo2gi3?a it


DaAYD v.t

51

. he Is gnawing
Dudo?v usgolvdv gohweli?i.
S V i OaA.16" M P T .

ji1sgo2gi3?a k@AYD u'~go~gv~~?i P ~ A E T a1sgo2gi3 2 ~ g ~ 3 ? iD J A Y J A T hi2sgo23ga AaAS 32sdi OJAYa1 Asgogisgv galeyvsdisgo dluhgv doya. DJAYJE ScfBaJaA I E V 3 . T A beaver makes a tree fall by gnawing it.
a l ~ g o ~ ~ h n i D2Ah.G v.t. he's ~ha mourning for him, it ji ' ~ ~ o ~ ~ h n i ~ h a 6aAh.G
0aAh4T DaAhl T

He - erased his name on the paper. cf: asgolvdisdi, asgolvga 92sgo231v4di lsdi D@A4&1 n. eraser di2sgo231v4dilsdi JaA41J1 Na disgolvdisdi dodiskvsi.
8 JaA4121 VJaEb.

Hand me those erasers. cf: asgolvdi?a a ' s g 0 ~ ~ 1 v ~ ~ gD@A4S v.i. it Is fading a

hi'sg~nh~~ga, hi2sgonh23ga
A a A h S , AJAhS

~ ~ s g o n ~ ~ s d i @@A had Usdi achuja gihliulihwojvusgohnilv?i.


@ad DdC Y C @PUC O d A h 4 T .

The little boy mourned for a dead dog.


2 .23 alsgo 11 ye3?a DJAPBD v.t. he's rubbing him, it ji2ya1sgo21i23y~3?a,ga1sgo21i23yt3?a

Uwoduhi ulsuhwisv ahnawo asgolvga.


@ U S A BPGBR DtU D@A4S

The pretty color o - h r nsit is fading. cf: asgolvdiTa, asgolvdisdi

b&APBD,

SJAPBD @@APBi T DaAPBJAT

a'sg~~~sga DaAaS v.t. he's digging it ga'sg~~~sga S a A a S u'~go~~sv~?i @@ART


DJAJAT

hi2ya1sgo21i23ya, ha2sgo21i23ya
A&AP3, GJAP3

~ ~ s g o ~ l i ~ ~ y e ~ J~ P Bi B Ad 1 Jiskoli hasgoliya, agwehisdaneha.


b 2 A P + a A P 3 , DJAdLA+.

ha2sgo231a +JAM' ~ ~ s g o ~ ~ s d@ @ A 2 1 i Amahldi gasgosga.


D ~ f aJ @ S . A

I am - - digging a water well.


92sgv 2d? 2ge4ni D 2 E L k h n. his shin di2sgv2d?2ge4ni &Elk h Disgvdageni dusgoliye" ulehwistana atlisv?i.

Rub -my head, it hurts. a'~go~~lv~d~~?a DaA41D V.t. he's erasing it ji'sgo2 31~3di2?a k d A 4 1 L

J@Elk h SAAPBi 0'882W8 DJCRT.

He rubbed his shins when he stopped -running. a l ~ ~ w ? ~ d i D@XJD v.t he's 37a finishing it ji l~gw?~di37a
h@XJD

a l ~ g w a ~ l o D X G~Sa v.t. 1. it's ~~ getting shorter 2. he's getting short on...

ulsgwa3dv237i B@XPT a lsgwa2di 32sgo 37i D@IJ@AT hi 2sgw? 2da A@IL u2sgw?2di lsdi 8@.IJ@J Nvhgi ayehli asgwadisgo dulvhwisdanehv7i.
OY DBC D@IJ@A S46'@LA&T.

u2sgwa2loy lsdi 8 a 1 T@J ~ Digohwelodi yikdlvha asgwalogo7i.


J M G J ASP+ DJIGAT.

Whenever you sharpen a pencil, it becomes shorter. cf: asgwala7i alsgwal32sga D J I ~ J S v.t. he's breaking a long object

He - finishes his work at 4:30. cf: alsgwadi3a ?2sgw?2ge4ni D@Ik h n. his side di2sgwa2ge'+ni J@Ik h Asgwageni uwehisdane udanawstanv7i.
D@Ik h 899A21A 8 L 88JWOT.

His side -- is hurting from running. a l ~ ~ w a ~ ~ h l e ~ 7 a v.t. he's DJILD catihing a falling person, object ji l ~ g w a 3 ~ h l e ~ 7 a h@ILD ulsgwa32hle1sv237i B J I L R T al~~wa~~hle's~0~7i D@IL@AT hil~gwalhl?~gi, hi2sgwalhla2gi
BAIL?,
AAIPY' 0@5LJJ

Na asgaya galuysdi guhahldi usgwaIsvTi.


- -~

8 0 2 5 3 SM&J

J K J @@IPRT.

The man broke an axe handle. cf: agalsga, ayosdiha a1sgwa21v3ni2ha DJI4h.G v.t. he's ' hitting him on the head with a long object

u2sgwa1hle1sdi Sgwahlesdi wagadinela usgwahlesv7i.


@IL@J G S A W O A I L R T .

When the ball was thrown to him. he caught it. cf: sgwahlesdi a2sgwa21a4?i DJIWT adj short

Gosdvnisdi gvhdi usgwalvnisdi gihli unehltanVi.


A,3Pt63J Ed O@I4h@J YC BACWQT.

di 2sgwa21a47i J @ m T Asgwala digohwelodi ayvhwahta.


D @ I W J M G J DBGW.

He tried -- the dog --to hit on the head with a bat. ~ ~ s g w a ~D@Ih n. Mexican ni A2ni2sgwa4ni Dh @ I h

He found a short pencil. cf: asgwaloga

asini Nvdagi tsgwisdi Anisgwani aneha.


@LY hPaJ DhaIh DA+.

53

in the --

stomach with a stick.

A lot of Mexicans live in Texas. cf: AnisgwaniTi a sgwg2ni2g023sga ' amazed


DaPhAaf

a'sih2tg2d13?a DbWJD v.t. he's placing his hand on him, it

v . i . he s

Unali3i ganvwo usihtadvvi.


@OPT S O 6 BbWG'T.

Usgwanigosv nahidiyv udehlohgwa?~ ugoliyedi uweji achuja.


B@XhAR eAJB - @ & f I iB A PJ~ B d h DJC.

H e his hand - placed --shoulder.

on his friend's

cf: iyasihtadisdi a1sih2tv3ni2ha D6G'h.G v.t. he's slapping him, it ji2ya1sih2tv3ni2ha, g a l ~ i h ~ t v ~ n ? ~ h a


h 3 b 6 h 6 , f bPh+

He was --

amazed at how East his son learned to read. cf: usgwanikdi

a1sgwg2nu32tsga DaP4h.5 v.t. he's sucking it ji ' s g ~ ~ ~ n u ~ ~ t s g h.AP9h.f a u'sg~g~nu~~tsv~~~i 02X43RT a1sgwg2nu32tsgo3~i DaXUJAT A@PU U h~2sgwg2nu1tsa ~~sgw?~nu'tsdi BaX9h.J Tamahli uwansv asgwanutsga.
W K BGhR D@X?hS

Gohusdi nuyehldvna akwsihtvniga.


AraJ 48CP0 DXbG'hf

She's sucking on a ripe tomato. a1sgwo2hg21v3n~2haDX.G4h.G v.t. he's hitting him on the abdomen with a long object ji 1sgwo2hg21v 3n12ha hX.G.7h.G
u1sgwo2hg21v23ni321v23~i B;V.G4h4T

He me - slapped - for no reason. cf: dasihtvniha a3si2ne3ga DbAf v . i . he's backing up ga3si2ne3ga SbAf ~i~si~nv~sv~~?i BbORT a3si2ne3g03?i DbAAT

a1sgwo2hg21v3n~2h03~i DaV.G4 hfi T hi 'sgwo2hg2lv2ni'ga AaV.G4 h f u2sgwo2hg21v23ni32sdi B~V.G~ Gihli duktilena gansda gvhdi usgwohalvnilv3i.
YC s s ~ d e o a l EJ C P G Y ~ ~ ~ T . f

Hasinuga gadvnv, hasinesv3i.


. G + S6'0, .GbART

When I say back 2, back up. cf: asini, ega a1si2ni Dbh adv. backwards

When the dog attacked him, he hit it ---

54

asiyvwi d a ' ~ o ~ ~ h y v ~ 7LIBT i Asohyv uki7la j itaga achvya. DI B BYW h W S DC3. he rooster is sitting on the fence. cf: asohyoha a1s021v2da2gi37a DI 4IYD v.i. he's waving his hand ga1s021v2da2gi3~a SI 9 LYD u1s02~v2da2gi3sv237i B I 4LYRT a1so2lv 2d? 2gi3sgo37i D146YJAT h92s021v2d?2gi .GI 4LY ~ ~ s o ~ l v ~ 'sdi~ g i 01 4 1 ~ a . i d? Unali7i ulosa usolvdagi?elv?i.
BBPT BGB B I 4 1 Y R 4 T .

Gado asini cha?i?


SV L ~ T ?

Why are you walking backwards? cf: asinega g2si2yv 4wi DbB@ n. individual, one person ?2ni2si2yv2wi2ha D hbB 86 . Asiyvwi uwonisv danadlosgv7i. One -person
DbB8 BVhR L W J E T .

spoke at the meeting. n. his head

+2sk~41i D@AP

Inada askoli jiyolv gahlida gvhdi . arrow. cf: uska, uskoli


T81 D@AP b f i 4 f C 1 E l . I shot a snake --in the head with an

When his friend passed by, he waved to him. -al~on~~sdi~ha D.f.0aJ.6 vat. he's pressing down on him, it ji2ya1son32sdi3ha,ga1son32sdi3ha
h

--

a1s1?2di37a DaWJD v. t . he's roping him, it ji1sla2di37a b@WJD ~~s1?~dv~~7i BJW6"T a1s1?2di32sgo3vi D@WJ2AT hi'~l?~da, hi2s1?'da A@WL , d2WL
y ~l?~di'sdi
82WJ3J

s 02J.6,

s IUJJ.6

~ ' s o n ~ ~ s t ~ ~ n v ~0 @ ~ 0 f BI ~7i

Sogwili gehyahtahi usladv7i.

IVP E. =A

B@WGT

Sdaya hasonsda.
213

He roped a wild horse.

+maL.
~~-

a l ~ o ~ ~ h y DIfi.6 av. t . he's building ~~h a fence

Press down on it hard.


- - A -

Ije usohyalv dlogesi.

He built --- a new fence around the garden. cf: asohyvvi


a1s023hyv47i D1BT n. fence

I Y B I 3 3 9E.b.

a 1so2nv 2sna DI@@S v.t. he's wo;nding him, it ji1s02nv2sga ir102f ~lso~nv~hnv~~7i BIDt)T a1s02nv2sgo37i DI02AT hi lso2nv23na A1 0 8 u2s02nv2sdi BI 02J Dahnawa ahlihv ajisonvhne asgaya. The man - wounded fighting in a was war. ?%ti
D X
L t G DCa DbIQA D 2 S 3 .

n. 1. string 2. thread

asuligoga
I

55

Hila iganvhida asti jaduli? AW T S W 1 How long a string do you want?

m?

u3su21g3?i2yv3~~23?iBCWTBRT a3su21?37i2yv3sgo3?i DCWTB@AT ha1su21g2?i2yv23na WM'TB 8 u su lg ?i yv sdi


1 2 3 3 2 1

a1su3?a DCD v.t. he's sopping it ga 1 su3 ?a SCD u ~ s u ~ s v OCRT? ~ ~ ~ a1su3sgo3?i DCSAT ha2su23ja W C u2su1sdi OC@J Asusdi gasu?a. DCaJ SCD. I - am sopping gravy. cf: asusdi

BlfWTBd?d

Dlogesi yidodayulvhwisdaneli, asula?iyvsgo?i. dfb J~VLG~~JLAP, DCWTBZAT. Whenever he is going to work in the garden, - changes -pants. he his cf: asuleva, asulila, asulo a3su21e3?a DCGD v.t. he's taking his pants off SC~D ga 3su2le3?a u3su21e3sv23?i BCGRT a3su21e3sgo3?i DCGJAT ha1su21g2gi WWY ~ l s u ~ ~ l e ~ ~OCGJd sdi Asiladv adawohiladisgv uyostana usulo usulesv osda nuwanelvvi. D~WG DLVBWJAE B i s e BCG BC"$R fav dJ@l 4GA4T. When he tore his pants while crossing over a fence, ---- off and he took them mended them. cf: asula?iyv?a, asuli?a, asulo a3su21i3?a DCPD v.t. he's putting his pants on

a l ~ u ~ ~ h y ~ DC&@S sga v.i. he's fishing g a ' s ~ ~ ~3sga hy SC8JS ~ ' s u ~ ~ h n v ~ ? iBCQT a1su23hy3sgo3?i DC&@AT ha 2su2hv1ga e S l 2 u2suh3di BC1 Hadlvyv asuhvsga? .GPB DC&af? Where - - fishing? is he cf: suhdi a1suZ3hwi3sga DC8Jf painting it v.t. he's

Gado usdi ulsuhwida tisuhwis gahljode? f V B@J @PC81 3C82 SCKS? What color -you going - paint the are to house? cf: disuhwisdi, ulsuhwida a3su21+39i2yv37a DCWTBD v.t. he's changing his pants ga3su21+3?i2yv3?a SCWTBD

Nudale kilo usulo usulanv?i. 41 d Y c" B C G 8CWO.T. ' He put - someone else's pants. on cf: asula9iyv?a, asuleva, asulo, usula

alsu 1; 2 2 - go3ga DCPAf v.i. he's quitting j i 1 su21; 2go 3ga bCPAf .

56

asulo Hasuyvla na ugama.


E B W 6 BSg.

- go J U 1SU211 2 3' V239; $CPACT .2 alsu21~ go 3go3?i DCPAAT hi2su21i2gg2?i MPAT ~ ~ s u ~ l i ~ ~ g ~ BCP fla1 sdi Hilayv tsuli o'e hoksgv?
AWB CCP

Stir -the soup. a 1su2f i 3sga DCB@S it in v.t. he's mixing

d? When did you quit smoking?


-

a1su210 D G n. pants C di1su210 ICG Hila iganvhida asulo hasulisgo?


A TSQAL D O =A? W C

What lengthof pants do you wear? cf: asula?iyv?a, asule?a, asuli?a n. gravy a2su3sdi I Hiktahas asusdi johlvhdi?
ASW+J ~ ~ K 2I ? 1 P

ga1su2f i 3sga f CBJS ulsu2yv3nv23?i oy?BQT a'su2yv3sgo3~i DCBJAT ! L . j 2 512y\!27~1ga K B i f ~'su'~v ' i d BCBI Svgi inage ehi yunvhnistana Anija?agi, juweji dansuyvsgo7i.

l V

TOP RA G@hJWB DhCWY. dflh

When Cherokees cook wild onions, they mix them with eggs. --a1sv32ga DRS v.t. it smells ji ' s ~ ~ ~ g a hRS a1sv32g03?i
DRAT

1W B a A T

Do you knowhow to make gravy? cf: asuva a1su2ye3?a DCBD v.t . he's choosing him, it ji2ya1su2ye3?a, ga1su2ye3?a
h Z 8 D , SC8D
u ~ s u ~ ~QCdRT ~ ~ S V ~ ~ ~

-------------421 Bfi DRS

Gosdi uyo asvga.


~

Something smells bad. cf: uwawsvga

+2~v2gw~2101sgi4~i DRIGJYT n. sawmill Hasuyagi iyusdi jadulisgv?i,


K 3 TG@I CSPJET. G'

Choose the one that cf: agasuyeda a1su3yq2ha DCB+ it

you want.

Hiyoligis kilo asvgwalosgi julvhwisdanehi?


AfiPYJ YG DRIGJY d 48@GAA?

v.t. he's stirring

Do you know anyone who works in a sawmill? a1svh2dlv4?i DRPT n. bridge da1svh2dlv4?i GRPT Unohugana igada dasvhdlv duyostanv ama .

hq2su2yv2 31a

KBW

f f Z r S 6 T S I IRP

sfiawo ~

g .

When it floodyd, the water destroyed some of the bridges.

atalesga a1sv2hni3ha DRh+ him, it v.t . he's touching

57

2 . ?2t? 2hl? 2wo h; 2 sdi D W ~ O A a J n. rage Janhtas iyusdi gesv atahlawohisdi?


C w a TGal F R DWEUA~J?

Do you know what rage is? cf: utahlawosga

usvUwoyeni uleyvsv udihlehgi osi hnila.


BWBh B&BR O I L Y h b B . & W

He burned his hand -- touched when he a hot stove. a1sy2hy3sga DR&f v.t. 1. he, it's using it up 2. he's drinking, eating it up ji1sv2hv3sga ~R&@S u1sy2hnv3?i @ROT a1sy2hy3sgo3?i DR&@AT hi2sy2hna ARt

a1tg2hwo3sdi2ha DW@l+ v.i. he's holding his breath g??2d?2hwo3sdi2ha f LU@l+ ~ ~ t ? ~ h w o ~ s t ? ~ n v ~ WDT 3?i B W J a1t92hwo3sdi2sgo3?i D W a l a A T h?2t?2hwo1sda W@ L ~~t?~hwolsdoh~di B W @ V l Ta?li iyatahwostanv igohida utahwostanv?i. - -- - . - -

WP T 3 W a W Q TAB L B W J W O T .

. .

He held his breath for two minutes. --cf: iyatahwostanv?i, uhawosdiha a1ta21a2di3?a D W W l D v.t. he's mooring a boat

. .

Suhliloda go?i usvhnv?i. It used 2 one gallon of oil. Ulvsa?di kali unvdi usvhnv?i. B 4 U l a P @ D l @ROT He drank 2 a glass full of milk --

--

i?CG L AT @ROT.

hi2t?21?2da AWWL ~~t?~l?~di'sdi ~ W W J J J Hitaladv na jiyu hasuhnohnvpi. F'EFthe boat when you're through --fishing. a1tg21e2sga DW&af a hole v.t. he's drilling
AWWG' 8 b c W Z D T

q2sv2n023yi DRZd n. Nighthawk !2ni2sv2n023yi DhRZd Elisi Asvnoyi gesvpi. My grandmother was - Nighthawk. a cf: svnoyi a4ta D n. young woman W Hi?a achuja anata juhlinohehdohdi ulvkwdi .
AD DdC - d C Z ? V l 8 4 1 r l . D8W RPb DRZd F R T .

hi2taZl.?2ga AWWf ~~t?~le~sdi W&~J @ Ditalesdi gvhdi utalesv hyahtena. He a hole in the board with - drilled -a drill. cf: atalesvPi, ditalesdi
-iw&al
EJ BW&R

a@.

This boy likes to talk to young women. cf: atanuja

a 1 t a 2 1 e 2 s v 4 ? i DWGRT

n. hole

Nvya j u n s d i gvhdi t i k a l i j a d a t a l e s v nvnohi 03 6 8 2 1 Ed 3 9 P C l m Om. F i l l t h e h o l e s i n t h e road with g r a v e l .

cf:

atalesga, ditalesdi v. i . it I
s

a 1 t a 2 n 0 2 3 1 e 3 2 g a DWZGS steaming

Kayegwona nvhgine d i t a s g i s g i d a n h t a s g i s d i s g o yvwi. 9 B Y 8 0YA -AVJY@d L h W a Y a d J A B 8 . On i u l v f o u r t h ~ e o ~ fli r e f i r e e crackers. cf: atasgiva n. explosive

a1tg2n0231e32g037i

DWZ$AT

?2t?2sgi4sgi DWaYJY di2t?2sgi4sgi

NaYaY

W i g v l i d l i s g i y a t o t a n a ama a t a n o l e g o p i . 8 E P C J Y 3 V W 8 DcT DWZ$AT. When you h e a t water t o i t s b o i l i n g p o i n t , i t steams. cf: utanolvda

Ganayego goksdi d i t a s g i s g i dasgwanigodv n a v v v i . S a y AS@d . J V a Y a Y 1 2 I h A 6 ' 8 i T . I t ' s dangerous t o smoke n e a r a p l a c e where e x p l o s i v e s a r e s t o r e d . cf: atasgiva v.t.

a 2 t a 2 n u 4j a

DWqc

n. adolescent g i r l

a1t?2we23d03?v2sga DW99ViJS he'; k i s s i n g her j i 1da2we23d?3?y2sga u1t?2we23d032nv23?i

bl99ViJS

H i l a i y u d e t i y v d a j e ji a t a n u j a ? AW T G S J B L Y b DW?G? How o l d i s y o u r t e e n a g e d a u g h t e r ? cf: ata v.i. it's

a1ta2we23d03?v2sgo3'?i DW9PViaAT hi2da2we2dq2?vl g a u2t?2we23do 3 2 d i

. .

BW99VDT AlbViS BW99Vd

a1t?2sgi3'?a DWJyD exploding

Uwej i agehyuj a agvdageni utawedonv7i. BSPb D f G C D E l f h O'\VflV@T. She k i s s e d h e r d a u g h t e r on t h e f o r e head. a1ta2w03?a DwD v . t . h e ' s combing someone's h a i r j i1t?2w03?a
bW D

Gotv wudina a d w e l a g i s g i u t a s g i s v v i . A6' J d e DLOWYSY B\Y'AYRT. When he threw t h e n u n ~ o w d e r i n t o t h e f i r e , - exploded. it


a

~ l t a ~ w o ~ ? v B~W i ?T i ~ a l tC2wo3sgo 3?i D W a A T hi1tg2w023j a ~ ~ t ? l~ d i o s w

AWG (?Wad

cf:

atasgisdiha, atasgisgj v.t . he's

a 1 t 9 2 s g i 3 s d 1 2 h a DWaY@d+ exploding it

Uwej i a c h u j a atawo9a. B o b DdG W D .

atli She's combing her son's hair. cf : ahltawoTa, ahltawosdi alt?2y02hi3ha DWfiA$ v.t. he's asking fo; it Don't shake the ladder. cf: ahltelvhvsga a3tih12di

59

DJCJ n. shirt, blouse

hi2t?2y02 3ha 4Wfi.G 2 2 u2t+ yo sdi owfia1 Hlesdi hyisgahesdi tstayosdi?i. L a 1 rnS?@1 GWfi21T. Don't be afraid ----it. to ask for a1t821g2di3?a D5WJD v. t . he's joining

Atihldi uwohlvhnv anineli uhnawosdi. DJCJ 8 . ~DMP otva1. e70 Shemade -a shirt for her husband to wear. cf: kihlvsga a1ti3hni Djh v.t. he's leading him ji2ya1ti3hni bah 1 2 3 23Ti u ti hnv sv O'JORT a1ti2hne3g03?i DJAAT hi2ya1ti2hnu1ga A a 9 S 002 3-1 u2ti2hnv1sdi Dikewi asgaya at ihni . 11.8 D@SJ He's leading a blind man. cf: didatihnidohi

a.
.

8% W12J u2tC21?2di1sdi AniTyosgi uteladisdi uduliha. DhfiaY 85W121 8SP.G. He to - wants - join the military service. cf: keladidoha, keli

g2te21i23do DaPV n. dish, plate ~ I i ~ t e ~ l i ~A P V ~do Ditelido degvdiye7a, JZPV SE18D. She is washing dishes. alte3lv 2hy 3sga D54aaS v.t. he's shaking him, it ba was jilte3lv 2hy 3sga alte3lv 2hy 2sgo33i D% 4aaAT hixte1lv 23na, hi 2te 1 lv 23na A%.le, ,9546 u2tehl ' i d 85.11 Hlesdi jihitelvhni ayvhdlo . Lad b ~ a 4 hDBG.

a1ti2y023hi3ha DJfi4.G v. i. he's arguing 2 - 2 23hi3ha g- d; YO a' S1fiA.G u1t~2y023hlv3?i @Ji T LfP a1ti2y023h+3h03?i DJfiAET .2 h? 2t+ yo23ga .GJfiS 2 2 23sdi u ti yo O'Jfiad Gado jijalvkwdi j atiyosdi? sv h e w 1 wfiad? Why do you like to argue? cf: atiyosdi, ditiyohihi g ti yo23sdi DJfia1 n. argument .2 di2t; yo23sdi ~fi2-i Nigohilv atiyosdi uhyoho3i. hA.04 DJfi21 8fiJT. He's always looking for an argument. cf: atiyohiha, ditiyohihi a 1tli D1Cv.i. he's running g?2di1tli S1C
2
2

Gago utolstane?i na dagwalela?


SA BVP@WAT 8 LZ6W?

Kilo dvtli. YO X C . Someone - running -- direction. is in this a1toh2gi23y?3?a DVY3D v.i. 1. he's racing 2. he's running for office ga1toh2gi23ys3?a S VY3D
BVYB T DVY&AT

Who loaned - the car? him cf: atolida, atolsga, didatolsdisgi a1to12sga DVP@S v.t. he's borrowing him, it

ha2toh2gi23ya u2toh2gi2 3ya32sdi


SA 6 6 6 Y 3 &6VY3?

+VY3 BVY&J

Gago yidadakiya yisdatohgiya? Who would win if cf: atohgiyasgi


YOU

Hila igohida utohlisdi uduli?


A TAB1 BVC@J BSP? W

two raced?

How long d o e s e want - borrow to it? cf: atolida, atolsdiha

q2toh2gi3ya1sgi DVY&Y date 2. racer

n. 1. candi-

a ' t ~ ~ ~ y a w ~DvX@S v. i. it's ~s~a flashing (reflected light)

di2ng2toh2gi3yalsgi J8VY2dY Na asgaya jigawoni Amayehli ugvwiyuhi yigalsdisgi atohgiyasgi.


8

-------------u1t023yaw32sv237i B V X R T
DVX~AT

0asa

b s v h D ~ B CBEBGA d s r @ J a Y

DVYGUY.

The man making the speech is a candidate -for president of the United States. cf: atohgiya7a

-------------~ ~ t o ~ ~ y a w ~ ~ B VdXi J s @ Gohusdi ato aws


ATdJ D+ V. -

jigowhtiha.

+2t0231:2da DVP6 adj borrowed di2t0231;2da J v p ~ Atolidas hi?a didahlilosdisgi?


D V P L J AD JLcOaJaY?

I see something flashing.


a1tsde3?a Db@SD v.t. he's taking a bite

I s i s camera borrowed7 cf: atolsdiha, atolsga a1tsde3sgo3?i


Db@S@AT
+b@Y 6 Bb@S@d

a1to12sdi3ha DVP@J+ v. t he's loaning it to him

hg2tsdg2gi u2tsde1sdi

Selu gadu utsdesvvi. 4M SS Q b a S R T . He took ---- a bite of corn bread.

a ' t ~ g o ~ ? ~ ~ s gDhAiaS a lying

v.i. he's

alt~~da~~sdi~ha D61aJ.L v .t. he's listining to him, it

gg2ji 2sga f h a A i a S ~ ' t s g o ~ n v ~ ~ ? i O h AOT a1t~go3?y2~go3?iDhAiaAT h?2tsg92?v1ga u2tsgo1di Sgwatsgonehas?


JXhAA+J? .Gh A i f BhA l

Are you lying to me? cf: gayhgogi a1tuZ3gi3?a DSYD v.t. he's taking a drink (alcoholic beverage) g+?2du23gi3?a f SYD ~ l t u ~ ~ ~ i ~ ~ BSYRT3 ? i s v ~ altu23gi32sgo3?i DSYJAT hg2tu23gi 32sdi
.GSY QSYJJ

Sgohi iyatahwostanv igohida iiyatvdastanv gawonisgvvi

JA.O T82\YO@\Y'DTRQL hiX'LJWU SGh2ET. I listened -- speak for ten to him

iiiinutes

cf: atvgi?a a l t ~ ~ ~ d v ~ h DPP8,1f a v.t 1. he's ~~sg asking him a question 2. he's asking a question ji2ya1tv23dv3hv2sga, g a l t ~ ~ ~ d v ~ h ~ ~ s g
bG%'P8@f7 f6682f

k G ~ BSYJJ. J He doesn't like ---- a drink. to take cf: atugisdi 62tu23gi4sdi D S Y J I beverage
DSY@l B M . T 1

Hla vulvkwdi utueisdi. .

~ l t v ~ ~ d v ~ h n v ~Q66UT ~?i

n. alcoholic Hiyatvdvhvga nididvnelisvTi.


AGTPIC'S h J W P R T .

Atugisdi unehnelv7i. He gave him -a drink. cf: atugi7a a1ty3?i2sdi3ha DST2I.G promising v.t. he's

Ask him --what he's going to do. a'tv2gi3?a DVYD v.t. he hears him, it ji2ya1tv2gi3?a, ga1tv2gi3?a
b26'YD. SPYD

ji1ty3?i2sdi3ha bS T2J.G u'ty3?i2stg3nv3?i o s T~\V'UT a1tV3?i2sdi23 ~ g p 3 ? i DSTJJAAT hi2tv2?i2sda u2tV2?i2sdoh3di


AS T a L QSTJVJ

u1tv2ga32nv23?i @ 6 f @ ~

So?ika?lesdiuwedasdi utu?istanv?i.
I T c3cfJI V D L J J 0ST2WUT.

Sdaya yigawonisa kila atvgisgovi.


@ L 3 J3fVhtl YW DPYAAT.

He - promised to come over next month.

He hears only when you speak loud. -cf: atvdasdiha

62

atvhisdiha Odalv galvladi danahnesdahlahvsgo awohavli. d L 4 S 4 W 1 L ~ A @ L ~ &m A . I P Eagles build their nests on mountain tops. alya3?a D 3 D v.i. he's inside e.2 3.7 3; Y? a 630

a1tY2hj2sdi3ha DP.02l.G v.t. 1.he1s raising him, it 2. he's growing it (plant)

Junoduhi anijilvsgi datvhisdisgovi .

d Z S A Dhh42.Y

66"BadAAT.

She grows beautiful flowers. cf: atvsga

Gado usdi kanvsulv aya?a?


SV Sad a W 4 DJD?

Which room --is he in? a2ya2nu41i D34P adj., adv. fast di2ni2ya2nu41i I h 3 4 P Ayanuli a?isv3i.
D34P TRT. - Dwalking He was

a1ty2sga 06-25 v.i. he, it's growing g??2dy2sga 56-25 ulty2sv237i B P R T a1ty2sgo39i DP2AT

fast. -

cf: gajanuli Udohiyu atvsga. He is -- really growing. cf: atvhisdiha ?2wi4na D 8 8 n. young man
BVG

m.

a1ya32tQ2hi3ha DdV4.G v.t. he's distributing it


k3VA.G

wF Do you recognize that young man?


BfiPS2 8

Hiyoligas na awina?

u1ya32t92hlv23?i a1ya32tQ2hi2h03?i ht2ya1t ~ ~ h i u2ya1tq2hi3sdi Tsgwisdi nunadvhnv alsdayhdi.


He

W3VPT D3VAi T A3VA 83VA21

yvwi uyatohlv

cf: awinuja g2wi2nu4ja D84C n. adolescent boy g2ni2wi2nu4ja DhB4C Hla yagwanhte anita?li aniwinuja dejakahvqi . ' 3x0'6 D hWP D h 8 q C SCXdIT. L I didn't know you had two teenage boys. cf: awina ?2w023h9?31i W.GP n. eagle

k ~ @ ~ - 4 8 6 B8 B S V P D P J L B J . -0

distributed food among a lot of people. cf: ayatohihi g3ya1t92hi2hi D3VAA n. 1. one who distributes 2. deacon q2ni23ya1tq2hi2hi D h 3 V A A GaTlohni tavlsgo hisgine, sohneladu isgohitsgwa gahlgwasgo jo?i ayatohihi nulstanv?i. SG h W P 2 A A a A , f A W S T @ A A h I S C I 2 A
KT D3VAA 9P@\VIOT.

He became a deacon on August 25, 1973. a1ya32t92hlv4?i DJVPT n. chapter da1ya32t?2hlv4?i LGVPT Hila ayatohlv higoliyeva? A m P AAPBD? W Which chapter are you reading?
D B f v.i. he's waking up

ayh 1d l 3ha DBJ.G v.t. he's putting him inside (somewhere large enough to move around in) bB1.G ji2yv1di3ha ~ y h l t ? ~ n v ~ ? i BB WOT ayh1di23sgq3?i hi2yv1da uyh2doh3di Sogwil uniyvsdi
1.61) BhB@J -B DBJJAT AB L BBV1

ji2ye3ga b8 f ~ ' y e ~ j v ~ ~BBGT vi


DBAT

uyhtanv sogwili.
IVP.

He put the horse inside the barn.


DBf

hi2yelgi ABY u2yF2?i2sdi 0'8 T2d Hiyegi agosela, uyejvvi. When he was told to wake 2, woke he -UD

v.i. it's crowing (rooster:


fBf BBPRT DB AT

gaYh3ga u3yvl2sv23?i

ABY DA4W, BBCT.

cf: ayevisdiha 92ye4hli D8C n. 1. center, middle 2. half 3. half dollar Ahani ayehli johlesdi

ha'y~~~la +B W ~lyv~~hli~sdi BBCaJ Tstvganvvis jitaga agisi ayhgvvi?


CPfOTJ b W f DYb DB ET?

Have you heard a hen crowing? a1yi3ha DJM v.t. 1. he's getting a long object 2. he's picking up a long object ji2yi3?a hJ3D ~ ' y v ~ h v ~ ~ BBBT vi

D+h

KL@l.

Sit here in the middle. a1ye3?i2sdi3ha DBTa1.G v.t. he's waking him up j i2ye3?i2sdi3ha hB TJ1.G u1ye3v12stg3nv3'?i BBTJWOT

Hlesdi j ihiyevistani usdivi


L J 1 hAB TaWh B a 1 T .

Hisgi dije digohwelodi duyvhv didanavnvvi.


A 3 1' 1 M G l SB& JLeOT. 7

Don't wake the -- baby. cf: ayega +2ye21v4vi DgqT n. his body Ayehli iyv ayelv duleyvsvvi.
DBC TB

He ot five new pencils at the store., n a k w a y a digohwelodi. RWJ L ~ R ~ ~ G J . She picked up a pencil from the ground. cf: agiva, ganeva, ganegiva, guteva n. floor a1y02da32hlg2hv4vi D f i LCBT da1y02da32h1?2hv4vi LfiLCBT Ama uj ewasdohtanv ayodahlahvvi

DB.l

SORT.

He burned half of - bodv. his A

~r o?/(;avw@ ~ ~ L C B T . D

object Diniyohli sgwahlesdi dananelohv

Sheaccidently spilled water on the floor. The children are playing ball. Diyohli nvya duwutesv7i. Ific 03 SSXRT. He picked up some small rocks. a1y02hly3sga D f i P a ~v.t. 1. he's whittling it 2. he's carving it 3. he's hewing it
dhfic -a x L a d L e ~ ~ a a s .

a1y03ga D f i S v.i. 1. it's breaking 2. he's becoming spoiled

a l y 0 ~ ~ 0 ~ 9 i DfiA7 u2yoy lsdi Dfiad Gugu uyojv uwohosa. The bottle broke when it dropped. cf: ayosdiha, uyojv7i a'yo2hi3ha DfiA+ v.t. he's shooting him, it

JJ ~fi~'oe7fiEr.

Ilvsgi iyaniqi anisgaya didisdi daniyohlvsga.


T92Y T3hT DhaS3 1 J a d LhfiPZS.

Several men are hewine railroad ties ?2y02h~2h;2sdi DfiTAaJ n, death Hla kilo yvgvdisgalas ayohuhisdi. f YG BEAJSWa DfiTAaJ. No one can hide f r o m e a t h . cf: ayohusga

Ganohalido gahlida gvhdi uyohlv ahwi.


S Z+PV S C L Ed W P D8.

The hunter -a d e e r with an arrow. shot cf: dasdayohiha a1y03hi2sdi3ha DfiA@l+ v.i. he's taking a break

a1y02hu2sga DfiTJS (human)

v.i. he's dying

Hila ahli7ilisv hiyohisdisgo dejalvhwisdanehv?


A DCTPR Afifi3JaA SC482LAB? W

Hila iyv jigesv uyohuse7i? A TB h f R @fiT4T? W When did -he die? cf: ayohuhisdi, galihwoga, ulihwojvvi, uyohusvvi a'yo31i2ha DfiP+ him v.t . he Is greeting

What time do you take a break from your work? ?2y04hli DfiC n. 1. child 2. small

ayvhwahtiha
hfi@WZQS ji yo st3 nQ hy3sga ~ ' y o ~ s t ~ ~ n q ~ h n (PAaWZDT v~~i a'yo3stg2nQ3hy 3~go37i DfiaWZdaAT hi 2yo1stg2nq 2hna A f i @~t ~
2 3 2 3

65

Junsdi anichuja anahlihv uyo?istanv?i.


d e a d D h d C D 8 C a BfiT2WO.T.

He broke 9 a fight between the little boys.


DfiP+

(PChYL S Z 4 a E (Pfi@WZQ 821 D L A 4 T .

u 2yo 1sta2nQ 3hy 3sdi BAaWZ&J Uhlinigida ganolvsgv uyostanohnv usdi adanelvvi.

.2 alyo31i ha him

v.t..hels greeting

The strong wind destroyed the small building. cf: ayosdiha 42YQ27~4hli D m C adj . lame, crippled di2yQ2?u4hli Jfi(PC Ayo?uhli asgaya adolanvsdi utayohlv7i. =crippled
DABC D@S@ DVWDaJ QWfiP T .

man asked for a walking cane.

Nigohilv yagigoha agiyoliho?i.


h A A 4 @YA+ PYfiPE T .

Every time he'sees me - greets me. he alyo3sdi2ha Dfi2J.G v.t. 1. he's breaking it 2. he's spoiling him

g 2 p , ?2ya DB , 03 pron. I, me, we us (see Gram. 111, A) Ayas agwenvsdi jaduli?


D a a J CSP?

Do you want me to go? a1yv2hi3ha DBA+ v.t. he's entering it ji2yy2?i3ha h B T+


PBPT

Ama adlisdohdi ulvsa?di uyosdohtanv?i.


D T DC@VJ 8 4 U J Bfi@WI/QT.

He broke - accidently -a water glass. cf: agalsga, asgwalsga y~2sgi D f i a n. soldier . g 2n1 3YQ 2sgi D h f i J J Jo?i judetiyvda G : g i gesv?i.
K T J S J B L bfiav . . .. 1 was - soldier for three years. a -

alYv2hi2h03?i DBAIl T 2yv 23ha hi AB u 2yv 2sdi BB@J Gahljode agiyvhlv ugahnanihla. SPKS m P D S t h P . I entered the house when the rain came. cf: ayvsdohdi?i

-+?

a1yv2hwah2ti3ha DBG2.G v.t . he 's finding a long object

cf: aniyosgi'i a ' y ~ ~ s t ~ 3hy 3sga Dfi@W/Z&2f ~nq he, it's destroying it v.t.

a1yv2hwah2ti23sg?3?i D B U @ A 7 hi 2yv2hwah2ta ABGW u2yv2hwah2tvh2di BBGPJ Na achuja ije gosdvnisdi uyvhwahtvhv7i.

66

ayvhwidiha T s t v g a n v 7 i s ayonega J a l a g i gawonisgv? CPSOTd D f i f l f CWY SVhaE? Have you heard a white person speak Cherokee? cf : ayvwi, unega

0 DdC TY A X h @ d BBGPJLT. The boy found a new b a t .


cf: ahwahtiha, ganawhtiha, ganehwahtiha

a1yv2hwi2di3ha DB8d.G v . t . h e ' s t a k i n g a long o b j e c t somewhere j i2yv1wi2di3ha


I;. B 8d.G

~ ' y v ~ h w i ~ d v ~ h vBB8PJLT ~~?i

~ h ? ~ n e ~ ~ l a , adj eight

DB8JaAT
hi2yv2hwi23da u2yv2hwi2tdi

CAW, JAW

AB8L BB 8 2 1

Chanel a d e l v t i v v s i . c/lW DS.1 n i b . Give him e i g h t d o l l a r s . c h i 2no 2 s g a

Hadlv dehiyvhwidi ada? .GP SABBI DL? Where -you t a k i n g t h e wood? are cf: ahwidiha, ganawidiha, ganehwidiha

frzaf

n. coal

9 2yv 2 s d o h 3 d i 4 ? i

Chinosga agohvsdisgo o s i uganawohisdivi. DAJL2daA Ab B f W A @ d T . He burns c o a l i n h i s h e a t i n g s t o v e .

DB@VJT

n. entrance

d i 2 y v 2 s d o h 3 d i 4 ? i dB@VJT Sdudi k t o ? a ayvsdohdi d l o g e s i . 2 S J EVD DBaVd 6 F b . There is a g a t e a t t h e e n t r a n c e t o the pasture cf: ayvhiha n. p e r s o n ,

~ h u h ~ f~ n. f l e a d a Chuhgas d i h i s d o h d janeha? df@ - -IA@Vd CA.G? f l e a D you have some -k i l l e r ? o

?2yv2wi, yv2wi DB8, B8 human, .people ?2ni2yv2wi

ddada-

( s e e de-) v.pref. f u t u r e tense (see Gram. I , A) v . p r e f . motion toward s p e a k e r ( s e e Gram. I , A) v.i.

DhB8

Gado anadvne aniyvwi? SV DePA What a r e t h e p e o p l e d o i n g ?

m?

cf:

ayvwiyavi

da1da2hnaw32sdi3ha L Lt8ad.G h e ' s making an X n. Indian

4 2yv 2w i 2 y a 4 ? i

DB83T

Hi?a a c h u j a a k a l i Ayvwiya?i. A DdC DaP DB83T. D This boy i s a f u l l - b l o o d I n d i a n . cf: ayvwi, -ya Dudovv uwohwelodi asdanvhnv dudahnaws t a n v v i naktahvna gesv i y u s d i G i l i s i uwohwelodi7i. S V i Be5SPGd D 2 L W S L t@@WOT OSklB8 F R TGad YPb BUdGdT. He made a n A on t h e s i g n a t u r e l i n e

a2yv 3w v 3ne 2 g a y 32yo 3n e 2 ga DBJAS, DfiAf n. w h i t e person . . ? 2n l 2yv3wu 3ne 2 g a , ? 2 n l 2yo3ne2ga DhBSAS. DhfiAS

dadehyohvsga because he didn't know how to write English. cf: dadahnawsdvvi, didahnawida da1da2hnaw32sdv4?i n ~ ~ n o ~L L th X T ~ 8i DZA n. crossroads Dadahnawsdv nvnohi dunadlosv?i. They met at - crossroads. a cf: dadahnawsdiha, didahnawida da1da2hne2se3?a L LA4D v.i. he 's conjuring de2gg3da1ne2se3?a SS LA4D d ~ l d a ~ h n e ~ s a ~ ? vSLAtli T ~~?i da1da2hne2se3sgo3?i L LA4aAT t?2da3hne2s?2ga WLAUS ju2da2hne2selsdi dLh4aJ Dadahnesesgv uwhtanidasdi uhyalv judahnesesdi ajitayosela.
LLA4aE BGWhI@J 8 3 9 JLA4@J DbWfi4W.

67

L L t 8 3 02 S W R T . 23

Gadohv hla yidojadanvdistane? S VB E J ~ VLG DdaWA? Why didn't you dodge? cf: ganvdiqa da1da2w03?a L L B D v.i. he's performing baptism de2g?3da2w03?a SS LBD d ~ l d a ~ w o 3 ? v ~ ~S? i i T LB da1da2w03sgo3?i L LBaAT ta2da3w02ja WLBC ju2da2w01sdi d LB@J Uhyvdli iga dudawo?~ah1jadohvsgi .
BBC TS DPCVB2.Y.

He looked for his conjuring material when he was asked - conjure. to cf: didahnesesgi

The preacher performed baptism on a cold day. cf: adawova, didawosgi v.i. he's giving

da1da2yC3sga L L f i 2 S

UP
da1dg2ni21v3ga LLh4S v.t. he's accepting him, it 2ji3y? 2d? 2ni2lv3ga, de2gg 3dg2ni 2. de

Gohida duwetinv kila dudayosv?i. He lasted a long time, then he gavs


R9L S 8 2 O Y S L f i R T . W

2cf: dayosga Dodvdanilvjis heli? Do-ink he is to -- going - accept? cf: didanilv?isdi d a1d a2 v 23di32sdi2ha LLOJa1.6 n he's dodging v.i.
VPL h4h.a ?I)?

da1de2hyo23hy3sga LSfiBaS teaching

v.t. he's

68

dadlohyiha

Gogi danadehlohgwasgv dadehyohvsgo?i.

A I 8SefXaE ISfiQAT Y

She teaches summer school. cf: didehyohvsgi

Nigalstanvgwu iga dehigvwahltanv gvyagwiyv?elv?i .


hSPdWO3 T f SAEGGWO EGYPBR4T.

da1dlo2hyi3ha IPfJ3oG v.i. he's weeping de2ge3dlo1yi3ha SfefJS.6 du1dlo2hyi31v3?i Sef64T da1dlo2hyi3hq3?i I e f J S P T t?2dloyh3ga Wef JSS ju2dloy2sdi deTJ3;3J Wasnwalahiw udahlav Galvkwdi Gohweli. " ~ i s adudloh ilv?i I' adiha.

Whatever price you set I'll pay you. cf : jugvwahldi dg2gwg21e31a LZdW n. car, wagon Digaduhv wigaluhjv asgaya, dagwalela dayuhwasi. J S S & 8SMC Daf 3 , 6 1 6 W LGGb When he gets to town, the man is going to buy 5 car.

," rnortest verse in the Bible says, e s "Jesus =' .I


cf: adlohyiha dalgg2chv3sdi2ha t f Q J + v.i. he's being 'married d~~~wg~chv~sdi~ha 6"XQJ.G da1g+2~h~3stg2n~23?i SC;;3W@T I da1g52~h~3sdi2sgo3?i I f C a J S A T ~i~de~~j~~chvlsda 8SCQI j?2g?2chv1sdoh3di CSC~VJ

G S X W A m ! l M P , "btl DJ+.

da1hlih2ge3ha LCF+ v.i. he, it's rocking de2g+?31ih2gp3ha SSPF .G d ~ l h l i h ~ ~ e ~ ~ hSCF&T v~?i

Gasgilo dihlihgesgi uwasa dahlihgesgv ugohv?i,


~

She saw a rocking chair rocking by itself. cf: gasgilo dihlihgesgi

-JhWBaJ

S f SmWO

+T

ba*?T.

The were married in a chapel last -&m cf: dichvsdi dg2gv23na I E8 n. 1 . oyster 2. ?sari 3. pimple Dihyahldi danohlvndisgo?i dagvna.
J 3 P J I ZPOJJAT

da1hli2103sdi2ha IC4aJ.G v. t. 1 . he's drawing a picture of him, it 2. he's photographing him, it

They make necklaces out of pearls. da1gv2wah12di3ha EGG& v .t. he's setting a price de2ji3gv2w92101di3ha 3bEGQJ.G d ~ l ~ v ~ w a h l ~ t ? ~ n v ~S?EGQWOT i da1gv2wah12di23sgq3?i L EGGJaAT

m.

Yona duhli1ostanv')i. He drew a picture of a bear.


A 6 SCQaWOT.

dahvtvsga cf: didahlilosdisgi, didahlilostanv?i da1hli2n02hg3ha ICZ3.G v.i. he's conversing de2gg31i1no2hF3ha S f PZ3.G d ~ l h l i ~ n o ~ h e ~ ~ h lSv ~ 3 P T CZ?i da1hli2n02he23sg?3?i I C Z 3 2 A T t?2hli3n02hv21a VI'C Zdi W ju2hli2n02heh2di dC 2 3 1 Dihlinohehdi degalinohesgv?i. I was -1CZ 3 1 SSPZ3aET. JSSPL S46 StGTBRT.

69

He - changed his wet clothes. cf: dahnawo?a, dihnawo da1hng2we3?a I t d D undressing v.i. he's

conversing on the phone. cf: dihlinohehdi, dihlinohehdi?i

de2g?hi 'we3?a SfM D d ~ l h n ? ~ w e ~ s v ~ ~ t?di T S R da1hng2we3sgo3?i I W a A T ta2hng3wG2gi WtGY ju2hng2we1sdi Jtd21 DeganiweTa aksvsdi ugvwahli.
3 S M D DYIQJ BEGC.

dah11tg2de3ga I P W S S v.i. he's jumping de2g?31i1ta2de3ga SSPWSS d~hlltg'di~~nv~~sv~~?iOAT SPWJ dahl ltC2de3go3?i I PWSAT tahl 3t?2du1ga V P W SS j ~ h l ~ t ~ ~ d i ~ ~ n v P~ ~ O d i J Wd d Hila iyagalvladi eligwu yidehahltaduna? A
AW T 3 f 4 W 1 R P 3 i S . G P W S S ?

I am - - undressingto go to sleep. cf: dahnawo?a, dihnawo da1hn?2w03?a I W D v .t he's putting on clothes de2g?3ni lwo3?a S S hOD d~lhn?~wo~?v~~?i 7 stf'cj ' da1hnit2w03sgo3?i I W J A T tg2hn?3w02ja WWC ju2hn<: 2w01sdi d W 2 l Judanvgalvda tahnawoj a.
JIOS.71 W .- - -

How high can you jump? cf: dihltadegi da2hn?2wa I t G n. war IlvhiyuTis to?i nidagalstani heli dahnawa? Do you think that -w i l l v e r war cease? cf: dinidahnawi da'hn?2w?3?i2yv3?a I t G T B D v.t. he's changing clothes ~ l e ~ g g ~ n i ~ w ? ~ ? i ~ y v ~h G T B D S f ?a
d.sihn?2w?3?i2p?r3s\r23?i S t G T B A T
1'4.QGTa VT hISPaWh 3P ItG?

Put on -- some clean clothes. cf: dz.hnawe?a, dihnawo ~ a ~ h n u ~ ~ 1 4 ~ T in. Vian o Av Dahnugo na?v gohlv gatiyo?i. There is a stompground near Vian. da1hv2ty3sga I W 2 S v. t. he's putting fuel (solid) into a fire de2ji3?v2ty3sga Skid761S d~ilhv~t?~nvj?i SGWOT d ~ i l h v ~ t ~ ~ s g ~I ~ ? i 7 8~at1 ti2hv3tvlga J W S jcLhv2tdi J C.2.i
19-1 - 8.i AP S d S T .

da1hna2w?3?i2yv3~g~3?iI t C i T F z A T ta 2hn?3w82?i2yv2 3na WtGTR!)


ju2'r..r,rt2~;!2?iZ3y~3*sdi J . L S T ~ B ; ! " ~
- .

L.

. padcl id?

d:,!~ri

>I.?.-

d~lh:-,a\:a'i)-:~ "i. sv ----- . .

He wood into the stove. - put green ---da1hyv23g~3?a LBYD v.t. 1. he's tickling him 2. he's spurring a horse de2ji32yv23gi3?a .FhBYD d ~ l h y v ~ g v ~ ~ ? i SB ET d a l h y ~ ~ 32sgo3?i L BYJAT ~gi ti 32yv23ga
2 BY

da'kg2ne23hyi3ha I9AJS.G v. t. he's untying it de2ji3ga1ne23hy13ha ShSAJS.G du1kg2ne2 3hyv3hv2 3?i S9ABd.T da1kg2ne2 3hyi3sgo3?i L9A&AT
3~v13 ti2k?3ne2hya ju2ka2ne23hyvh3di J9ABJ Dulasuhlv dukanehyvhv dulasulesa. SWrP SaABJL SWrd'V.

j ~ ~ h y v 32sdi i ~~g JBYJJ Hlesdi jidoskiyvgi galisdayvhvsgv?i.


LJJ hV2YBY SP@LB$@ET.

He - untms

Don't tickle me while I am eating. cf: dihyvgisdi da1je23h1a I Y f adj., adv. better Gado usdi dajehla? f v @@"A L y P ? Which one is better? da 3..2 J ; hly3sga LIrT@f v.i. he's squatting de2ga32ji2hlV3sga S f N @ f du3ji2hlv3nv3?i da3ji2h1y3sgq3?i
ShF@T L hF@AT

shoes when he took them off. cf: dakanehiha v.t.

da1k?2n02wg2di23d032ha LaZGJV+ he's looking after him

de2ji3ga1n02~?2di23d032ha S h f 2GJV.G. du1kg2n02wg2di23d0321~23?i SaZGJV?T da1kg2n02wg2di23d032h03?i LaZGJV i T . ti2ga32n02wa2di2 3da J~ZGJL JC~ZGJL@J j ~ ~ k ~ ~ n o ~ w ~ ~ d i ~ ~ d a ~ ~ s Gago dejakanowadidoha?
S A SCil ZC,JV+? -- - . . .
-

Who is looking after cf: dikanowadidohi da1keZ3wa3'ga LPGf becoming blind de2ji?3ge23wa32ga du'ke23wa32jv23?i dalke23wa32go3?i tt2ke3walgi ju2keZ3wa3?i2sdi

you?

WhF S ta3ji2hlu32ga j~'ji,~hl~~sdi JhFaJ Unulvhnv julehdi degajihlgv?i. 89.10. J$J SShFET.

v.i. he's
ShFGS SPGCT LPGAT JP GY JPGT2-I

He couldn't get up from - squatting a ~osition. ~ l a l k g ~ n e ~ ~ h iL9ilA.G v.t. he's tying ~ha it

Gohida ulsihgv yvya?a yidvkewagi. AAL B P b E B 3 D B'PGY. If you're in the dark for a long time, you'll become blind. cf: dikewi
-

j ~ ~ k g ~ n e ~ ~ s d i69AAJ Dakwalvsa?dv dagikaneheha. LX4VP IYaA3.G.

da2ksi LYb n. terrapin Daksi nvnohi dunadiwsidisv jigowahta.


a 0.23 SBJ8bJR hAGW. L

He is tying my shoe laces -for me. -cf: dakanehyiha

I saw a terrapin crossing the road.

daktinvtvsga da2ksi I Y b n. 1. padlock 2. door knob Uyanv gvhdi usdu?isv daksi.


8=0 E l B @ S T R w b

71

cf: aktasdiha, daktanawsga da1kti231e32ga L S J f S v.t. he's attacking him, it de2ji3ga1ti231e32ga,de2ji3ga1tiZ3le32ga S kS3fS ,
SkS3fS

He opened the lock with a wire. da1ksv3sdi3ha I S R 2 J . G v.t. 1. he's making smoke 2. it's smoking de2ji3galsv23sdi3ha S k S m I . G dulk ~ v 3 s t ? ~ n v ~ ~ ? i 5 m W O T S dalksv3sdi3sgo3?i L SR2laAT ti3ksv2sda 3SmL ju2ksv23sdoh3di dSR2Vl Dinagalisgi juyanv duksvstanv dutewsa.
j e s ~ a y S S ~ W OI B B . S

Hlvdaji disinahvsdisgi hlvdaji duktilvsv?i.


PLk IbB&@laY PLk SS34RT.
A

G r

r
I

The electrical wires smoked when they became hot. cf: juksvsdi dalkt?2na~~~sga LSWBGJS v.i. he's blinking de2g?3galt?2naw32sga S S SWBG@S d~lkta2naw3~sv~~?i SSWBGRT da lkta2naw32sgo3?i L SWBGJAT ta3kta2na lhwa WSWBG ju2kta2nawlsdi dSWBG@I DuklaneSv iyusdi daktanawsgv?i .
SSWAR T G A l L SWBGJET.

lion attacked the

liontamer.

da1kti2nv2de3?a L S 3 O S D v.t. he's taking off his glasses

Yiduktinvdesa hla osda yagowhtisgo?i. When she takes off her ----ZSS30;S'B C ,3JL

She was --blinking because she had tears in her eyes. cf: aktasdiha, daktasdiha

glasses, she doesn't see well. cf: daktinvtvsga, diktinvtdi

3AGJJAT.

~lalkta~~sdi~ha L5WJI.G v.i. he's cloiing his eyes de 2ga 3ga1ta32sdi2ha S 5 S W a l . G d~lkta~~sta~nv~~?i SSWAWOT L 5 W a I J AT da1kta32sdi2sgo 3?i ta 3ktalsda WSW@L ju2kta1sdoh3di dSKIJVI Duktastanv usgosdi ajvstv duktoyvsa.

da1kti2nv2tv3sga LSJDd"a5 v.t. he's putting on glasses de2g?3ga1ti2nv2tt13sga S S S 3 O C 2 S du1kti2nv2ta3nv3?i S 5 3W O T da1kti2nv2tv3sgq3?i LS3WAAT t?3kti2nv2tv1ga W5306S Igada agalisgv yanedoha julsihgi diktinvtdi danaktinvtvsgo?i. When some people are in the sun, they put on dark glasses. cf: daktinvdeva, diktinvtdi, duktinvta
T S L DSP@E 2dlV.G J P b Y J S 3 Q J I L BS3Dd"@AT.

s swawo B

~ A DCS ~ I

SSVBB

He closed his e es when he was blinded by a brig t light.

-5

72

daktliha Dilala uniyvhv wesa. L iVW -O hB8

da1ktlf3ha ISCf+ v.t. he's shelling corn de2jh3ga1tli3ha dalktli23sg93?i ti3ktla ju2ktlvh2di
9fiSC.G

dtJ A cat caught a woodpecker.

d ~ ' k t l v ~ h v ~ ~ ? i .CSP&T
I S C@.4T

da11a32~u2hlv3~gaLWfPAS on shoes

v.t he's

3SJ?
dfPJ

Suhliloda iga selu duktlvhv sogwili ugisdi.


CCGL T f 4 M SSP& + P P O'YAJ.

He shelled a bushel of -for the corn 6 r s e to eat. da1kw?'la2gi3?a snoring


LTWYD

Dije dilasulo julasuhldi uduli Wili. Bill wants - put - some new to on

JY

rwm

J W ~rP Q s r

v. i. he's

sr .

shoes.

de2ji32kwa21a2gi3?a S h W Y D d~~kw?~la~gi~sv~~?i ,yXW.YRT da1kwg21a2gi3sgo3?i tj2kw?31a2gi j~~kw?~la~gi'sdi


f A LTWY2)F O R k f R ?

cf: alasulo, dalasula?iyv?a, dalasu1e7a da11a32su21a3?i2yv3?a GWCWTBD he 's'changing shoes de2g?31a32su2193?i2yv 3?a v.t.

LXWYJAT 3XtVY
dx~y2-i

SSWCWTBD SWCWTBRT

Gago dakwalagisge usv jigesv? Who - snoring last night? was da1kwa2y03?y2sga L S f i i S f v.t. he's (with a liquid, sprinkling it powder, salt, etc.) \! de2ji32kw?2y03? sga Slr,Z'fii@S d ~ ' k w ? ~ y o ~ n v ~ ~ ? i .YjSfiOT da1kwg2y03?Y2~g03?i L X f i idAT ti2kw?3y02?v1ga ju2kwa2yo'di
3.TfiiS

Dulasula?iyvsv diganvhidi gesv iyusdi dilasulo.


SWCWTBR JSDAJ F R TGJJ JWc?G.

He changed shoes because they were - long. too cf: alasulo, dalasuhlvsga, dalasu1e7a
ICVCcfD v.t. he's da'la'2su21e3?a taking off his shoes

JJfi d

Ama dakwayo?vsga dihnawo jutesdi. She is -- sprinkling water clothes she is going to

D&' l , X f i i 2 S J t U d ' 6 2 J .

on the iron.

cf: ,iasdudli?a,dikwayodi da2kws?3ni LiPHh n. turnip Dakwsanis dijaivkwdi? I, ,Pb' -- .h@ .IC W J ' Do ) ou like turnips? d?21a71a
LX'lY

Aktisi didla jalasuhlv halasulagi.


D S l b d S CWrP WZ"WY. o

Take your right -shoe off. cf: alasulo, dalasuhlvsga, dalasula'iyvqa

n. woodpecker

da11eh2di3ha Ld'J.6 v.t. 1. he's hilping him up 2. he's standing it up (object with legs)

LPI - CWY

DBC BVPRTdJSWPH. Tahlequah is the capitol of the Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma.

Unulvhvsgesdi julehdi dehiyaletanvli. 044d2JI.a-J dd'l S A W 0 . T . If he can't get up, help - % . him cf: alehdiha da11e2hi23si3ha LOb.6 v.i. he's recuperating

da11i2ye32su21e3?a L B d D vet. he's PC' taking off his gloves de2g?31i3ye32su21e3?a SSPBCd'D du11i2ye32su21e3s~23?i SPBCd'RT dalli2ye32s~21e3sgo3?i LPBC62AT WPBCWY t? 2I? 3ye1su2153gi ju21i2ye1su231e32sdi dPBC6a.J Nihina? sloves off. cf: aliyesulo, daliyesuli?a da11i2ye32su21i3?a LPBCPD v.t. he's putting on his gloves ; 3 su : S SPBCPD de2g?3 1 3 ye 2 21 3?a du11~2ye32su21a32nv23?i SPBCWDT da11i2ye32su21i32sgo3?i L PBCPJAT WPM 4s t?21i3ye1su21v32ga ju21i2ye1su231032di dP8CG-J Degaliyesuli dodvgilvhwisdanelihehno. SSPBCP VbT4826AP3 2. I am on - - putting - loves because I am going to work. cf: aliyesulo, daliyesule?a da11i23y03gi2?a LPfiYD v.t. he's taking off his socks de2ga31i23y03gi2?a SSPfiYD du11i23y03gi1sv23?i SPfiYRT da11i23y03gi1sgo3?i LPfiYaAT ta2li3yo2gi WfY Pi .23 .1 ju211 yo 3gi sdi d~fi 2 1 ~ Dulasulesv ale dulivorrisv3i. SWCd'R D6 SPfiYRT. He took off his shoes and socks. ----cf: aliyo, daliyohiha, daliyosiha, dul ivoha
w

Junidlvgi waya?v dalehisiha. dhPY G3i L8Ab.G. He's recuperating in a hospital. cf: dalehvsga dalle2hy 3sga L6DJS v.i. he's getting up (from sitting or from involuntarily assumed prone position) de2gt31e2?v3sga SSd'iaS d~lle~hnv~~?i SGDT dalle2hy2sgo3?i 6 tg21e3hvlga WGDS ju21eh2di dd'l Dijalehvga gadvnv nigad dejalehnv3i. 1CdDf 5'- hSL 3Cd'DT. 60 When I say stand 2, everyone standup. cf: adidiha, alehvsga

..

~ ~ ~ 1 LPI n. w a i ~ ~ Tahlequah Daligwa Jalagi Ayehli udohlvsv3i Ogalahomi.

74

daliyohiha cf: alsosdiha da2mq3ga

da11i23y03hi2ha LPfi4.G v.t. he's putting on his socks de2ga31i23yF,3?i2ha SSPfiT+ d ~ ~ l i ~ ~ y o ~ h lSv f~ P~ ? i P i T da11i23y03hi2h03?i LPfiAP T

L a

n. horsefly

L a - @ L a DLASPAT. - horsefly bites hard. A

Damaga sdaya adasgahlgovi.

Daliyohihv igohida kilo dunosgise iulasulo.


L P f i A B T A A L Y Q S m Y 4 JWCQ.

da1ng2da2hi?31i23d032ha L 0LAPV.G v they are having a trial dolj?2da2hi?31i23d032ha


VCLAPV+

While -- putting --he was on his socks, someone stole his shoes. cf: aliyo, daliyogi?a, daliyosiha, duliyoha da11i23y03si2ha LPfi6.G v.t. he's changing his socks Unadodagwohnv danadahivlidohesdi.
Q0VLYD L 0LAPV?@J.

The will be having -a trial on 2-Monday. cf: didahi?lidasdi?i

Taliyosa digadulida dejaliyohv3i. Chanee your wet socks. cf: aliyo, daliyogi?a, daliyohiha, duliyoha da11s02sdi3ha L P I @ J + v.t. 1. he's aiming at him, it 2. he's aiming it de2ji3y?21i1s023sdi3ha, de2gg31i sdi3ha S h 3 P f @A+, du11s023stg3nv23?i
SSPf@J+ SPf@WDT WPfibr J S S P L S C P f i B T .

da1ng2dlo2sga L W @ S v.t. 1. they are meeting 2. they are meeting someone


V&@S dolj?2dlo2sga d~ln?~dlo~sv~~?i T SWR da1nq2d102sgo3?i G W @ A T diljq2dlo3hi JW A

Tsgwisdi Anijalagi dunadlosv Daligwa ugvuiyuhi gawonisgv unatvgodi uniyelvsv?i.


h.9'21 DhCWY S W R L P I Q E B G A SVh@E Q 0 6 A J Q h8 4. R

A lot of Cherokees met at Tahlequah in order to hear the chief speak. cf: didlohisdi'i, dudlosga

Hlesdi kilo galogwe gvhdi yitiyalisosdisgesdi. Don't -- anyone with a gun. aim at
L@J Y Q S Q 3 EJ L Z 3 P f @ J @ P @ J .

da 1nq 2gg 2le2ni3ha L 0 S d h . G are separating

v.i. they

dasdlusga

75

Gadohv dunagal envhe?


SV& SBSO"O?T?

Anijalagi Unadodagwidena usv danilawieo?i . D~CWY ovGvse O R L ~ W B A T . Cherokees hold church services on Saturday nights. cf: digalawisdivi

Why did they separate? cf: junagalenvda da3nehl2d 3ha IAB1.G ; with him, it de2ji 3ya3neh12di3ha, v.t. he's playing

Gado usdi jagise Danisdayohihvvi? de 2ga 32neh12di3ha

sv

021 C Y ~~ h a t f i ~ ~ ~ ?

S b a B J . G , SSA(3J.G du3neh12tg3nv3?i SAG WOT

What did you get for Christmas? dalni2ye21i2sga L hBP@S are adj ourning v. t. they

da3neh12di23sg03?i
. T a BL

GAGJaAT

ti2ya32neh12da, ta3neh12da

, WAG I

j ~ l n e h l ~ ~ d o h ~ d i d f16' V 1 Gado usdi danehldi na usdi achuja? What is the little boy playing with? cf: danelohvsga
2 hy da 3ne2 lo 3 3sga

sv

@ad

LA~J e

02-4 o d e ?

Hila iyv dodvniyelisi?


A TB VPhAPb? W -

IAB&S

v.t. he's
SSAGdaS

playing 2ga 32ne 2lo23hy 3sga de

When - they going - adjoprn? are to da1sda2y02hi3ha IaLfi4.G 1. v.t. he's shooting at him 2. v.i. he's shooting de2j i32sd92y02hi3ha
SbaIfiN

d ~ ~ n e ~ l o ~ ~ h n v ~SABOT vi

Sgwahlesdi dodaganelohni sunale udodagwada. J X L ~ J G S A B ees svLaL. V ~ I am going - play ball all day to tomorrow.

d ~ ~ s d ? ~ y o ~ h l v ~ ~S? I fiP T ai da1sdg2y02hi2h03?i LaLfiAiT ti32sda2y023ha, ti2sd?3y02ha


.T@LA.G, 22Lfi.G

-cf:

anehldi, danehldiha, dinehldohdi

Segajv dusdayohlv galogwe asdayv gojanesdivi iyusdi He the - barely ashotr d togun because trigger w x pull. cf: ayohiha d a l ~ d l u ~ ~ s ma S v .t. he"s L~ @ splitting it de2j i 32sdlu32sga Sb.Xf'@S d ~ ~ s d l u ~ ~ h y v BT ~ i SX ~ ~
4 S C SaLfiP SG3

DL aB

ACAaJT T G a 1 .

da1ni21a32wi1ga I hWBS v.i. they're having church services

the

He - curses when something makes him angry. cf: asgina Osi adasdayhdi juhvtdi ada dasdlusga. b b DLaLBd d U d DL L n @ S . He's -splitting some cook wood. da1sdu2d1i37a LJSCD v.t. he's sprinkling it (with a liquid) da1sih2tv3ni2ha Lb6'h.G 1. v.t. he's clapping his hands 2. v.i. he's applauding

Gagama dakiwisv ama dejisdudli7a. Sf T LYBR Db" S k a S C D . I am - - sprinklingwater on my cucumbers. cf: dakwayo7vsga da1sB2hi3ha 14A.G it, them v. t. he's counting

Ugvwiyuhi uwonisohna dul:ssihtvnilv yvwi. ~ E B C AB V M t S e b P h 4 B Q . When the president finished his speech, the people applauded. cf: asihtvniha da3stg2ye2sga LaWB@S v.i. he's getting exhausted de2ga32stg2ye2sga SS@WB@S d ~ ~ s t ? ~ y e ~ s v ~SaWBRT ~?i da3stg2ye2sgo3?i ta3stg2ye23hi ju1stg2yeZ3hi 3sdi
L@W8@AT WaW8A dJW8AaJ

Adela aktiyi adela dasehiha. The treasurer - counting money. is cf: asesdiha, disesdi d a l ~ g i ~ ~ n a ~ d iL~ Y e d D 1. v.t. he's av a cursing him, it 2. v.i. h c ' s cursing de2ji32sgi23na3di27a S b 2 Y e d D
DSW D S J A DSW L4A+.

Hlesdi vsgi isdayi yidijalvhwisdanehesdi , dotastayesis L a d i T a L b d.JC.18aLA?@d, U b%k %$ %r so hard - you'll get or exhausted .

saYem
d a l ~ g i ~ ~ n lsgo 37i a~di
L2YedaAT

da1sv2hwi3sga LC(3.25 v.i. it 1s barking de2ga32sy2hwi3sga SsCBaS du's~,~~hwi~sv~~?i SCBRT

ti32sgi23na3da,ti2sgi3na2da
JaYeL, 3aYeL j~~sgi~~na~di'sdi 6 3 0 ~ 2 ~

jussv2hwi' d si

d~~82J

Usv yinulstana gihli aasuhwisgo?i.


3 R 54PaW0 YC LCBaAT.

Dasginadisgo gosdi phnalvstana.


L2YedaA A 6 Gt.12We. 2

%en

it becomes , t i :

. t4e i o z -- t i s . >a

deganadiwsga

77

I
da1sv2sdi3ha LR2J.G v.t. he's sGheduling a time . d? 2wo 31,2yu 4sdi LOPG@J 1 n. cork Dawoliyusdi gvhdi usduhnv?i svdoni gvgusgv?i. LOPG@J Ed BJSOT RVh EJaET. He stopped the leak in the tub with a cork. -~ a ' y q ~ s ~ aL f i @ f him de2ji 3yg 3sga dalyq3sgo3?i v.t. he's releasing
Shfi2.S SfiRT 1 fi@AT

Unadodagwohnv usv uwonihisdi dusvstanv?i -gvwhtayosela uwonihisdi7i.


BOh9@dT.

He speech for - scheduled his to speak. Monday night when asked d a1t e 23sga
652s

v.t. he's ironing

Tiyohi jisdu
~ f

de2ji32te23sga S h ~ @ f d ~ l t e ~ ~ s v ~ ?SERT i da1te23sg93?i LE@AT ti2tv 31a 3VW j ~ ~ t e ~ ~ s d i 2J 66 Hila ahlivilisv jalenvhe dehitesgvyi? A DCTPR 6801 SAEaET? W What time did you start ironing? cf: ditesdi d?2wi23sg?31a L@@SW n. flint Dawis ala gohlvhtanv gahlida uska & ? i .
L@@SW APWO S C L

Let the rabbit go. cf: duyosga dev.pref. plural object (see Grain. I, A)

has.~ i

de3gah12di S f PJ n. sack Degahldi kali duwutesv sohi.


S S P l 63P SJER # A .

She picked -a sack full of hickory nuts. de2g?31v2dv23ni 32sdi2ha S f 4VhaJ.G v.t. he's slamming him, it de2ji 31v2dv23ni32sdi2ha,de2ji 31v2d ~ ~ ~ n i ~ ~ s d i ~ h Slr 4Vh2d.G, a
Slr 4Vh2J.G S 4VMWOT
de2ga31v2dv23ni32sdi2sgo3?i

d?2wi2sgv4hi L @@EA adj . slippery Yunesdalada deganvhnv dawisgvhi nidegalsdisgovi.


GA@LW L S f OO L @@ELI h S f P J J 2 A T .

He found an arrowhead made out of flint.

w a

BGssT.

S f 4VhJJ2AT

When it freezes,the roads get slippery Sdudi dulvdvnistanv unvgoja. i?'-w~~li LOP n. mushroom
2.Y J S 4VhJWO BOAC

Sgada dawoli anosda diganyesdi 'cadahno anadahihi. 'i s i - D Z ~ L~ LOP ~ T S a Z Dd L A A . L Q :-;::.z mushrooms aye good to eat b:-t -:rs are pc:.s:.. : .
~

He slammed the door when he went out :'E23ng2diw3sga S f Q J @ @ f v .t . he's crossing (a roa.d, bridge, erc.)

78

deganojahlvsga

Udodagwada duwetinv udihlehgi dulvhwisdanehvvi .


BVGIL BJLY S48aGAaT.

Nvnohi deganadiwsgv ahwi jigovv usv jigesvvi.


OZ9 S S 8 1 8 a E D 8 b A i B R b F R T . I saw a deer crossing a road last

He endured working in the heat all Zy. cf: getvsga de2g032si2si3ha SA6b.G v.t. hels a expliining it ( Biblical text) de2g032si2si3ha SA6b.G dul~o~si~s~~hnv~~?i SObtlOT de2g032si2si23sgg3?i S A b b a A T to3si2sa Vbtl Unadodagwasgv Dinadehlohgwasgi dige-

night. cf: degasohga de2g?3n02j?2h1y3sga S S ZCP@S v.t , 1. he's advertising it 2. he's announcing it S b ZC42.S de2j i3n02j??21y 3sga d ~ l n o ~ j ? ~ h l ? ~ n v ~ ? i S ZCCDZ ti2n03j?2hlv1ga
3 ZCP S

Gohusdi diginojahldi agwaduliha.


I - want

A T 2 1 J Y Z C 9 - J D2'SP.G.

to - announce something.

The Sunday School teacher explained what they had read. cf: digosisohdi

cf: diganojahldi deZgu3kdi3ha SJA1.G v. t. he's de2ga3soh3ga S S # S v.t. he's c r - . ~ ~ ~ , deciding it (a body of water) d ~ ~ w u ~ k t ? ~ n v ~ ?S J AWOT i tuZ3kda SAG jy2wu2kdoh3di 63AVJ Uhlisdi duwuktanv?i. He - d e c i d e d o quickly. cf: digukdisgi, digukdohdi deZgv3diz3ye3?a SE&D v .t . he's washing (dishes) de2gv3diZ3ye3?a SEJBD du1wa2di23ye3?~23?i S G J d i T de2gv3di23ye32sgo3?i S E 1 5 a A T P13 tv2di3ya jy2wa2di23ye32di dG&1
@ c a d S J AWOT

Amegwo da isoh'v aniyosgi jijiya7v?i.


D W Dh 2Y b b 3 i T . I crossed the ocean when I was i n the

-+-+

Kilitary service. cf: deganadiuhza de2ge3ty2sga SFPAS v .t. he's enduring it (idiom) de2gt?3dy'sga du1we2ti3nv3?i
SFPaS SO3 OT

dichvsdi Yunalsdayvhnohnagwu degvdiyesgo ditelido?i. G 8 P a L B Zt3 S E l 5 a A l X P V T She washes the dishes immediately after they finish eating.

79

Uhljvdagwada dunihno isv dinihnogisgi.


WPCLIL S h W R 1

de2gv3tq2hi37a SEVBD v.t. he's shelling, picking out (peas, nut meats, etc.) de2gv32t02hi ?a S EVAD d ~ ~ w v ~ t q ~ h i ~ s S6VBRT i v~~? de2gv3tq2hi3sgo3?i SEVAaAT

The singers all night. cf: dikanogisdi de2kQ3nu2g023sga S d 4 A 2 S v.t . he's clawing him Sk4A2S de2j i32nu2g023sga d~lhnu~go~~sv~?i S ?ART de2kq3nu2g02 3sgo3?i S a 4 A 2 A T ti32nu2g0231a 2 ?AW j ~ ~ h n u ~ g o ~ ~ s d i 4A 2 1 d Digosdaya dusuhgahlv gvhdi duhnugosv wesa.
l A 2 L 3 S G f P E l S 9 A R dtl.

+
wa

1
I
!

I
I

d6V B 2 l j ~ ~ w v ~ t ?sdi i ~h Tuyunsdi degvtohiva.

-+

S G 8 2 1 T SEVBD

She's shellin peas. Hila iga so i dotvtohisi?


AW TS $ A JTVAb?

1
i

How many hickory nuts -you going are to shell? --

The cat clawed him with its sharp claws. de2kg3yv23sgwq3?i2ha S 9 B X T . G v.i. (see giga dekayvsgwo?iha) de3kgi2103?a SEYGD v.t. he's washing flexible objects (including clothes) de2gv32gi2103?a SEYGD duhlgi2103?v23?i S Y G i T de3kgi210 3sgo3?i SEYGaAT tvh2gi3102ja 6"YGC juh2gi2101sdi dYG@l Gado hadvne, dehvhgilovas?

~ e ~ h ~ ~ 1 un.~June ~ i %+Ma ~ Dehaluyi ka?lv adalenisgo7igogi. Summer begins in the month of June. de2ka31ih2gwa2de3ga S 3 P a S f v.t. he's turning him, it over
S+MA04DLdhSATAY.

Gajanuli uwadeystana adeyohv duhlihgwadinvsv dagwalela.


SC4P WGS&W8 DSfiL S C Z l D R LIdW.

What -you doing, washing? are cf: junhgilosdi didi din.pref. plural (see Gram. 11, A) (see de-) v.pref. distant position (see Gram. I, A)

f V W f l , SBYGDa?

When he went around the curve too fast, - turned the car over. he de2ka3n02gi3?a S a W D singing de2ji32n02gi3?a S hW D d ~ l h n o ~ g i ~ s v ~ ~ ?Si R T W de2k?3n02gi3sgo3?i S a W A A T

v.t . he's

di2chv3sdi l C 2 l n. marriage Hadlv judalenvhe dichvsdi?


+ dLd'D? P

ill?

80

didahihi Do you know rrhere - conjurer lives? a cf: dadahnese?a n. murderer . di 2da2hnv 2wi 4sgi man
.1G@@@Y n. medicine

Where did marriage begin? cf: dagachvsdiha di2da3hi2hi JLAA

Junadasdudi agatihnvsv didahihi ajiniyvha.

The murderer was taken to jail when he


J ~ L ~ DHOR J L A ~ ~ ~ ~ B O G . S J D

Na asgaya Rjalagi didahnvwisgi.


D @ f 3 DCWY d L @ @ a .

was caught. cf: adahihi, ahiha

That man is a Cherokee medicine man. cf: kanvwi?a li2da2hye23hlp2hi dL8efA n. surgeon
Na usdi achuja didahyehlohiiyulsdohdi

n. courthouse Junadahi7lidasdi ega ditiyohihi.


JeLAPLJdT J8LAPLJd R f Llfi,klA.

uduli atvsv7i.
8 B2d D J C dL8efA TGP@V-1BSP DGRT.

The lawyer is going to the courthouse. cf: danadahi?lidoha di2da2hli2101sdi4sgi dLCG@d&Y n. 1. camera 2. photographer

That little boy wants to become a surgeon when he grows up. cf: ahyehloha di2da3ne21v4?i JLAk?T adv. at home Didanelv jv?uwenvsv kohi.

. A photographer came to the ball game.


-

Didahlilosdisgi uluhjv analasgalisgv7i.


dL CG@JAY BMC DBW@f P@ET

- back home a while ago. He went dLA.7 W'dOR R9.

cf: dahlilosdiha, didahlilostanv?i di2da2hli2101sta2nv4?i dLCG@W@T n. 1. picture 2. photograph Gago ujeli hi?a didahlilostanv?i?
f

di3danh2t?'sdi dL@V@d teeth, dentures


BG$@ JLQVJd S f @ f P + .

n. false

Utvsohnv didanhtosdi deganvgaliha. An old man is cleaning some dentures.

A BYP AD dLCG@W@T?

Whose photograph is this? cf: dahlilosdiha, didahlilosdisgi


681, M d T

n. cemetery

n. cross Igada dajelisdv judahnawida degeto7i.


. . I L & @ LJ L ~ @ L , T S L L Y P X J L ~ @ L SFVT.

Didanisohdi dunilvhwisdane anisgay ganulv anigalsga.


d L M d Sh4@@LADh@S;3 f 4.7 D h f P @ f .

Some graves have crosses. cf: dadahnawsdiha, dadahnawsdv?i


JLA42.Y n. conjurer di'da'hne2se4sgi di2~;t2da2hne2seL~gi dOLA4-X Janhtas uhna ganelv didahnesesgi?
(.?OW2 tit S f l . 7 . . l I . ! l 4 . 3 ?

Some men are working in the cemetery mowing grass. cf: ga?nisiha n. policediZda2ni23yi4sgi dL h&Y man di2n?2da'ni23yi4sgi d8L h w

digadvdi Didaniyisgi oginahlinohehdi agwaduli.


d b h2d.Y bYBCZ?J D I S P . I want to talk with - policeman. a

81

~ i ~ d a ~ w oJ ~ s ~ i n. Baptist dOa Igvyi Dinadawosgi Junilawisdi ayatohihi nulstanvvi.


T E A JeLVZV' dhh'B@J D3VBA gP@WIDT.

cf: ga7niyiha, ga7niyisgi di 2da2~ d a ' y v ~ ~ h ~ ~ s ~ i JLaCB&ZV' n. cook Hisgi iyanivi dinadasdayvhvsgi dusuyesv unadasdayhdi7i.
BAY T3hT JeLdCB&ZV' SCBA BBCaLBJT.

He became a deacon in a First Baptist Church. cf: dadawova di2de23hloh2gwa1sgi JSefI2.Y n. student di2na2de2 3hloh2gwa1sgi J B S d I A Y Sohnel sgohi iyani7i dinadehlohgwasgi dunisgwadv kohi gogeyi. IAW2AB T3hT JBSdXiAY ShaI6" A-9 Ninety students graduated this spring. cf: adehlohgwava di 2de2hyo23hy2sgi
JSfidL2.Y AFJa.

He chose five cooks to cook. cf: adasdahdi?i, adasdayvhvsga di2da2sdo2ye4sgi


JC2VBZV'

n. barber

Dinadasdoyesgi junadehlohgwasdi dudehlohgwa?v?i.


J e C a v B a d0SdIa-l S S d X i T .

He went to a school for barbers. cf: asdoyeha

n. teacher

JCaSJT, delaSJT

n. jail

Jayvhlvvis junadasdudi? Have you been in j i ? al cf: asduhvsga di2da2ti2hni2d04hi JCJhVB n. leader di2na2da2t~2hni2d04hi J e b J h v B Hadlv didatihnidohi ijadahlgv?i?
@ J L J h V B TGCITET?

I lvsgi judetiyvda didehyohvsgi nige-. so"i T . ~ S J f i & hFIT. dSdB6 She's been - teac er for a few years. a cf: dadehyohvsga

-%+?'

GBP T A J e C a s J ?

di3dla J A prep. toward Nvnohi didla wa7isv juwijigowahta. I saw him walking toward the road. di2dlo2hi2sdi49i J d B a J T n. meeting place Agwadlohjv uhna gohlvsv didlohisdivi.
DIdG 8 t AP A J d B a J T I couldn't find the meeting place.
QZA @ GTA d6'lrAGW.

Where is the leader of your group? cf: atihni di2da2to12sdi4sgi JCVP@JZV' n. lender di2n?2da2t012sdi4sgi JeLVPaJa Adela dinadatolsdisgi unadohlvhnv utana gaduhvvi. They f w o -association in a a n big city. cf: atolsdiha
DSH' J e L V P a d X 8BVPD 8 V 0 S S a T .

cf: danadlosga di2dlv23kwi3sdoh2di JP'C'aV-f n. excuse Hlesdi didlvkwisdohdi igvyi didla jinijadvhneli.
Lad fl'C'AVJ T E h JL% bhG6"AP.

Don't let excuses get in your way. di2g?2dv3di JS6"6 n. 1. pear 2 . scales (weighing)

Hila jugvwahldi suhliloda digadvdi? How much does a bushel of pears cost?

nw

di2gan2s01di47i d S f # J T
-if 811 @Sf@ JkPGG'Y.

n. pantry

~ E G P J~ C G IJE?

Digansodi widuhlanv digelistgi. G t the pies in the pantry. n. his ribs

J f W8.217, dhWB@JT

n. church

di2gg2nu21?2ji JS?Wb
d f 4Wb dBYtlSI.

Hila iga degohlv junilawisdi Daligwa gaduhv7i?

Diganulaji juhyvgisati . He's ticklish in his ribs. d$2ga1tdi4?i J f 3 J T n. oven Digatdi wagihla gadu.
J S d J GYf S S .

AW T f SAP JhWBad LPI SSaT?


How many churches are there in the city of Tahlequah? cf: danilawiga adj

di2g??21e23nv3hi4da d f d@BL long-eared

1have bread in the oven. cf: gadu, gaduhvsga di2ga2ti3sdi J f 3 . 2 J

n. gig

Digavlenvhida gihli digavlenvhida asila7dv uwudalvchelv gavleni ganvhisv

The long-eared hound dog got his ear caught in the fence because his ear was so long. cf: gavle, ganvhida di 2g? 210~~i's~i
J f G Y 2 Y n. farmer

2h % TJSrlQAG YC fd f W R GJJ.

DbW6 O S L W q

Igada digatisdi danhdisgo jisdvna yidunihyala. T S L J S J ~ J6 0 J J A b x e m h w . Some people use whenever they hunt crawdads. cf: gatiha di2g02hwe21i J M P book
J M P S b AP5D

n. 1. papers 2.

di 2ni2102gi4~gi dhGY@Y Digalogisgi uhwisvnv ukayosohnv nagasgvna gesv iyusdi. ~ S G Y ~ Y s ~ o f i fo esaEe F R T c a n . ~ ~ o. The farmer's crop became dry because of no rain. cf: galogiva, galogodi di2ga21~1nv2hi J S W A n. dumplings Eligwus niga7a digalvnvhi heli?a?
RPJ@ h f D d f 4PB ?PD?

Digohweli dejigoliye7a.

f reading -a book.
cf: gohweli, gohweliva de2g02hwe23101di J M O J n. pencil Anahnehihv digohwelodi gvhdi ajitisdohtanvvi.
De/LA& JRePCSd EJ Dhd@VW@T.

Do you think there are enough lings? cf: galvsga d12g?2n023jah12di .IS Z C 9 d announcement
YGT@ Ar@J JSZC9J @+?

*-

While rhev were wrestling, he was a accidently stabbed with - pencil. cf: gohweli7a
dAbl.1 n. discusdi2g01si23~oh3di sion (Biblical] Digosisohdi utayohlv Galvkwdi Gohweli ueoliveva. J A b f J 0 % ~'f W'J RepP BAP5 D.

n.

Kilovis gohusdi diganojahldi uha? Does anyone have an announcement? cf: deganojahlvsga

He asked for a discussion when he read the ~ible. cf: degosisiha

dikanogisdi di2guh12di23sgi J J P J J J J n. mud dauber di2nuh12di23sgi J 4 P J a Y Kananesgi gajvsgv jigowahta diguhldi-

83

di2hna2w03sdoh2di n. covers (bed) Hila iga dihnawosdohdi dejaduliha?


AW T S J t v a v J SCSP+?

1,

*.

How many covers do you want?

O8A2.Y SCaE bAGW

I just saw - mud dau er sting a aspider.

FY .

d?2g~2kdi4sgi JJAJ2.Y n. judge di2nu2kdi4sgi J Q A J a y Jo'sgo jusvhida junadasdudi uyvsdi duwukdanelv digukdisgi.
KaA dTUL d e L a S J DBaJ SJALA4 JJ AJ2.Y.

di1hne23hi2hi J U A n. wrestler di2na1hne23hi2hi Je/LSA Digahnehihi gesv taldusine diji'nidohi i ieesv'i .


-- -

I - was a wrestler twelftr grade. cf: ahnehiha

when I was in the

The judge sentenced him to thirty days in jail. cf: degukdiha di3hi2hi JBA n. one that kills Inada dihihi gihli uwakaha.
T8L & J YC 0'Ga.G.

di2hne'sge4sgi J A a I - a y

n. carpenter

Ktanvdohdi uhwasvsga dihnesgesgi.


EWOVJ 8 G R J f JfGI-2iY.

- carpenter
A

is buying some tools. cf: ahnesgeha

He has a dog that's a snake killer. di2hli2n02heh2di4'i, ju2nG2hli2n02heh2d4i i' J C Z 3 J T , dQCZ3JT n. telephone Dihlinohehdis unohyvhgv hatvgi? Do you hear a telephone ringing? cf: dahlinoheha dih12tq2de4gi JPwSY n. jumper di2nah12tq2de4gi JQPWSY Galvladi dihltadegi iyulsdohdi uduliha.
f 4WJ JPWS.Y TGPaVJ 0'SP.G.

di2hyv23gi1sdi JBYaJ n. spurs Dihyvgisdi niduwanhdi dulasuhlv'i.


JBY2J hSGOJ SWrP T

He has spurs on his boots. cf: dahyvgi'a -di?i v.suf. infinitive (see Gram. I, D) ~ i ~ j J e W~ 1 Cherokee (written) ~ y n. ~ ~ ~ i Nigadu iyagwadetiyvda jigesv agwadehlohgwa?v ~i 'ala i digigoliyedi3i.
b DXSdXi J B .to read Cherokee whenYI I learned

JCZ3JJ O'ZBE W Y ?

h f S T3XSdB JYAPBJT

was fourteen years old. cf: Jalagi di2kq21v32gv4?i Ja4ET n. east Dikalvnv didla wulosv3i. Y
E J d JGRT.

He wants to become a high jumper. cf : dahltadega di 2hng2wo J t V n. clothing, clothes Junehna?i tsgwisdi jugvwahldi dihnawo dunina'07i. d A t T biT'@J dEGpJ ,lf8 ShedST. The wealthy have expensive clothes. cf: ahnawo, dahnawe'a, dahnawo'a, juhnawo

He went toward the east. di2k? 2no2gi4sdi J a W a J n. .l. song book 2. musical instrument Dikanogisdi danhdisgo yidunihnogisa. J 9 2.)'@J L O J a A J5S h W . U They use musical instruments when

84

dikanowadidohi di 3ktoh2di JSVJ n. binoculars Diktohdi gvhdi yuhwiyagatahna hyiyo ligi.


,

they sing. A : dekanogi7a di2kg2n02w?2di2d~4hi d 2 n. angel

1 Ed CBJSWt AfiPY.

If you look at him with binoculars, you'll recognize him. Danohyavdas dinikanowadidohi?
L Z 3 L @ dha ZGJVR?

cf:

akta, aktiha, aktohdi

Do angels have wings? cf: dakanowadidoha di2k+2n02~+2d~3~di JaZGo12J n. law Dikanowadvsdi yiduniyostana igada nvwakti nanadvneho7i. -

di2kwg2ng2y023sdi Jz@fi@_( n ing cards Diie dikwanavosdi duvohusi.

play

r+ J T e f i J r i i r b .

He lost a new deck of cards. di'k~g~~o~dJzfiJ i n. pepper Dikwayodi dej ikwayo7vsgo juweji.

When some people break the - they law, get away with it. cf: dakanowadi d12kdla3di1sgi dE66JJY 2. firetruck dinh3dlg2di1sgi (an. )

daZGb3J iSShfi@WB T S G EGYJ B Q b V E T .

n. 1. fireman
,(Qo8Ja

I put pepper on my eggs. cf: dakwayo7vsga


di12sdoyh2di JP@VdJ n. scissors Digosdayi dilsdoyhdi juwhdohdi ulvkwdi gayewsvsgv7i.
1A@G<,3 dP@VSd d6Vd B W A S B 8 U E T .

IXfiJ SfrXfii@A J @ k .

I&-

II

Jo7iha dije dikdladisgi duniha dinhdladisei.

KT+ dY J E l J 2 Y Sh+ dOo%dAY.


threexiretrucks

The fierme cf: kdladi7a

She likes to use sharp scissors while sewing cf: asdoyeha

di2kdlvh3di JEPJ n. sharpener Dikdlvhdi eskvsi. Hayelsdi dagvdlvhi. me a sharpener. I'm going to sharpen a knife.
EPd R@Eb.

-dina v.suf. Imperative intensifier (see Gram. I, D) di2na2da2hnv4hli J0LOC n. 1. brothers (dl.exc1.) 2. his brother Dinadahnvhlis hi?a anichuja? -leLoca D~JC? m s e boys brothers? Kohiyv daga7luhji dinadahnvhli . His -brother is coming in a little while. cf: anahlinvdli di1neh13doh2di JllPVJ n. toy
ARB

+BP@-l LEPA.

di2ke4wi dF8 adj. blind di2ni2ke4wi dhP8 Hi?a asgaya dikewi.

I1
II

AD 0 2 5 3 -. 2 8

~s.vfrr e w c .

This man is blind. cf: dakewaga di2kti2nv4tdi dSd@dd n. eyeglasses Diktinvtdi jugisdi nulstanv7i.
Od d dY@J 4P@W@T.

jadulisgv7is iyusd dinehldohd jagise?


CSP@ET@TG3-I J~1rv-I CY4?

He to get eyeglasses.
cf: daktinvdeTa, daktinvtvsga, duktinvta

you wanted? Did you get the cf: anehldi, danelohvsga

d i 2 n i 2 d a 3 h y 2 w i J h L t @ n . I . enemies 2 . h i s enemy Gadohv d i n i d a h n a w i n u n a l s t a n e S ?? i S V B l h L t 8 ?6'F2kl/IT? Why d i d t h e y becisme enemies? Dinldahnawi j a 7 i s v w g o h a , u l i t i s v 7 i . d h L f 8 CTR SA+, 8 l ' J R T . h'hen h e saw h i s enemy coming, h e r a n away.

When d i d h e become - lawyer? a cf: atiyohiha, atiyosdi n . poke (greens' dla1?i2da

Kilo d l a 9 i . i a n i g v n h d e s i d o h a . YG - hEeSbI,'4. AT1 Someone j s g a t h e r i n g poke. dla2me2ha 03Cfv- n . b a t Usdagalv a n i n e l o ? i dlameha. 8 , 3 1 5 4 Dlu1G7 A. * Bats l i l f e i n c a v e s . d l a 2 r u 3 s i b?L\ n. leech H i l a i d i h n i d a n a n a i s d i s g o -n u s i ? d l aA T l h l 08PZ12A o m ? W How b i g do l e e c h e s g e t ? dlayhlga 8 d f n. bluejay

cf;

dahnawa

d i l ~ e ~ ~ h i ~ s d14A@dT n . d r e s s e r i ~ ? i Disehisdi gasgiliyvsv ksdela. 14.9@J SJYPBR 2.YASIV. Help me move - d r e s s e r . a cf: a s e s i h a , asesvda
Ti.

di2sc3sdi 1426

numbers Dlayhgv, Ogalahomi , gaduhv j i g i dlayhgz dxdostane?i. & 5 E , b S W E H , S.S6 hY S1,rLill. The town o f J a y , O!,lahoma, was naned a f t e r t h e b l u e j ay. cf: Dlayhgv7i

Dehi!<tahas d i s e s d i ? s.osw+a 1 4 2 T Do you know your numbers? cf: dasehiha


X@,,J

di2suZ3hwi3sdi

n. paint

Jo7i iyuhliloda dadlisdv disuhwisdi damaduliha. TGCBL L C 3 &@d ! a ' LZSf+. 1 want t h r e e g a l l o n s of p a i n t .

~f

Dlayhlgv4?i

bAEl' n . J a y

cf:

asuhwisga, ulsuhwida 2 n. d r i l l

Dlayhgv junadasdudi waya?a. AJJE d6'LaSrl G 2 D . -He's i n j a i l a t jay. cf: dlayhga d l o Z g e 4 s i eTFb n . 1. g a r d e n , f i e l d 2 . meadow, p a s t u r e Udodagwada dulvhwisdaneho d l o g e s i gada1ugisgb"i. PIJLIT, .Y?OZl.;lE d f . 6 SL1US'3I1'. He works a l l day i n t h e f i e l d plowing.
dlr:'dlu

di2ta21e23sdi

Anagalisgi ahnigisdisgi d i t a l e s d i agihyoha. D6Si"J.Y DhY21a.Y 1WcfJ1 DYfi.G. I am l o o k i n g f o r an e l e c t r i c d r i l l . cf: atalesga, atalesv7i

d i 2 t e Z 3 s d i AX21

n. i r o n

Hla y a t e y v s g a d i t e s d t . . &%B2S 1626. f The -i s n ' t h e a t i n g up iron

7 ' :n. D

purple martin

D1.ud'.u --

cf:

datesga

u n i y p s d i ~ w o h i v h n vusd' ~ c h uaj. T -- P i ~ h e ; l rS.c P O I r z l DdC. G l i t t l e bey rnade a b i r d house Fa: mart in;.

d l v p adv. a p p r o x i m a t e i y D?v --- s g o h i i y u w a h n i l ~ iwidaj i71,:li; P - ; A d iCGh? BChMh.

..
I

86

dlv, ilvhdlv'l

I will get there about ten o'clock.


dlv, i21vh3dlv4'7i P , T q P T ad^. somewhere Wiganvhnv dlv jidegadlosv.

K P h.497 Sh.1B;3LdlfiT. Ants are always working.


do23yi V A adv. outside Doyi dagalohi.
l/A ISO . - cameAfrom He

@so@ hsE7n. P

We metsomewhere down the road. cf: hla ilvhdlv7i -dov. suf. here-and-there (see Gram. I, Dl

outside.

do2yu4 VG adv. really, very Doyuuhyvdla doyi, doka?


VG - BBo8 V A , V a ?

~ o ~ ~ d ? ~ ~ w V L ~ 2s T~ n. ~ ~ i a X E v Sunday Inadawo?esv Dodagwasgv svhiyeyi didla.


T81VRR V 1G E lt9BA Id.

It's really cold outside, isn't it? cf: dohiyu, udohiyu

Let's go swimming Sunday afternoon.

du1da2ti2hng3?v4?i S L d t i T n. his family Dinalasgalisgv dutihnvsv dudatihna%?i.


=SP@E Sd0R S l d t i T .

~ o ~ ~ d a ~ ~ w i ~Pd e ~ nn. Saturday Vl S8 a Hila isinale hadidisgo Dodagwiden sunale?i? .QW T b 8 6 + I I @ A V l P S 8 r 8 6 T ? How early do you get up on Saturday mornings? cf: Unadodagwidena ~ o ~ ~ d ~ ~ ~ w ~ ~ h n. v ~ ? i V1trO.T n Monday Dodagwohnv svnadodagwasdi dvga?luhji.
vlt'"~ R e v 1 z a d P S M ~ .

He took - family to a ball game. his du1dlo2sga S d @ S v .t. he's confronted with it da1gw92dlo2sga 1 XefaS d ~ l d l o ~ s v ~ ~ ? Sef RT i du1dlo2sgo3?i SefaAT di2jg3dlo3hi JGefA ju2dlo2hi2sdi d6AaI Hla kilo vulvkwdi uyo adanhdadisdi judlohisdili. f Y Q G W J B f i DLOL JaJ d e f A @ J T .

-returning a week from Monday. cf: Unadodagwohnv7i -doh v.suf. accidental (see Gram. I, C)

.2 do2h; yu V.QG adv. really, very Dohiyu uhyvdla doyi.

It's really cold outside. cf: doyu, udohiyu do2sa V B n. mosquito Ayo! -aksgala. Dosa A ouch! - mosquito bit me d0~sv~~da7~1i VP,LP n. ant
Dfi! - DY2S W . VB
-

No one likes - - confronted to be with a bad feeling. cf: danadlosga

BBda V A .

du1doZ7a S V D v.t. he is called, he is named dalgwg2do3?a 1 XVD du1do3?vZ3?i SViT

ju2d01sdi dV2J "Chief" dudo?a gihli agwajelivi. SI.'D YC D P P T . :'Chiefy1 My dog Is -is "Chief ." name

Dulisdi d~ldo~~kdi~ha SVSI.L v.i. he's stiggering da1gwa2d032kdi3ha IXVSJ+ SVf W 0 T LYB@Va.i2AT. Dust makes me sneeze.

87

& S

--

du1ksdi2ha SSJ1.l.

v.i he l s vomiting

Sdayi unehltanv judokdohdi nigesvna. @ L J ~ O'APW@ d V S V 1 hFR6. He tried h a r d t- stagger. o du1gwe2n03ti2sga SJZJ@S getting a rash da lgi2gwe2n03ti2sga v.i. he's LYJZJ@S

dalgl2ksdi3ha LYSdJ+ Sf 2 W O T du1ksta2nv3?i d ~ l k s d i ~ ~ s g ~SSJJJAT ~7i di2ja3ksda JCS JL ju2ksdoh3di dSJVJ Gadosgin usdi nuwane jiduksdiha. SVAYh 8@d 4GA IrSS2d.G. I wonder what's causing him to vomit.

---

du1kti2nv2ta S f J W ) v.t. he's wearing glasses

Udihlehgi agalisgv yuwedola dugwenotisgovi. OILY DSP@E G a V W S J Z J A T . If he walks in the hot sun, - gets a he rash. duhl lga sMS da1gih12ga duhl 1gv237i duhllgo37i v.i. he has horns LYMS SMET SMAT

Agalisgv yedo julsihgi duktinvto7i. D S P J E B V d P b Y SSJOVT. When she's out in the sun, -she wears dark glasses. cf: daktinvtvsga, diktinvtdi d ~ l l a ~ ~ s u ~ SWrf v.t. he's hla wearing shoes da1gwa21a32su2hla LWGC d~lla~~su~hlv~~7i SWrPT

Nvhgi ilasihdi idiganvhida duhlgvvi. QY TWbd TISQAL W T . It had horns four feet long. --d ~ ~ h ~ v ~ ~ s d B J~ a S v.i. a S o V ~ ~ s g he's sneezing Nidulasuhlvna ajvsiye?a achuja. hSWrP6 DCb3D DdC. A boy is walking around without his shoes on. --

cf: dalasuhlvsga, dilasulo


d ~ ~ h y v ~ ~ s d o ~ ~ ~ sBJv&AT 7 i sgo3 di2~h?3yv3~do1hya ICB2 V 3 j ~ ~ h y v ~ ~ s d o ~ ~dB@V&dd i ~s Kosdu dakiyvsdoysdisgo7i. ~ u ~ lsdi SPJI n. September l i Dulisdi kavlv Anijalagi Daligwa unisgwalv7eho Unadetiyisgv7i. SPx1J 9 '1 D h r M Y I P 5 8h3X.1RI 8 x h 2 ~ 7 .

Cherokee Holid?) is held at Tahlequall in :he month of Sepcemoer. dulli"ye'2su21a . /-cl/;"CC \ wearing glo~res duili2ye32su'lv23?i v. t. he ' i

Na didehlohgwasgi Dodagwidena udodagwada dulvhwisdaneho7i. : .~.S.~T,'IY L L i S WVLXL S9Q,11.1'11.?. , ''PB rha+ student works all day Saturday

cf: julvhv~isdanehi
I XPBGW
5 P8e47

~u'ninh'di

-7hh.l n. October

d . ~ ~ l i ~ y e ~ ~ s u ~Zfi3iYGTi lo~?

Iluninhdi jlka?lv gvwedolv7i. -S h h d Ira4 EEcV4T. He hasn't been here since the month of October.

tlla yagilvkwdi digwaliyesulodi yidagilvhwisdaneha. f ;?Y1Td JIPEt?G.I JSLY~QJLAJJ. I to wear - don't like -- gloves when I'm working.
cf:

d ~ ~ s d ~ ~ n o ~ h y v h ~ ZBf SJL g a making footsteps

v. i. he's

aliyesulo
v . t . ;letswearing

d ~ l l i ~ ~ y o S P f ia ~h + socks da1gwa21i23y03ha

d12ja3sdg'no2hyv231a

JC@L ZBCV

L XPi3.E SPficQT

Kilo ducaanohyvhgv gatvgi?a. Y G S Z L Z B E f6YD. I hear someone making footsteps. d ~ ~ s ~ ? ~ l e ~ s dS2S6JJ.1. v.t. he's i~ha releasing it (involuntarily:

d ~ ~ l i ~ ~ y o ~ h SPfiP~ i o ~ 7 de2ja31i23y03he3sdi S'CPfi?,JJ Gaac usdi julisbhwida duliyoha? ST. OZ!J dPt?@L -SPfi+? What color socks is - wearing? he

cf:

aliyo, daliyogi?a, daliyohihs, daliyosiha Sdaya junsanesa sdeyida, dagwasgalestanv?i . ,i l. 3 J O F ~ J ~ H AS-fiL , L Z f uq2WDT 2 '$hen he pulied the rope hard, i t slipped out of my hand.

du1103tsgv4?i SGlrET n. fcrk (in tree) Dluhgv dulotsgv uki??v j igowht iha sal~li. see a squirrel in che -of a for!< Zree.
!
- .. -

:f:

duyosga v.i. he's tired

du11\,23hwi3sda1n;21za SL!e;L,?+ he's working

v.i .

3 d~'y?~w::-.ga S2XYS

da1gi;21v23hw+3sd31~ze2ha L.Y392L.:Ii.

d ~ ~ l v ~ ~ h w i . ~ s d a ~ ? s ~ l v ~ ?I- i ,SL)'?,i!l.,,\ ~ ? du:l\~~~hwi 3sda1ne2h03'.i , j ' l @ , i l . ~ - ~ k :


di" a31v3hwi2sda1?i ;u:?v23hwi 3sda1-i.h7di 1~la.h ,~ 2
dqO;C!,cd

ehi
u ,

89

vuluhj julvhwisdanelidolv?
dQ@@LAPV Q?

S;;9'AM

.?f?AfC:

h S B W r P 8 DAV+. -

Nidunalasuhlvna anedoha.

Is he tired when he returns from --work? dulYP3sga S v. t . he Is releasing it (voluntarily)


. da 1 g; 3yp2sga G.Yfi3S d ~ ' ~ p ~ s v ' ~ ~ is i r fn

They are walking around barefoot. ~ n e d a h a s adat ihnavv? dej


DAV4-2 S C L J t i ?

Is your family here? cf: ihedolv?i e3ga RS v.i. he's going


f s ge3ga ~ ' w e ~ n v ~ s v ~ O.SQDr\I ~?i

duly?3sgo 37i

.Sfi;lA7.

dj2ja3y02hi JCR.9 ju2y03hi3sdi Jfi.?;.l Gadohv doja?yohi sdeyida?


S t'd

e3g03?i helna u2we2nv1sdi Ina

RA I
20

I Cfi!l 119 hd?

@SrD,LIJ

Why ---- go of the rope? did you let cf: dayosga, dusgalesdiha du1yu2kdv4~i ,\CAfi'I n. truth

lo ts.

gega.

I amgoing far away --e4gwa Rl,' adj

Duyukdv gvnohiseha. .- I %94'+. IG-A6 I am telling you the truth. -dv v. ,n. ,adj .suf. affirmative (see Gram. I , D)

. huge,

large
I .
1'1

ja2ne4gwa, je4gwa

Egwa -gahljode anahnesgeha. R 3 SPK.9 D O l l n ~ fb . They're building a large house. eZgwoz3ni


Rl"h n. sea

Jiyuhi dunisohjv egwon aniyosgi. ee-e-e-

v.pref. passive (see Gram. I, A) v.pref. imperative (see Gram. I,


A1

IrGL) .T 11-1- ( R1." 11 I7 hfi ~1.y 1 -

The soldiers crossed the - in a ship. sea

e7'ha R i . v.i. he lives ge3?a f1 1

v. suf. benefactiue; dative (see Gram. I , C) v.suf. 1. repeatedly 2. going somewhere in order to (see Gram. I , C) Hisgi judetiyvda - Daligwa. ehv BgY d c i J B L He lived in Tahlequah for five years. -e4hi R B n. resident, dweller Hadlv anehi na analasgalisgi? 4 P D/1.3 0 118U'dSP21Y? . Where are those ball players from?

e1d03ha R1.Y v.i. 1 , he's walking zround 2. he's here ge'3d03'ha f \,' 'q. u~we~3d0321~,23?iO . ~ C V : ] T eida31~03?i heL3da u2we?da1sdj

Rl 1'7
? I.

@S' 1, ,i'-I

e2hi2ya4?i R&&T a2ne2hi2ya47i

n. indigenous
DAB31

That Is enough! e21i4gwu'fR s adv. it's possible

Aniyvwiya Amayehli anehiya. DhB82 Dd"BC DAA3. Indians are indigenous to America. cf: ehi. -va , e2hla2we4?i RCdT adj

Eligwus digaduhv yuwisgikahvga? RI';; ASS& COdYaSS? Can - ycu take me to town? e41i1sdi RP,,dJ adv. it seems that Elisdi yikanohvla uhna egv?i. RPJ.1 L$ZdLW O h RET. It seems --- like he would say where he is going. cf: eli?a -esdi v.suf. or (see Gram. I, D)

quiet

Ehlawe gesv yvwi gawonisgi gawonisgv igohida. R'q LS - FR B @ SC?h@Y Se'h&E TAAL The people were quiet while the speaker spoke.

ii
i

e 3hna27i R A T cat ed)

n . animals (non-domesti-

Ehna?i anadayvlatvsgv duktosdi. Rt1 DQLAIVSAIE S S V S J . tie's watching animals on television. cf: ganahlavi

g-g-

v.pref. first and third singular subject (see Gram. I, B) v.suf. progressive (see Gram. I,
C)

-e?i e21a'di

v.suf. reportative (see Gram. I, D) gaRh.1 adv. 1. down 2. on foot pa-

v.pref. since (see Gram. I , A ) v.pref. third singular subject (see Gram. I , B) v. pref. third person plural animate object (see Gram. I , B)

I
I

Eladi ulsdvhlunv?i
I-? Cb . I - I)' P n iiYZLtI tie sat down. R I+'1 - .:I 1h1.L' ?
,t

1
1

Eladis hi?luhgi?

ga-

Did vou come on foot? e'lil?a RPD ge'1137a ulweLli 32sv23?i v.t. he thinks so

F PO
O'LQPRI

ga2chi2n04sda ~h,7;,~ . straight adj di2ga2ch12n04sda .l,slr 7<11, Gachinosda yuwiganvhne osi yigese.
ShZJl - CBSQ!1 a,056 h F 4 . road, it If there was straight

would have been all right. cf: Kilagwu dv?aniluhj i geli?a. . ."II.u d'll h l l h FPD They're comingback shortly, -I think. gachinosiha

ga2chi2n02s13ha 5 h Z b 1 v .t. he's straightening it 1" 1~ /b L ji ' ~ h ~ ~ n o ~ s ~ 3ha ~ ' w a ~ c h i ~ n o ~ s ~ ~ h0nGI" ~ ~ ? i v 7UQ1 ga2chi2n02si23sg?3?i
? / P / J ! I1 ~ ~ )/r 7 U I

cf: elisdi
. gwu R P e2 11 4

adv. enough, it's enough

hi2ch12n023 ~ a v2wa%h12n02soh2di

Eligwu!
RP,: -

O C IT I+ .I

Ama ulohisdi usvdoni utsgwidvnelv asehnv uwachinosahnv?i. D b BGA@I BRVh Bk'7P6A4 D40 BGk ZUOT. The water pipe bent, but he straightened - out. it cf: gachinosda ga23da f~ n. 1. soil 2. land Gadaha elohi ideha; hadlvgwu yuwigiluhja gads idigowhtisgoyi. S L 6 RGA T S 6 ; + i GBYMC P2 TIAGaaAT. We live in a dirty world; no matter where we go we see dirt.

BOS 4 8 T .

Hla yudulvhe gadaha dagwalela uhi?lvsdi vs ihnv i sdi unv alvhv?i. c GS ?$ s 16 0?3 $21 i a y ~ TGJI

E$w

He didn't want to drive a dirty car, so he washed it. cf: agadahaqi, gada

cf: gadohi gq2dg3?a f L D v.i. it (flexible object) is hanging ga2dg3?a SLD

ga2d921u23gi3?a SLMYD v.t. he's plowing it ji2d921u23gi3?a hLMYD u1wa2d?21u23ga32nv23?i BG LMSQT ga2dg21~23gi 32sgo3?i S I MYJAT hi2dq21u2gv1ga ALMES v2~a2dp21~23go 32di BG I MAI Gohigiyv jigese dinilogisgi sogwili
AAYB k1.4
d- h. -F

Long ago the farmers used horses for plowing the fields. cf: gadalugodi

-.

Gado usdi na jigada?a getvvi?


SV @@I h f GD FPT? 8

What's that hanging on the post? cf: gata, kto?a ga1dgT3di f I I n. flag di2ga1dav3di JS I I Hila nuwetiya na gadavdi?
A GP 3 6 W ed ' SLJ?

ga2dq21u3g01di S LMAJ n. plow di2ga2d?21u3g01di J S I M A I Tstanv?is sogwili uninsanesd gadalu-

godi?
CW0T.S I. '7PP Bhetl/l@J S L MAI?

Have you used a horse-drawn plow? cf: gadalugiva g?2de3?a SSD v. t. he's removing it (solid or flexible object) from a hanging position g?2de 3?a fSD ~ ' d e ~ s v ~ ~ ?BSRT i ga2de3sgo3?i f S J A T hg2dq2gi 6LY u2de1sdi BSJJ Svkta uwansv ugisdi udesvvi.

How old is that flag? ga23dg3gu 1gu S I J J n. crock Nihis johlvhne hi?a gadagugu?
hA@ K P A AD f L J J ?

Did you make this crock? cf: gada, gugu ga2dq2g ~ ? ~ l a L X W n. clay f Gada wala gohlvhtanv ganvnowa uwaya.

& made of clay. He has a pipe


w 0 f 0 Z G @GJ.

Hadagi

RS picked R He w B G ~ a ripe BET. BYJI apple to eat. 6LY DtV DbW5 h S I D .

*a2da2ha47i f l 6 T

adj . dirty

Take the shirt down from the line. -

ahnawo asila?dv jigada7a.

92

gadeysdiha Ganoji gvhdi uwadlohlv kanesa'i. S Zb Ed QCdP 3 i l t l T . Se strapped the box with some leather. sf: adadlohiha g?2d01 S V pron. what (a verb reply expected) Gado hadvneha? lila udli iga gohusd. Di ohweligwu de'i oli e?a.

ga2dey23sdi2ha S.2ad.G v.t. he's turning it i2de23ya32sdi2ha bS3;3J+ ~ ~ w a ~ d e y ~ ~ s t ? ~QGS2JWOTi nv~~"

Aksgani didla hideysda.


DSJSh do% A S d J L .

Turn it -- to the left. cf: adeyohv'i n. his heel ga1di2ge4ni f.Il-h di2ga1di2ge4ni dS dl- h Gadigeni uhyehlalv gugu uyojv ulasdvtana amayi aduhinjdahv'i. ,y.Il-h Q J L I J J Q f i vwdC'W8 DTA ~

s $ w m c B? ?s . & ; 3 ~ . J M P S %APB D iVhat are you doing? Nothing much. . -

- LAP? S V CPd
g?2d032ga S V S ji2d032ga

I'm just reading a book. Gado jalsdahneha? Ji'lvsga.


b 425

i7hatfswrong with you? I 'n sleepy. v.i. he's standing


b C;S
S VAT

1)S'"9hVJLT.
stepped on

-------------g?2d032g039i hi2d032ge3sdi BVl-ad

A broken glass cut his heel wnen he

-it while wading in water.

I
.

ga2di 3gw?21v2dey23sdi2ha SdIW3;3d.G v.t. he's spinning it ji2di 3gw?21~2dey23sdi2ha hJXX!?;3;3J.G u1wa2di3gw?21v2dey23st?2nv23?i
BGJXClSZLdWDT

Doyi didla danidogv dinadaniyisgi wagiluhja.

vi

J ~ W ~ V JE L h -L B

ga2di 3gw?21v2dey2 3sdi2sgo3'7i


SJZZS3;3daAT

The policemen were standing outside when I got there. cf: anidona'a, dudokdiha ga2d04hi SVA adv. on the ground Diniyohli unilvkwdi gadohi junanehldi7i. Children like to play on the ground. -cf: gada g?2d01hv3 SVIIZ adv. why Gadohv nidijenvda juwigvyanisgv? f-h J W L d QEZhAE? V8a L. didn It vou come when I was v calling you? ga2d0231i32ga S V P S v.t. he's pitying him ji2ya2d0231i32ga b3VPS
JhfiC O h W d S VA deAGJT. -

m GYMC

I
I

hi2di1gw?21v2dey23sda

AJX ZS& L

y2wa2di1g~~21~2dey23sdoh2di
QGdX4SGGVJ

Eligwus hyidigwalvdeysda gagwatv'i?


RPa2 AJX9S&2L SXC'T?

Can you spin the wheel? ga3dl0~h1~ha SpfA* strapping it v.t. he's

i
!

gaduhvsga ulwa2d0231i32jv23?i Q(;l,PCT

93
--

.ga2dQ2 g2sdi 5 1 pron. what (a noun or infinitive rep1y expectedj Gado usJi higowhtiha? I j ea?iyusdi G - x d i. h
1 1
4 -

1 7 iC,?jd

Jiyadoligagwu. h3VPf21. I - just feel sorry for. him. cf: adadolisdi, a d a d o l i ~ ~ i h a gg2donh3di3ha SV@J+ v.t. h c l s dropping him, it (flexible) j i'v?2d~nh3di 3ha, ga2donh3d? 3ha IrZlr@.l+, S V@A* uidonh3ta3nv3?i @M!I Vk? g?idonh3di23sgo3?i S V0JaAT hi2y?2donh1da, hG2donh1da

G a t 7 0 yob see? A -usdi iadulihz? green pencil. Gado khdchldi aewacl.uli " -. 4 G.'At?.F+3.; DZS'P. - . What -do you want? I want you to help me.

i 4SrG !.

ga4du SS n. bread Digatdi wagihla gadu. d f J d G3'L I have bread in the oven. cf: digatdi?i, gaduhvsga

u.

gg2du3 S.!

adv, on top

ASVPL. +VDL
u2donh1doh3di
P 10. '16

Disehisdi gadu ahlaba aJabehdi. 64026 ss ve+ DIE-.[. The mirror is - top of the dresser. on ga2du3pi SSJr n. cooperative laL.;.r (involving a community) Gohigi jigesv, gadugi danalsdelisgv Ani j alagi . ,LO.? k f - R , S S i.QPd.rSP2E DhCW2'. . ' Long ago, Cherokees helped each other through cooperative labor.

Duyaweja gasaleni gahnehv udonhtanv9i. fbrcfh ffa @1.'0\\'@T When he got tired of hold+-ngthe coat, he it. - dropped -

cf: gohonhdiha, galonhdiha gg2dq3sga fV2f v. i. it (a flexible object) -is falling from a hanging position g?2d? 3sga u1dq3sv239i g?2dP3sgo39i hg2do 'hi f VAf ~ v R T Sv;;AT +VA

ga2du3hv4?i f S I l n. town I-' Hila nani?a yvwi aneha Daligwa gaduhv?i? .9U' O h D A 8 i)A+ II'Z SSS.T? What's the population of the -of town Tahl equah? . ga 3dd2hy3sga S562f v.t. he's baking it kSd-JS ji 3du 2hy 3sga ~lwa~du'hnv~~~i S0T 3G ga3du2hy2sgo3?i hi ldu2hvlgs u2waizdi fi-L-2.1 I
A5S.S

u2d01hi3sdi Ql7~?i8-1 Asiladv ga?dv ahnawo udosv9i. D b W 6 f5' DtC m T . The shirt -from the line. fell cf: gohosga gG2d02 u4sdi f V 32-1 adj which

ga2d02 ju4sdi, g?2dc 2un4sdi f " OOilJ fV d n - l . Gado usdi --ulsuhwida tisuh~!is?
4 I'

@fJ J

0 ('605

'xich color are you going to paint it?

a~?@>?

Gadu uganasda uwatdi advxv7isdiha. ss 0 ~ 0 , 8 ~~1 . 1DS~OT,;,!J-G. ; She's getting ready - bake a cake. to . cf: gadu, uganasda

94

gadulida
SPI.

ga'du21i'da

adj . wet

Digadulida nidulstan didahliiostanv duyojv?i. When the photos got - they were wet, ruined. ga2du4si
S S h n. hill JSSPL hSP,;WO d l CG;]\VO SfiC7

ga2g?2we23sga S S J 9 2 S v.t he's rowing, paddling ji2g? 2we3sga hSd2S ~ ~ w a 2 g a ~ w e ~ ~ sBGf 99RT v~?i

Saluyi unaksesdi gadusi danetvsgo junaktohdi?i.


UMJ3 8 8 s 4 J J

fSb

lA6"',1A d e S V J T .

Joyiha iyaniyi dandanedliyv danigawesgv?i jiyu.


KT.GT3hT LBLACB LhSd@ET h G .

Forest rangers build lookout towers on hills. ga 3du 2 u 2g+ 2na 4sda SS @St321 n. cake Gadu uganasda uwaduhnv uweji achuja udetiyisgvyi.

Three of them are taking turns rowing the boat. cf: gagawesdi ga2ge4da S f l adj. heavy

s_S B f B a & BGSO @JYh DdC BSL'&JET.

She baked .- -for her sm's birtha cake day. cf: gadu, uganasda gq2dv3?y2sga S6"iJS v.t. he's hanging up a flexible object ji2y? 2dv37y25ga, g?2dv3?y2sga
h36idf, Sri@S

Nigohilv gageda asaladanvhvsgv nidigalsdohdi jinuhlinigvga. The reason he is so strong is because he is always lifting heavy objects. ga32gi3 Sy pron. who (used only with echo questions)
SY - PA66 LX6W? hRA9 - DUWlOd.@E hdSP2Vd b 4 C h E S . fFL

u l d ~ ~ n v ~ ~ ? i @P@T

dvhiylesi dagwalela?

Who is going to drive the car? ga3g02 SA pron. who Ga o na sakonige ulsduli jigi asgaya?

I am - - hanging my shirt on the line.


cf: gatvsga, ktosadiva ga23gg3ma SSC n. cucumber Hi?a achuja hisgiha gagama dusdigv3i. AD DdC A2Y.G - S d d E T . f f 8 " This boy ate five of the cucumbers. ga2ga2we23sdi S S992-l

AM B 1 &e Hthe manP X P L=Y 0 x 3blue cap? Who is wearing the

ga3gwg2tdi S di2ga3gwa2tdi Amayi wudelijv


Drzj

n. wheel
JSUJ

ssrc sm%Y/e.

a watdi udagwadestana.

The wheel went into the water when it came off.

n. paddle, oar

Gagawesdi akutolv?elv svhi jigesvvi. ff.Q9@d DZV9RQ R b f R T . 9 He borrowed my paddle yesterday.

gahljode

95

I
h0 S P l r Y A E- 4 2 I . You be the seventh.
ga3hli2da
I

SCl

n. arrow
dSCl

Getv ~agwayohihadalala.
FS, .STfiA+ LWW. A woodpecker - pecking on a pole. is

di2&a3h1i2da

Gahlida uyostana, nudale wuyvhv7i.


SCL - 0 ' f i 2 h 1 8 , 9 L d SB97'.

ga2ha2tdi S + J I n. wedge di2ga2h?2tdi I S +JI Digahatdi duwhtanv getvsdi dasdlusgvvi.


I
I

When he broke an arrow, he went ana got another one. v.i. he's sleeping
hP+

--

ga2h1i3ha SC+ jiv21i3ha

I S + J I SJWQ F 6 J I DaTJET.

He used wedges in splitting posts. gah12di3ha S P A + v.t. he's putting it into a container ~hllt?~nv~?i gah12di23sgo3?i
BPWQT SPIJAT

Kila usv gayula ahliho?i. Y w on scw scr Early at night he's already asleep. cf: anihli?na, gahlvsga ga3hli2si3ha S C b + v.t. he's gathering it 6Cb.Ej i3hli2si3ha ~ ~ w a ~ h l i ~ s ? ~ h n BGCUQT v~~?i ga3hli2si23sg?3?i SCLJAT hi1hli23sa ACU v2wa1hli23soh3di BGCt d Sohi degahlisiha ganvji uwohlvhdohdi.
t A 3 S C b . G SQlr B f Y P V I .

uh12doh3di BPVI Gado usdi ahldi talugisgi na asgaya? S V 0a-f - 3 ' e D J S a ? S h What is the man putting in the can? cf: adlisdiha, gahldohdi, galadi?a gah13doh2di S P v - 4 n. container

ahldohdi eskvsi. K 4 s a Pa 6l f e j i b . Hand me the sugar bowl. cf: adlisdohdi, gahldiha, galadisdohdi, galvdohdi

She's gathering hickory nuts to make kanuchi. cf: anadahlisiha gah12ja ~ ~ dS P C d i n. bow

gah12gwo23gi S f T Y

adj seven Gado usdi ada hvhdisgo gahljavdi yijohlvhna?


f I/ 0'J.d

Gahl wo i jusvhida svnadodagwasdi &oi g?. S W Y J U C R e v LT2-f hS P J I 2 A T . Seven days make one week. gah12gwo2gi2ne4?i SWY/'lT seventh Nihi gahlgwogine gesesdi. adj

What type of wood do you use when you make - a bow? g a h ~ ~ j o ~S~ d S n. house PK e Gahljode daganesgehi.

DL 9 1 2 4 - J ~ K P ~ ? SPCd

SPKS I S A ~ k 3 . -

I am go:'ng to bal ld -a house.

gah12j03tdoh2di ,sPK6'T,'J n. roofing Talugisgi gahljotdohdi duhwasga.


\f!l!YAY
f i3Ko"V d Si;@S

He's buying some metal roofing. cf: gahljotv?i gahl 2. 2tv4?i SPKsTT n. tent 10 deZgahl3jo2tv4?i SSPKPT .i\mayiyusuhnena gahljotv waya?o?i. When he goes fishing, he lives in a tent. cf : gahljotdohdi ga3hlv2sga UP ji3h1;2sga
f?',?f

hi2hlvlga /3P 5 uhl 2di Bed Junilvhwisdanehi nvya danihlvsga gadohi atalesv?i.
J h ' 1 8 J I A A 03 I hP@S f V B DWGRT.

The workers -putting some rocks are in a hole in the ground. cf: adli?a, galadi?a, galvysga ga2hlv2sga f P 2 f v.i. he's sleepy, he's going to sleep Ir 42s ji?21v2sga ~ ' h l v ~ h n v ~ ~@POT 7i

D T d GKAO SPKS' G A 5 T . -

v.t. he's piling it


!rT 3 f BCT'0T

Diniyohlidv danihlvsgv vsgihnv iyusdi dv70gahnigisv?i.


dhhCG'

ga3h1v2sgo3?i fTa7AT hi'hlu'ga .f 9 u2wa'hly 3sdi 0G3'd.l Nvya junasdi uwat iunv nvnohi .

I hP@E

The children were getting sleepy; that's why we came back. ga2hne3ga S.llS v.t. he's taking a flexible object somewhere by hand k Af jiV2ne3ga ~ l h n v ~ s v ~ ~ 0 0iR T ? gg2hne3g03?i fAAT hi2hnu1ga -9 4 s u2hnv1sdi 0 021 Gasaleni hihnu a, uhyvdlahehno.

i 2 f Q T G J d 5"dSf h Y P T .

03 582.1 B z J

C) Z A

He piled the gravel on the road. g$'hlv3?i2ha 5PT.G v.t. he's tying him, it up ji2y??21v 3712ha, g??2;v3?i2ha
k 3 Q T + , S4T.G ~ ' h l v ~ l v ~ ~ 7 iB P 4T

gg2hlv3?i2h03"i

SPTI T

hi2ya?21v23ja, 1 1 ? ~ h l v ~ ~ j a
B 3 . 1 C , +PC

with a rope.

SU8h & f

u2hlv1sdi 0'PZ.I Sdeyida m h d i jiya?lvlv ahyvki.


2SdI EJ hi24 9 D3Y.
1 tied --

Take a coat, because it's cold. zf: ahyega, atihnega, ganega, ganhj ega

--+
, BB
?Z.

%theprisoner

ga2hnt3ha fi1.G v.t. he's holding a flexible object ji1ng3ha, jj?'nc3ha


k/l+,

gg2hly3sga S P 2 S - v.t. he's putting it in a hole or a container j i?2lV3sga ' 'S


a',.

.$I?+

- - - - - - - - - - - - - .-

gajaligosga Gado usdi ah e?a j isdu?


SV 821 S?* D

97

What is t K r a b b i t eating?

Ije ahnawo

I am - - holding a new shirt. cf: ahyeha, ganeha, ganhjeha


gg2hni23d032ha S hV+ v.t. he's handling a flexible object ji?2ni23d032ha u1hni23d0321v23?i gg2hni23d032h03?i
h hV+

W D t V hA -

Ps

cf: adahyesgi, a i a g', gahyesdi ga2hye4sdi S 8 @ 1 to eat

asdigiva,

n. something flexible

Anije tuya anosda di ah esdi.


DhY S 3 D Z J L - I S 8

B hV9T S hVIlT

Green beans are good to eat. cf: adahyesgi, gahyeva ga2jB2ga21i3ha S G S P + ripping it ji2j?2g?21i3?a

e
-v.t. he's
bCSPD

hi2hni23da AhL ~ ~ h n i ~ ~ d a ~ ~ B hd i 1 s L2 Inada ulihwojv gahnidoha.


T8L BPCC

He's -handling ga2hyg?3dlv4?i

-.

a dead snake.

cf: ahidoha, ganhjidoha, ganidoha


S3p T

n. collar

u1wa2j?2gg2~~2h~23?i BGGS 99,T ga2jq2g?21i23sg93?i SCSP@AT :u2jg2g+21a AGS W y2wa2j?2gah12di BGCS 9 1 I'weti ahnawo uwajagalvhv dagwalela unveahldohdi.
00; D t V BGGS 9 B LXJW 8 0 s 4 V 1 .

Ahnawo ah a?dlv nadvnhdesda.


DtV 5

*.

The czlar on the shilt just came off. cf: ahyadlvdi ga2hy?2hu210 S 3 r G n. saddle

He - ripped an old cloth to wash the car with.


. .

cf: adajagaliha ga2j321~2g023sga S G P A A S v.t. hets scratching him, it ji2ya2j? 2~ ? ~ g o ~ s g a21% 21; 2 go3sga ji ,- a
hCP&S u1wa2j;f21~2g023sv37i OGGPART h3CPAJS

di2ga2hyg2hu210 1SarG Uwodujv gahyahulo uwohlvhnv?i.


BVSC SJrO OVPOT. He made an extremely beautiful saddle.

ga2j?21i2g023sgg3?i ga2hye3?a S 8 D v.t. he's eating a flexible object ji2ya1ye37a, ji1ye3?a


k a D , k8D ~ ' w a ~ h y a ~ ? v ~ ~B?G 3 i T i

SGPA~AT

hi2ya2j?21i2g0231a, hi2j?21j2g0231a
A a C P A W , ACPAW ;2wa2jg21i2g023sdi BG CP.421

Gahljode uyvsdi yuduli wesa, galohisdi degajaligosgo?i

ga2hye3sgo3?i SB@AT 2ya 1yg2ga, hi2hyC2ga hi


.J;J&

S P K S B B @ 1 G S P dbr, 5 0 . 9 2 1 SSGPA;r\AT.

"Q<>'S
BG;i&l.d

When the cat wants to go inside the house, - scratches on the door. he cf: adlagosgii

;2wa2hye1sdi

98

gajanuli Gado usdi gajvysga na kanajisdeji? S V 026 f C&f 8 ClBhJSb? What is the wasD stineine? cf : adajvysgi v.t. he's thing behind
b'aA3D QGaAB T SaALGAT AaA3

ga 2. 2nu 4li S C S P adj. fast J? Gajanuli dagwalela uha. fC4P IZcfW Q.G. He has a fast car. cf: ayanuli ga2jB2y02hj3ha SCfiH.G v.t. 1. he's pricking him, it 2. he's giving him an injection

ga 2k? 2hi2yG3?a f 3 A 3 D leaving a living ji2ya1k?2hi2y?3?a u 1~a2k;f2hi3yv237i ga2kg2hi2ya32sgo37i hi2ya1kg2hi23ya

v2wa2k;f2hi23ya32sdi QGaA3;3J Ale gihli nidajiyatihnuga asehnv . . dajiyakahiya.


Dcf YC h I b 3 J 4 S 0 4 0 I b Z Q A 3 . I almost brought my dog, but -I left

Uhyvdla jagi'niyisgv yohlv'i. an - injection. cf: jujayosdi

aga7nakti agija-

it - behind.

QBd CYhJ5;3E DSBSJ DYCfiPT. When I had a cold, a x r gave me -

cf: adisiyava, ahiya'a, g'iaa any'

ganehiyava,

ga2ka32n$2ha SaA.G v .t. he's giving him a living thing

ga3jv2wa32sdi2ha SCG2J.G wringing it out ji3jv2wa32sd12ha

v.t. he's
bCG2J.G OGCGJWOT

ACGJ I hi1jv2wa1sda v2wa1jv23wa32sdoh2di QGCGJVJ Duhgilo'ohnidi ase, degajvwasdihahehno dihnawo. SYGdhJ D4 SSCGJJ.G?Z J t V . I guess she's just about finished

Sagwu wesa ji akaneha.

S b bZQ .G P' 1 - giving - one am him -

cat. cf: adeha, ahneha, ganehneha, ganvneha

she is washing becausk -- wringing the clothes. v.t. he's stinging

ga2jvy3sga S C a S it

ga3koh2di SAJ n. plant (potted plants, young trees, young garden plants) di2ga3koh2di JSAJ Sgohi nidekdv'v svgi digakohdi duhwas'. vi JAB hSSGi R JS AJ SGRT Y He bought ten bundles of young onion plants.

ji2ya2jvy3sga bX&S ~ l w a ~ j v ~ h y QGCBT i v~~~

v2wa2jvy l sdi

QGCZdJ

ga2kwe2nv2sga S 1 X ; 3 f v . t he's wrapping him, it

galeyvsga hi21t2gi
BWY

99

Ayehli ulesv udlawa?dv?i. DBC 0 8 ~ 6 " ~ . He took a half dollar -of his out --e t ~ock . Dihnawo dulesv talujohi.

It0 @ WMKA.

Danisdayohihv adahnehdi jikwenvsga.


LhALfiBa DLAJ hD.2.S. I am - - wrapping a Christmas gift.

She took out -- some clothes -of a basket. cf: adliha, galiha g??31e'ga
~ 8 sv.t. he's climbing it

g?21a3di3?a S W l D v.t. he's putting long object in a container j?21g3di3?a u11?3dv23?i

It WAD
8 WGT

g?21?2di 32sgo37i S WJ2AT hi21?2da BWL u21?2di 'sdi 0W J ~ J Udlawavdv uladv hayelsdi.
0&6" 8 3 .GBp@J.

h??21u1ga AMS u21v1sdi 8.121 Wesa ukehena gihli, wesa hlgv?i ulvsv?i.
Dbr @I-28 Y C , d r PET m T . b

He put the knife in his pocket. cf: gahlysga, galadisdohdi, galiha, galvsga

When the dog chased the cat, the cat climbed-a tree. alg cf: g ' e i g??21e1gi Sd'Y n. blacksnake

g?31?2di 'sdoh2di SWJ2V-f n. container (for a long object) di2gg31?2di'sdoh2di JS WJaV1 Ije ktanvdohdi digaladisdohdi uhwasv?i.
TY EWDVJ J s w J ~ v J@GAT

He bought a new tool box. cf: adlisdohdi, gahldohdi, galvdohdi gB21B2nv2dv4?i S W W T n. street de2g?31g2nv2dv4?i SSWWT Gado usdi galanvdi hinela?
S V 8 2 J S W W BAW?

Juweji jugisdi ulvkwdi ~a71egi. JDh JYaJ 8 W 1 K Y . A blacksnake likes to eat eggs. cf: ga?lega g?v21e4ni S d h n. his ear di2ga?21e4ni 1Sdh Dinileni dunitalesv'i junadli?advdi?i.

. .

d h d h ShWd'RT

Which street do you live on? gq21e3?a SdD v.t. he's taking it (solid or flexible object) out of a container ji21e3?a It dD ~'le~sv~~?i BcRT g?21e3sgo37i

They pierced their ears to wear earrings. g? 2le3yv 2sga sdB@s v.i. he's burning ji21e3yv2sga u 1le3yv2sv237i g?21e3yv2sgo37i hi21e.1yv23hi
hdB2S @dBRT S dB@AT AcfBA

--

J0CD6"IT.

S f2AT

100

galeyvsga

Osi wusihtada, uleyvsv?i.


,Lib J b W I . BGBRT.

When he placed his hand on the stove, he was birned. -g;21e2yv23sga f $BAS v.i. a long object is falling from an upright position j121e2yv3sga g?21e2yv23sg?3?i h521e2yv23hi u21e2yv23hi3sdi
hJBAS B$B RT S~BAAT AGBA @$BAA1

Dlogesi wedoha selu widigaliha.


6Fb #V+ 4 BAS P+. M

He's in the garden picking corn. cf: adliha, galadi?a, gale?a v.i. it (animal, gg21i2hwo3ga S PUS plant) is dying ji21i1w03ga h PUS ~lli~hwo~jv~~?i BPeXT gg21i2hwo3g03?i S PVAT hl2li2hwolgi APVY u21i2hwo1sdi BPVJA Dagwalela udinvtana gihli, ulihwoI .T$W B A W B YC , BPVCT

Sdayi unolvna, hlgv uleyvsv?i.


@LA BZ.18, 8 E B$BRT.

When the wind blew hard, the tree fell. gq?31i2d03ha Spy+ around jiT31i2d03ha gg?31i2d03h037i v.i. he's climbing
hPV+ SPVbT

j?. vi

. .

~lli~dollv~~?i BPV4T hi?21i23da AP I ~ ~ l i ~ ~ d a ~ ~ s d i BPL@A Jusga hlgv anilido diniyohli. d2S 8E D X V AhfiC The children - climbing around on are an oak tree.

When a dog was run over by a car, it died. -cf: ayohusga, ulihwojv?i gq21i2j03hi2da SPKRI adj fat di2ng21i2j03hi2da AePKQI Na ali'ohida asgaya anehldi udagesv uyo use dl 1
8~ SPKRI D @ S 3 DAPA @ I f - RB f i r 4 A T .

The -man is trying to lose weight. fat gg21i3?v2hni3ha S P i h+ v e t . he's spanking him ji21i3?v2hni3ha h P i h+
@ P ih.1T

g?21i3ga SPS v.i. it (forest or grass) is burning

-------------u'li3jvZ3?i ga21i3g03?i
BPCT SPAT

gg21i3?~2hn+2h03?i S P i hbT hi21i2?vnh2ga APi hS ~ ~ l ? ~ ? v n h ~ ~ s d i i h@d O'P Uweji achuja uli?vhnilv?i.


5 0 h DdC B P i h q T .

Jo?i jusvhida ulijv inagevi.


KT j R 3 L @PC TBf-T. -

The forest burned for three days. g?21i23ha f Pb v.t. he's taking a long object out of a container j i21i 3?a : F L ~ D

He - spanked his son. ga2102gi3?a it

SGYD v.t. he's hoeing

gr)2102hi2sB3ha f GA4.6 v .t he's overtaking him, it ji21p2?i2sg3ha


bGT4.6

~ ~ l o ~ h i ~ s e ~BGA4 4T ~ ~ i ~ l v

Judodagwvda galogisgo uhwisvnv?i.


JVLEL

He hoes 'hisarden every day. cf: digalogisgi, galogodi g?2102g01di S G A ~ n. hoe Hadlv ja?de galogodi?
.GP CS

SGY~AO@RO.T.

DYGA~J BAPWD 0 4 0 S C ~ P T R T s

Agilohisehdi unehltanv asehnv gajanuli ~a?isv?i. He to me, - triedtoo overtake walking fast.

but I was

Where did you put the hoe? cf: digalogisgi, galogi?a ga2101gwe
fG3

W?

~ ? ? ~ l o ~ h nSGh n. August i Ga?lohni kalv udetiyisgi.


SGh - a ? BSdhJY.

His birthday is in August.

n. gun

Galogwe ganvgaliha.
5 0 3 fDfP.6.

g?2102na32~di2ha f G82-1.6 v.t. 1. he's bluffing him 2. he's deceiving him 3. he's tricking him

He's cleaning a

- gun.

gp2102hi2sdi3ha f GA@l.6 v. i. he's stopping by (on his way somewhere) ji21q2?i2sdi3ha bG T21.6 u1102hi2strt3nv3?i 0'GAAWO.T gg2102hi2sdi23sgq3?i f GA2lAAT hi2102hi2sda AGAa6 u2102hi2sdoh3di BGA2V-I Na?v ijogindali ulohistanv didanaqnv wakti .
6 i TKY66P BGA@WD l 1 6 0 G f d .

Nuksesdvna yigi kilo galonasdisgo?i.


9 f 4 3 ' 6 hY YG SG6212AT.

Whenever someone is not alert, he tricks him.

cf: galonuheha, udlonasdi

My neighbor stopped by on his way to the store. g?2102hi2sdi4?i SGAZ-IT n. doorway, door di 2gg2102hi2sdi4?i d f G.-32;;:dT Galohisdi wuktvlesvqi.
Sc*'d21 JS6d'RT.

He went through the doorway.

Dodajilone7isv gayewsgi asehnv gayula iuloneda gesv3i.

102

galonhdiha

I was to oil -- going -- the sewing machir.e, but --already -- it. she had oiled
3?210nh3di2ha S006.G v.t. he's making h ; fall from an elevated i posit ion

DAL

DGR

DkAPdD.

He - passed easily when he was tested. g?21032sga fG2S v.i. he's falling from an elevated position
j 121032sga
kG@S

Hilonhda tsgoya nunv juki'la.


AGO6 k A 3 4 0 dYW.

~ l l o ~ ~ s v OGRT~ i ~ ~ g?21032sgo3?i SG@AT hi2101hi AG A u2101hl3sdi BGA26 Ale nulosv'i.


D6 4GRT.

Knock the bug - the potato. off cf: gadonhdiha j?'l~~nu~he~~ha SG43.G v.i. he's cheating ji2102nv2ve23ha k G 4R.G

He fell. - almost gp?31uh2ga S MS v.i. he's arriving

1
1

g4331uh2g033i hi321uh2gi u21u3hi3sdi

f MAT

. .

AMY

B MAaJ

Hisgi iyuwahnilv g ' u g ' . alhoi


A J Y TGGh.1 S MAT. -

Nelagi yigvwadvnhdi yeli'a, soi g'.


AWY AEGPA6 B P D , f G 4 3 a A T .

galonuhe-

He - arrives

at five o'clock. cf: iga'luhga

Whenever he' thinks he can get away with it, - cheats. he cf: galonasdiha gg2102sga fG@S 1. v.i. he's passing by without stopping 2. v.t. he's passing it (test, exam etc.)

gq21u231032ga SMGS v.i. 1. itts lacking 2. it's missing j~21u231032ga kM S G u11u231032jv23~i BMGCT gg21u231032g03?i SMGAT hi21u2101gi AMGY ~ ~ l u ~ ~ l o ~ ~ s d i B MGa6 Gado iiunalenvhvna? Gohusdis galuloge?

g?2102sgo3~i S G a A 7 h$21023hi AGA Gosdi nudvhnvna ulosv ojidona'v


A 2 6 46'08 9iT.

SV 7 8 6 0 8 8 5

A F A J A SMGI-?

Why didn't they start? something missing? n' ai ' v

W a s there -

g$21uy1sdi fMGXJ"1 n. axe di2gg21uy sdi 6 S M&d Galuycdi uwhtanv uleyvstanv hlgv'i.
S Ma6 8 6 b 0 B O J W O ' P E T .

I I
I
I

He - passed by us without even saying anything. Ahida ulosv ajigoliye3a.

I
I

galvsga He used an axe to fell the tree. cf: galuysga gg21uy1sdi S M a d n. bed bug 2ni 2g? 2luylsdi ~hsM;;r;3J Judanvgalvda nidowahnvna yigi dijesdo alu sdi yanhkilv?~a. d w hVCDB hY h V S M&J
28Y9iS.

103

--

gg21v231?3di

SWJ

n. heaven

Galvladis galvlo galvladi?


S 4WId S 4G S m ?

Is heaven high in the sky?


cf: gg21v31a2di (high), galvlovi g?21~31?2di S4WA adv. high Jiyu galvladi ganohili. The airplane is flying high. cf: g?21v2 31g3di (heaven) g?21v231a3di2dla s 9Wnd6 adv. above Hiskoli galvladidla ganohilvsda sewahlesdi.
A ~ A Ps ~ w ~ d a 4 a ~ ax^;;,^. s m
bC

If you don't keep the mattresses clein, -bugs will get on them. bed v.t . he s chopping

S7AP.

g?21uy 32sga S M 3 2 S it

The ball flew by above your head, g?21v231?3di2ge47i S 9WIFT adv. higher Galvladige hwi?loga.
S?WJF 8 G S .

Utana hlgvvi galuysga.


OW0 VET S M a S .

He's -chopping on a big tree. cf: g?21uy1sdi (axe] gt21v3doh2di S 9VA n. container for something flexible Hadlv digadaha dihnawo digalvdohdi?
+ I S L .G P

~lim6up higher. cf: ga21v31?2di (high) gg21v21049i s ~ G T n. sky ~Zlvlosakonige?i .


S 4 G BAhFT. -

ntw

I S qvr?

Where is the laundry basket? cf: adlisdohdi, gahldohdi, galadisdohdi , galvsga gq21v3hni2ha f 4h.G him up v.t , he's beating

The sky is blue. cf: g?21v231?3di (heaven), gq21v31?2di (high1 g?21v3sga 5 4 2 5 v.t. he'sputtinga flexible object in a hole or a container

Hllvhnile7is jisdahlilv?
A 4 h-T 2 b21C97 8 -

up when you two

Gadohi atalesv ulvnv inada ulihwojv?i. S VB DKVR 840.T 8 1 8 ~ f X ~ . He put the dead snake - a hole in in - ground. the cf: adli?a, gg2hlY3sga, galadi?a, galvdohdi

104

ganadega
SO.SS

g?2n?2de3ga it

v.t. he's selling

gg2nawh32ti3ha f e u + v.t. he's finiing a flexible object

ji2nawh32ti3ha, ji2nawh32ti3ha
beu+, beu+ ~ l n a w h ~ ~ t v ~ h v ~ 88GPdLT ~?i

Nula! Nunadinvdagwu galhjode winiluhjv?i .


9' UI 48dO13 S PKS BhMCT.

Hadlv 'anawhtvhe na adadlosdi?


.GP C8G h

Hurry! Let's get there before he sells the house.


g?2na1h193?i S 8 l T n. livestock Tsgwisdi ganahla?i uyhdida7na ujeligohi.
h*'??ad S K T VB.Jb8 8 Y P A A .

Where -you -the belt? did find cf: ahwahtiha, ayvhwahtiha, ganehwaht iha g?2na32wi2di3ha S88d.G v.t. he's taking it (animal, flexible object) somewhere

-d

He has a lot of livestock on his place. cf: ehna?i gq2na32hly2sga him


SBPJS

v .t. he Is hiring

Gasalenis tinawidvhi?
S Bd'hJ 2 88Q"A?

Are to take -you golng -- a coat? Udulisgv igohid julvhwisdanehdi jinahlvsga

cf: ahwidiha, ayvhwidiha, ganehwidiha gi)3n?2ye1gi f 0 8 y adj dangerous ?2ni23n?2ye'gi D ~ ~ B Y Ganayegi julvhwisdanhdi uha.
SB8Y J 9 8 2 L f l d 8 % .

BSP@E TAAL JY82jLild h O P J S .

I'm hiring hi.m for as long as he wants to work. ga1na41i S 8P a2ni1na41i ~ d j .lazy
DhOP

He has a dangerous job gq2ne3?a f / l ~v.t. 1. he's getting a flexible object 2. he's picking up a flexible object ji?ne3?a, ji2ne3?a
Irf D

Gago na ganali asgaya? S A f3 f3 fJ DZS,?? h%o is that lazy man? ga'r~??~li S 0 P adj . castrated horse, dog, sheep, etc. Hi7a sogwili ;ana?li. This is a gelding.
,-32+ P P S O P . -

ulne3Sv2?7i

JrA D BilRT

hi2n?2gi, hi2n02gi .Q8-v , A 8Y u2ne sdi 0'/1;36

ji2ne3ga21i3ha, ji2ne3gq21i3ha
hAS I)$-, hAS P.G ~ ' n e ~ ~ ? ~ 1 v ~ h v ~ ~ 796 T BAS i

. .

'

Hadlv janese jalsdulo? .GP - e r a s o ? c/14 Where -you get your cap? did cf: agi?a, ayiha, ganegi?a, gute?a gr! ne 23dli3yy2?a SACBD v.t. he's changing it hACB D j i2ne23dli3y\!27a ~ ~ n e ~ ~ d l i ~ y v l sO'ACBRTi v~~? g?2ne23d1i3yv1sgo37i SACBJAT hi2ne2dli2yv23na ~ ~ n e ~ 3yv1sdi ~ d l i Gagwatv jinedliyv7a.
AAC B 8 BACBJd

gi)2ne3g?21i23sgo3?i

SASPZA7

hi2nelgg21a, hi2ne1g?21a u2ne1gahl3di Nidunegalvdagwu dasdigisgo gagama iga julvkwdi .


hSAS 4 L 2 LJdY2A S S K TS d W d . AASU', AASW @ASP1

He likes cucumbers so well, he eats them without peeling them. cf : g?2ne1ga (skin) , unega?lv7i g+2ne2gi37a SAYD v.t. 1. he's getting some liquid 2. he's picking up some liquid ji2ne2gi3?a hAYD ~ l n e ~ g i ~ s v ~ BAYRT ~7i

S X r hACB D I am - - changing the wheel.

cf: adanedliyvva, adanedliyvsdiha gC2nelga


SAS n. skin

Ahwi ganega gohlvhtanv ahnawo una7a. D@ S x AP WD D f f O'8D. 3 He has a shirt made of deer skin. cf: ganegaliha, unegavlv7i ga2ne3ga SAS v.t. he's taking a long object somewhere by hand

Suhliloda iga unvdi unegisv?i.


CCG L TS BDd B U R T .

She - @a

gallon of milk. cf: a1gi3?a, ayiha, gane?a, ganegi7eha

ga2ne2gi37e2ha SAyRg v.t. 1. he's taking liquid from him, it 2. he's milking it (when used with unvdi)

Joviha digosdvnisdi tinuga unalasgahldi7i. K T + ~ ~ a r h ; 326 s B B W ~ S P J T . 4 Take -three bats to the baseball diamond . cf: ahyega, atihnega, gahnegz, ganhj ega

Unvdi ane i7eha wahga.


BOJ % S

He's milking a cow. cf: ganegi?a, unvdi g?2ne23gu3di27a SAJJD v.t. he's bewitching him

gB2~e3g?2113ha S.;1S P.G v.t. he's peeling, skinning him, it

106

ganeha
bAJ1D O'AJGT SAJJJAT AAJ L BAJ-121

ji2ne23gu3di2va u1neZ3gu3dv2 37i ga2ne23gu3di sgo3?i hi2ne2gu23da u2ne23gu3di lsdi

Ama uditasdi jine7vsi. D 8" O'JWJJ b ~ ?6 i I just gave .- water to drink. him cf: adeha, ahneha, gakaneha, ganvneha
~~

~-

Jadelohosevis vsgina janegudisgv?


CSG14TJ i 2 Y 8 c=ilJJ@E?

Did you find out who was bewitching you? ga2nc3ha sA.6 v.t. he's holding a long object in his hand j i2ne3ha hA.G

gG2ne2hwah2ti3ha SAG2.G v .t he's findiig some liquid ji2ne1wah2ti3ha hApJ .G ~ l n e ~ h w a h ~ t v ~ h v ~BAGFLIT ~vi gg2ne2hwah2ti23sgp 37i S A U J A i hi2ne2hwah2ta AAG W u2ne2hwah2tvh2di O'flG 6'1 Na gihli ama unehwahtvhdi anehldiha.
8 YC DB O'AG6'1 DAP1.G.

Tavlsgo anohweli usvdena galogwe ganeha.


WP@A 02991) OR38 SGJ = . G .

The dog is trying -- some to find water cf: ahwahtiha, ayvhwahtiha, ganawht iha

He is -- holding

a 20-gauge shotgun cf: ahyeha, gahneha, ganhjeha

gg2ne2hi2ya3va S U 3 D v .t. he's leaving some liquid ji2ng27i2yg3va hAT3D ~lne~hi~yv~~vi U BT D gg2ne2hi2ya32sgo 37i SAA&AT hi2ne2hi23ya Am3
DAB321

g?2ne2hwi2di3ha SA81.G v .t. he's taking some liquid somewhere ji2ne1wi2di3ha hAB1.G

Junilvhwisdanehi unaditasdi ama unehwidvhvvi

Hila iga unvdi janehiyevi?


A T S O'oJ GAABT? W

He took -- some water to the workers. cf: ahwidiha, ayvhwidiha, ganawidiha gg2ne2ji4vi SAhT n. his chest Ganeji uwahnilv sgwahlesdi.
A

dh?@@LAA 08AKJ-I DB O'A@P&?T.

How much milk --did YOU leave? cf: adisiyava, ahiyava, gakahiyava, gavniyapa ga2ne2hne3ha SM.G v. t. he's giving hlm some liquid

SAb Ib 1 - BGh? Jhim Jon. his ball hit

chest. --

gq2ne231a SAW v. i. he lives (resides) j$2ne231a bAW

Ije adanelv anela. T Y DLA? He lives in a new house. -cf: adanelvvi

m F

dahnesgesgv3i. 1AJkZV hAA? - EIJA LAJkaET. SOVY A carpenter always uses - - when a saw building houses. cf: ganhdohgv3i ganh2doh3gv4?i SOVET n. his tooth deZganh3doh3gv4?i SSOVET Nigohilv yulsdayvhnohna deganvgalisgo deganhdohgvvi. hAA4 GPJLB Zt SSOSPJA SSOVET. He always brushes --e t h e r his t e every meal. cf: ganhdohgi ganh2ga SOS v.i. he's lying down ji2nv1ga bOS

g? 2ne4li SAP n. married person di2ni2ne41i 1 M p Ganelis sdalivi? @&S JLPT? . Is your friend married? cf: aneladiva, anineli ga2ne23sda31a2d~2?a SAaLW-fD V.t . it's freezing ji2neZ3sdg3lg2di2?a bA2L WAD ~ l n e ~ ~ s d ? ~ l g ~ d v ~ @A@Li WT ~? f ' gB2ne23sd?31?2di1sgo37i SA@L W&AT hi2ne2sd?21g2da AAaL WL ~121 ~ 2 n e 2 ~ s d a ~ 'sdi~ d i O A ~ L l~

Eladigwu jinvgesdi. RW13 bOF@1. I'll iust lie on the floor. ganh1g04?i SOAT n. his tongue

cf: unesdala gg2ne2soy32sga fA+;3@f hailing adv. it's Ganhgo galeyvhi kahwi udihlehgi aditasgv?i. SOA - S ~ B A @1LY DAVaET. He burned - tongue drinking hot his coffee. cf: aganadiva, ganhga ganh2gwq3?e2ha S0ZR.G v.t . he Is agitating liquid b0ZR.G jinh'g~?~?e~ha ~ n h l g w ? ~ ? e ~ h v ~ ~ ? 0 Z R 8T 8i ganh2gw?3?e2sgo3?i SOXRaAT hinh2gw?2?v231a AOXi W ~nh~gw?~?eh 3di 0.OXR-l Adawosdi uduhna unhgwa?ehv ama. DL821 @St 8 0 X R B Dr. When he stepped into the swimming

Sudetiyvda jigesv kohi iga sdaya unesoysv?i. riB S'L bFR AA TS 2 1 3 @A+JRT. One year ago today - hailed hard. it ganh2doh3gi SOVY n. saw di'ganh2doh 3gi 1sO' 1Y Dihnesgesgi nigohilv ganhdohgi kdisgo

108
pool,

ganhjega

he agitated

the water.

Hadlv wigalohi na ganhtanidohi?


.GP OSG,3 8 SOWhVA?

ganh2. 3ga je

fOY5 v.t. he's taking a liquid somewhere by hand trays

Where did the salesman go? g ? . ~ ~ nfi n. 1. bullet 2. lead h Za?ni uwahnilv ganvwovi.

ji2nv1je3ga

unhljv3svZ3?i ~ K R T ganh2je3g03?i f@'/AT hinh2ju1ga AOdS unh2jv1sdi O'K24 Junilvhwisdane unaditasdi ama jinv-

Abullet hit him in his shoulder.


gg2ni3da?2dv4?i S hLPT

S h O'Ghq S W T .

n. his tail

jega.
the workers.

Ganidavdv uniyhdi anehldiha gihli. The dog is trying to catch -his tail. ga2ni23d032ha ShV+ v.t. he's handling a long object ji2niZ3do3'ha b hV+
O'GhvqT ShLbl - 8hAJ DAPJ+ Y C .

dh+?@@LA 9 A V J J DB bOYS 8 I - taking some drinking water for am -

cf: ahyega, gahnega, ganega ganh2je3ha SOY+ v.t. he's holding some liquid ji'n~lj~~ha b OY+

. ga2ni23d032h03vi

S hVP T

Gago ohni uwanidole gosdvnisdi?


S A d h 8GhVcf A@Ph@J?

Hisgi iyuhliloda unvdi jinvjeha.


AZD'
TGCGL BOJ trOY+.

Who - the bat last? had cf: ahidoha, gahnidoha, ganhjidoha g?2ni2gwa32ti2ha ShX.7.G v .t. he hates him ji2ni2gwa32ti2ha bhU+
8hUPT

I have five gallons of milk. -cf: ahyeha, gahneha, ganeha ganh2ji23d032ha fObV+ v.t. he's handling some liquid ji2nv1ji23d032ha bObV-G unhlji23d0321v23?i O'OhV.1T ganh2ji23d032h03?i SOtrVP T

g?2ni2gwa32ti2h03?i ShUPT hi2ni2gwa1ti2ga AhU S u2ni2gwa1ti3sdi 8hU2J Hla kilo YijinigwatihoTi.


f YQ <3bhUPT. I hate - don't -anyone.

Nvwoti adahihi ganhjidoha.


063 DL.OA SOhV+.

He's handling some poison. cf: ahidoha, gahnidoha, ganidoha ganh2tg2ni2d04hi ' S OW/hVA n. salesman ?2ninh2ta2ni2d04hi DhOWhVA

g?2ni2h1a3di3va S h f J D v.t. he's setting up a bed j i2ni1hla3di37a b h f .ID

. .

. .

~ l n i ~ h l ? ~ d v ~ ~ ? i8 h f P T gq2ni2hlg3di32sgo3?i S hLJ2AT

Hadlv iyv dajinihla?di? 44' T B lkhril? Khei-e shall - I set the bed?
A

Inada ulihwojv unisai~nv?i. TO6 BPC'C B htlD.7. He buried a dead snake. cf: didanisohdi7i gg?3ni2ya3?a S h2D v t it (flexible)

. .

he's leaving

cf: ganihli g?2ni2h1?3di32sdi stead


f hPJ2J

n. bed-

Uji ujeli iyulstanv ganihladisdi uwaya. B k 8P TGP@\YID. f hP ,'2. I 8 G 2 ' 7 She has a bedstead that belonged to her mothzr. cf: ganihli

g?2ni2hli ShC

n. bed

uniyas:aJunadasdudi uliiisa uhnawo n'. vi d @ l . ; 2 S 1 O'P.Ttl @tC" O,h2J\Y.'D.'l. He left his shirt whan he escapei -from jail. cf: adisiya?a, ahiya?a, g a k a h i y ~ ~ s , ganehi;rh?a ga9%ni2yi3ha S t . f : , l , t .t. 1. he's catching hin 2. he's arresting him 3. he's playing catcher

Na asgaya ganihli dayuhwasi. O D 2 S 3 - 1.GGb. f hC The man is going to buy - a bed. cf : ganihladi?a, ganihladi sdi g?2ni231?3di2?a
S hlYJD v.t. 1. he's 2. h e r s urging

g??%ni'yj 2 3 s g p 3 1 ~ S l l . S A 7 hi2ni23ya, hj ~ 2 ~ i fa 23
Ah;,
.31G

u'11i~h~~d; Ugvwiyuhi uwonisa, duniladelv yvwl junalsdehldi?i. BEf?C;,3 Of'htl, SIJCI'Y.~R O d@PGS?.IP. When the chief spoke, -he urged the people to work together. g?33rii2si3ha S h b + him
v.t. he's burying

O'hhJ

Na gihli biniya. 8 YC .BhG. Catch the doz. Hilayv jigesv aj i?riiphe?

L7

,3MIj I r f ! ! DhhS??

When was - he arrested? cf: asgwahleva, didaniyisgi, ga ',~iyisgi.


S h J,'Y n. catcher ga?'ni2'ii4spi i f 2 ~ i ? 2 n ~ 2 3 y i L iD h h f G ~ ' ~gi

i;a9niyisgi iyclsdohdi uduliha. f h,tG,.Y TGP>I,'.I O'S'P4 He wants to become - catcher. a

110

ganohalidoha
f Z.GPLr-G v . i

ga2n02ha2 1i23do'2 ha hunt ing ji2n?27?21i23d03'ha

. he's

nbZDPV.G

he's causing it to sound j i2n02yv1li2sdi3ha b 7 BP @ l + u1n02hyv2hli2sta3nv37i Q 7 B C 2 V O T


ga2n02hyv2h1i2sdi23sg?37i
S ZBCJlaAT

~lno~ha21i~~do~~lv~~7i O'Z+PVqT ga2n02ha21i23d032h03'i S ZbPVI T hi2n02ha21i23da


A Z+P 1

hi2n02hyv2hli2sda

A 7 B C@L

Gola yigi nigohilv ganohalidoho7i.


AW ,W h A A 4 S Z . G P V I T .

Uhalvni unohyvhlistana danilawigv udalenvhv7i.


8 + 4 h B Z B C J W B L hWBE Q L c f 0 9 . T . When he -- rang the bell, church

He hunts --

all the time in the winter. cf: ganohalidohi n. hunter

ga2n02ha21i2d04hi S Z.6PV.Q a2ni2n02ha21i2d04hi


S Z+PIr.A h S 8 1 B b . ! GI- b

services started. cf: adanohyvhlisdiha, unohyvhga

DhZ+PVA

Ganohalidohi nidunadiwsidi dlogesi. A - hunter is going across a field. cf : ganohalidoha v.i. he, it's
bZTP

g92n01ji S Z b n. leather Didadlosdi juwohlvhdohdi ganoji udul iha


dLd@d J V P V I - @Sf'+. S 7b

I1

He wants some leather to make belts. ga2n021v37y2sga S Z 4 i J . S v.i. it (wind) is blowing

ga2n02hi231i S Z g p flying ji2np27i231i

- - -- - - - -- - -- --

Jiyu ganohilvsda.
ItG S Z A 4 J L .

Unesahyvdla
DAVBda f Z 4 i J

An airplane just -flew by.

Cool wind blows in the evenine. cf: unole g? 2no 2sgi37a f Z J Y D v.t. he's stealing it ji2n01sgi37a u1n02sgi3sv237i g?2n02sgi3~go37i h12n02 3sgi u2n02sgi sdi
Ir Z J Y D

8Z a R T
f Z2YJAT

AZ2Y
8Z2YJd

Yvdaha Jisdvnoyi Uweyv ganohugisgo7i.


B l + I r 2 6 i Z h O'UB f Z r Y 3 A r .

Sometimes Spring ?reek flocds .

Dagwalela unosgisv iyusdi junadasdudi wayava.


L,TcfW 0 ' 2 3 ~ G J J J e L A S d G 3 D . T

He's in jail for stealing a car.

cf: ganosgida, ganosgisgi g?'no2sgi4da


S ZJYI adj . stolen

gan2sda f l ~ ; i [ , n. stick Udli wijaduga na ~ n -s d a . QC BCSS O Throw that stick away. gan2si23ne32 ga fO.b./lj v.t. 1. he's dragging him, it 2 . he's towing it ji2na'~i23ns32~a, ji2na1si23ne32ga
k@6./lS , trObflS O'0bD.RT

=..

Hla yagwaduli gohusdi ganosgida akiwahisdivi. C 35SP Ar@d S WI, DYGAJJT. I don't want to buy anything that has been stolen. cf: ganosgiva, ganosgisgi gg2n02sgi4sgi

s7

x 3

n. thief

gan2si23ne32g03?i SQbj1AT hi2na1si2ng1ga, hin2si2nu1ga


ABb?f ~ n ~ s i ~ ~ n v ~ ~ s d i G'BbD.2d
A06 9 S

Ganosgisgi aj iwahtvhtanv ganosgisgv9i.


S DkG6'ViD. S W d E T .

A thief was caught stealing. -cf: ganosgiva, ganosgida gg2n023yv32ga S Z B S sinking ji2n023yv32ga u1n023yv32jv23?i g?2n023yv32g03?i hi2n02yv1gi ~ ~ n o ~ ~ ~ ~ v.i. he, it's
kZBS

Ayv jirlasinu a hlega.


DB bOb4S

Let me drag ---- it for a while.

+
'

8 ZBCT
S ZBAT AZBY

? i ~ s d i QZBT@d

u2nu2go sdi

0.4 AOd

Udihlehvsa galhjode didla, aginugojvVi. The boat - sinking. is Hila iyv ganoyvgesdi?
A TB S ZBFJd? W 8dLd-U SPKS do%, DYSACT.

When it got hot inside, I went out. cf: ganugogv?i, ganugo9isdohdi?i he's pulling ga2n~2g03gv4?iS ?AFT water) n. spring (of

When will he be buried? gan2sa2ne3?a ~ him, it

e v i l v.t. ~

Ganugogv dojikugisgo alna ogaditasdi


S 4 . I E V b J Y J A DT h S JWJd.

W c e t our drinking water fron 5 spring

cf: ganugoga g?2nu2gp2?i2~doh3di4?i S ?11T2,Vd7 n. exit Eligwus yiskinohis uhna gohlvsv

Eligwus dagwalela yisginsanesi?


RPS,) LIGW &'Yevilb?

Can you pull a car -for me?

;;Z

ganulv Can you tell ne rhi:,:e cf: ganugoga : e -is? h exit cf: dadanvdisdiha ,g"nv2di4?i
SO-IT

n. his breast

g?2nu231v S9.7 n. grass, weed Gznulv - agaisga. S4? USI'SS.

He is mowing tne grass.

Ganvdi asdv?vsga usdi7i. S o d DA'ikS O ' H J ~ T . her breast. She's feeding a baby on -cf: unvdi ga2nv3ga SOf v.i. he's falling from an upright position

6rt2a~231va3ga11sdi n. lawn mower

s 4.1

D S F ~ J

Ganulv agalsdi osda nigvneha


S?.? - DSPJd iS2L hL1.C.

He's repairing --- mower. a lawn cf: agalsga, ganulv gg2nu3te2yS,3ha S ' 2 ~ f i . g . v.t. he's twisting him, it ji2nu3te2yq3ha, ji2nu3tezyq3ha Ir?Tfi+, b%fi'b u1nu3te2y0321v23?i 0 ? 5 f i ? 7

Sdayi unvjv alasgalisgv3i.


21 6 O K DWJf P@ET

He fell -- hard playing ball. cf : ganvjidoha gg2nv2g?21i3ha 5OSP.G v .t. he's cleaning him, it ji2nv2gp21i3?a, ji2nv2gG21i3?a
k O S P D , bOSPD

Na uhlinigida asgaya talugisgi ganuteyoha.


O O'ChYL D2SL \k/l;'JJJ'

S7Tfi.G.

~ ~ n v ~ g ? ~ l v ~ h v ~ ~ ?&T 80s ? i gg2nv2g?21i23sg?77i


SOSPZAT

The strong marl is twiscing steel. cf: adanuteyoha g?2nv23a; .37a S O - I D v.t. he's missing him, it

hi2nv2g?21a, hi2nv2gg21a
iO.5 W , AOS W

~ ~ n v ~ 2dia h l ~
C.[I%SP .Sh.DSPD.

0DS 9d

Dagwasuhgahlv dejinvgali7a.

I'm - cleaning my fingernails. cf: udanvgalvda


ga'nv2gw?2103?a SDTGD v.t. he's hammering it Dlv sgohi ipwakdi ni,3usdayohlv asehnv dunvdisilo?~agonisgv?i. -

P G I & ~ TGGY-l 12.5' , ~ 'fiP 1 4 5 3 J b 0 i l. 2e


;~.lIi>ET.

He fired about ten times, but he over and o v e r missed the target --- -

ganvneha Yvgi gahatv ganvgwalo'a.


BY S W SDIGD.

113

Put on! - your brakes cf: ganvhlosdi ga2nv'hlo23sdi S O 1 n. 1. brake (handle, pedal, etc.) 2. brakes (when plural form is used) d+2g?2nv1hlo23sdi I S M 2 1 Ganvhlosdi l~winsanagi . Pull the brake. ~ i ~ a n v h l o ~ d u s v h n e. v ~ i l
JSDPfaJ S d M 4 T . S W ~ -J 8 8 ~ 8 ~ .

He's -hammering on a nail. cf: ganvgwalosdi, ganvgwalosgi'i


SOPG@1 n. hammer g?2nv2gw?2104sdi di2g?2nv2gw?2104sdi J S O P G a J Ganv walosdi jigi dihnesgesgi uwhta-

&

SOXGJJ IrY J A a F a Y QGWhL2l-l.

F r is a carpenter's tool. cf: ganvgwalo'a gg2nv2gw?2101~gi4'i SOPGJYT n . blacksmith shop Ganvgwalosgi osda nidanvneho sogwili junalasulo. They fix horseshoes at - blacksmith a
SOIGX? dad hLOAJ 1 B P d 8 W r G .

He ran out of brakes. cf: ganvhlohiha gg2nv2hnv47i n. route de23g?3nv2hnv4'i SSOUT J'g o s o j' oi gohweli ganvhnv n' av jinela. K @ A KT M P SOU 8i b A W . 1 live near hizway 33. cf: nvnohi g?2nv3ji2d03ha ~ O b v . 6 v.i. he's tossing about

shop.
cf: ganvgwalo'a, ganvgwalosdi gg2nv2hi4da SORL adj. long di2g?2nv2hi4da JSDRL Odalv ctnilegi diganvhida sdeyida danihneho'i.
dL 4 Dh8Y JSOAL @SdL L M J T .

Mountain climbers carry long ropes. cf: iganvhida

gg2nv3hlo2hi3ha S M R . 6 v.t. 1. he's tying up a leg 2. he's applying a brake

Uhljvdagwada unvjidolv'i
BPCLIL QDbV4T.

He - tossed about all night. cf: ganvga ga2nv3ne2ha SOA.6 v.t. he's giving him a flexible object ji2nv3nq2ha bDA.6 u1nv3ne2lvZ3'i 8OA4T g?2nv3ne2h03'i SDAlr T

Wahga agina uslada dunvhlohlv'i.


G f D Y 8 0 a W L SDPfPT.

Fg z;

When he roped the calf, -he tied its Legs. oga !

Ije ahnawo jinvnelv'i


T Y D t V IrOA4T.

114

ganvnowa Suhliloda iyudanvhida uwasadohyv dagwalela kila uhnigisv7i.


~ G ~ L 1 8B YW @ h Y R T . V W

I him - gave - a

new shirt. cf: adeha, ahneha, gakaneha, ganehneha

~ C Z LTGLOAL

gg 2nv 2no2wa SOZG n. pipe Selu uda gohlvhtanv ganvnowa goksdisgi gesv7i edudu. 4M @ I APWO fOZG A f a l Z V k R T RSS. My grandfather used to smoke a corncob

He ~ushedthe car for a mile before it started. ga2s?2gw921e23hi3ha StlPd',9+ he's rolling him, it ji2ya1sg2gw?21e23h~3ha,i j le23hi3ha
baPd'A+,

v.t

*.

gq2nv1sge s o a k

n. leg

bIXdA+ u1wa2s~2gw~21e23hlv3?i@GtlXd'P T

O di2g? 2nv1sge l f a k Gvna ganvsge asdigi7a. E8 f Oak DalYD.

He's eating a turkey cf: ganvsgeni

3.
Nuhlinigvgv kdisgo yuwasagwalehla na utana gagwatdi.
QChEE E l a A GGtlPd'f 8 @We f U 1 .

g? 2nv 1 sge4ni ~ O a k h n. his leg di2g?2nv1sge4ni J S O a k h Ganvs eni ajiyole dahnawo7i ale ajinvs esdi nulstane7i.

He uses all his strength when he rolls the big wheel. cf: gasagwalv7i

--

He was shot in -leg in a war, and his it had to be amputated. cf: ganvsge g?2nv2~04?i S W T n. his shoulder di2gg2nv2w04?i J S W T Ganvwo uwesdane asdayv udinvsv w e s d i .

ga23sg3gw?21v4?i f u p q ~ adj . round di2ga23~?3gw?21~47i J S t l X q T Gasagwalv gasgilo alsdayhdi unisgila junenvsv7i. They have a round dinner table at home. cf: gasagwalehiha g a l ~ ? ~ l e ~ ~ n & h n, coat su i di2ga1s?21e2' i l f u 6 h n Gasaleni hahnawo?~doyi hesv7i. Put on -a coat when you go outside. ga1s?2na21i suer n. roof Gasanali dayulenvhv adawelagisgv na gahljode jugohnv7i
f88h -a

SUXq - SZVG D P a L B l O'hZVW J A O R T .

His - shoulder hurts from throwing the ball hard. ga2s?2d032sga StlVaS v.t . he's pushing him, it ji2ya1s?2d032sga, ji l ~ ? ~ d o ~ ~ s g a
b a V @ S , bUV@S u1wa2s?2d032hyv237i BGBVB T

s-bv ~ - @ s s a D ~~ L B

a~~al.

W i V A 3RT.

The fire started at the -when roof the house burned.

f8bP - LGd'OLI

DLdWYaE 8 SPKS J A O T .

gasvtvsga he's attaching it (flexible) behind it ji3s?2ne23n?3dy2sga ga3sg2ne23n?3dv2sgo3?i


~ H A ~ P J S
S HA 86"@AT

115

ga3 sgw?2?i2ha S2yT.G v.i. it's dripping

--------------

~lwa~s?~ne~~n?~dv~nv~~?i (YGtlflB610T

~ ~ w a ~ s ~ w o (~ G Xv T ~ ~ i Pl q ~ ga 3s g ~ ? ~ ? ? ~ h o ~ ? i f z
~ f Ti

hi lsa2ne2nf2dv1ga Atlfl86'S ~ j ~ w a l s ? ~ n e ~ ~ n a ~ d v l dO'GtlflePd i Asti gasanenadvsga y,,gi?i DX s m e p a s BYT. She's threading a needle. Juksvsdi uwasanenadvnv uweti dagwalela udanawstana.
JSR2-I BGtlA86'0 8IbJ LTd'W B L e 8 2 W 8 .

--------------

y2wa1sgwo1?i2sdi @ G X T @ - I Ama as wo?iha na gadulida ahnawo jigalda asila dvvi. - DT S X T . G 8 SSPL DtO h S L DbW6"T.

The old car --- a trail of smoke as left it took off. ga2sgi210 SayG Ta'lsgo n. chair, table

Water is dripping from the wet cloth hangingon a line. cf: dekayvsgwoviha ga3soh2gw?2ti adj humpbacked

Set up twenty chairs. cf: gasgilvvi

W I J J A -Isam J ~ . A Y c ~ / ~ . .

digasgilo dijisgilada.

Gachinosda nalsdvhlusgvna gesv iyusdi gasohgwati nulstanv?i.


SfrZ@L 8 P 2 6 T a E 8 k R TG2-I S 1 Z . l Q-P2WOT.. -- ..
-

He - became humpbacked because he wouldn't sit up straight. cf: gasohi?i ga2sQ2hi4?i S I A T n. his back

n. dining table Ije gasgilo alsdayhdi uhyoha.


DPJL BdT

-------------Na asgay gasohi uwesdanete The man's back hurts. cf: gasohgwati, usotv?i ga2svnh2ga SRhS jilsvnh2ga u1wa2svnh2jv23'7i v.t . he's whistling
hRhS O'GRhCT
8 0 2 5 3 S#A B d 2 I A . L .

She's looking for - new dining a table. cf: alsdayvhvsga, gasgilo ga2sg?210 di2hlih2ge4sgi S 3 G JCka n. rocking chair Gasgilo dihlihgesgi uwohlvhnv eduji. S 3 G 1-Bf3P0 RSh - Cfa My uncle made - rocking chair. a

T7' SPYG DPaLBd @A$-. -

cf: dihlihgesgi, gasgilo ga2sgi21v4?i ~ a y qadv. on a chair, ~ table Nigohilv


hA.01 - S 8&

as ilv gahliho na wesa


Ibtl.

ga2svnh2g03?i SRhAT hi 2svnh2gi BRhY v2wa2svn2sdi 0GRha-I Kilo gasvnhgv utvgana gihli udanawstanv?i.
YG SRhE 0'6'58 YC Blf3BJW0T.

That cat is always sleeping - on a chair. cf: gasgilo

When the dog heard someone whistling, he took off running. ga3sv2t\?sga SRPaS v.t . he Is piling

116

gata

it up \ bRPaS ji3sv2t !3sga ~ l w a ~ s v ~ t ? ~ n v 8GRWD.T 37i ga3sv2ty3sg93vi hi1sv2tvlga v2wa1~v23tdi


SRPaAT ARPS 8GMl

Hayelsdi gvhdi dajitisilo?v?i.

--

@ P a l E l LbdbOiT.

Dlogesi juwuteda nvya gasvtvsga.


6 F b 6 3 5 6 03 S R P a S .

He was stabbed --over and over with a knife. cf: digatisdi ga23ti3y04?i ~ d f in. stompgrounds ~ Adahyvsdesdisgi aditasdi uninvsdo gatiyovi.
DLB.X?ala D A V a l BhD.aV S d R T .

He's -piling ulrocks he picked up in the field. cf: igasvti g?2ta


S W V . ~ . it's

hanging

They prohibit drinking at thestomperounds . ga1toh2ga SVS n. tail di2ga1toh2ga l S V S Saloli gatohga gadava getvvi. There is a squirrel -hanging on tail a pole, v.t. he's hanging it g? 2t !3sga \ UP SKIS ggv2dy3sga ~ l t ? ~ n v ~ ? i 8WD.T g?2ty 3sgq3?i S ~ Z I A T h92tv1ga WS u2tdi o.dl Didahlilostanv Batvsga.
I Lcoawo s p a s
BOP - S L D F P T . SVS

g?2t03vi h?2te3sdi

SVT

Getv gats anagalisgi ajvsdi. F P s w Desra x a l . An electric light - hanging from a is pole. cf: gadava, ktova g?2tdi S d l n. button di2gt2tdi l s a l Gatdi uyohusi uhnawogivi. He lost a button from his shirt. ga2te3s?v2di Saul n. cooking pan d12ga2te3~?v2di l S 5 B l Gatesavdi uhyoha didasdayvhvsgi. Saul ofi+ I L ~ L B W . The cook is looking for - cooking pan. a ga2ti3ha Sd+ v.t. he's stabbing him, it ji2ya1ti3ha, ji1ti2ha I a , r + bd+ ~ ~ w a ~ t ~ ~ h 8GdP T~ ? i l v ~ ga2ti3h? 3vi SdPT
Sdl Bfirb BtUYT. -

She's hanging

U Ia

picture.

g? 2we 3hli2ha SOC+ v.i. he's joking, he's teasing ji2we3h112ha bOC+ u1we3h1v2hnvz3?i 0OPD.T g?2we3hli2sgo3vi SOCaAT h? 2welhlv23na J4ePP 8 u2we lhlvh3di BOP 1 Dohiyu ulvkwdi uwehlvhdi.
V.K 8 W l BOPI.

He - really

likes - joke. to

gg2we3s021v23sd~3ha S d $ 9@J+ v .t . he's resting him

gg2wonh3di3ha SVDJ+ v .t. he's lecturing him ji2wonh3di3ha kVQJ.6 ~ l w o n h ~ t g ~ n v BVO.WO.T ~~~i gg2wonh3di23sgq33i SVO.JaAT hi 2wonh 'da M06 u2wonh1doh3di BVDVJ Unegujv iyusdi uweji achuja nigohilv
. . . . ~ - ~-~

WAJC T G J J B d k DJC h A 0 4 S B D J J A T .

Ina yiduhivlena wahga ilvsgi iyuwakdi degawesolvsdisgo?i.


T 8 J5SA68 GS T . 1 3 TGGYJ f 991. .?@&AT.

Because his son is so mean, n a y s lectures him. gq2w01ni23da s V h L n. gossip Hlesdi gawonida hyatvdasdisgesdi.
L@J S 0 h 6 iX'L@J@F@J.

L e n he drives cattle for a long distance, --- them a few times. he rests cf: adawesolvsdiha g?2w037a
SVD v.t. 1. he's bathing him 6 a D WViT

Don't be listening to gossi~. cf: gawoniha gg2w03ni2ha

2. he's baptizing him

ji2yg2w03?a

soh+

v. i. he's speaking

u2wo 'sdi 80@J Chuhga yigvwala gihli gawosgo?i. d f AEG W Y C S V J A T If the dog has fleas, he bathes it. Sgohi iyani7i yvwi duwFv?i.

Tsgwisdi gawoniha,asehnv hla gohusdi yadiha.


6vaJ

@A0 T 3 h T B 8 S O i T -

He baptized ten people. cf: adawo7a

He's -talking a lot, but he's not saying anything. cf: gawonida gaw2sv1gi f melon
~ wn.

~ 4 LJo A r @ J

an+.

2 gg2w023hi31i yy 2?a SVAPBD v.i. he's rep1ying g92w037121i23y\!37a SOTPBD

cantaloupe, musk-

u ' ~ o ~ ~ h ~ ~ l i ~ y v ' s v WCApgRT ~~?i gg2w023hi31i2yv1sgo37i SUAPRJAT hg2~02h121i2$-v2 3na @7XlPB 8 u 2 ~ 0 2 3 31i2yVlsdi h~ O'e'lAPB@I Gohusdi ejatvdvhnv, hawohiliyvsv7i.

Na asgaya juntana aniwsvgi datvhisdi sg07i.


8 D J S 3 d0!/8 DhGRY 6 6 A J J a A T .

The man raises large cantaloupes. ga3ye2s??3dv47i SBt16T n. his finger de2ga32ye2s?73d~4?i S BUGT f Gayesa7dv uwajvhyv kanjisdeji.

Ar@l RCP60. W A P B R T .

When you're asked a question, answer.

116

gayewsga

.+
>

m BGCZB d@h.&-+Si~ S Ps t u n g him on - -- r i ~ fs n q e i


9

-S

BYVW JSSBT? Have you a l r e a d y b e e n t o town?


v . t , h e ' s f e e d i n g him,

ga-yew-sga ~ 3 6 , ; v . t . h e ' s sewing it ~ ;:2..e 2w .l 1 s g a ,y h8B6.5

g ? 2 h l p 3 h a f$+ it

,!ws2yew2SV23? c.~2yew2sgo3?i
, . ;-.

gs(;a,:,;{r
Sd07.4 r .1).3G G'G5 621
G i h l i uyosiha. H i e l o a . Y C 0fib.G. The Jog i s h u n g r y . --i t . Feed $e2hlV2hY3sga H & @ f v . i . h e , i t ' s howling, screaming, y e l l i n g , etc.

, . 2y,23wa

y2wa2yew2sdi

~Gayewsgi g v h d i gayewsga a s a n o . SBO.;L!Y EJ SRtS.AS D U L . -- .. S h e ' s sewing a d r e s s with a sewing . nachine.


cf:

gayewsgi?l

g a i y e w 2 s g i 4 ? i ~ , q @ s T n . sewing machine . ~ a g a l i s g iu h n i g i s d i s g i zayews& uduliha. 110s P2Y BhSI@.l,!Y f 8 0 @ V BSP*. i h e w a n t s a n e l e c t r i c s e w i n g machine.

--

. f gayewsga ::
Sayh2gs4gi ~5.4y n . l i e r ?2niyh2go"i
p,!,~.4.y

Kilo gayhgogi y i g i , j u l o t s g i garhda?da, anadisgo3i. Y G - J W , dG.?d?/ S O L L , DBJJrlT. S5AY If someone i s - -.l i a r , ;hey s a y 11 h a s a . a forked tongue. cf: a t s g o ? v s g a , Sayh2g01gi ( l i e ]

Wahya y i d u t v g a n a g i h l i g e h l u h v s g o ? i . G 3 JSSG'f9 Y C F'PBaAT. The dog howls when h e h e a r s t h e wolves. U n a l i g o s v u n a d a h l o s a , unehluhnv analasgalisgi. ~ B P . / I ~ 9 ~ 6 6 QAPD Dewasrav. R r , When t h e i r team won, t h e b a l l p l a y e r s yelled. ge%yah2ta2hi

gxyh2golgi

faAY

lie

f&WB

adj. wild

Gayllgogi kanoheh! ido11o?i. 3.343' 2 2 3 C V J T . He g o e s a r o u n d t e l l i n g lies. cf: atsgovvsga, gayh2g04gi ( l i a r )


Sf
i ~

galyc%li

adj

small quantity

Janehltanv?is sogwili gehyahtahi hiysladisdi?i? CAPUI'OTJ H9P F3WA AB@WJalT? Have you e v e r t r i e d t o r o p e a wild horse?
ge2?i FT

G a y o h l i kahwi s g i d l i s d a s i . SfiC $ 8 2 C 2 L b . Pour me - 1 i t t : e c o f f e e . a

a d v . downstream kohi7i. while

gajyu21a

SCW all\;. a l r e a d y

Ge?i -d i d l a w a ? i s v j u w i j i g o 7 v FT GTR AAT. - Jddhim w a6k8ib A i downstream I saw l ng


ago.

Gayulas w i j e d o l a d i g a d u h v ? i ?

gihli
ge2ji2g021i23ye32di4?i clinic ~ ~ A P J J T n.

119

Gejigoliyedi wuwedasdi sunale7i. kbAP8J JDL@J C86T. She to go to the clinic tomorrow.
3 ge21i23si nc 2ha ~ p b f l .v.t. he's ~ leading it by a leash ji2ye21i23si3ng2ha k8PbA.G

Ahani ayehli hetvga. D+h D8C Set the --post here in the center.

m.

cf: degetvsga, getvsdi gi23ga YS n. blood

~here'sblood on your shirt. cf: gigage

Usdi gihli elisineha. 8 2 Y C FPb .G 2 He's - leading a small dog .4 ge211 stgi F P X Y n. pie di2ge21i4stgi J F P X Y Hila jugvwahldi digelistgi? A W dEGGJ JF PAIY? How much are the pies?

a leash. - --

ge2ti2104sdi FJG@J n. crowbar di2ge2ti2lo4sdi JFJG@J Nvyohi yidasgosga etilosdi kdisgovi. OfiA d L @ B S FJB@ When he digs holes in a rocky place, he uses - crowbar. a

ge3ty2sdi FPJJ n. post di2ge3ty2sdi JFPaJ Gago duhwasgo digetvsdi? f A .'YG@A JF PSJ? Who buys posts? cf: getvsga

gi23ga de2kg3yv23sgwp3?12ha YS SilBTT.G v.i. he has n nosebleed gi23ga de2ga32yv'3sgwg3?12ha YS SSB3T.G gi23ga du1hyv23sgwo321v23?i YS S B X 4 T gi23ga de23k?3yv23sgwg3?i2h03?i .YS SilBaTTET gi23ga t ~ 2 h y v 3 ~ g ~ 0 2 j a YS J B J V C gi23ga j ~ ~ h y v ~ ~ s g w ~ ~ ? ~ ~ s d i .YS dBTT2-l Sgwahlesdi uwahnila kayvsoli duhyvsgwolv?i. @IL@J B G h W 3BI.P YS S B Z 4 T . When a ball hit himon his nose, ne got a nosebleed. -cf: gasgwo?iha, giga, kayvsoli gi23g?3ge, gi23ge YSF, YF adj. red Gigage ulsuhwida wagilvkwdv7i. YSF O P Y L GYGIPPT. 't3 ~ed my favorite color. is cf: giga gi?2hla ? n. loose hair ! , Y Gi?hla nusdi jahnuwv?i. S'P 92J C46T. t here's some loose hair on your shirt.

ge2ty3sga fP@S v.t. he's setting a post (or other long object) into the ground

--

gi2hli YC n. dog Gihli uhnalvhi jigo~htiha.

120

gihli diga3lenvhida

Qt.1A kAG2.G. I see a mean dog.

Gohine o uweji achuja amayi yiduGihli digavlenvhida dasuhwisgv gatvgiva. YC -If#Al L?@ c @ E fPYD. I hear - hounddog barking. a cf: gavleni, ganvhida, gihli ~'is 11'i YPb n. English Hi?a nigvhna Gilisi gohwelvvi. A D hEt YPb This is how it's written in English.

E d -

---

DJC D & 5 a h f C . He holds his son's hand when they cross the water.
A*-o'dh

go2hiyh2da32nq2ha &LA+ v.t . 1. he's agreeing with him 2. he's vouching for him

gi 2nu4tdi YW-I quarter, one-fourth n. Ginutdi ksdolsda. Y U d JYVP@L. Lendme - quarter. a 2i2nv23sa YW pron. ourselves (you alone and I) (see Gram. 111, A) go2ge4yi AFd n. spring So7i ~ogeyiiyv dvsuligoji dadehyohvs~v7i. IT-AFJ~TB 6TPAb L S R a E T . She's going to quit teaching next spring.

hi2yQ27iyh2da1si

ARTG L b

--+-

Jiyoviyhdane nigawesgvvi. bRTGLA hfb@ET. I a ree with what he says. Sgwo iyhdanehdi agwaduliha. 3AGLA-I DPSP+. I want you ---- me. to vouch for

go2gi ~y n. summer Agwvnvga & iyulsdohdi7i. DEOS rn TGPJVJT . I can'twait till summer. go2hi4da ABL n. a long time Gohidas uhi7lidole gahljode ahnesgesgv?1? AOL@ BAPVG fPKS D/1@F@ET? Did he take a %time building the house? cf: igohida

go2hiyh2di AAGd n. belief, faith Tsgwisdi ohi hdi uweha. bV@d AAG He has a lot of faith. gohlZga APf him v.t . he' s recognizing

Vsgwu sgohi nadetiya gvwagohv yigi . kilo, ahida APAT Even if it's been ten years since he has seen someone, - recognizes he him easily.

go2hi23ne32ga R9/1s v.t. he's leading him by the hand ji2yQ27i23ne32ga bfiTAf

-.

gohweli goh12ga APS v.t. he understands it go21i1ga AP S u1woh12jv237i goh12g03?i hoh12gi u2w02hli3sdi Gohlgas Jalagi?
BVPCT APAT !PY BUCJJ

121

go2honh2di3ha AIG@J.G v.t , he's making it' (round, long) fall g92?onh2di 3ha
AdS0J.G

~ ~ w o ~ h o n h ~ t ~ ~ n v ~ ~ i oV! W O T g ~ ~ h o n h ~ d i ~ ~ sA! OJJAT gq~~i

APSJ CWY? -he understand Cherokee? Does

Gasgilv ahlahv waj i uwohonhdohtanv?i.


f U 9 D f 8 Gb BV! OVWOT

--

goh14gi APY n. his acquaintance di2goh14gi JAPY Hiyoligis hi?a asgaya?


AfiPYJ AD D@.S3?

He - accidently dropped the clock from the table. cf: gadonhdiha

Do you know this man? go2hlv2hnv4?i APOT Gohlvhnv eksdela.


APO . RUaSW.

go2hq2sga A ) @ f v.i. it's (round, long) falling mas g? 279 2sga ~ l w o ~ h q ~ s BV!RT ~ i v~~ g ~ ~ h ? ~ s g o ~ ? A! @AT i ho2hq2hi !A ! y2w02hq2hi2sdi BVEAaJ Jolani gatinvtv uwohosv?i.
Kwh S3W BV!RT

n. butter

Pass me some butter. v.i. he's getting


A 92)s BVPRT APJAT

go2h1y3sga APaS full golly 3sga u1w02h1y3sv3?i go2hlv3sgo3?i

The window pane fell. cf: gadosga go2hu4sdi, go4sdi A r a J , A@J pron. something Gohusdi unihyo asehnv hla yagwanhta ivusdi eesv?i.
Blhfi 0 4 0 f

ho2hly2hi ! PA v2w02h1v3hi3sdi BVPAaJ Gayohligwu yulsdayvhna, gohlvsgo?i.

. .

sfica

G P ~ L B AP~AT. ~ .
I -

If he eats just a little, he full. go2h1v2sga


APaf

3 X W TGaJ I-RT.

v.t. he's making it

They are looking for something, but I don't know what it is. cf: hlagohusdi go2hwe21i MP n. 1. paper 2. letter

Gohweli digohwelodi dunadanvsvvi.


MP - J M O J SBLORT.

They ordered some writing tablets. Gago nidayunvnv gohweli hinagi?


S A ~ L G W A ~ P ey? B

Gado usdi hohlvsga?


SV B a d ! P a s ?

What -are -making?

Who did you get - letter from? a cf: digohweli, gohweli?a

MPD

v.t. he's writing

SV B @ J A d U 6 &d@A ZKCAU?

Which finger do you use -- pull when you UPD - trigger? the ~ ~ w o ~ h ~ e ~ ~ 1 8CWWOTn v ~ ~ ? i cf: gojanesdi?i a ~ ~ go1we231i3?a go1jC2ne1sdi4?i AC/'1@JT n. trigger d;2g01 ja2ne'sdi4?i J A c A a J T Gago unesdi gohweli hohweliva?
S A wAaJ M P M P D ?

it*

Uhyasdladisdi nigesvna uyelvsv nesdi galoneva.


JJ6;3;8 a8 3
~~

a-

h F R 6 8 8 q R ACA2J SQAD. -

Whose letter - u writing? a v cf: digohweli, digohwelodi, gohweli GQ2?i4 AT


n. Greasy

He's oiling the trigger . it won't o rust. cf: gojane?a

go4ksdi A S J d n. cigarette Unigodi Anijalagi dinadehlohgwasgi danadehlohgwasgo Go3i Junadehlohgwasdi. di2g04ksdi J A S @ J 8 h A J DhCWY J e S d m L B S d X 2 A AT Ta?lsgohi digoksdi degalo sagwu dBSdX 2 J . nidegakwenvsv3i. A lot of Cherokee students go to W P a A B J A S a J S S O KJ h S S W T . school at Greasy School. There are twenty cigarettes in one package. gq27i AT n. 1 . grease 2. oil cf: goksga Sihgwa hawiya tsgwisdi go?i adohlvndisgovi. go2ksga A S 2 S v.t. he's smoking it 6.T 6 8 3 b P @ J AT D V P B J 2 A T . Sausage makes c l o t of grease. go2gi1sga RY~S cf: go?iha?i ~ l w o ~ k s v ~ B O Si T ~? R g?2?i2ha4?i AT+T adj greasy

go2ksgo3?i y2~02ksdi

ASaAT

g2ni2g92?i2ha4?i, di2g02?i2ha4?i
DhATGT, J A T 6 T

EY 8VSaJ

Go?iha hawiya agi9a.


AT+ - 683 DYD.

Ta91i nidegaladisdv digoksdi ksgo?i siga.

+.

He is eating greasy meat. cf: gq2?i (grease), -ha v.t. he's pulling
ACA D

WP h S f WJmY J A S J J S A S d A

bf

go32j?2ne3?a ACAD a trigger go32j?2ne3?a

He smokes two - one day. packages of cigarettes in cf: goksdi go41a AW n. winter Jalvkwdis @?
C 4 V J 2 AW?

Do you like winter? holja2n?2gi E CBY u2w01j?'nelsdi OOCA@J Gado usdi hiyesa?dv hvhdisgo janesa?
'

w-

n. pneumonia Golehi udlvga ga3nakti.


Ad'A

A 0 9 8 P S S BSJ

hed doctor

has pneumonia.

cf: ehi, gola go23sda1yi AaLA adj. sharp

Siyo adiha hiyoselv higo?v9i. Tell him I -- said hello when you see him.
go2t; 2sga

bfi D1.G Afi4 9 A A i T .

Ajila utsgati gvhdi akdlvha galuysdi, gosdayi nulstanvqi. DbW D b f 3 Ed D3'P.G f M a 1 , A a l d 4PaWO-T . When I sharpened the axe with a file, it became shar~. go2sdi1yu4hli A@-IGC adj. dull di2g02sdi1yu4hli IAaAGC Gosdiyuhli galuysdi kdisgv ada dasgwalsgv?i & ~ G C SM&J EdaE D L LaXPaET. He was using a -axe to chop wood. dull

ATaf

v.i. it's swelling

Inadausgahljv ganvsgeni uwotisv?i.


T81 WaSPC SO-aFh O'VJRT.

His len swelled where a snake bit him. cf: uwotida go23tv4?i APT n. fire (for heating) Gotv na?v deginohlesdi.

go2sdv3ni2ha AiWh.G ii

v.t. he's batting

A6 ei
-

SYZLX.

Let's sit bv the fire. cf: gotvsga

g ~ ~ ~ t y ~ s g a v.t. he's building APaf a fire APaf go 3dy 2sga Sgwahlesdi uniyohuselv uwosdvnila.
axLa1 ohfir4 4 o v x h w .

ulw0~3t?~nv2~?i DVWO-T

They lost the ball -- batted. when he cf: gosdvnisdi go2sdv3ni1sdi A 3 h J - l n. bat di2g02sdv3nilsdi I m h a d Hila iga di osdvnisdi dehinoga?
A T f?I. W *

on

Usv jigesv utana a wotanv?i.


bFR

Last

owe w + w night --I built

a big fire.

How many bats did you bring? cf: gosdvniha go1sg3ha A4.G v.t. he's saying to him

ji2y01sF3ha bfi4.G u1w01se231v3?i 0 V 4 4T go1sg3hp3?i hiZyo1si v2wo'seh3di


A4fi T
Afib

gu2d921e3?a J L d ' D v.t. 1. he's unhitching him, it 2. he's unhooking it 3. he's unplugging it

OW41

124

gudalvsga Gu1gu4?i J J T n. Bartlesville Jedolv?is Gugu?


W 4 T J JJ?

u2wu2da21e1sdi 83 I f 2 1 Hiyudalagi sogwili unelagi walsdayvhnida. AGL WY +@'P BAWY GP2L B hL Unhitch the horse and let him graze. Uhnigisa dagwalela uwudalesv unadadesvda.

Have you been to Bartlesville? cf: gulgu (bottle) g ~ ~ ~ h a h l ~ d i n. handle (for a J+pA tool) dj2guZ3hahl2di JJ+PA Galuysdi uhahldi ayohlvsga.
S M a 1 J+P

B h Y t l L I 6 W BJLd'R B B L S R L .

He - unhooked started.

the chain when the car

Adayvlatvsgi gudalesgo yanagaliha.


DLBWPJY J L 6 J A 3BSP+.

He - unplugs the television when it's lightening. cf: adudalesdi, gudalvsga

He's whittling - handle for an axe. a cf: guhahlvsga gu2ha2hly3sga J+P@S v.t . he Is putting a handle on a tool

h D JS.

g ~ ~ d a ~ l v ~J~ s JgS a v.t. 1. he's L4 hitching him, it up 2. he's hooking it up 3. he's plugging it in ji2yu2dg21v32sga, g ~ ~ d ? ~ l v ~ ~ s g a
bGL 4 2 s

, J L 42s

~ ~ ~ ~ ~ d ~ ~ 0 .1 1 q@T~ ~ n v ~ ~ ? i 9 v hi2yu2da21v2?vlga,
AGL 4 i S ,

. .

Gago uwuhahlaneTi hi?a galogodi?

rL 4 i S

S A BJGL'AT

u2wu2da21v ldi 83141 Sogwili unadudalvdi uwudalvnv sogwili ujeli?i.

Who put a handle - this hoe? on cf: guhahldi gu2hgwe 5 3 n. quail Guhgwe junihyohi yvdaha unvsa danadayosdohdisgo?i.
53 -dhfiA
BL+ O W L B L f i a V J J A T .

AD S G A l ?

$ 3 8~ S L 9 1 8

B J L 4 Q IV'P B Y P T .

He - hitched =his Post .

horse at the hitching

anagalisgi?

Did he hook the battery? -cf: adudalesdi,gudale?a gulgu J J n. bottle HiVa unvdi dadlisdi.
AD J J BOA L C a J .

uail hunters sometimes accidentally one another. v. t . he's washing

gu2hi2103?a JAGD it
27.21~37~
1

JTGD ~ ' w u ~ h i ~ l o ~ ? v B J A? i T ~ ~ Gi

Thesebottles contain milk. cf: gugu?i g u l J J n. tick ~ Gugu degvwayodesdi gihli.


JJ - SEGAS21 Y C .

gu2hi2103sgo3?i hu2hi21oZ3ja

JAGaAT TAG 6

Yiduhyahketsohna nuna,amohi deguhilosgo7i.


6 ~ 3 f J + f48, D3A S J A G J A T .

Ticks are making the dog itch.

When she finishes peeling-potatoes,

gutiha she them -washes -in water. g ~ ~ h i ~ ~ s dJA2J.Ga v.t. he's i~h aciusing him

125

J'h o i a juweji duwuhnv sunale junigisdi. KT+ d ~ - ees d y a d . SJO ~ k She boiled three eggs for breakfast. cf: ahudi'a, galvsga gu21e J 6 n. acorn Gule danigisgo'i saloli. J ~ L W ~ A T HBP. Squirrels eat acorns. gu21e di2sg~23hni2hi Jc? d @ A U n. mourning d6ve gu21e di2ni2sgoZ3hni2hiJ 6 J M A h Q Gule disgohni ganohilisv jigowhti.
Jd d@ -"- ~ h S U P R kAGa

Svkta deganosgisgv uhisdiha.


RSW

She's him -accusing -of stealing apples. gu1hlv3di J P J n. lid di2gu1hlv3di J J P J

sSWaE

JAa

Hila iga di uhlvdi dejaduliha?


A TS J PJ SCSPd-? W

How many -do you want? lids cf: guhlvsga gu3hly2sga J P J S v.t. 1. he's covering it 2. he's putting a lid on it

I see - mourning dove flying. a cf: asgohniha, gule

~ u ~ s o ~ 7 T n. Muskogee Jf i Duninhdi k'v geso janadahlisisgo'i al Gs' . uoi


S h h J 9.1 I.# CeLCbaAT J f T .

The Muskogee fair is in October. cf: Agusa

month of

Uwoyeni gvhdi uwuhlvnv uhnelvsv'i. BBBh Ed BJPD BA.7RT. He c o v e r e d scar with his hand. - gugu ama adlisdv guhlvsga. Na 8 JJ DK D C X J P a S . H isputting --- d n the jar cone a li -taining water. cf: guhlvdi gu2hv3sga J 8 J S in water vat. he's putting it

gu2te3?a JXD v.t, he's picking him, it up ji2yu1te3'a, gu1te3?a kCXD, JXD u ~ w I J ~ ~ ~ ~ s 33XRT ? ~ v ~ ~ gu2te3sgo3'i JX@AT h22yu1tg2gi, hu2ta2gi A W Y , rWY y'wu2te1sdi (PJ sad Gayula kilo jinvwistana juwutesdi h' ia nvya janilageya.
SCW YO kQ8aW8 dJX@J AD Q 3 ChWI.3.

I've already asked someone - pick to these rocks 9. cf: ayiha, g n ' , ganegi7a aea gu2ti3ha J a % v.i. it's snowing

126

gvgisdi gv2he ~3 n. bobcat Gvhe -nigawesgv akwtvganv usv?i jigesv?i.

Danisdayohihv iga uwutahnv7i.


Lh@6AA$ T f BJWOT.

E3 -

I heard - bobcat last night. a


v.i. he is alive
EB
EZT &/lad

hS99@E DIPSO BRT IrF RT

It - snowed

on Christmas day.

gv2hna E t gvlna

gv2gi 'sdi Ey@J n. watermelon Gogi nidegalstanisv pgisdi datvhisdisgovi.

AY hSSP@WhR

66"A@J2AT.

He raises watermelons every summer. g ~ ~ g u ~ ~ s d EJAJ.6a v. t. he's sifting i~h it ~ l w a ~ g u ~ ~ s t ? ~ n BGJJWOT v~~?i
TJ@dAAr

gv2hno3?i hv2hne3sdi

Usegajv gvhna anadiha.


O'BSC E t DBd.6.

They say - - barely alive. he is gY3hna2gal2sdi E t f p & d adj . active di2ny3hn?2ga12sdi d M ~ p @ d Dohiyu dinvhnagalsdi dudatihna?a.
VAG d O t S P @ J S L d t D

hv2gu2 3sda v 2 ~ a 2 g 3sdoh3di ~2 Isa v usdiha eji


T - EJJI.6 . B T h.. .
~ ~ ~

U@ L

O.GJ@VJ

He has a very active family. gv23hna3ge4?i E t k T adj black

Mother - sifting flour. is cf: gvgusga g ~ ~ g u ~ ~EJ@S a v.i. it's leaking sg

?2ni2gv23hng3ge4?i, di2gv23hn93ge4?i
DhEtFT, dEtFT

Gvhnage dagwalela agiha.


EtF LZcCW DY.6.

-------------~ ' w a ~ g u ~ ~ s BGJRTi v~~ gv2gu23sgp37i


EJ@AT

I have a black car.

cf: agvhnage?a gv2hni3ha Eh+ v.t. 1. he's hitting, striking him, it 2. he's knocking jiZyv1ni3ha, gv1ni3ha u'wa2hni31v3?i
hBh.6, Eh.6 BGhqT

-------------v2wa2gu23sdi BG J @ d Gahljode gahljotv gus o yugahnana .


SPKS SPKG EJ@A

The roof on the house leaks when it rains. cf: gvgusdiha gvh4di EJ prep. with, by means of Ganvgwalosdi gvhdi uwahnilv yvgi.

!&&8-

gv2hni3hP3?i EhI T hi2yv2ni 'ga, hvnh2ga u2wan2sdi


A B h S . $hS BG h a d

sam;;ir E J

He hit tKi'nail with a hammer. Jalagi gvhdi duhlinohehlv?i.


CWY E m ? P T .

Gosdvnihi sdayi uwahnilv sgwahlesdi.


.4.A7h/3 @ L i3 ml J X L @ d . .

She conversed

means of Cherokee. --

The batter - the ball hard. hit Kilo gvhniha galohisdi?i.


Y G - SGA@IT Eh.6

gvnawosga Someone i s knocking on t h e door. cf: iyuwahnilvvi gvl j?2hly3sga


ECP 2 5

127

~lwv~j?~hl+~nv~?i 86CL'OT

p 2 h n i 2 s d i 3 h a Ehal.6 v .t he ' s cooking it (a s p e c i f i c food)

hv2ja2h1v1ga

OCP 5

Gado u s d i h v j a h l v s g a ? SV Q @ l OCP@S? What -you f r y i n g ? are


-

cf : Gado u s d i j v h n i s d i ? SV Q @ l C h @ l ? What - you -cooking? do have cf: adasdayvhvsga adj. alive gv2hno4da EZL

gv j a h l a n v h i

gv3na EB n . t u r k e y

How many t u r k e y s do you own? gv2nawh2di3ha it


EQe3-l.G v . t

. he's

melting

Gvhnodas na inada j i g a v n a ? EZL@ 8 T8L b S 8 ? m - a t snake l y i n g t h e r e a l i v e ? gv2hnv4?i EOT n. h i s l i f e Agalisgv uwanowhtana u n h j i , hlawotuhi nulstanvvi D S P@E QG 8 W 8 @Oh , L'VSA QPJWOT. When t h e sunshine melted t h e snow, it became muddy.

Na asgaya yvwi u h l v v i p ? n v 7 i igohida a j i s d u d i dudukdasi 8 DaS3 B 8 OPT - TAQL D b @ S l EOT SSAL 6 . The murderer was sentenced t o l i f e imprisonment.

cf:

gvnawosga

gv2hw? 2no 4 sda

EGDL

adj

. whole

gv2n? 2wo 2 sga

EW@S

v . i . i t ' s melting

Gohusdi gvhwanosda u k i h i s d i anehldisgv uhyvhj i n v t s v v i . M a 1 E G D L Q Y A a J D/lPl@E Q B b O l C T . He g o t c h o k e d t r y i n g t o swallow somet h i n g whole. gv2j?2h193nv4hi


ECPOA

adj. fried

Nuna d i g v j a h l a n v dulvkwdi. 4e I E C ~ WJ. S He l i k e s f r i e d u o t a t o e s . cf: gvjahlviga v . t . he's frying


it

cf:

Gvnawosgi gohlvhtanv u l v s a v d i uwanawosv udihlehg ama a d l i s d v wuhlana. E 8 V 2 APWO 8 4 V l Q G W R Q I L Y DT D C X JC8. A g l a s s made of p l a s t i c melted when s h e p u t i t i n some h o t water. gvnowhdiha

gv2j?2h1y3sga ECP@S

128

gvnosasdi

gv 2no 2sq3sdi

EZl3a-f n. broom
IEZU@I

di2gv2n02sg3sdi

gv2sga21a3di3?a E@SWdD v.t. he's hiding a long object g~'sg?~l?~d~~?a E@S WID ~ ~ w a ~ s g ? ~ l ~ ~ d v ~ WPT i BG@S ~ ?

Where is the broom? cf: gvnosasga gv 2no2sa3sga E B @ S it gv2no 1s? 2sga v. t. he's sweeping

E ZHAS

~ ' w a ~ n o ~ s ? ~ h v ~ ~ZUaT BG ? i gv 2no 2~ ? ~ s g o ~ ? i EZBAAT hv2n02 3sa am v2wa2n02s?2sdi B G ZU@I Hyahteno hvnosahv?i nijahnigidagwu. 3x2 aB8T hChYLJ. Sweeethe floor before you go. cf: gvnosasdi gvn2sga Eh@S v.i. 1. it Is becoming done (by cooking) 2. it's ripening

Kilo dayaTi. Hvsgalada galogwe. SG3. Y G L3T. &SWL Someone is coming. -the gun. Hide cf: gvsgahlvsga, gvsgalvsga gv2sg?31y 32sga E@S 4@S v .t he's hiding him, it (flexible) j i2yv1sg?21v32sga, g ~ l s g a ~ 1 v ~ ~ s g a & hB2S 4@S, E 42s 37i BG@S 4DT

Hila iyv vns o kanugahli? A TB Eh@A a 5 C ? W when do blackberries net r i ~ e ? g~~sg?~hl\!~sga E@SP@S hiding it v.t. he's

~ ~

Disehisdi uwas alvnv uhnawo. I4A@I BG@S 4 8 e7 +THe hid -- his shirt in a drawer. cf: gvsgahlvsga, gvsgaladi?a g ~ ~ s g w ? ~ l o ~ ? a G D v .t. he's EX cracking it gv1sgwg21037a EJXG D u1wa2sgw~2103?~23?i BG@PGiT g ~ ~ s g w ~ ~ 1 0 ~ s g o E@XG@AT ~?i h ~ ~ s g w ? ~ l o ~ ~ j a& A m c v2wa2sg~g2101sdi BG@TG@I UhljaTdi kali duwasgwalo7v sohi. BPCI dP SG@PGi + A . He - cracked a bucket full of hickory nuts. gv2tY3sga E'S v.t. he's putting it SA into a fire gvldy3sga u1wv2tq3nv37i gv2tv3sg$7i LSJS
G36WDT

gv1sga2hlY3sga E@SP AS ~ ' w a ~ s g ? ~ h l ? ~ n v ~BGJSfDT 7i gv2sgg2hlY3sgp3~i E@SP@AT hv2sgg2hlv1ga 82sP S 52wa2sgah1 2di @GAS ? I Dagwalela ganosgida gvsgahlvsga. L,%$W SZZYL ESSPAS. He is -- hiding a stolen car. cf: adisgahlvsga, gvsgaladiTa, gv2sga31v32sga
~~

EG.4T

hisgi underneath Hla yunhta i g a uwvtdi chinosga. e cow T S h a s . He doesn't know how much coal t o ~ u t -t o t h e f i r e . in

129

Gasgilv hawini d i d l a ganhga wesa. S 2 Y 9 +Lh & S ~ U . The c a t i s l y i n g underneath t h e chair. hg%i2ya +@3n. meat Sihgwa j u n i h i s d i gayohlige dagvwahldo hawiya. bX d u a l SACF LEGGV +@a. Meat i s l e s s expensive a t s l a u g h t e r houses. -hehno, -hno conj. because (see Gram. 111, F) -hno conj

--cf: kdv3vsga

g~3~62h1,!3Sga EGP@S v. t . h e ' s soaking it ( f l e x i b l e o b j e c t ) gv3wg2h1y3sga gv3w92hly3sgp 7 i 3 hv ' ~ ? ~ h l v l ~ a u2wv lwahl 3di
EGP@S

~~wv~w?~hl?~nv~?i 016GeOT
EGP@AT
&GP S

. and

(see Gram. I 1 I , F)
221, L@l

86G 4J

H i l a igohida dejvwahlane dihnawo? A TAB1 S E t A J t 8 7 W How lone d i d vou soak t h e c l o t h e s ? gv2wa2t~3hw12da EGS@l, a d ~ .a l l around Gvwatuhwida nunadvhnv aniyosgi. EGS@L 9 W 0 Dhfi23'. S o l d i e r s were. - around. all -gwu n . , v . s u f . 1. only, j u s t 2 . s t i l l (see G r a m . I , D)

helsdi, hlelsdi

adv. d o n ' t

-hi
m~ - lr.

Hlesdi v s g i yihnadvnehesdi. L J i23' AtPA?@J. @ Don't be doing t h a t . n.suf., see-i

h i 2 ? a AD pron. t h i s , t h e s e Hi?a digwe j i .

These a r e my c h i l d r e n .

h-ha ha2dlv

v . p r e f . second person s i n g u l a r (see Gram. I , B) n . s u f . p a r t i t i v e ( s e e Gram. I , B) x of it


.GP

hi21a4 A W a d j . how, what (with nouns of q u a n t i t y , d u r a t i o n , s i z e , etc.) H i l a & jugvwahldi? A TS dEGGJ? W How much does it c o s t ? m a igohid tsdohdi j a d u l i ? A TAB1 W - - CVJ CSP? How -longi dol i you want t o use i t ? Hila a h l ' i ? TDCTP? What -time i s i t ?

adv. where

Hadlv wigalohi s d a l i ' i ? +P QSGA 2 1 PT? %ere d i d your f r i e n d go? h?2wi4ni +@h prep. under Eligwu t a 3 1 i iyatahwostanv yigeda amayi hawini. R f 2 W P T3WaWQ I 1 D TA +Ah % I can s t a y under water f o r two minutes.

hi21a32yv4?i AWBT

adv. when

Hilayv wigvwahtvhidasdi j a d u l i h a ? AWB QEGPAL@J CSP+? When do you want me t o come and v i s i t

you?
h i 2 s g i A23' adj. five

h?2wi3ni3 d i 3 d l a +Qh Jo%

adv

130

hla, tla

Hisgi naniva wahga dejinahlava.


.O&Y .
BhD GS S b e P D . I have a total of -cows. five

Hlawotuha dagwalela ganvgaliha.


C V S + L IdW SDS P+

hla, tla P adv. no, not Hla. Jayosihas? Are you hungry? No. Hla vsgi yigi.
~ J

Cfib+2?

L.

He's washing a muddy car. cf: hlawotu, hlawotuhi hla2w01tu4hi P O S A 1. adj . muddy (ground) 2. adv. in the mud Yugahnana, hlawotuhi nidegalsdisgo deganvhnvvi .
~ S t e ,

m. Y

That's - it. not

hlg3 go2hu4sdi P 4-21 pron. nothing Gadogi hadisge? Hla gohusdi. S V Y +1X? f ~ r = . What were you saying? Nothing. cf: gohusdi, hla hlg3 i21vh3dlv, hlg3 dlv4 f T q P , P P adv. nowhere Hla ilvhdlv yidagesi kohi iga.

When it rains. the roads net I muddy. Hlawotuhi unvjv duhnasvhla.


BDC S t W .

hSSP212A S S W T .

She fell --- when she slipped. in the mud cf: hlawotu, hlawotuhavi hle4ga L S adv. for a while Ehena hlega.
R38

P AL - amT ~ F bnowhereS today. - goingP A A T . I


cf: dlv, hla, ilvhdlv

a.

Come here -a while. hle2ki3 L Y a d ~ .soon Hlekis dagavluhji udvhne?


LY2 - l SMb

adv. never hla3 i21v23hi3yu4 f T 9 A G hla Igada yvwi - ilvhiyu junadasdudi uniyvhlv yigesovi. T S L BB C A L J e t a s 1 Q ~ B Pa T . t Some people have never been in jail.

Bm?

Did he say he was coming soon?

hlelsdi L a r l adv. don't Hlesdi yijanegujesdi.


LA1 - ACAJ721.

hla3 ki210 P Y G

pron. no one

--

Hla kilo -- yijigowhti jiyoligi . P Y G AhACLI h A P Y . I see -- that I know. no one cf: hla, kilo

Don It be mean.

hlgv47i T E n. tree d e h ~ ~ ~ g v ~mv i E Juweti dehlgv nigada dejileyvstanvvi.


dflJ SS h S 1 S b a 2 W D T . TT

hlg2w01tu f f 3 S n. mud ahnvwisgv kanajiHlawotu unvliye'v sdeji uwajvhyv'i.

Cut down all the dead trees. hlv2dg2ji, tlv2dG2ji P d h , P l b n. lion Odalv ehi hlvdaji gehloha.
b l 9 R A - Fd+. Plb

re-s - s o p si

DosaE

aebash

BGCB T

He doctored himself where a wasp stung him by rubbing - on it. mud cf: hlawotuhavi, hlawotuhi adj . muddy

He's feeding a mountain lion. suf. and (see Gram. 111, F) interj. okay

h1g2w01tu2ha4?i P0S.t.T (object)

-hno

hq2wa I G

igati Inadawo7uga. Howa. TeLex3.S. Ec;. Let Is go swimming. Okay -hv n., v.suf. question marker (see Gram. I, D)

131

i2ga TS n. day

on

Usv nigesvna yigi i a gesovi.


Mne

nv

-PCBTs

If it isn't n i g h t , it's i23ga3da TSL adj. some

day.

h ~ a h ~ t e ~ ~ n a n. board 3x8 di2hyah2te23na, j ~ ~ h y a h ~ t e ~ ~ n a Gado d o t v h t k a juhyahtena? ;

Igada analasgalisgi hla yuniluhje7i. Some -of the ball players didn't come. i23gg?31uh2ga T S M S v. i. he's returning i23ji?31~h2ga TfrMS y39u21uh3jv237i, y731~h3j~37i
iBMCT TSL - DeWJSP3

' GhMYT. f

sv v m h e

dae?

What are you - - to use those going boards for? hyah2t04hli @VC adj . narrow di2hyah2t04hli d3VC Hyatohli sdudi ktovv wigalohisdi iuwenvsv yoga.
~ V @ S J . E ~ ~ C @SOA@J d8OR fif

BMCT

i23gg731~h2gQ33i TSMAT

You go through a narrow gate when you're going to his house. hyeh2gg2hli BSC n. quilt di2hyeh2g?2hli JBSC Nigohilv dihyehgahli degayewsgo eji.
hAA9 & C SSBB@A R f r .

Kiladv igavluhga usuhnidolv7i.

He's just returning from fishing. cf: ga'luhga

yW6" T m D b h V g T . -- -

My mother is always sewing quilts. cf: ahyehgahlvsga

i23gq3nv2hi4da TSO&L n. in length i23d+3gg2nv2hi4da TJSOAL Hiksgo ilasihdi iganvhida sdeyida uwhtanv wahna agina asladisgv7i.
AYaA T W ~ J - T S G L @SAL 0 6 ~ 0 G f .

i-i -i

v.pref. repetitive (see Gram. I,


A)

Dye D ~ W J ~ E He used a rope fifty feet long in roping a calf. cf: ganvhida

T.

n.suf. locative (see Gram. 11, B) n.suf. agent (see Gram. 1 1 , B) v.suf. future tense (see Gram. I, Dl v.suf. about to, on the verge of (see Gram. I, D) i23ga32sv4ti T S U n. rick Jo7i igasvti ada dikiwahisdi agwaduliha.
KT T S U D L JYGA@J D5SP.G. I want to buy three ricks of wood.

-i
-idi

cf: gasvtvsga i23gg2ti T S J n , height i2di hg2ti, i23d+2g?2ti T J e J , T d S J Sudal ilasihdi, sudal isihtadisdi igati na alasgalisgi.

i23ga4 TS n. quantity (inanimate) Hila dejaduliha?


A T f SCSP.G? W

How many do you want?

132

igohida

GLP TWb1, GLP TbW121 T S 3 8 DW a s P a .

he has a new one. i2je37i2yu4sdi T Y T G a 1 adj . green IjeTiyusdi adanelv ganela oginali7i.
T Y T G a 1 DLA9 SAW d J Y 8 P T .

That ballplayer is six feet, six inches tall. i23g03hi4da T A R L 1. n. length of time 2. adv. until Hila igohid uhli?ilidole?
AW TARG O C T P V d ?

A friend of mine lives in a green house. cf: ije?i, iyusdi 12ju3de2ti2pr4da T J S J B G n. years (number of) Hila ijudetipda uhnela?de?i?
BW T J S J B L BAWST?

How long did it take? Widaniyelisgv i ohida wagwedolv7i.


BLhBPaE = b T .

I stayed there until they adjourned. cf: gohida iZ3gv3na2de4na TE8.98 n. area Sgohitsgwa iyuhliloda igvnadena duhwisa selu.

How many years was he gone? cf: udetiyiha, sudetiprda iZ3ju31a TJW adj. both Ijula desdilvhwisdanelv sunale7i.
T J W Sad.7BaLA.7 ~ W T . -

ambl

TGCQG TE8.99 SBU 4 M .

He has corn planted in an area of one hundred acres. l1gvZ3sa TEU pron. 1. ourselves (you all and I) 2. one another, each other (see Gram. 111, A)

--

Both -of you work tomorrow. i'jvZ3sa TCtl pron. 1. yourselves (you all) 2. one another, each other (see Gram. 111, A) i3ki2da T Y L n. size Hila ikida alsgwetuwo halsgwetuhvsgi?
AW

I2gv 23yi

T E A adv. earlier than 6 0 . DB FR?

Igvyis hivluhgi sihnv apr gesv? Did you get here before I did?
TE& - AMY

What size hat do you wear?

TYCP~JSV .GPaJS&aY?

.47i T E A T adj. first gv Yl Hi?a asgaya igvyi gawonisgi. AD D a S 3 SVha. This man is the first speaker.

?31a1sih2di T W b d n. foot (unit of measure) Sgohi ilasihdi niganvha jiyu ujeli7i.

am

T W ~ JSO-+

BYPT.

i2je4?i T Y T adj . green (of fruit or vegetable) ?2ni2je4?i D h Y T Anije tuya dinadesuga. Let's go pick some p e e n beans. i2je4?i W T adj. new (inanimate) di2je47i d Y T Uweti dagwalela juhv asehnv nogwu & t uha.
Q9pJ L l d W d& 9.40 23 T Y B.G.

His boat is ten -long. feet

i21v23hi3yu4?i T qAGT adv. ever IlvhiyuTis inada tsgahljv?i?


TqACTa T8L CJSPCT?

E Y

s3

desrs.

Have you ever been bitten by a snake? cf: hla ilvhiyu 121v4sgi T . 7 3 adj. few Ilvsgi iyuhliloda eladi uhnigisv?i kila udajanelv7i.
T.7aY TGCQL RWd D h Y R T YW D L C / 1 9 T .

He used to have an old car, but now

He walked a -miles before he few caught a ride.

ivuwahnilv?i i4na T 8 adj. far Aniyosgi jijiya9v ina wagwedolv?i . DhfiaY b h 2 i T e G J ~ T . When I was inyhe military service, I went - away. far i2na2da TQL n. snake Gado usdi inada wiganayegvvi?

133

KT T 3 S B P T 3 h B 8 8 8 P L a W h P 8 E W A svh x

Three thousand people came to hear the President speak.

Which snake is the most dangerous?

Ta awe G sv 8 a - ~ L ~ B Eam tenw minutes m~ QY . T ~ TY--6 four. It Is ? past

i2y93ta2hw~1st?2nv4?i Ti3WVaWOT n. minute Sgohi i atahwostanv ulosvsdi nvhgi.

cf: atahwosdiha i23n63ge4?i TQF T n. forest, wilderness Inage wv?ulosv hlvdaji ulitisa.
T 8 f 6BGR P L b BEJbr.

i2yu3da41i T G L P n. 1. apart 2. often Hila iyudali dehihwisgo selu?


AW T G L P S A B a A 4M?

he lion went back into the wilderness

when it escaped. i2nv2hi TQA adv. too far Invhi wedoha tstvgodivi.
TQA - &V+ C P A J T .

How far apart do you plant your corn? Hila ivudali chawahtvhidoho?i?
AW T C L P C G P A V J T ?

How often does he visit you?


2yu3hli 2lo4da

He's too far away to hear you. i2sa Tbr n. flour Go get some flour downtown. i3sih2ta2di1sdi T b W d a J n. inch Tavldu isihtadisdi sagwu ilasihdi ninalsdisno?i.

--

T G C ~ LTGLOAL @ @ k c W E T G C Q L aqsc.

KT

TGCQL n. unit of measure (acres, bushels, gallons, hours, miles, yards) Jo?i iyuhliloda iyudanvhida uhwidvhv ta?li ivuhliloda kanunahli.

He carried two gallons of blackberries for three miles. cf: suhliloda i2yu3n?2d~23d82gwa1sdi T C 8 V L X a J n. weeks Jo?i iyunadodagwasdi igohida didolanvsdi duwhtanv?i.
KT TGBVLX2-4 T A A L I V W Q a J S 6 W Q T .

WFS ~

b ~ y a d TWbJ h S P a J a A T . bra

Twelve inches make one foot. i2ya T @ n. pumpkin Jalvkwdis iya gohlvhtanv gelistgi?
CwJa APWQ f r a y ?

She used crutches for three weeks.

Do you like pie made of pumpkin? i2ya3danh3teh2di T3LOa.l n. cent, cents Sgigapdu i adanhtehdi jugvwahldi aditasdi agwaduli a.

i2yu 4sdi

b
*

:% -. like it. &DXSf'+ I want one

adv. like sdi agwaduliha.


TGad

2 Y S S T 3 L W b J J E G Q J D A V a J DISP.G. I want a fifteen-cent drink.

i2Y? 3g? 2yv 4li

adj. thousand Jo?i iyagayvli iyani yvwi unatvdastanihlv ugvwiyuhi gawonisgv?i.


T3SBP

i2K3wa2hni21v"i TGGh4T n. o'clock Tavldu iyuwahnilv jigesv julohistanv?i.


KIPS TGG h 4 b F R d G A 2 W 0 T .

He stopped bv at twelve o'clock. cf: gvhniha

134

iyuwakdi, yuwakdi
TGGAd, CGAl

i2yu3wa4kdi, yu 3 wa 4 k d i n. time, times

. .

Cherokees s a y t h a t someone w i l l come. j i21a21i frwp n . chewing gum Sagwu n i d e g a l a d i s d v j i l a l i d e h i y v h v v i , howaju? Vi2 hSfWJ2G' - S A B a T , IGd? bWP Get one package o f chewing gum, okay? ~ i ' ~ s a n. Jesus htl

H i l a iyuwakdi ijadawoda k o h i g o g i ? A W TGGAA TCLUL AA AY? How many t i m e s have you gone swimming t h i s summer?

v . p r e f . p a s t t e n s e ( s e e Gram. I , A1 v . p r e f . r e l a t i v e ( s e e G r a m . I , A)

Ilvhiyu7is hiyasgitsv J i s a ? T 4AGT@ A a Y J R hV? Have you e v e r dreamed a b o u t J e s u s ? ji2sdu


h@S n . r a b b i t

ja~

v . p r e f . second p e r s o n s i n g u l a r ( s e e Gram. I , B)
~ CWY n . Cherokee (language) ~ ~ 1 ~

K@ L L PC B 4 T l - d f i @ r b@S
ji3sdv2na
h 3 B

J o s d a d a h n v h l i ulvkwdi j i s d u j u y s d i v i .

M b r o t h e r l i k e s t o hunt r a b b i t s . y ~ i n. crayfish Jisdvna digihyaluga. h 3 ' 8 JY3Mf L e t ' s go h u n t crawdads.

J a l a g i s hiwonisgi? C X @ BVhZY? Do you speak Cherokee?


J? 2 I? 2 p i , $ 2 j F 2 1 ? 2 g i n . Cherokee
CWY, D W C Y

$2ni2jg21g2gi

DhCWY

j i 3 s d v 2 n a +'da2jvy4sgi n. scorpion

h . 3 8 DLCaY

H i l a n a n i l a A n i j a l a g i dunilvhwisdane J a l a g i Ayehlivi? 13W BhD DhCWY Sh48@Li1 CWY DdCT? How many Cherokees work a t t h e Cherokee Nation? cf: Dijalagi

J i s d v n a a d a j v y s g i uwajvhyv u l a s i h d e n i fr@G'B D L O Y BGCB B W b S h . - s c o r p i o n s t u n g him on h i s f o o t . A cf: ji3sgwa adajvysgi, jisdvna


h2.T

n. b i r d

~ ? ~ 1 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ w e T ~ n . iNorth i CWJOJ t ~ 7 Carolina Jalaguweti ina i d i g a t i dodala. CWJOJ TB T J S J V L W . -. There a r e t a l l mountains i n North Carolina. cf: J a l a g i , uweti v . p r e f . first person singular s u b j e c t ( s e e Gram. I , D)

Igada jisgwa juganowv w a n i l o s g o g o l a yinulstana. TS L b2.T 65.76 GhG@A A A4P2WB. W Some b i r d s m i g r a t e s o u t h i n t h e winter. ji23~gwo32gwo h @ W n. robin

jiji2gj'
'

Jisgwogwo g i g a g e geso g a n e j i v i . YSF F-f. S i l b T . A robin has a red b r e a s t . -j 2 t a 2 3 ga


h.Wf n . c h i c k e n

*1i

hYPP n . c h i c k a d e e

J i g ? L l iyinigawe a d a n e l v navv, k i l o d a g a v l u h j i a n a d i s g o Anij a l a g i . hS'Fl- .4hS.U DLA3 B i , YG LSMh D8J2A DhClc'J-. !+'hen - c h i c k a d e e s i n g s n e a r a house, a

J i t a g a g v j a h l a n v ulvkwdi u g i s d i . fr\l f ECCP B?trd B Y J d . He l i k e s t o e a c f r i e d c h i c k e n . j i 2 t a 2 3ga ?'chv2ya n. rooster


b\Vf DC2

juganoji ji2ta23ga q2ni2chv2ya bWS D h C 3 Getv ukivla jitaga achvya ayhga.

135

jo21a KW n. tobacco Gohigi j igesv j l anatvhisdisgv Anioa jalagi . F6 QYW bWS DC3 D B S . . MY h f R KW DQslAaJaE DhCWY. A rooster is sitting on a post crowing. Long ago the Cherokees raised tobacco. j i23yu b G n. boat, airplane K w h n. window ahlawidisgi jigowhtiha. Disduvida igesesdi jolani, dehisduhnvpi. LG Df BA2Y bAG2 .G J 2 S T L T f 4 a - l -, S A J S D T . Kwh I see an airplane. If the windows happen to be open, close t h e m . n. pilot -ju n. ,v.suf. question marker (see ji23yu di2n92hla2~i2tdi4sgi Gram. I, D)

--

b G ABfBJA2.Y

Gado usdi asgaya

sv

dihlawitdisgi?

0 2 0 2 5 3 I ~ GA ~ B J A ~ Y ? ~

ju2dg21e2hnv4da dL@L various

adj different,

Which man is thy pilot? cf : ahlawitdisgi, jiyu


ji2yu4kdi b G A A adv. straight

~LPJL 8.
They have various things on sale. cf: nudalevi
dL3tT

Judalehnvda unisgohldidaTna.

(directional)

Go straight ahead. jo2gi KY adv. upstream didla inena.


KY - 20%T A e .

n. chairman,
d9LdtT

president Gag 'udatihna ijadahlgv?i?


S A dh

Let's go upstream.

Who is the chairman of your group? ju23ga3na2w4?i d S Q 6 T n. south Juganaw didla danukdisgo sasa gola yinulstana.

E -

jT27i KT adj three Jovi jusvhida widagedoli Nvdagi.

-R 9 L KT d

BLfVP DLY.

I'm going to Texas for three days.


cf: jo?ine?i
j q 27.2 1 ne4?i KTAT

dS 86 A J a A 88 W8. - J63 L 4south whenAW A 4 P acomes. Geese head winter

cf: uganawa j ~ ~ ~ a n h ~ d de e S~ n n. cabbage S~ 8 a Na digalogisgi u anhdena ahwisga. 9 ASGYaW d S 9s The farmer is planting cabbage.

adj. third Jo7ine uganhda3dv hwihyvhgwidagi. Turn to the third page. cf: jo?i
KTA - BSDLG

BBVLY.

dS ~ i ~ j i ~ n. Wednesday ~ j ~ ~ n ~ ~ n o 'ZIT n. centipede j~2ni~~?~no'ji d h S Z b Jo?ine jigesv g~wahni~ida. K T / ~ b f R' EG hYL Gahisgahos juniganoji? -- s He's been none since Wednesdav. sdas pa d h s z b ? Are YOU afraid of centi~edes? cf: iga, jo3ine?i

~ ~~~a ~ K T A T S~

136

jugvwahldi n. price Jujayosdi uyanv asiladvsga dlogesv.


dCfiad 820 DbWPaS PfFb

j ~ ~ g v ~ ~ w a h l6EGG.I ~di

Galvladi jugvwahldi igesesdi hla vidvkiwasi danwalela. If the price is too high, I'm not going to buy the car. cf: dagvwahldiha ju2gv2wah12di dEGGd n. wealth Hla jugvwahldi yinigvhnisisgo alihelisdi eesvvi.
C d E d d J 5 h ~ h b aDP?P@d FRT. ~

He's putting up barbed wire fence around the pasture. cf: gajayohiha j ~ ~ k ~ ~ n v l s d e ~ 0~ n B n. bull da 2S a ju2na2kg2nv1sde2~na d & l 0 a S 8 Wahga jukanvsdena dilsdisgi nulstanv unalivi.
GS d a 0 . 8 dPad2.Y 4PaWO BBP T

His friend became a bullfighter. ju2ksv4sdi dSR2.I adj. smoky Degaligas niga juksvsdi jigi?
SSPaS hS dSR2.I IrY?

--

~ealthoes not cause happiness. j ~ ~ ~ h l i ~ ? i ~ l v ~ s t ?dCTqaW0T ~nv~?i adv. in the past, formerly Juhli?ilvstanv hla vsgi iga yidiganolvsee?i.
I C ~ ? @ W O i A Y TS AdSZ?@FT. C

Is it smoky because of grass fires? cf: daksvsdiha, j ~ ~ k s v ~ ~ s d i (smoke) j ~ ~ k s v ~ ~dsSdU 1 n. smoke i Juksvsdi uhayvhle anadiha.
d S R 2 l B+BL D9d.G.

In the -- past there weren't as many storms. cf: ahlivili ju2hna2j04sdi d t K @ d adj. sour ju2ni2hna2j04sdi d h t K 2 . I Gohidi udihlehgv yigane unvdi juhnajosdi nigalsdisgovi. AA-ALE J5SA B o d d f K a d h S P a d a A T . If milk is left out m e heat too long, it becomes sour. ju2hng2wo d t O n. his clothes Juhnawo dagvgi lo?eha achuja . d W L EYGR.G DdC. The boy's clothes are being washed for him. cf: dihnawo

~ h e y he ~ a was asphyxiated by smoke. cf: daksvsdiha, goksga, ju2ksv4sdi (smoky1 ju2kta2ji3sdq2hli dSWIraLC n. copperhead ju2nq2ktq2ji3sda2hli dBSWh@LC Ale juktajisdahli nijiyalasdvda. I almost stepped on - copperhead. a j ~ ~ k t o ~ ~ y v ~ ~ i ~ T ad i adv. dSVB s d blinding (brightness) Udohiyu juktoyvvisdi agaliha.
3VAG dSVBTa1 DSP.G.
D 6 dSWIr@LC h h 3 W 3 L

The sunshine is very blinding. ju21a1sgi dWW n. alligator Julasgi usgahljv hi?a asgaya.
d w a y B a s P C AD ~ a s a .

j ~ ~ ~ h y v ~ d l dBP ? i n. north v~ T Juh dlv didla jukti ganolvsgv?i. & P 1 d S 3 SZ?@ET. The wind is from the north. cf: u2hyv4dla (cold)

This man was bitten by an alligator. ju21a1sgi dW2Y n. 1. cast iron 2. a sort of cast iron pot Uweti julasgi uha eji.

j ~ ~ j ~ ~ ~ dCfi2.J d i . barbed, o ~ s adj thorny

jusvhida
8 d J dW2.Y B.E. Rlr. .2 i u21; ~

137

Ije junadasdudi dvnahnesgehi


TY d Q b a S 1 6 Q A a t A .

My mother has an old --pot. cast iron hv~~~alsdi JPC&d adj. brave ju2ng21?2chv23ya1 sdi d8PCGiQd Julichvyasdi yigese,hla yigvwalitisevi. d P C 2 2 d a 4 , L? AEGP2'4T. If he was brave, he wouldn't have run away. cf: achvyavi

They are going to build - new a

@.

j ~ ~ n ~ ~ d e ~ h lsdi4?i ~ dw a e f I a 1 T l o h ~ BS n. school Gado usdi junadehlohgwasdi dejadehlohgwa?e?i?

sv

b a d d e w x a d SCSGXRT~

Which school did you attend? cf: adehlohgwava, didehlohgwasgi ju2na12sdayh1di47i d 8 P a L B I T n. cafe, restaurant Junalsdayhdi ajinahlava oginalivi. My friend is employed at - restaurant. a cf: alsdayvhvsga ~ u n h ~ ~ i ~ l o ~ D Yd id n. Friday J s BJ Junhgilosdi iga dekgilosgo7i.
dDYQa1 T f S U B a A T . d 8 P a L B d Dh8L'D b Y 8 P T .

Pn a j ~ ~ l ? ~ ? eJ~ R B adj. deaf j ~ ~ n i ~ l ? ~ ? e ~ h Pa 8 dn R Juwoyeni gvhdi dahlinohehdisgo @& livens yvwi. d V 8 h Ed LC7?daA d h P R 8 B 8 .

He talks to deaf people in sign language. j ~ ~ l i l s d ~ ~ n a P a Li P n. catfish d~ l 8 ju2ni21i1sda2na21i d h P a L 8 P Junilisdanali jusuhdi ulvkwdi.
dhP@lBP d r l 8 W d .

S h e s her laundry on Fridays.

He likes to fish for catfish.


j u210h14di

d B 9 d adj

. striped

ju2ni2dlvlgi47i d h P y ~n. hospital Hila igohida hwinhge'i junidlvgivi?


AW T R S L BDtT d h P y T 7

ju2ni210h14di

dhQ 9 1

How long were you in the hospital? cf: udlvga, udlvgi

Where did you put my striped shirt? ju12s; 3hnv4da JPbDL adv. nightly Julsihnvdas dejalvhwisdaneho?i?
d r b o ~ a waLm T? sc

Do you work nightly? j ~ ~ l v ~ ~ h w i ~ s d a ~ 9 8 e L f hAi n. dna~l worker j ~ ~ n i ~ l v 3sda1ne4hi d h 4 8 a L f l A ~~hwi Iga uniyohisdi junilvhwisdanehi.
T f BhfiAad dh98aLflA.

ju2ni2sv2sdi47i d h R 2 1 T n. hotel, motel Sohneladu isgohitsgwa gahlgwasgo nvhgi ude tiyvsadisv ije junisvsdi unahnesgehv Anijalagi Daligwa na?v?i.
I A W S T 2 R S h X f P X a A DY B S J B t l d R T Y h R 2 d 8 8 A a F 8 DhCWY L P I 8i T

In t e year 1974, the Cherokees built a new motel near Tahlequah. cf: usvhiha, usvvi
R~ n. j ~ ~ s v ~ ~ hdi 9 L d a days Sgohi jusvhida to uwedolv dulvhwisdanehv7i. J A B d R 9 L V 899V9 S 9 8 a L A B T .

+
-

The workers are on a noon break. ju2ng2da2sdu1di47i,di2da2sdu1di47i JOLaSdT, JLaSdT n. jail

He went on a vacation for ten days.

ju2we3nv1sv4?i d990RT

n. his home

Kalogwekdi navv agwatvsvvi.


SGZYJ f i 3 DIPRT.

I grew UD near Locust Grove. Oginalivi juwenvsv widagedoli.


dYf3PT dO@R B L f V P .

cf: kalogwekdi, -i (locative) k a ~ ~ s e ~ a Pj b n. 1. sugar 2. candy ~ 4i

I am going to my friend's house. -jv adj .suf. extremely, exceptionally (see Gram. 111, B)

-jv?i adj suf. extremely (see Gram. 111, B) j ~ ~ ~ spron. yourself (see Gram. a 111, B) jv2sgi2no m Z n. hell Jvsgino?is ehi Sedani?
CDZTa 4Lh?

She-bought
sv oar

Kalseji uhwahi kalseji juwohlvhdodi. sugar to make candy.

a ~ 4 BGR a ~ 4 6 m v ~ . b d

k??21v4?i a 4 T n. month Gado usdi ka?lv jadetiyisgi?


a47ziay?

What month is vour birthdav? k?%a2ma a$$ n. butterfly Kamama uki?la jahnuwv?i.
a T $ BYW C 4 6 T .

Is Satan from hell? cf: asgina, dasginadi?a, sgina

m r e ' s a butterfly on your shirt. k?%a2ma a$$ n. elephant Kamama anehyahtahi dunihyoha.
a T T DAWA sh17.G.

Ka2g??21i a S P n. February Kaga?li ka?lv ogan unvgovisdi geso?i.


a s p a 4 AS^ B O A T ~ IT. - ~

They 're hunting wild elephants. k? 2n? 2.-1 d e ~ ~ aj /i @ s b n. wasp 11 ~ e r Kanajisdeji aninohilidoha doyi.
a f 3 b a S b DhZ9PV.G V d .

Groundhog day is in the month of February. ka23hwi 9 8 n. coffee Uhyvsdi kahwi agilvkwdi.

T h e r e r e wasps flying around outside. kg2ng21u2sga af3MaS v. i. he's ascending an incline ji1n?21u2sga b0 a MS ~'hn~~lu~sv~~?i BfMRT kg2na21u2sgo3?i af3MaAT hi2hn?21u23hi A tMR ~~hn?~lu~h;~sdi BtMRaJ Usegajv uhnalusvvi odalv7i.
B4SC BtMRT dL 4 T .

@Bara

@ j J .

I likeTtrong coffee. k?21i4?i a P T adj. full di2ka21i4?i JaPT Ama kali adlisdi svdoni.
D$ Q P D C ~ R V ~ . J

The bucket is full of water. k?2101gwe2ekdi a 0 J Y J n. locust tree

Kalogwekdi josda digetvsdi dadohlvsgo?i.


aG3YJ

KL a

JfPaJ LWaAT

He - barely ascended the mountain. k92ng21~~2sgv4?i 90MaET adv. uphill Kanalusgv ulehwisdanelv dagwalela.

Locusts make good posts. cf: Kalogwekdi?i ~ ? ~ l o l ~ w e ~ ~ k d a 0~ ? J T i JY i Grove n. Locust

W M ~ E B ~ E I ~ LL Ad - W . 4 x

kanegwadiha His car stalled going uphill. cf: kanalusga ka2na231y3?i2sdi 9 8 4 T a J Yv nijvga kanalv?isdi.
B ~ G 9ewaJ. S
saeasc.6 SGTPT .

139

He's rooting - bushes. out cf: kanasdehldi, uhnasdedlvvi k?2na1sdeh123di 9 8 2 S P 1 n. pick di2ka2na1sdeh12 3di J982SPJ Kanasdehldi hinohlv hi?luhjv?i. Bring - pick when you come. a cf: kanasdedliha, uhnasdedlv?i kg2nq2w032ga 9 W S ji1n92w032ga k;)2n?2w032g03?i hi2hn?2w01gi v.i. he's cold
6 WS L?t@GT 9WAT AtVY 9 8 3 P J A D AMGT.

n. anger

Put ae n. g cf: uhnalvga, uhnalvha ka2na231v3sdi2ha 98421.6 v.t. he's making him angry j i l ~ ~ a ~ ~ l v ~ s d i ~ b 8 421.6 ha ~ ~ h n a ~ ~ l v ~ s t ? ~ n 42WD-T i Of v ~ ~ ? kg2na231v3sdi2sgo3?i 984212AT hi1na21v2sda A84@L u2hna231v3sdoh2di B t 4@VJ Nvya gvhdi degvhnihv duhnalvstanv kanai isdei i. 03 EJ s E h a St 42W@ LlBb2Sb. He - angered the wasps by hitting them with rocks. cf: kanalvTisdi, uhnalvga ka2na?2ne23sgi 96/1AY

u2hna2w02sdi B to31 Jinawogo yuhyvdla doyi.


h 8 8 A GBda V A . I get -when it's cold outside. cold -

cf : uhnawasdiha ka2ne3ga 9AS v.i. 1. he's speaking 2. he's answering b AS jilne3ga ~lhne~jv~~vi BACT kg2ne3g03?i 9AAT hi2hne1gi u2hng2sdi Kanegis chiyalinohehdisgv, hlake?
a ~ y aF ~ P Z ~ J ~ CF? I E , BAY @A21

. .

n. spider

Kana?nesgi kaniladewsga.
LlWlZV 9hWSBaS A - spider is making a web.

kg2na32sg?2dv4"i 98RPT n. his toe de2kg3na32sg?2d~4?i S38UPT Usdi kanasa?dv udahyehlalv galuysdi gvhdi.
021

He cf: uhnasgwalo?a

aeur ~ 8 s ~ a a ~ ~ E . - 8little toe4 with Jan cut his -

axe.

Did he -- answer when you were speaking to him, or not? kg2ne3gwa2di3ha 9AI1.6 v.t. he's prying it ji1ne3gwg2di 3ha bAI1.6 ~ ' h n e ~ g w ? ~ d v37i v ~ BAIPrlLT ~h ka2ne3gw?2di23~gp3?i 9AIJaAT hi2hne lgwg2da BAIL u2hnelgwa3tdi BAUJ Getilosdi gvhdi uhnegwadvhv uhnihlgv?i.

ka2na32sde2dli3ha 98aSC.6 v.t. he's rootini it out j i l ~ ~ a ~ ~ s d e ~ d l i ~ hb 8 2 ~ c . 6 a ~lhna~~sde~dlv~hv~~?i QtaSP9.T kg2na32sde2dli23sgp3?i 98aSCaAT h12hna1sde23ala At@S& ~~hnalsdehl~~di Bt@SP1 Dekanasdedliha duwa?ihlv?i.

F J Q J l E l BAX6& BhMET.
' e pried the stump with a crowbar.

!~?~neh~gwo~?a Y D v.t . he 's accumu~A lating it, he's increasing it ji'neh2gwo3?a IrAY D ~ ~ h n e h ~ g w o ~ ? vOAYi T ~~?i k?2neh2gwo3sgo3?i 9AYJAT hi2hneh2gwo23 a j BAY C ~ ~ h n e h lsdiw o ~~ 0~Ya-i Uhnehgwovv julvhwisdanhdi usgwayda dadehlohgwasgv?i.
OAYi - d 4 8 a L A l OaXL LSefXaET. He increased his work load when

Amadv ase uwedasdi kanesahla jateyvsga. DrY6" 0 4 0 9 aJ 9AVf CXBaS. 9L. I guess it's heating up because there's foreign matter in the water line. cf: adahlinesahldi, kanesahlvsga kg2ne3sa2hly3sga 3AUPaS v .t. he's contaminating it (with visible foreign matter) ji1ne3sq2hly 3sga IrAVPaS u1hne3sq2hlq3nv3?i BAUfQT kg2ne3sg2hly3sgg3?i 9AUPaAT hi2hne1s32hlv1ga AAUP S u2hne1sahl3di BAUP d Gago uhnesahlane amahldi?i?
SA BAVL'A D n l T ?

he

Enished school. cf: kanehgwoga kg2neh2gwo3ga 9AYS v. i . it 's accumu lating, it's increasing

Udlvgi udihlehvsgv kanehgwoga. The patient's fever - increasing. is cf: kanehgwo?a kg2ne3?12~di3ha 9 A T a l . L v. i. he's mentioning it ji1ne3?i2sdi3ha Irfl TJJ+ ~ l h n e ~ ? i ~ s t ? ~ n v ~ ? i TaWQT @A k?2ne3?i2sdi23~gg3?i 9 A T a l a A T
BPY B l L a a E 9 A Y S .

Who put foreign matter - the well? in cf: kanesahla kg2ne1sg3?i 9AUT n. box d12kg2ne1s?3?i l a f l ~ ~ Hiva dikanesa?i jusihwa .
AD laAUT d b G .

These boxes are empty. kg2ne23~ d a ~ ~ h l ? ~ h v ~ ? L f & 9Aa i n. nest de23k?3ne23sda32h1g2hv4?i S9A@Lf&7 Kanesdahlahv dagalohi jisgwa a7da.
a A a L f a L S G A hax D L . A young bird fell out of -a nest.

kq2ne3s?'hla aAUf v. i. it's contaminated (by visible foreign matter)

kg2ne1sga aAaS n. hay Gogi yinulstana, kanesga aninsanesgo anichuja.


AY J S ~ P ~ w a s, D ~ ~ U A M C . W ~ D~ A

In the summertime, the boys haul

&,.

kanoyeha kg2ni2ge"ni a h k h n. his knee di2ka2ni2ge4ni J a h k h people. cf: kanoheha ka2n02he3ha it

141

. .

Ansgvti jika7lv ajiyehlalv kanigeni.


Dham

She had surgery on -- last May. her knee kg2ni2hlY3sga ahP@S v.t he's collecting from him ji1ni2hly3sga u1hni2hlg3nv37i kg2ni2hly3sgp37i hi1ni2hlv1ga u2hnih12di
IrhP@S @MOT ahP@AT AhP S 8hPJ

Ira 9

DbBf 9 a h k h .

923.6 v.t. he's telling

Hlesdi jihihnohehli nulstanidolv7i.


LaJ bAZ?C 9PJWhV9T.

Jitugv iga dajinihlani jigo7v7i.


b S E TS IbhL'h b A i T .

Don't -what happened. tell cf: kanoheda kg2n023hi3ya27a a2930 v.t. he's omitting him, it

I'm from him -going to collect -owes me when I see him.

what he

kg2ni2kwsa ah'iPtl n. rat Gado usdi dehihisdisgo kanikwsa?


SV 836 SAA@JaA 9h'iPbr-

What do you kill rats with? k?2n02ge 9 Z F n. 1. arm 2. wing di2ka2n02ge J a Zk Jitaga kano e asdigi7a.

. .

Ase7is hinohiye?i?
D4T@ A D B T ?

~ W a S

He's cf: kanogeni

dm. eating - chicken 9. a


n. 1. his arm 2.

Did -youomit him on purpose? -cf : kanohiyegi


2 3 ye Kg 2no hi 3 4gi aZ9BY n. Passover Supper Jo7i iyanvda iyudali Kanohiyegi analsdayvhvsgo Anijalagi Dinadawosgi.

kg2no2ge4ni 9 Z k h it's wing

di 2kg2no2ge4ni JaZk h Kanogeni ulsgwalselv unvja.


3 Z k h B P a I P 4 4 BOG.

make --when his arm


cf: kanoge

KT T20L TGLP aZ.9BY DeP@LB&A DhCWY J8LUAY.

he fell.

ka2no2he 23da a Z ? L n. 1. news 2. gospel Kanoheda kanohesgi kanoheda kanoheha. The newscasteristelling the news. Ah1jadohvsgi -kanoheda duhljadohnelv yvwi.
DPCVi(L2Y a Z ? L SPGVA4 B 8 .

Cherokee Baptists eat Passover Supper every three months. cf: kanohiya7a kg2n03ye2ha Z8.G him, it v t . he s fanning

a z ? ~~

Z ~ a zY 3 ~ z 1 . 6 . J a

ji1n03yg2ha b 28.G ~ l h n o ~ y e ~ h v ~ Z 8 di 8~ 7 T

A preacher-ached

the gosptl t o the -

142

kanugahli She - strains cloth. sassafras tea with a

hi'n~~yv~~la, hi2hno2yv231a
AZBW, AZBW u2hno2yeh3di B ZBd

Usdi ujeli kanoyeha udaji7i.


BAJ BYP

a ZB+ B L ~ T . is The mother - fannini her baby.


cf: adahnoyeha, adahnoyo

Gado usdi kanvsulv aya?a udlvgi? Which room is the ~atientin? kg2nv23wi3?a 9O8D v.t. 1. he's curing, doctoring him 2. he's soldering, welding it j b @BD
B0CD.T f V B a d a@K9 030 BPY? -

kan2sda2ji 9 8 2 L b n. sassafras Jalvkwdis kansdaji aganv jaditasdi?


ewda

Do you like to drink sassafras tea? kg2nulgg2hli 9 4 f C n. blackberries Kanugahli agwadesdi agwaduliha.
94fC DXS@d DZSP+. I want to pick blackberries.

aeaL1r

DSO e n a d ?

k?2nv23wi32sgo3?i 9O8aAT hi1nv2wvlga, hi2hnv2wv1ga


A W S , AQGS ~ ~ h n v ~ ~ w o ~ BWd ~ d i

k+2nu2na

9 48 n. bullfrog

Gahlida gvhdi dayohiha kanuna. He's shooting bullfrogs with arrows. kg2nu3y021?3di3?a 94fiWdD misting v. i. it Is
SC6 Ed LEA+ 9 9 8 . -

Didahnvwisgi uhnvwanv achuj galeni uwesdanehv7i.


d L 0 . 8 2 BOG@ DdC f d'h 0'99aLAd.T.

A medicine man cured the boy's earache. Julasgi atalesv kanvwiva talugisgi dikanvwisgi.
d W 2 DWd'R 9@8D W M Y a d 9 O B 2 .

A welder is welding a hole in a cast iron pot. cf: didahnvwisgi, nvwot i ~ ? ~ w o ~ h9n i n. April Oh Kawohni tavline, sohneladu isgohitsgwa =sudali aawadehne7i. I was born April second, nineteen hundred forty-six. kg2w021?2de3?a 9OWSD v. i. he's breathing g??2w021?2de3?a S OWSD ~lhwo~l?~de~sv~~?i BBWSRT

--

0 -

a-

-,a --

--

It was -- misting when I came in. kg2nv3s021v23sdi3ha strainini it


9OI4a-I.G v.t. he's

99fiWdaE6' b L b B D .

ji1nv3s021v23sd~3ha b& .3@_I.G u1hnv3s02~v23st~3nv23~i 4@WDT BOI k?2nv3s021v23~di3sgo3?i 6)O.I 9AdaAT hi2hnv1s021v23sda AQI 9216 ~ ~ h n v ~ s o ~ ~ l v ~ s d o h001i ~ d .7@vd Ahnawo gvhdi kanvsolvsdisgo kansdaji aganvvi .
DtV Ed 9 W 4 J d a A 9 8 d L b DSOT.

Na achuja udanvhida udanawstanv iyusdi sdaya kawoladeva. 8 D d C WLD.Ad BL8GJWO TGJJ JL3

a fire, light gv1dlg2d+3?a uwh'dla3dvZ3?i EdJD

~OW$D.
The boy - breathing hard because he is ran a long distance. ka2woZ3nu aV? n. duck Kawonu amayi unilvkwdi. 989 DTZJW h W J . Ducks like the water. kg2yv2s041i aB#p n. his nose

86666'T

Kayvsoli adanegali udihlehgi agalisgv iyusdi . QBIP DLASP OILY DSPJE TGJJ. His nose " -- is ~eelinedue to the hot sun. cf: dekayvsgwoviha kde3ga ESS v.t. he's parting with him (in death) ji2yv'de3ga bBSS uwh1de3jvZ37i 8 6 S C T ESAT kde3g03vi hi2yv'delgi ABSY uwh2de2vi3sdi 86ST.21 Hila iyv jigesv uwhdeje anineli? Hla yagwanhte nehvna gesv'i. A W TB bFR B6SY D M P ? f 3IOX Ale8 FRT. with her? When did her husband part -I didn't know he was not living.

kd1?2di32sg?3?i E U a A T ((M6L hvh2dlf2da ~ w h ~ d l ? ~ d i ~ s d86UJJ i Hvhdlada gotv'i; doyu udihlehga. U L APT; V G BJLS Put out the fire; it's too hot. ---Dajvstv duwhdlavdv anagalisgi. LC3 DBSPaY. The lightning ~ t h lights e out. cf: kdlosga

kdli3ha EC+ v.t. he's sharpening it gv'dli 3ha EC+ ~ w h ' d l v ~ h v ~ ~ vW 6 P 8 T i kdliZ3sgq37i ECaAT hvh2dla Sis hvhdliha galuysdi? b@ K+ SM&J? Are you still sharpening the axe? cf: dikdlvhdi kdlo2sga E6aS v.i. it (fire, light) is going out

kdi3ha EJ+ v.t. hers using it p l d i3ha EJ+ uwh1ta2nv37i 8 6 W O T kdiZ3sgq37i EJJAT 81 hhd v'a uwh2doh3di 86VJ Adolanvsdi gvdisgo yagwedola. DVWOAJ EJaA 33VW. I use a cane when I walk around. --

Dugohnohna ada uwhdlosv gotvvi. SAZt DL 8 6 6 R APT. When the wood burned up, the fire went out. -cf: kdladi'a kdv3vy2sga EPi@S v.t. he's putting it (flexible object) into a fire gv'dv3?y2sga EPiaS uwh'dv 3nv237i 866"OT

kdlg2di3?a E U D

v.t. he's putting out

Unadadesvda duligalselv7i asehnv duhwihlanv7i.


BBLSRL SPSP44T D4@ SBE0.T.

Nigohilv digohweli danhdv7vsgo gotv7i.

They always put paper -the fire. into


cf: gvtvsga -ke n. ,v suf. or (see Gram. I, D)

hAA4 J M P L W i a A APT.

His chain broke but -linked - back he it together. cf: atihldi ki21a YW adv. later Kila wigedolv digaduhv?i.
r @ I - ~ JSSS.T. 4

ke21a3di3d01ha I-WJV+ v.i. he's mingling with a group gc?21a2di3d01ha I- WJV+ u1hwc21a2di3d01 1v23?i BdWJV47

. .

I'll eo to town later. ki21a4 YW adv. 1. early in 2. not long ago Kila -usv agihlvhnv usv jigesv?i.
YW OR DYPP OR bI-RT.

. . he21a2di23da . .

ke21a3di3d01h03?i

I- WJVE T
?WJL

~Ewentto sleep earl last night. Kila wijisduhvga jo ani.

-?.

Tsgwisdi yvwi nunadvhnv uhweladidasdi ulvkwdi.


k v a J B B 4 ~ 0 BdwJLaJ B W J . .

YW - @basas K W ~ I have j s closed the window. ut

She to - likes - mingle with a lot of people. cf: keli ke41i I-P n. member ?3hnp21i DAP Oginali?i Daligwa dinadaniyisgi unadohlvsv?i keli. My friend - -a member of the ~ a h l e ~ u a h is police force. cf: ateladi?a, keladidoha ke23mi31i I-HP n. camel Diganihlv ganvsga ujeli kemili.
JShP Spa5 BYP I-HI'. dJYBPT L P ~ B L ~ Z BBVPRT I - P . A Y

k121?3gwu ~ 1 ) adv. pretty soon Kilagwu widadiluhji

Y m BLJMb.

We'll get there pretty soon. k121g3gwu i2yv4da Y m TBL adv immediately Ajisonvhna kilagwu iyvda uluhjv aganakti

When he was wounded, a doctor was there immediately. ki2104 YO pron. someone Eligwus kilo yakinohis nigalstanvsgv?
RP2a Y
Q ~ h Dr a w @ a ~ ? s ~

D b f O t - - BMC 0 5 8 5 3 . YM3 TBL

He's sending his G e l to bed. ki2hly3sga YPaS v.t. he's linking it

Can someone tell me what's happening? cf: hla kilo k12yu32ga YGS n. chipmunk Inage aneho kiyuga.
TBI- DAfi

gY2?i2hly3sga ETPaS ~lhwi~hl?~nv~?i 0BED.T ki2hlY3sgo3?i hv2hi2hlvlga

Chipmunks live in the woods. kj?2gy3?y2~ga ECEiJS v.t. he's shaking a flexible object

m.

. .

YP JAT BAP S

kuwajunega ji2yv1j?2e3?y2sga,
I y jiyh 1.? 2gy 3 7 2sga

145

bBCEi@S , frBCEi@S

Take the ashes out of the stove. cf: kosduhavi ko1sdu2ha4?i A@S+T adj dusty g2ni2k01sdu2ha4?i, di2k01sdu2ha4?i
DhA@S+T, J&S+T

uwhlja2gv32nv23?i

Q~CEOT

kjg2E3?y2~go3?i ECEiJAT hi2yv1jg2gv1hya, hvh2jg2gY2?v1ga


A B C E J , &GELS ~ w h ~ j ~ ~ ~ v ' d i B6CEJ

Kosduha nulstanv usulv unvja.


A@S+ 4P@WO 4 DOC.

Ganihli ayesdvdi ulesa dikayodisgi?i uwhjagvnvvi .


ShC 0 8 x 1 B&U J a f i J W T 8 6 C E Q T .

=pants became dusty when he fell. cf: kosdu kto3?a EVD v.i. it (long object) is hanging

When she took the sheet o u t e dryer, she shook it.

---

~o~de~sgi, t2k02de4sgi AS&, n. Spade Anikodesgi gohusdi digwvhni.


D h A S W AT@J J E h .

DASW

The -Spades

are my cousins. cf: akodesdi

Hadlv kt070 akugisdi?


. . . .

ko3ga AS n. crow 5 selu dininosgisgi.


AS J W W . - 4M areh corn thieves. Crows

w - -T E Y ~ J ? EvZ Where does the dipper hang?


cf: gada?a, gata

ko1hi4 iL9 adv. a while ago Kohi jigesv jijigo7v.


r b

T s a w him -a while 9. k 0 l h i ~ ~ y v ~ 7 iB T a d ~ . U later, after a while Sgiktiyesdi. Kohiyv dvjiluhji.


WS38@J.

f frfrAi ~

Wait for me. while.

- GkMk. AAB

kto3sa2di3?a EVBJD v.t . he's hanging up a long object ga1t03s?2di3?a S VUJD ~ w h l t o ~ s ? ~ d v ~ ~86VUGT ?i k t ~ ~ s ? 32sgo3?i EVUJJAT ~di hg2t01sg2da +VB l uwh2to l~?~dilsdi 8 6 V U J a J Aginohalidolv i?agiluhja akwtosa?dv?i naloewe.

1'11 be back -- a after

2 my gun.

~ Y Z & V TDYMC DEVUGT 5 0 3 . ~ When I returned from hunting, I

ko2jla AW n. bone Kola junisdigisdi unilvkwdi gihli.


T J YC - d h@JY@J 8 h Wbones.. Dogs like to eat

cf: gadv?vsga, gatvsga kv2wa JG n. mulberries Jisgwa unilvgwdi kuwa unigisdi?i.


k @ I O h W J JG 8-T. -

kolsdu AaS n. 1. ashes 2. dust Kosdu hilagi osi?i.

Birds like to eat mulberries. n. sycamore

ZF~AWY - dsb~.

ky2w?3ju3ne2ga JGdflS

146

kuwaya k~?~nun~sdi~'iX Q B J d T n. plum degadesgo

Kuwajunega dluhgv uwahnilv anagalisgi.


J G d A S V E B G h q DOSPAY.

Lightning struck - sycamore tree. a

Gogi yinulstana kwanunsdi'i eji ale degahldisgo'i.

kv2wa2ya J G 3 n. huckleberries Kuwaya tsgwisdi ganadego'i gogi yinulstana. J G 3 h P @ J S O S A T AY &9P@W8. He sells a lot of huckleberries in the summer. cf: Kuwayo'i

AY

JSQPJWB X Q B 2 d T S S S 2 A R b Dcf SSQJJAT.

Every summer my mother picks plums and cans them.

10210 0 n. locust (cicada) 0 Gogi udihlehgi ditvgodi naniwesgv lolo. A B J L Y JPAJ BM@E Q Q . Y You can hear locusts inithe heat of the summer.

Kuwayo widulvhwisdaneho josdadahnvhli


J G f i 8 ~ 4 8 @ I A )K@L IQC

Mrte -ohr works at Pryor. cf: kuwaya ~ ~ ~ ~ e ~ B Y B wn.oJuly ~ n a J ~ ~ Gado jadvnhdi dejukdi Kuyegwona nvheine'i?
SV "CPAJ S d A J J B Y B QYAT?

n-

What are you planning to do July 4th? k ~ ~ ~ h EC in. raccoon l Kvhli juhyohi gihli aksgohldi.
EC d R A Y C D Y J A P J .

-n-

v.pref. 1. lateral position 2. already 3. reference to previously noted action (see Gram. I. A) v.pref. plural (see Gram. I, B )

na 8 interj . here Na! - Ahani adela jikstuga.

13ave -a coon dog for sale.


EhFAT a d ~ . view in

Fire!

Bf

D+h D S W h 2 Y S S .

Here is the money I owe you.

He thought he was hiding, but he was standing -in view.


@J@SL' RP@E D4Q E h F A L S V E T .

Udisgahla elisgv asehnv kvhnigesv dagadogv'i.

na 8 pron. that, those Hadlv dehihvga na digagwatdi?


+' ISAJLS 8 J S I T J ?

Where did you put those wheels? -na n.,pron.suf. and what about? (see Gram. 11, B)

kwg2na I 8 n. peach H' ia digalogisgi kwana datvhisdisgo deganadego'ihno.


AD J S Q Y U 1 8 I P A @ J @ A S S B S A T Z .

na1hi2yu47i BBGT adv. then Nahiyu'is kila tesi?


B K T 2 YW Xb?

This farmer ryises peaches and sells them. k ~ a n ~ d g ~ ~ Io ~ f ~+h n. cobra BL i a Sudali ilasihdi iganvhida kwandayoha ojigowahta.
F L P T W b J T S Q A I I B L f i + 65hAGW.

You're not going until then? na1ni3?a 8hD v.i. there are (a number of three or more must be specified) nolji39a ZhD

We saw a six-foot cobra.

--------------

ni2g023hi31v4?i, n12g0231~ hR9.1, adv. always hA9 Nigohilv alasgalisgo gogi yigi. Hisgi naniva junilvhwisdanehi.
A2Y - dh98aLAA. 8hD

hU9 - DWaSPaA AY AY. during the He's always playing ball

There are --

five workers.

summer. ni2gvnh3de37a hEQSD v.t. he's taking it off ni2gvnh3de3?a hEQSD n~'wanh~de~sv~~?i QGQSRT nj2gvnh3de3sgo3'?i hEm@AT hn~nh~d?~~i WLY i2F3wanh1de1sdi TCGDS2-l Hnvnhdagi waji si amayi winijadetinvna.
W C Y Gb b DT?3 8hCSJQ8.

ng27v 8 ad~. near, close Digadogv na7v hwalehvga.


JSVE 8 i
!

Go staiz near him.

a s .

-nevi adj . suf. ordinal (see Gram. 111, B1 neZ3wt3da AGL n. hominy Hiktahas newada johlvhdi?
A S W . G ~- KPI? AGL

Do you know how to make hominy? ni h interj . look Ni! Gago jidaya?i?
h IrLJT? -! S A Who's that Look!

Takeyour watch -before you dive off into the water. cf: nigvnhdiha, nuwanhdi niZgvnh3di3ha hECfl+ v.t. he's putting it'on

coming?

ni-

see n-

nj2ga4da h f L adj. all Nigada yvwi gvwhtvganv gawonisgvvi.


?JJT - the people heard him speak.
hSL B8 EGFSQ SVhaET.

ni2ga2~q27a ~ S # D v. i . 1. he Is saying it 2. it's barking, meowing, whinnying, cooing, etc.

Daksi nuwanhtanv galohisdivi. He - put a lock on the door. cf: nigvnhdeTa, nuwanhdi ni2hi hA pron. you Nihi -sdahlinohehdi uduliha. h~ - a ~ c z 3 1@ s f + . He wants to talk to you. ni2kv47i hET adv. all over, everywhere Nikv -uwehisdanelidoha adiha.
h~ - od,gacAPv+ DI+. hE - 8dVP L@I 8 T I I Y b 4GWQ SQAadT.

hni 3wi

h8

scwa c ~ b 4W R T ?
Y

Gavulas ivkewsa nuwesv7i?

Have you already forgotten -what he said? Wesa nieawe7a.


d r hSdD b A cats

- meowing.

She says she hurts all over. Nikv uwedolidasdi u m w d i .

148

nogwu
9 C 3 Y R Afi44T.

She likes to go everywhere. no23gwu 23 adv. now Nogwu sdenvsdi unaduliha.

Tell him to come - quickly as as ~ossible. cf: uhlisda nu41a Nula, interj . hurry daginigohniyojis.

a asoa1 BBSP.G. he^ want you two to

go now.

no23gwy31e 238 conj. and then Yaniluhgigwu sunale nogwule nuniluhjvnagwu yigi.
3hM.KJ

4 1 , LYhAhfiba.

They might come tomorrow -- they and then might not. noh2ji Zh. n. pine Juhyahtena danohlvhdisgo7i nohji.
d 3 6 8 L ZPJaAT Zb

re8 238

4hMC-

LV.

Hurry, or we'll be late. cf: ayanuli nu231a ?W interj come here Nula. - Gohusd gvnohisehdi agwaduli.
4W. AT21 E D 4 1 DISP.

They make lumberout of pine. nQ2kwsi ZVb n. star Tsgwisdi nokwsi anika7la kohi usv7i. h P @ l -D h a W AA B R T . ZPb There are a lot of stars out tonight. n ~ ~ no2yi , 2 3 , ZJ5 ~ a n. sand Degalanvdv yidunesdalada noya anilageydvsgo7i nvnohi junilvhmanehi
S S W W J5SAaLWL 2 3 DhWF36"aAT OZA dh48@LflA.

~Tme here. -- I want to tell you something. n ~ ~ 4 9 nn. potato ~ a Ta7lsgohi iyuhliloda igvndena duhwisa nuna -

WP@AA TGCGL T E 8 S 8 SBB 4 8 .

He has twenty acres of potatoes planted. nu1wanh3di ?GO1 v.i. he has something on (objects) na gwvnh3di nu1wanh3dv2 37i nu1wanh3d037i ni2jvnh3de3sdi
8& 01
4GWT 4GDVT hCDS@J

When the streets freeze over, the road maintenance crews dump sand on them. nu23dg31e47i 4 L 8 T adj different Wili nudale dagwalela uha.
81) 4 L 8 L I 8 W 0 % .

Gado usdi ni'vnhdi hihnogeni?


-&mh? SV 0'21 hC 1

willyhas a different car. cf : judal ehnvda nu2danh3tv4na 4 L W 8 adj insane, without a mind Doyu nijadanhtvna.
VG hCL W e .

What do you have on your arm? --cf: nigvnhde?a, nigvnhdiha ~ u ~ ?a ~ New York ~ ~ n. a ~ Hila iyv tesi Nuyagi?
AW TB Xb
- -

When are youToing to -New York? nv2da DL n. sun, moon I a ehi L - - nvda ugodi utana sihnv svnoyi ehi nvda gesvvi. -TS R9 DL B A l OW8 b O RZJ3 R9 0 1

?a?

You are --really crazy. n ~ l h l i ~ ~ s d v ~4vC X T a d ~ . quickly i as as possible Nuhlisdv jesv hiyoselvvi.

F TTT

-- -

nvyohi he - is bigger than the sun moon. cf: ehi, iga, nvdohi, svnoyi n. November Nvdadegwa ka?lv adalenisgo uhyvdlvvi.
O L S I a 4 D L 8 l d A BBPT. QLSI

149

Come back on Thursday. cf: iga, nvhgine?i


@ZQ n. n ~ ~ n o ~ ~ h i road Nvnohi ayehli a?i kilo?i.

I t t a r t s getting cold in the month of November. nv2da di2SF 3sdi DL 1 4 2 1 dar Hadlv nvda disesdi? Where is - calendar? a cf: disesdi, nvda ~ v ~ ~ 0LY ~ ~ i d a n. Texas Nvdagi wagwedolv to?i gedohv igohida.
QLY GJV9 VT j V 8 TRAL. -.
+P ~ _ ~ 6 4 a ~ ?

Someone is walking in the middle of the road.

QZ9 - DBC

DT Y G T .

n. calen-

n v ~ h ~ t o ~ h i OGVAjaL d n. peace ~ ~ ~ ~ a Nvwhtohiyada idehesdi.


OGVA3L T S ? @ d .

Let Is live in peace. n ~ ~ w o ~ ~ t i medicine 082 n. Uhyvdla oniyisgv nvwoti agwaduliha.


BBaB Ah&E
1 I want medicine for a cold.

083 DISP+.

- to Texas during my vacation. I went


-

nv2d04hi OVA adv. on the moon, sun Johiyuhas nvdohi uwedolv gesv yvwi?
K Q G ~ G ~ 0 8 ~ 9I - R B @ ? 0v.0

n ~ ~ w o ~g2da3h$2hi 083 DLAA ~ t i n. poisonous liquid medicine (not to be swallowed) Hlesdi jihaditahi na nvwoti adahihi.
L a 1 I~+AVA e 082 D L A A .

Do you believe that man has been on the moon? -cf: nvda n ~ h ~ ~ adj . four OY i Nvh i iyuhliloda adanawsdisgo nidugiAsvTi.
0 Y TGCGL DLBB212A hSYChRT.

Don't drink that r u m & alcohol. cf: adahihi, nvwoti nvlya 03 n. rock Digagedi gesv disaladodi nvya kilo nosdelisgvna yigi.
d S j 1 j R JUWVJ 03 Y Q 2@SP@EB

%i

runs four miles every morning. cf: nvhgine?i

The rocks were too heavy to lift if no o 5 l p e d . cf: nvyohi nvlya ?2tv2~a1nv4?i n. brick
03 DPL0T

&'.

n ~ h ~ ~ i ~0YAT ~ adji fourth n e ~ . Kuyegwona nvh ine to?i anedoho igada junilvhwisdane r + i.
JBVB QYA VT DAVj TSL d h 4 8 2 L f l A . -

Some workers have a day off on the fourth of July. cf: nvhgi ~ v h ~ ~ i1 ~ 2n a ~ y A TS ? ~e 0 ThursdayNvhgine Iga ihedolv?i.
0 Y A TS T?V9T.

ditvdanvTi ahnekstanv adanelv ganela. He lives in a house made of bricks. nv 1 4hi @fiA adj., rocky yo Nv ohi Odalv dudovv ganela.
A T h IL9 S V i SAW.

--

03 Js'LQT DA2tW0 DLA9 SAW.

n.

--

shelives at a place called Rocky Mountain.

Nvyohi uwohlvhnv d l o g e s i . OfiA @ U P 0 g f b . Hemade a garden i n a rocky p l a c e . cf:

Ohni -u l u h j v 7 i . d h BIMCT. ~ e c a m e fterwards. a 02hni d i 3 d l a Ah Jo% toward t h e back adv. behind,

- i , nvya

0-

v.pref. exclusive (see Gram. I ,

B)
-0-

J i d o g v -- h i d o g e s d i . ohni d i d l a h-V E hh =&2 - I . I VI. A Stand behind me. cf:


-07i

d i d l a , ohni v . s u f . h a b i t u a l ( s e e Gram. I , D) v . s u f . p a s t p e r f e c t ( s e e Gram. I, Dl


6526
1. a d j . good 2 . adv. w e l l

v.suf. repeatedly (see Gram. I ,


C)

01dg21v4?i

d L 3 T n . mountain V L 4T

-o?i 04sda

do1dg21v47i

Dodalv g a l v l a d i aneho awoha7li. V L 4 S 4 W J DAl m + P . Eagles l i v e h i g h a t o p t h e mountains.


b S W t B n . Oklahoma

Ogalahoma j i g i "gigage asgaya" a d i h a Anijahda u n i w o n i h i s d i . 6 s WJ B IrY " Y S F D 2 f 3" DJ+ DhCL

Hi's hawiya osda a g i s d i . AD +@3 - T a J . ha 6 T h i s meat i s good t o e a t . Osd - gawoni. bL1 21. -fe'h. He s p e a k s w e l l . -

a m n .

Oklahoma means "red man" i n t h e Choctaw language. oZgg2na A S 8 n . groundhog N a s g a y a ogana d a s a d v ? v s g o ? i . a 8 D a S 3 - Lt16i@AT. bS8 That man t r a p s groundhogs. 0 2 g i 2 n v 2 3 s a bYObr pron. 1. o u r s e l v e s (he and I ) 2 . one a n o t h e r , each o t h e r ( s e e Gram. 111, A) oZgv23a h E t l pron. 1. o u r s e l v e s ( t h e y and I ) 2 . one a n o t h e r , each o t h e r ( s e e Gram. 111, A) 0 2 h l a hC n . soap

0 4 s d a kg2no2hez3da A@L a Z ? L g o s p e l (good news) Osda kanoheda a h l j a d o h v s g i . Z? L -- DPCVBGD' He's a p r e a c h e r o f t h e g o s p e l .

cf:

kanoheda, osda

0 2 s i 3 6 b adv. f a i r l y w e l l Osi nagwadvhnadega. -B X 6 t S f . bb - doing f a i r l y well. I am cf: osda 0 3 s i h b n. stove osi? Hadlv d a j i k a h n i h i 7 a .GP Lhah A D d b ? Where s h a l l 1 s e t t h i s s t o v e ? 03si ?2da2sdayh1di47i b b D L 2 L B I T n . cook s t o v e , r a n g e

Na o h l a agvsgwosdohdi e s k v s i .

8 0P fiE2V3VJ RLLb 5 ~ a n F m et h e f a c e soap_.

-ohn02hni

v. s u f . completive (see G r a m . I ,

c1
6 h adv. a f t e r

I j e o s i adasdayhdi udasvhnv anadagonatdisgv7i. TY h b D L Z L B J 0 L R 0 D 9 L A 0 J . I G ~ E T . She won - new r a n g e i n a c o n t e s t . a

sdikida cf : adasdayvhvsga, 03si ( s t o v e ) s G 2 1 i UP n . persimmon

151

03si ?2ga2n62w02hi2sdi4?i h b

DS 8e'AAJT
Osi -.aganawohisdi sga

n. heating stove d i h v t d i ada dasgwal-

Unaj e t s d i s a l i j u n i g i s d i unilvkwdi Q8Yh@-I b r P d h Y @ l Q h W l Possums l y k e t o e a t persimmons.

s ? 2 1 i 3 g u 3 g i BPJY
-~

n . snapping t u r t l e
~~

dJb D f f X A J J l & J l DL L @ I 4 @ f . ~ e ' sc u t t i n g wood f o r - h e a t i n g s t o v e a

cf:

aganawosga, 0 3 s i ( s t o v e ) , uganawosga, uganowa fine

S a l i g u g i j i y e s v v d a l i gasuhvsgv'i. BPJ.Y b 8 R --i L-P fC&@ET. -. . ~ . -hookeda snapping t u r t l e while I was f i s h i n g a t t h e pond. s a 2 1 0 2 3 1 i tlGP n. s q u i r r e l

02si23gwu h b 2 adv. a l l r i g h t , j u s t
Osigwus j a d a n h t a ? fib32 C L W ? G u f e e l -r i g h t ? all cf:
02si3 ( f a i r l y well)

T a ? l i j o n e gvhdi j i y o l v s a l o l i . WPU E l bfi4 tlGP. I s h o t - squi.rre1 w i t h a . 2 2 r i f l e . a sa2sa interj.


tltl n . goose

o 2 s;. 3yo,

si3yo hello

bSbfi, b f i

Juganowv nanadvnhdisgo -g o l a sasa yinulstana. d s 26 e e r e ~ a ~ AW ~ ~ a w e . Geese head s o u t h when i t t u r n s w i n t e r ~ d a ~ ~ a , a ~ ~ i@ L A ~ d @La, adv. h a r d , d i f f i c u l t Hi?a nvva A sdava. AD 02 @La. This rock i s hard. Sdaya dulvhwisdane . @LaS 4 8 2 L A . He's working hard. a d j .,

Osiyo. T o h i j u ? d3bfi. IiAd? H e l l o . Are you w e l l ? ?2wa23sa bSGtl pron. o n e s e l f ( s e e Gram. 111, A)

S
~ ? ~ d v ~ d i n. t r a p tl6"J di2q2dv3di
ltl6"l

@SAL n . r o p e

Disadvdi gvhdi degavniyisgo j i s d u l H 6 J E l S'ShLSA bas. He c a t c h e s r a b b i t s w i t h t r a p s . cf: asadvsga a d j . one

Sdeyida gohlvnhtanv adanesoladehdi unohlvha. @SAL APWO D l A I W S l 0ZP.G. They have a swing made o f rope. cf: -sdi asdeyoha v . s u f . i n s t r u m e n t a l ( s e e Gram. I , D)

salgwu4 tl2

Tasehga sagwu n i d v l e n i s g i t a ? l s g o h i wasti. W4 S t; hf'8haY WP@AA G X l. ~ o u n t T r o m- t o twenty. one

@l L ~ d i ~ ~ k i ~ Yd a a d v . a l i t t l e

sq2k023ni3ge4?i 61AhP~ adj . blue d i 2 s ? 2 k 0 2 3 n i3 g e 4 ? i


lblAhf7

Sakonige ulsuhwida u l s d u l a . BAhP QPCBL OP@SW. He's wearing a -cap. blue

S d i k i d a duniyawegv?i sgwahlesdi dunanelohnv7i. S ~ ~ ~ I L X SBAGOT. E T T h e y w e r e - l i t t l e t i r e d from p l a y i n g a ball. cf: ikida, v2sdi4 ( l i t t l e )

152

sdudi Na digalogisgi selu anhtasgisgi dahwisga. That farmer is planting some popcorn. cf: atasgi'a, selu n. cornmeal i2sa 4M TU Selu isa -- ganhdv ujewasdohtanv7i. He accidentally spilled a sack of corn meal. -cf: isa, selu u2da 4 ~ 81, n. corncob ju2da 4M JL Selu juda --jukahyoda dagohvsdiha.
4M JL Jail6 LA&JsG. 4 M - S Dd" 87GaVWOT. - TU 8 l f O ~ 2 . Y4M - DBW2.Ya.Y 1 8 2 s . -

sduldi @ S 1 n. door, gate di2sdu1di 1251 Hisduhnv sdudi na wahga anilosohnv'i.


A~SO a

Closethegate when the cows go by. cf: asduhvsga sdv2?i3sdi @ST@J n. key di2sdv2?i 3sdi 1JSTa1 Sdu'isdi galohisdi asdu7isdohdi.
asTa1 S O A ~ J ~ S T ~ V I . D

s ~ n Ds~ G IOT . .

A key is for unlocking a door.


cf: asdu?i?a

~ d v ~ ~3~ s a pron. 1. yourselves (you two) 2. one another, each other (see Gram. 111, A) ~ e ~ ~ d4 L h ~ n i ~ n. Satan Sedani dijadlosv nigesvna yigi kohi iga, eligwu ijulaha yisda'i.
4Lh R9 T S , RPa - J W R h f R 8 ~3' TJWsG a 6 T .

~e's-6urning some dry corncobs. sgi3dv4, v1sgi3dv4 D G , i a Y 6 interj . yes, that Is it sgo23hi @R9 adj, ten Sgohi iyuwahnilv nidulsihnisv gagatosdisgo kanoheda adayvlatvsgi agihv?i.

If you haven't been confronted by Satan today, it's possible you two are walking in the same direction. ~ e ~ ~ 1 n. walnut 4 d i Igada disehisdi -ada digohlvhtanv sedi gs' . eoi
TSZ i 4 A @ 1 4 1 D L IAPWO f I . T .

am - T G G ~ Sh s r b h n s s v a J a A
D 6 B WGJY DYBT

I watch the news at - o'clock ten each night on my television set. cf: sgohine?i

az?L

Some dresserrare made of walnut. se231a3gwo2ya 4 w 3 n. green snake Selagwoya sdayi agowhtvhdi ganulvs' . vi
4 W 3 @ L A DAGGI S 9 4 R T .

sgo2hi2ne4?i @ M T adj . tenth oi ka'lesdi dvga'luhji. Sgohine s'


~AAA T I.

acral

GS ~ l r

It's difficult to see - green snake a in the grass. seZ31u 4M n. corn Hila iga selu dehatvhisda kohi gogi?
AW TS ~ M T W A AAL A ? ~ Y

He's coming back the tenth of next month. cf: sgohi


@R9lrX adj

. one hundred

Dlv sgohitsgwa nani?v yvwi. P 2AAlrX 8 h i B 8 . There were about a hundred people. sgwa1hle4sdi, sgwa1tle4sdi @ E L @ I , @EL21 n. ball

How much-corn summer?

did you raise this

anh2tG2sgi1sgi 4M D 8 W J Y 0 U n. popcorn

sogwili Na diniyohli sgwahlesdi junanehldi unaduliha.

153

I hear katydids.
si23gwu 6 3 adv. again, more Svhi aktvganv sigwu digawonisisv kohi iga.

~ h f i c X L J J J ~ A G JQ ~ S P G . J

The children want to play ball. cf: asgwahleva sgwaZ3ni3 e1sdv4?i @ X h Y X T n. New j tiexico Sgwanijesdv wuwedolv to3i edohv igohida.
@ I h Y X JOV4 V T RVd TAAL.
~

+-

RA DIVSO 6 3 JSVhbR AA T S . I heard yesterday that he was supposed

--

to speak again today. Si wu agwaduli ama. 3 DISP Dr. 1want more water. -

He went to -Mexico while on his New vacation. cf: Anisgwanivi, ije?i sgwe2hnv4?i @ m T n. fist di2sgwe2hnv4?i J X O T Dis wehnv gvhdi unahlilv anichuja.

sihZgwa b I n. pig Hila iyudageda na sihgwa?


A W TGLFL 8 bX?

How much doesthat

weigh?

& DhJC. - Q8C.1

siZ3hnv adv. than Ije dagwalela dajehla sihnv uweti eesvvi . =.


~

The boys fought with their fists.

TY I- I . W LYI? 6 0 QO-3 FRT.- . ~ . - ~

s g w 3 , vlsgwu3 a , ia adv. also Kohi iga dagilvhwisdaneha, sunalehnv vs wu dodvgilvhwisdaneli. s L Y ~ B ~ L r~e G 0, ia f VVY ~ ~ Q L A P .

A new car is better than an old one. si2nv4da bOL adv. one month Sinvda unihi3lidolv gahljode anahnesgesgv'i . They took -- in building the one month house . -sisi v.suf. duplicative (see Gram. I, c skq2ni @Ah n. opposite side (of a body of water) Skoni digadoga disuhvsga. He's standing on the other side fishing . skq2niZ3~ @AhJ5, adv. overseas i Skoniyis wijedasdi nulstane aniyosgi chiya?v?i?
@ ~ h &@YL@J 4PaWA Dhfi2.W b 3 i T ? @Ah - JSVS JrBJS bOL -O'lAPV4 SPKS D8A@F@ET.

I am working today, and I will work tomorrow also. -si si b v.suf. or else (see Grau,. I, D) interj. wait

si b adv. yet, still Hlas si yiga31uhga? I b3S M S ? ? , ' isn't he back L vet? cf: hlasi si4ga bS adv. one day wuwedolv udo juwenvsv3i.

--

*.

bS JOV4 O'V JOORT.

~ e w e n t his sisterts home for to one

Did you have to go overseas when you were in the service?


+TP n. horse

si2gi2gi bYY -n. katydid Sigigi naniwesgv gatvgiva


6 y Y % M @ E SVYD.

Sogwili danatohgiyasdiha.

154

sogwili digavlenvhida matter Sudalegi iyagiwesdi agwaduli.


c? L &Y T2Cffl2-I D I S P

IVP - L evY&l+. horses. They're racing

s023~wi~li di2ga721e23nv3hi2da P b P J ~ ~ ~ D A L donkey, mule n. so23gwi31i di2ni?21e23nv3hi2da


I'iPP l h 8 O A L

. .

I want to say one thing.

su23dg31i c?LP adj. six Sudali iyuwahnilv sunale didla uye?isdisgo?i waii.

Sogwili diga3lenvhida gvhdi gadalugi9a.


I V P S&DAL - lplowing He's E l SLMYD.

F L P TGG~-4 r e & - l o % B B T a l @ A T cf : sudaline?i

Gh.

with -a mule. cf: ga?le, ganvhida, sogwili

The alarm clock wakes him up at six o'clock in the morning. su2da21i2ne4?i c?L P A T adj . sixth Sudaline so?i jika?lv gvwedolvTi.
i"l;M h a 9 r n V 4 T .

st2hi I A n. hickory nut Sohi -degutesgo uligohvsdi.


I A BPA& l. -S J Z 2 Ahickory anuts He picks IAW

in the fall.

adj . nine Sohnela iyuwahnilv sunale jigowhtvhdi gavnakti .


I A W TGG h 4 r e & h A G r 1 S (3%'.

He hasn't been here since the sixth of last month. . cf: sudali
~~~

I h a v e to see the doctor tomorrow at nine -o'clock. cf: sohneline9i so3hne21i2ne4?i I A P A T adj . ninth Sohnelinevis yijalsdohdi jaduliha?
I A P A T 2 A C P a V l CSP+?

su2de2ti2~v4da r S d B L n. period of one year Sudetiyvda jigesv jakiwasv hi?a waj i .


r S d B L b f R C Y G R AD G h .

I bought this watch -year ago. one

cf: udetiyiha ~ u l ~ e ~ G f L a dough ~ d n. Sugeda uwohlvhnohna, digatdi wuhlanv?i.


r f L BUP*Zt, l S d l JCDT.

Do you want to be the ninth? cf: sohnela sq37i I T adj. 1. another 2. an additional one (singular form) di23s?2?i lt T So?i -dikanvsulv wayvha.
I T - l a o r 9 GB+.
63 I

After she made the dough, she put it in the oven. suh3di

el
pole

n. 1. fishhook 2. flshing

He went in another room. Sigwu so3i jiskvsi. ~iveme another one.

Tavliha disuhdi dagwaduliha.


WP+

T X .E ~

- LISP+. lrl

I want two fishhooks.


cf: asuhvsga su2hli2104da GCGL n , a unit of measure (one acre, one bushel, one gallon, one hour, one mile, one yard) Ta?li iyuhliloda uhi?lidolv suhliloda

sq2?i23yi I T A adv. in the next room So i i hwisgilada hi?a gasgilo.

48-Wchair inUthe. next room. I T - 8 U L AD S G Set this


----

su2d?21e4gi r L & Y

n. one topic, one

svnoyi kanugahli gadesgv3i.


W P TGCB L B A P V ~CCB I SSaET.

155

a~

S C

cry. cf: asvga sv2hi R adv. yesterday 9 Hadlv hedohe svhi j igesv?i?

It took him two hours to pick a gallon of blackberries. cf: iyuhliloda

+P ?V? RA

c m

su21i CP n. buzzard Gohusdi ulihwojv anihyeva suli.


A r a J BPVC Dh8D C P .

Where were you yesterday? sv2hi sy2na31e4?i adv. yesterday morning Svhi sunale jigesv hlega agwedolv7i.

The buzzards are eating something dead. sv2na31e4?i, si2na31e4?i C W T , b86T adv . toiorrow Sunale tavli yuwahnilv jigesesdi dasvsdi digadlohisdi?i.
C 6 6 W P GGh? I r f 4 2 J Ln@J JSefAaJT.

-8 6 RA C

IrfR LS DJV?T.

r c a i m over for a while yesterday morning. sv2hi sv2hi2ye4yi RA RA8A adv. yesterday evening Svhi svhiyeyi aksgwadv kanesga dejisdayhdisgvvi
R9 R 9 - - 8 j DYaX6" aA@S SIraLBJaET.

=meeting is scheduled for tomorrow at two o'clock. sv2na31e4?i di3dla CBrCT J d toward morning (a .m .) Sunale didla hi?luhjv?i.
red J~ -- AMCT.

adv.

I finished bailing hay yesterday evening.

Come in the morning.

sv2hi u2sv4?i Rg (PRT iight before last Ugahnanevis -svhi u v i s'?


BStATa - R9 (PRT?

adv .

su2na31e4?i sv2hi2ye4yi C86T R98A adv . tomorrow evening Sunale svhiyeyi igvgo?v?i.
C 8 6 RO8A T A i T . - - YOUEtomorrow 1'11 see

Did it rain night before last?

evenine. cf: sunalevi, svhiyeyi


Y

sv2hi2ye4yi RABA adv. in the evening Svhiyeyi agalsgo ganulv.


R98A DSPaA 54.1.

He mows the grass -- evening. in the ~ v ~ ~ k RSW n. apple t a Svkta duhwasv digaduhv3i.
RSW - SGR J S S a T .

su2sv23hi2da CRAL adv. ovr~night Susvhida hedolv ta?line?i inedolv3i.


CROI ?V9 WPAT T?V4T. -overnight the next Stay
~~

time you come.

He bought some apples in town. sv 2ng2do23da2gwa1sdi R6VLXaJ n. one week Svnadodagwasdi hla gohida yigeso?i.
RBVLXJJ C . ABL A f + T .

sv2d02ni RVh n. 1. barrel 2. tub Svdoni ukalijv ugahnanv ama ugahnana


RVh BaPC @ S t @ D6 @ S h e .

The barrel filled up with rainwater when it rained. svlgi W n. onion Svgi yidunegalvha udloysdisgo3i.
W - ASAS
9.6 BnfJ5;3JJAT.

One week -- is not long. sv2n023yi RZA a d ~ . midnight at Svnoyi ayehli daganela?di. At - midnight I will leave.
RZA - D8C LSAWJ.

When she peels onims, it makes her

cf :

anisvnoyi

t?21u23ja W'MG di2ta21u23ja

n. basket
I\V,LlC

Gado usdi dehohlvhdisgo taluja? ta?31i wp adj. two Ta?li idilasulo duhwahi.
W P TIWrG SGA. E bought -pairs of shoes two

What do you make baskets out of? tG2ma2hli WK n. tomato


-

SV 821 S I P d J A \Y'.WG? -

cf: ta?line?i t?721i2ne4?i WPAT adj . second Kawohni ta7line agwadetiyisgi.


a47h W

nw

Hila iga tamahli dejaduliha?


TS

How many tomatoes do you want? t+2w023di WVJ n. hawk Ketv uki7la tawodi. kf' BYW W V J . A hawk i s x t t i n g on a post. -teh2ga 5.S n. toad Vdaluhldi tsgwisdi yidvgohwahta tehga.
ilMPJ hP2J m A G W X S

wrc SCSP+? -

My birthday is on April 2nd. ~~~a


WPA TS

B DXSn&Y.

n. Tuesday

Dodajalvhwisdanelis Ta71ine Iga? Are you going to work on Tuesday? cf: ta?line?i, i2ga (day) t?21u2gi'sgi \VMYZ n. 1. can 2. metal 3. steel 4. tin Dahyasladisgo talugisgi yagohila ama yidadlisdi.
L&o%J@A W M Y Z 3 U W V l C q B 2 l A P @ WPA TS? --

You can see a lot oftoads by a pond. ti2na 2 9 n. louse Yvwi nanalsdulesgvna yigi -gvwatina nilvno7i B B ~ B P @ S ~ ~rn B E ne E G ~ ~ A T . If people don't washtheir hair, they get lice.

Cans -get rusty if water is left in them too long. cf: atalugi7a

D r

dLC@J.

t12y023ha?31i JfiGP n. lizzard Tiyoha7li ganiya gavlegi.


-- -

afiw

sh3 S ~ Y .

A blacksnake caught - lizzard. a

J~OBJY

n. welder t l ~ ~ ~ d e ~ ~ wn. eel PSX a Ilvhiyu7is higo?v, tlvdegwa?

Talugisgis dikanvuisgi disdadahnvhli? C b ,\lYo;)Y2 6 3 0 8.2.Y .I 2 I I D '; Is your b m - welder? a cf: kanvwi?a, talugisgi

7. qLIGT2 , G A i P ST?

Have you ever seen - an eel? to1hi4 1':J adj. well (health) Tohi rrigesvna gesv g~yat\~ganu. 1.1 hFICO FR 1,Ai3@.

\\ J1Y32,1. LIZH' I

n . 1. solder

rheard that you weren't well. t~~hi'~l<u I adv, just fine Tohigliu a y v , nihina?
V.6.d Ill3

2. welding rod

Talugisgi dikanvwodolidi ut.c\.hvsi


\\ \I,!
K.!

"1C OC I >I 0 "11:Lf 1 1

h..) OC

He ran out of solder. cf: talugisgi dl harl\.wisgi

E iust fine. and you? r n

udageyuha to4?i VT adv. motionless To nijadvga duwosela, ehlawe nunalstaTuleji nidagvnhdapelv junidlvgi?.
S$b hLEOLR.1 J h P Y T .

157

- he told them to be When


became quiet.

She had her tonsils taken out at the hospital. tv2sdi S a d n. boil (sore) Nvwoti ganvliye?a tusdi udla?v?i.
m 3

still, they

t ~ l j u ~ ~ h V J G n. redbird wa Tojuhwa usdika sihnv na dlayhga gesv?i. The redbird is smaller than the bluejay. t 0 ~ ~ 1 ~ ~ t VWbS sga n. grasshopper Gogi tsgwisdi digowhtvhdi tolatsga. In the summer you can see a lot of grasshoppers. tsgi21i
~ Y P n. ghost
VLG -B @ J 9 bO 9 d B f f R T .

He's putting medicine on his boil. tu23ya S 3 n. beans Gado unsdi tu a hi?a?

svrs D sar

sv

oead s D &?

What k i n d f beans are these? tvh2ga 6 s n. housefly Hisduhvga galohisdiTi, tvhga dehiyhdiha. A ~ S & SGA@ITJ - SABI+. 6s Close the door, you're letting the flies in.

A hP@d dAGPJ VWhS . Y

?2ni2tsgi21i DhbYP Johiyuhas anitsgili anehv?

Kx+a

D ~ L - Y P Dna?

Do you believe there are ghosts? n. bug Tsgoya ukila uwa?ihlv?i.


bA3 bA3 - BYW BGTPT.

u-

v .pref. third person subject (see Gram. I, B)

Ni!
h!

~ ' d a ~ d o ~ ~ l i ~@LVP@I v,i. he's ~sdi praying a ' g ~ ? ~ d a ~ d o32sdi i ~~l DXL VPaI ~ ' d a ~ d o ~ ~ l i ~ ~ s d L V P X? i Bv ~ ~ T ~ ' d a ~ d o ~ ~ l i ~ ~ s d BLVPaVT o~?i jg2da2d0231i 32sde3sdi CL VPaS@d u2da2d021i'sdoh3di 0LVPJVI Udadolisdohdi ajitayoselv?i.
BLVP@VI DbWfi4qT.

a Look! There's - bug on the bush tsgwq21e3gwq21a b X $ X W n. whippoorwill Tsgwalegwala nigawesgv gatvgisgo julsihnvda adanelv na?v?i.
b I d X W hSS9JE S P Y J A JPbQL D1A.l 9 i T .

I hear a whi oorwill every night close to the ouse


tsgwi4sdi
bP@l

+
adj . a lot, many

He was asked to Drav. cf : adadolisdi

Tsgwisdi gawonisgo osda yudanhta.


btP2l SUhZA d J L GLOW.

QLFG+

v.i. he loves

S h e a l k s - - when she feels well. a lot Tsgwisdi aniyonega gajigowhtiha. I see many white men.
bP2d - DhfiAS SbAGJb.

a1gw?2da2ge2yl!3ha DX1FG.l. ~ ' d a ~ g e ~ y u ~ s v ~ FGRT BL ~~i u1da2ge2yu3s03~i B LPG8 T j?2da2ge2yu3se3sdi u2da2geyh2di


CLfG4aI B L fGd

t ~ ~ l e ~~~l h . i tonsils f j n.

Udohiyu ase udageyuse3i.


BVAC D4 B L f G 4 T .

cf: ulvkwdi u2da2 3n??2ni B Leh n. store owner

I guess -he really loved her. adageyhdi , ugeyuha

cf :

~ ~ n ? ~ d a ~ ~ n a8? ~ Ohi 01 n Gado usdi chvsi na udana?ni?

~ ~ d a ~ h n i ~ ~ lBaL hWf T ~ n.iordained ~ g e ~ miniiter Hla yagwanhte udahnilage gesvvi. C 3x0'6 B l h W f f R T . I didn't know he was - ordained an minister. ~ ~ d a ~ h n i ~ ~ l ? O h Le ~ T i n. oldest ~ g Wf ? member of family Gado usdi jigi udahnilage?i?
SV 5 A J hY B l h W f T ?

sv

cb

o~eh?

What did the --give you? store owner ~ ' d ~ ~ n e ~ g B1AAG.G hv.i. it 's o ~ ~ ~ a wrinkled a l g ~ ? ~ d ? ~ n e ~ g o ~DX1AAG.G ~~ha
8lAAGRT

~ld?~ne~go~yu~so~?i 8 LAAGtT j?2d?2ne3g02yu3se3sdi ClAAG42J Na agayvlige unegaylv udanegoyuha. 8 D S B P f BAS9 B1AAG.G. The old woman's skin is wrinkled. ~ ' d ? ~ n e ~ h v ~BLAJJT n. puddle ?i du1da2ne2hv4?i
SLAJJT

Which is the oldest one? ~'da'~j?~tdi


OLCJJ

adj. reckless

~ ~ n ? ~ d a ~ ~ j ? 8 8t d J J ~ 1Ci Udohiyu udajatdi achuja.


BVAG B l C J J DdC.

He's r

a reckless boy.

Ama udanehv adawo?a jisgwa.

DT @LA8 DlVD IrAX.


~ ~ d ~ ~ l @l,f4 n. bad omen e ~ h i Koga nigawesgv yatvgana usv, udalehi anadisgo Anijalagi. Cherokees say that if you hear a crow at night, it's --- omen. a bad u2da21i2?i B L ~ n. his wife T ju2n?2d?2112?i d8lPT UdaliTi gohusdi agwhni. His wife -BLPT ArAJ DGh.

A bird is bathing in a puddle of water . u2danh2do


BIQV

n. his heart

Udanhdo ulehwisdanelv?i.
~ ~ B A L A ~ T . His heart -- stopped on him.

. .

cf: adanhdo u1danh2ta


BlQW v.i. he feels D LQW T 0'10.VT CIQz2-I
0 LItl. JAJ

is mv cousin.

alg~?~danh~ta u1danh2to37i
ja2danh2te3sdi

cf: udahli u2da21v4kwdi 0 1 W J adj . snobbish Udohiyu udalvkwdi na achuja.


8VdG BL W J 8 DdC.

~ l d a n h ~ t v ~ ~ ? i 0; LQPT

u2danh2da2di1sdi That boy is really snobbish.

Osigwudv ncwadanhta nogwu. I'jb,~~ DTLM' 7~ I -feel a?! right now. -

udehohisdi
I

159

u2danhqti BLDJ adj ., adv. 1. friendly ?. gentle 3. pleasant u2ng2danh4ti 88LO-d Udoyu udanhti ahlinohedodi.
BVG B=Z?VJ.

u1da23w93di32sgv4?i BLGdaET adv. in a shade

He is -- very pleasant to talk with. cf: udanhtisahnvvi

BLGdaE BBL8# 4@d dh482LA4.

SLGdaET

Udawadis v unadawesolvsdi junilvhwisdaThe workers are resting -- in the shade.

~~danh~ti~s?~hnv~?i 0 LDJtlOT adj . tamed u2na2danh2ti2sa2hnv4?i QBLDJUOT Udanhtisahnv kvhli unahla7a.


BLDJBD EC QBCD.

~ ' d ? ~ y v ~ l ? ~ QLBWW v.i. it's in view ta a1gw?2d?2yv21?3ta DXLBWW u1da2yv2192tv23?i BLBWG'T


OLBWT

m a tamed raccoon. cf: udanhti u2dg2nv2gg21v4da BLDS 4L adj . clean ju2n?2dg2nv2ga21v4da, j ~ * d ? ~ n v ~ g + ~ lv4da JBLDS 4 L , dLDS 4L Nigohilv udanvgalvda nuwahno uyvsdi?i. ~
hAO4 BLOS4L 4GZ Q B d d T .

Gohusdi udayvlata duwa?ihlv?i. something is in view in the bushes. --cf: adayvlatvsgi ' d e ~ BSS v.t. 1. he's throwing it ~a 2. he's pitching (ball) a1gw?2de3ga DXSS u1di23nv32sv23?i BJORT
M a d BLBWW SGTPT.

He always keeps his room clean. cf: ganvgaliha ~ ~ d ? ~ n v ~ h i ~ d a n. a long OLOAL distance Udanvhida eladi uhnigisv?i.
~LDAL RWI BhYRT.

ne walked a long W J . cf: ganvhida u1da2nv2hnv4?i @LOOT n. row du1da2nv2hnv4?i S L W T Nuna dudanvhnv ayehli a?i.
St3

Sunale udli wijadesv na uyo gahldvvi. eecr BC scsn e sfi s r r ~ Tomorrow throw the trash away. cf: udegi

DBC D Y .
w

He's walkinn between two rows of potatoes. ~ ~ d a ~ s d v ~ ~ d i ~ ~ s d i n, punish@'L@6"1@1 ment Udasdvdisdi gesv wahli7ilohiha yidvyosdi dikanowadvsdi B L x J a d F R GCTQA+ m ~ a d zGra1. .ia Breaking the law leads to punishment. cf: usdvdi?a

u 2de4gi BSY n. pitcher (ball) u2n?2de4gi O BSY Hila nani?a unadegi dejikaha?
AW B ~ BeSY 3 D ~ ~ 7

How many pitchers do you all have? cf: udega ~ ~ d e ~ h o ~ ~ h BSIIAaI i n. embarrassi~sd ment Udehohisdi gohlvsga jinadvneha.
BSIIA2.i APaS b WA.6.

He's causing embarrassment by doing

160

udehosati

that. cf: adehosga, udehosati ~ ~ d e ~ h o ~ ~ D'SEtldt iadj . bashful s?~


BBSbUd

Doyu udihlehga kohi iga. VG O I L S AA T S . It's -really hot today. cf: udihlehvsga

Udehosati achuja uwakaha.


BSbUL' DJC @GEM.

She has a bashful boy cf: adehosga, udehohisdi


OSPJS 4 8 1

u1di2hle3hv3sga B d L m S i fiver

v.i. he has

n. ditch Eligwus yiksdela udelisgalvhv galesv dagwalela? Can you help me get my car out of a ditch? u1de2ti2yi3ha 0SL'JS.I. v.i. he's having 'a Girthday a1gw?2de2ti2y13ha DXSJJ5.G ~lde~ti~yv~hv~~?i BSL'B8T
RPaJ ZGiYJSW BSPaS 4 8 S 8 R LXYW?

Na udlvgi tsgwisdi udihlehvsgv'i.


8 BPY b B J J O J L 8 a E T .

The ~atienthad a hinh fever. cf : udihlehga ~ ' d i ~ s g ? ~ h l a J a S E v.i. he's in B hiding

Kohi iga udeti iha josdadahnvhli.


*L R9 TS OSJ

oc .

Hadlv udisgahla?
.GP B J J S E ?

Today my brother - having -is a birthday. cf : ijudet iyvda, sudetiyvda ~ ~ d i ~ ~ w ? ~ l v ~ BJZ4.9~31 ~ n. a de~y~ d bolt, screw j ~ ~ d i ~ g w ~ ~ l v ~J J I 4 S ~ 3~ i ~ d a d e J 1 Tisdayida na judigwalvdeyida.
3 2 1 A1 8 6 J I 4 S J 3 1

Where -- hiding? is he cf: adisgahlvsga ~ l l a i w ~ ~ s g@ J @ a s v .i. he's getting a we1 1

Tighten those bolts. u1di2hleh3ga B J L S v.i. it's hot Nvwoti ugisa, gajanuli udiwsv?i. MU B Y U , 5641) 0 1 8 R T . When he got some medicine, - got he well -fast.

~ ' d i ~ h l e h ~ g v ~ ~L Ei BI ~ T u1di2hlehZgo3?i BJLAT

0 J B 1.6'7

n. his

navel

-------------Usdiki uhnuwv iyusdi udiyvda7dv uksatv7i.


8 2 d Y 8 9 6 TG2.d DIBLG B S t l r T .

His shirt was so small -- was his navel showing. v.i. there's an

~~dlalsi~~t\r~?eh~di O.Ab5"RJ Jadlasitv7ehas e l i g w yigvgwad~nhdi gesv'fi? Co%bPR+Z RPG, hEdV.qJ j RT? Don't ou believe I can do it? Y cf: udlasitvvehi ~ ~ d l a ' s i ~ ~ t ~ ~B? e P Rh i hb ~ Q believer n. non-

uld~~~nv~da @&#I opening

@8o%bPRQ

Hila naniva unadlasitv7ehi anedoha?

AW 8hD 806% v

How many nonbelievers are here?

u1dle3ga QLS v.i. he's taking revenge Dihnawo junohlvhdi udlanvda digalvhwisdanhdivi. algwa2dle3ga DXLS ~'dle~jv~~?i QLCT ~ l d l e ~ ~ o 8 L ATi ~ ~ j?2dle1gi CLJ' u2dle2?i 3sdi BLT@l Udlejv ajilonu7ehla. He took -- revenge when he was cf: adlecheha ;l 'i d QC adv. away from Udli hwilohi.

ltv

6 Z P d O&L

1 5 4QJLAl7..

There is a job opening at the clothing -manufacturers. cf: udlanvdaydeha ~'dla~nv~d??~d~~ha @&LS.G has time

v. i. he

. . @LC D b G ? M . DC - 8GA. Go away.

cheated.

So?i kalesdi agwadlanvda7dehesdi wigvwahtvhidasdi?i t f W J J D X ~ ~ O L S ? JQ E G ~ L J J T . I I'll have time to come to visit you --next month. cf: udlanvda

~ldli~??~da OCDL v.i. he's wearing an earring ~ l d l i ~ ? ? ~ d v ~ ~BCDPT ?i ~ ' d l i ~ ? ? ~ d o ~ ? i WCDVT j?2dli37?2de3sdi
CCDSAJ

~ ' d l a ~ ~ s i ~ t v ~ ? 8db6R.G v. i. he's e~ha disbelieving a'gwa2dla32s12tv3?e2ha ~ l d l a ~ ~ s 37e2ho37i i~tv j?2dla1si2tv1si


DTdb6R.G Bd8b5R4T B6%b5RjT CdBbPb

Adela dalonige digohlvhtanv didli?ado dudli?ada. DSW L G h I . IAPWD- JCDIJ SCDL. She's wearing earrings made of gold. cf: adli?ado
-

162

udlonasdi
8 D 2 f 3 B P V J BY.?+ T .

~ ~ d l o ~ ~ n a l s d 8 @ 6 n. hypocrite @di %a1sdi O.8d826 Gago yigohiyhda udlonasdi gesv7i? Who would admit that he's - hypocrite? a cf: galonasdiha u2dlo1si2nv23da BPfb0L n. dewberries Udlosinvd jig kanugahl uhloyige7isdi.
B d b 0 1 k Y 9 4 S C BdAF T J d .

That man acts sophisticated. u2do BV n. 1. his sister 2. her brother Udo -uhwahtvhidoha svnadodagwasdi igohida . O.V ~ G G A V +~ e v c x a U G T Her brother is visiting her for one -

S A JSAAGL 0 6 8 0 3 6 FRT?

Dewberries are similar to blackberries u2dlv2da21v4da


BP L .?I n. splinter

week.

u2d02da B V L n. his father Gado advnehi udoda?


f V D6"A-Q BvI?

Hyahtena udlvdalvda ujayoha ulasihdeni .


3 6 8 BPL.11 0Cfi.G B W b S h . A splinter from a board stuck him in -

What does - father do? her u2doZ3dazgwg2da O'VLIL


B V L X L SZ.GPVI GZ.G$B.

his foot.

adv. all day

Udodagwada ganohalidoho yunohalena. ~ l d l v ~ ~ fa v.i. he's sick @p He hunts --when he goes huntin) all day cf: udodagwidisv7i

U (n?2)do23d63gwa1sgv4?i B 8 V L I J E T ' n. Sunday Dehilawijego?is Unadodagwasgv iga?


SAWBYAT2 BBVI X2E T f ?

Svhi jigesv akdlvgv asehnv osigwu ipi kohi iga.


R.0

DO

k F R DYPE D 4 0 f i b 3 T Y A A T f .

you go to church on Sunday? cf: Dodagwasgv7i


88VLtPSe

I was --- sick yesterday, but I'm all right today. cf : junidlvgi?i, udlvgi

u2 (n?2)do23d?3gwi2de4na
n. Saturday

n. ~ ' d l v ~ ~ i p y patient, sick person ~ Hila iyani?i junidlvgi aniya7a ahani junidlvgi?i?
AW T 3 h T d M Y Dh3D D+h d h P Y T ?

Iyvdaha Unadodagwidena dagilvhwisdaneho?i

T B L . G 88VLtP.98 LY?B@LAB T .

Sometimes I work on Saturday. cf: Dodagwidena ~ ' d o ~ ~ d ? ~ ~ w i ~ d i ~ V L P~ R Ti Bsv J? adv. during the day Dlv udodagwidisv dagavluhji.
P B V l V J R LSMk.

How many patients are in this hospital? cf : junidlvgi?i, udlvga u2dlv4kwdi B p V d adj

sophisticated

He's coming sometime during -day. the cf: udodagwada

Na asgaya udlvkwdi ujelvso7i.

Uganawa Monday
-

163

Udawesolvsdohdi uduliha.
0 L&+ .?21Jl 8SP.G.

Unadodagwohnv dvnalenvhi danadehlohgwasgv?i. @8V LY@ 6"8$0~3 b 8 S d E J E T . They're going to start school Monday cf: Dodagwohnv?i

He wants --

to rest. v. i. he's

u1dv2nv3?i2sdi 8 6 ? 0 T @ l wiiling

O-

~ 2 d o ~ h8V.gG adv. ~ ; ~ ~ ~ really, very Udohiyu osda hnadvga ejagoliyesgv7i.


8VAG b t f RCAPB@ET. - b @very6well on your exam. You did

DTP07@J a1gw?2dv2nv3?i2sdi ~~dv~nv~?i~sdv~~?i BG@T@G7

cf: dohiyu, doyu u2du1du 8 . y ~n. his grandfather (materna 1) Ududu kanohehlvsgv utvdasdi achuja. Theboy is listening to his grandfather tell stories. cf: unisi
lg,

Yinigalsdihagwu iyv udvnv?isdo udasdehldi?i.


6 h f P@J.G3

TB

8607'@V B L@SqJT.

@ S S 3 Z ? P @ E BGL@J DdC.

He's -willing to help anytime. cf: advnv?isdiha, udvnv?istanv?i u2g? 2lo23ga 8 f G f j ~ ~ ~ n. leaf o ~ ~ ~ a

~~ S ~ S 1 G

u1du3ha 0S.G v.i. he's standing in liquid. algwa2du3ha DIS& ~ l d u ~ s v ~ ~ ? iR7 BS u1du3s03?i jg2du3se3sdi
0S.I. T

Uligohvsdi iyv jugaloga judalehnvda iulisuhwida nidodagalstani. In the fall the leaves will turn into different colors. uZ3gg3ma @ S T n. soup Gado usdi ugama jaduliha? f V @,1J O ' f K CSP+? What k i n d o f soup do you want? u2gg2na4sda BSQ@L adj . sweet u2niZgg2na4sda B h f e@L Doyu uniganasda hi?a aniwsvgi.
VG B h S Q @ L AD DhGRY.

. .

CS42-l

u2duh2di @SJ Amayi agwaduha.

I am - - standing in the water.


u2du2ji Q S k n. his uncle ju2du2ji d ~ h Gado dudo?a uduji? What's his uncle's name? -u1du21i3ha @ S f + v .t. he wants it a1gw?2du21i3ha DXSP+ ~'du~lv~hv~~?i BS99,T
O.SPJA7 f V SVD Bs~?

00%

-.

These cantaloupes are really sweet. u2ga23n92wa @ f 8G adj. warm

Udohiyu uganawa nigalsda kohi iga, doka?


OVAG

It sure got warm today, didn't it? cf: aganawhdiha, aganawosga, juganawv?i, uganawosga uZga23n?2wa 8 5 8G n. Democrat

asec - ~ S P J LALI

T S , va?

j?2du231a u2duh l 2di

C;.Y W
Q.Y.1-1

161

uganawosga cf: adageyhdi

Uganawas na atohgiyasgi jigawoniha?


8 f 8GJ 8 DVYG22Y hfCh.G?

Is the candidate who is speaking a Democrat? u 1g a2 g 2wo 2sga p f m ; f n v.i. 1. he's becoming warm 2. he's warming himself

u2ge2yu23hn?2?i 8 k G t T stingy person u2ni2ge2yu23hn?2?i


BV-9G 8 k G t 8 D A f 3 .

n. possessive
BhkGtT

Udohiyu ugeyuhna na asgaya. That man is really stingy. cf: udageyuha ~ ~ g i ' d ? ~ h l 8YLC i n. feather

Aniyvwiya jugidahli dunadihlgo?i.


DhB83 dYLC S B I P A T .

Indians Agiganawosgadv sdikida nogwu.


DYf 8 V @ f P @JYL 2 2 . I - getting -a little now. warm - am

wear feathers on their heads

u 2gi2jv 4da i2yv47i 8YCL TBT adv. next morning


i

Osi na?v uwohla uganawosga. bb 8i 8 V f 8 5 8 V a f . He's sittingby the stove warming himself. cf: aganawosga, u2ga23n?2wa (warm) ~ l g a n h ~ d ? ? ~ d v @?~i@ L P T n. page ~ Ta?li:le uganhdavdv gohwela kanogisdi.
WPA Q S O - L PM W a z Y a .

zijvda

% kila wagi?luhjv?i.

DYCL TB YW GYMCT.

I d n F get there until the next morning. u2gi2tsde4yi Q y h S A n. dawn Ugitsdeyi adidisgo julvhwisdanhdi yigi.
8 Y h S A DJJ@A d 9 8 2 L A J AY.

The song is on the second

page.

He gets up at -when he has to dawn work. ~ l g o ~ ~ BAA adv. more di Gado usdi ugodi jalvkwdi? Which one do you like more? ~ ~ ~ g o ' BAJ di adj . much, a lot of
f V 8 @ J -C W J ? 8AJ

u1ge2yu3ha 8kG.G v.t. 1. he's possessive of her, it 2. he loves her ji2ge2yu3?a, a1gi2ge2F3ha
hFGD, DYkG.G u1ge2yu3sv2 3?i BkGRT

Ugodi unvdi ganadegovi.

8AdBD.J
Ugeyuha waji hlale kilo yvgvtolsda.
8kG.G Gh LcC YG B EVP@L

S BS AT.

She sells --- of milk. a lot

loan it to anyone. Higeyusesdi tsdayvhvsgi.


dkC42J C3LBa2Y.

He's -stingy with his watch and won't

~ l ~ o ~ h n i ~ ~ BAhfiS ~ v.i. he's y o ~ g a late

Love -your wife.

uhawosdiha j?2g02hni2yo'gi C 'lhfiY u2g02hni23y03sdi B A h f i 2 - l Gohidis ihiktiyesdi jenvsdi dajagohniyoji. T , ~ S J Y O , ~ I JI C A ~ A ~ . ~ ~ J I f you wait too long to go, you'll be late. ulgo2sga O A z s v.i. 1. it's decaying 2. it's spoiling alg?2go2sga DY 42 s u l g 0 ~ s v ~ ~ 7 i o A?,T u1g02sgo37i OA2AT

165

u2gv2wi2yu2hi B E B C A n. 1. king 2 . president (nation) 3. chief u2ni2gv2wi;2yu2hi 0 hE@Cd9 Johlgis Ugvwiyuhi?


KPYA BL@G,3?

Does the Chief know you? u23ha O i , v.i. he has a solid object

a,eo
Ada uweti ugosga. The old wood - decaying. is cf: ugosida ~ ~ g o ~ ~ s i ~ d adj rotten O.4bL a u2na2g023s12da B 8 A b L Gohusdi ugosida agiwsvga. ArJJ 8 A b l DYGRS . 1 s m e l G m e t h i n g rotten. cf: ugosga u2gu1ku @ J J n , hoot owl u2ni2gu1ku O h J J Igada udalehi anelisgo s u- yinigawe7a ku adanelv na7v7i. Some people think it is a bad omen to hear --- owl close to a building. a hoot ~ ~ g v ~ ~ h ? 0 E K i adj . part ~hl u2nq2gv23ha2hli O 8E+C Jalagis ugvhahli nz asgaya? C;i+Y;; P E K 8 D L S k ? Is that man part Cherokee? adv. instead Adela ugvwiyu dagwaduliha.
0,LBG C DSM' OE8C L I S P 4

Sgohi iyuhliloda gada uha.


TGCGL S L

s+.

D L O9PJ 0 A @ S .

He has -- ten acrerof land. cf: unava, uneha, uwakaha, uwaya ~ l h ? ~ h l o ~ g ~ ~ hf a u.i. he's QW + yawning a1k?2hlo3g$2ha D W F i, ~ ' h a ~ h l o ~ ~ e ~ h@ W f~&7Ti v~

u2ha2hlo1geh3di @MI-J Uhahloge gahlvsgv iyusdi.


O F S P a E TCJJ. ' W He's yawning because he's sleepy. -

u 2h+ 2lv 2ni 0.E-4h

n , bell

Uhalvni unohyvhgv gatvgi7a.


C?+?fh B Z B E SGYD.

I hear -a bell ringing. ~ ~ h ~ ~ n e ~ ~ @+AS 9 T 1 n. ~ 7 lip ~ 7 ~ v his i du1h?2ne3g?721~47i S & ? f g T Duhanega7lv dukayohiseha.
S+jlS Safil14,*.

His -lips are

getting dry.

I want money instead.

u'ha2w03sdi2ha O+%J~I, v . i. he's smothering, suffocating

166

uhisata u2hli2ni23gi2da OChYl adj powerful, strorig j ~ ~ n ~ ~ h l i ~ n i ~JeChYL d a ~gi~ Digageda dasaladisgv uhlinigida nulstanv7i. d G L L ~ w ~ @ QChYl 4P@WDT. E He became strong by lifting weights. v2hli4sda adv. quickly DunadoTv tohwelvga uhlisda.
S 8 V i V 0 4 f QC@L.

a1gi2h?2w03sdi2ha, a1k?2w03sdi2ha
DaUJd+ ~ ' h a ~ w o ~ s t a ' n v ~ ~QWSWDT ~i DYm3d+,

Jolani hisdu?i. Akawosdiha.


K W ~ J S T . ~ U J I + . ~

I 'm Open the window. - s~~~othering. cf: ahawosdiha, atahwosdiha


u'hi3sg2ta QAUW v.i. there's dew

Write their names down qul'ckly. cf: nuhlisdv7i u2hlo2gi Qefy n. his aunt ju2hlq2gi j ~ y Hadlv wiganela uhlogi? +P @SAWDGY? Where does her aunt live? --

Gadohi uhisata.
S VA CPAUW.

There's - on the ground. dew ~ l h i ~ s o h ~ d a ~ ~ n ~L~ h av .i. 1. QAf A6 he's lonesome 2. he's homesick a1gi2hi2soh2da32n:2ha, a1ki2soh2da32np2ha DYAf LA+, DYf LA+ ~ l h i ~ s o h ~ d a ~ ~ n e ~DAf LA9T i lv~~? ~ l h i ~ s o h ~ d a ~ ~ n e ~ h o ~ LAP T 8& ? i j?2hi2soh2da1si CAf 1 b u2hi2soh2aalneh3di @A+L A I Hla yulvkwdi uhisohdanehdi C G W d Q A f LAJ She doesn't like - get lonesome. to -

~ ~ h l QefA ~ a i ~ . o ~ d same kind of ~ ~ n i ~ h l o ~ ~ i QhefA Dagwalela uhv uhloyi agwaduliha.


L X 6 W Q a i3'efA DXSP+.

I want the --- of car he has. same kind u1hna4

at

ad~. there

Bt@5b? -

Uhnas tesi? Are you going there?

~ ' h n ? ~ l u ~ d v ~QtM6T n. island ?i du1hna21u3dv4?i StMGT Igada duhnaludv jusdi geso?i. TSL d@J f f T . Some islands are small. ~ l h n a ~ ~ l v DtqS a v.i. he's be~~g coming angry a1ki2na231v32ga DY89.S
Qt9CT

cf: uhisohdi u1hi2soh3di Q A f d

--------------

v.i. it's lonesome

~ l h i ~ s o h ~ d v ~ ~ ? i6 T BAf u1hi2soh2d03?i

--------------

8AfVT

~'hna~~lv~~go~?i Dt9AT cha2na21v1gi

-------------Uhisohdv uhnela?da.
8:316 Q.1WL

c89~

Tt-was -cf: uhisohdaneha

. lonesome when

~ ~ h n a ~ ~ l v ~ ? i ~ s 9 TiJ d Qt d she left. Nelagi gihli uhnalvgasi.


nbY YC ~ t q s b .

. .

uhniha Leave the dog alone because he's getting mad. cf: kanalvTisdi, uhnalvha u1hnaZ3lv3ha 8 t q . G a1ki2naZ3ly3ha u1hna231v32sv237i ~ h g ~ n a 32se3sdi ~~lv v.i. he's angry
DY84.G O t 9RT C8?4@1 8tTSPT

167

~ ~ h n a ~ sOu T~ ~ n. possum grape ~ a t S ~ ~ n i ' h n a ~ s u ~ 8 h ta S ~~ P Unihnasuga degade7a.


8htCS SSSD.

She's picking some possum grapes. n. his toenai1 d ~ ' h n a ~ ~ s u h ~ ~ a ~ h lStGSP T v~7i Haye1;di gvhdi dasgwalsga duhnasuhgahlv7i.
.GBP@l E l L@X9@S S t G S P T .

~ l h n a ~ ~ l v ~ ~ s o8t4.E.T ~7i

Na asgaya nigohilv uhnalvso7i.


8 D@S& hAA? B t ? $ T .

The man - always angry. is cf: kanalv?isdi, kanalvsdiha, uhnalvga ~ ~ h n a l s d e ~ ~ Bt@SW dla n. root

He's trimming - toenails with a his knife. ~ ' h n a ~ w a ~ ~ s d i Q t h @ l . G v.i , he has ~ Ga a chill a1ki2n?2wa32sdi2ha u1hng2wa32sdi2sgo37i
D QG2l.G Y 8tG3WD.T O,tG@I@AT CBG@L chg2ng2wa1sda 8tGAVl u2hng2wa1sdoh3di HiTa udlvgi uhnawasdiha.

j~~hnalsde~~dla dt@SW Kansdaji uhnasdedla aganv aditasga. 3 8 2 L k Bt@SW DSD DJW2f. He's drinking tea made from sassafras root. ~ l h n a ~ ~ s d e ~ d l v ~A S P T 8t 7 i n. its root d~'hna~~sde~dlv~?t 2 S P T Si Hlesdi dehlgv duhnasdedlv yitiluysgesdi.
LA1 9E S t 3 S P ~5TM3@k@d.

AD 8 P Y 8 t G 2 J . I - .
This ~atient--- chill. has a cf: kanawoga u2hng2wo O t V ju2hng2wo n. his shirt
dtc

Don't chop on the tree roots. cf: kanasdedliha u1hna32sgw?21037a 8 t 2 X G D v.i. he's stubbing his toe a1ki2na32sgw+21037a D 0 2 X GD Y u1hna32sgw?2103?v237i 8 t 2 X G i T

Uhnawo ayosda asiladv ganuyvhihv7i.


Ot8~fi2L DbWV S 9BAL&T.

He tore -- going under a fence his shirt cf: ahnaweTa, ahnawo, ahnawoTa, uhnuwa u1hne21v3sv47i 8 A 3RT n. his scar

Hla yulvkwdi kilo ugowhtvhdi uhnelvsv?i. Nvya utana ahv uhnasgwalo?v?i.


0 , OW0 DL& O t X G i T .
L: G W l YG QAGVJ B A 9 R T .

He his toe - stubbed -- on a big rock cf: kanasaTdv7i

He doesn't like for anyone to see his scar. u23hn13ha BhqG v.i. he's in bed

cleared up. u1hnv3si2yv4?i 8 O b B T n. corner

du1hnv3si2yv4?i S O b B T Uhnvsiyv hwalehvga. 8 ccras. Go stand in the corner. u2hwa2ge4da 8 G F l adj . thick

Gayulas jahniha? Are youalready -in bed? ~ ' h n i h l ~ ~ v ~ h TiE T 8? n. stump


S GW2' G h+?

Juhwageda dihnawo duhnvsv juhyvdlv uwena .


d G F 1 J t B SOR d B P 808.

UhnihlgvTigwu iga uhlinohiya na utana jihlgv9i.


0 h T E T a TS B C Z 9 3 8 OW8 hTET.

He took some thick clothing when he went up north. ~ l h w ? ~ s g a0 G a S a lki2wg3sga u lhwa2sv 37i u1hwa2sgo37i v .t. he's buying it
DYGaS WGRT 8G@AT

A - s t m p is all that's left of the big tree. u2hno4sda 8 B l n. one dollar

Uhnosda dagvwahldisgo ahlvdi osda vinuwanela

6.226

L E G G J J A D P d 6.21 A 4 G A W .

He charges - dollar when he fixes one a tire. ~ l h n u ~ ~ 4 G v.t. he's wearing a 8wa shirt, coat a1gw?2hnu32wa D Z 4G u l h n ~ ~ ~ w v ~ ~ ? 6iT 84 ~ ' h n u ~ ~ w o ~ ? i8 4 8 T j?2hnu32we3~di
C4da.l

. . u2hwa3hi3sdi . .
cha2wa2hi u2hye4hi 8 8 A

CCA
BGA@d

Svhi jigesv dagwalela akiwasv?i. IL9 h F R G Z J W D Y G R T . Yesterdav I boueht a car. n. her husband

Na agehya uhyehi uhyoha.


8 DF@ 80'aA.G.

That woman's husband is looking for her. Juhloyiha dunahnuwo aniyosgi.


d9-fJ5.G S 8 9 0 Dhfi2.Y.

Soldiers wear uniforms. cf: ahnawe?a, ahnawo, ahnawo?a, uhnawo u1hnv2kwo21a2tv4?i bow
8wW6T

u1hyq2ha 0fi.Gv.t. he's looking for it (inanimate) a'gt2hyp3ha DYfi u1hya21v23?i 8 3 4 T

n. rain-

u1hyo2h03?i

OfiE T

Uhnvkwolatv usgolvjv ulogilv uhlga1iyvha .

jayh2ga CM uy2sdi 0I Z I J Waj i juyohuselv svhi uhyoha. He is for - - looking - the watch he lost yesterday.
G b d f i l - 4 9 R9 0 f i G . -

O'WCC'PO32!A9C0 G Y 4 0 P S P B . G .
The rainbow faded when the cloud

cf: ahyoha u1hyo2lY3ha BfiM+ v.i. he, it's afloat a1k~2y021y3ha DYfiM+ Dohiyu uhyvdla doyi.
VAG B B b V A . .
-

1t's cold - T l l y -outside. cf: ahyvdladisdisgi, kanawoga, u2hyv4dla (cold) Gado usdi uhyoluha amayi?
SV 826 0 f i M . G DTA?

What's floating on the water? ~ ~ h y o ~ ~ n a horn @fie n. Utana uhyona nuwanhdi dagwalelu?i. He has - big -on his car. ahorn u2hyv2dla BBA n. cold Ajalagi uhyvdla "yuniyvha" hla uhyvdla yiga?niyisgo?i, uhyvdlasgini ugvwiyuso uniyisgo?i.
OW8

u2hyv2dla u1ni3yi2ha B B b B h M v.t. he has a cold u2hyv2dla a1gi?3ni2yi3ha


BB68 DYhrn

u2hyv2dla ~ l n i ~ y v ~ h v ~ ~ ? i
@Bo% BhB8T

@fie 4GD.d

LX8MT.

u2hyv2dla u1ni3yi23sgp3?i
BBA B h m A 7

u2hyv2dla ~ i ~ j a ? ~ n i ~ y a
BBA BCh2

u2hyv2dla ~ ~ n i y h ~ OBAiBhAd ~d Hla osda yagwadanhta. Uhyvdla agi?niyiha.

P O'BA AS hJ5;jAT, O.B&Y~BEK~ ~ A T , B ~


D W BBA "GhB+" G Y

Whenever a Cherokee "catches" -a cold, he doesn't catch the - rather, the cold; cold -catches him. u2hyv4dla BBA adj. cold Uh dla ama aktadegi?a.

PAL. W . 3XLD

B B b DYh&.

I don't feel g o o d . ~ h a v e a ----

cold.

cf: ga?niyiha, u2hyv2dla (cold) u1hyvh2ji2nv2tga BBhDdS v.t. he's choking on it a1ki2yvh2ji2nv2tga DYBh@dS u1hyvh2ji2nv2tsvZ3?i BBhDdCT u1hyvh2ji2nv2tgo3?i cha2yvh2j12nv2tgi
BBhDdAT CBhDdY

-%- DT BB

DSWSYD.

I'm thirsty for -water. cold cf: ahyvdladisdisgi, u1hyv2dla (it is cold)

u2hyv4dla BBA n. Republican u2ni2hyv4dla BhBA Uhyvdlas hihnegi?

u2hyvh2ji2nv2tsdi BBhDhd Hlesdi jichayvhjinvtsi.


L ~ A ' hCBhD.-7b.

- vote Republican? Do you

Don't choke on cf: ahyvhjeni

it.

u1hyv2dla BBA v.i. it (weather) is cold

u1hf12sde3?a OBJSD drunk


. yy a 1k; 2 2sde3?a

v.i. he's getting


DJ'BGSD

O'B2C i 7

170

uhyvsdeda

SS DZPd2A OCJAd. They maks b r e a d o u t o f wheat.


uZ3jG2ti H i l a i g a d u d i t a h e k i l a uhyvsda?e?i? .OW T S SAW? YW QBJLRT? How many d i d he d r i n k b e f o r e - got he drunk? cf: uhyvsdeda, uhyvsdi

@ad j . a

a lot

u 2 n i 2 3 j g 2t i -

B h a
'

u2hE2sde4da

BBaG adj

. drunk

Unij a t i nunadvhnv yvwi , r ? n i p h v u~-, h w sdeda B h U Q8VO B8 DhhBa QB2, i. 4 drunk was a r r e s t e d among - -o t o f a - l people.
~

ju2ni2hC2sde4da

d hB2Sl

u2je21i 8YP pron. h i s Gigage ulsuhwida d a g w a l e l a u j e l i v i . Y S F BPZ-81. L I J W OYPT His -c a r i s r e d .

Uhyvsdeda a s g a y a j a ? i s v j i g o w h t i h a . BB2Sl 0 2 5 3 CTR hAG2+. I s e e -a drunk man walking t h i s way. cf: u h y v s d e s g i , uhyvsdi

u1 j e 2 t s d i BYh26 algwg2j e 2 t s d i u1je2tsdo3?i h G 2 je 2 t s d a u 2 je2tsdoh3di

v . i . he's grinning

u2he2sde4sgi

BB2S@Y n . drunkard

DTi"h26 BYhJVd GYh2 1 BYh2V-I

j ~ ~ n i ~ h ~ ~ s d e % ~ i dhB@SAY Kilo uhyvsdesgi uhnawojv g o l a j i g e s v v i . YG Q B 2 S U BtCC AW 6FRT. Some drunkard f r o z e t o d e a t h l a s t winter. cf: uhyvsdeda, uhyvsdi

~ ' j e ~ t s d v ~ ~ ~ i BYhJVT

v3hy\!2sdi

BB@d a d j

strong (taste)

u 2 n i 3hyy2sdi

0.hB2d

Gosdi y i g o s e l a a j e t s d i s g o v i . A63d dA4W DYhJdAAT. When you s a y something t o him, h e g "r i n s . cf: ujetsdi

Uhyvsdi kahwi u d i t a s d i ulvkwdi. 8 BdW2d B*?V'd. He l i k e s t o d r i n k s t r o n g c o f f e e . cf: uhyvsded uhyvsdesgi

u2je4tsdi

BYhJd

n . possum

~ ~ n ? ~ j e ~ t s 8 Yih 2 d 8d Uj e t s d i j i y a d i n v t a n v usv j i g e s v v i . BYh2d hJdOWO BR b t RT I r a n o v e r - possum l a s t n i g h t . a

u1jq3?a

BCD v . i . h e ' s i n s i d e i t

algwq2jq3?a DICD ~ l j ? 3 ? ~ 2 3 ? i BCiT


U

cf:

ujetsdi

11 4 3 v O 3 ? i .

j ?2j?3?e3sdi

BChT CCR@d

u 2 j i B h n . h i s mother Hlas y a t v g i v a u j i j u h y a n i s g v v i ? f a WYD ~XAET? Doesn't h e h e a r h i s mother c a l l i n g him? u 2 j i 2 1 v 3 ? i BhqT n. c o t t o n

Wesa k a n e s a v i u j a ? a . d U aABT BCD. The c a t i s i n s i d e t h e box.

u2jq21e4sdi

BC6Jd n . wheat

Gadu a n o h l v h d i s g o u j a l e s d i

I l v h i y u T i s u j i l v jadeda?

uksesdi
T4AGT2 CSL? Have you e v e r p i c k e d c o t t o n ?

171

lrh.4

cf:

ukahyodv?i n . d r y place

u 2 k a 2 h y o 2 d v 4 ? i Bafi6"T ju2kg2hyo2dv4?i Ukahyodv h a ? i s e s d i . B2jfi6" .GT4@1. Walk on - -r y p l a c e . a d


cf:

j Bh.3~ n . ~ worm i a
Bhh3

dafi6"T

u 2 n i 2 ji Z y a

Igada anasuhnidohi u n i j i y a danhdisgo yunasuhna. TS I D E h V A B h h 3 LQd@A G K t Some f i s h e r m e n u s e worms when t h e y fish.

ukahyoda
836"T n . h i s f a c e

u1kg2tv4?i

~ l j o ~ n ? ~ BKBWI v . i . i t ' s r a t t l i n g t a Udihlehgigwu u k a t v ? i . B d L Y 2 Ba6"T. His f a c e -- i s j u s t h o t . u 1 k e Z 3 d g 3 1 i 2 y v 4 ? i OF LPBT n. valley d ~ ~ k e ~ ~ d g ~ l i SF yLPBT ? i ~ v ~ Inada u j o n a t v utvgana uya?nvsv?i. T81, BK86" 06"s 8 B=O.RT. When h e e a r d a s n a k e r a t t l i n g h e froze. cf: ujonati n. rattlesnake Ukedaliyv a d a n e l a j u w e n v s v ? i . BFLPB DLAW d d Q R T . His h o u s e i s i n t h e v a l l e y . u1ksa2ta
BfBW

v . i . i t ' s sticking out


DlSBW B f B6"T B f BVT C f BZ@d B f BJd

a1gwg2ks?3ta ~ l k s ? ~ t v7i 3 ' u1ksa2t03?i j a2ksa2te3sdi u2ksg2tdi

u2j02na2ti

Unajonati a n i n e l a age j i j u s d a g a l a . 88K9-7 DMW DF Ir32Lf W . m e s n a k e s l i v e i n t h a t cave over there. cf: ujonata
BK@d a d j

Gado u s d i u k s a t a j a d l a w a ? d v ? i ? f V B@d B f B W CdSG6"T? What's s t i c k i n g o u t o f y o u r p o c k e t ? u 1 k s g 2 s d i B f 4@A v . t . 1. h e ' s w a t c h i n g him 2 . h e ' s b e i n g c a r e f u l j i2yg2ga1se2sdi, algwa2ksg2sdi 6 3 f4@d, D l f 4Jd ~ l k s ~ ~ s d v O f~ ?x i7 ~ 4 u1kse2sdo3?i
B f 4@VT

u2j04sdi

confusing

u 2 n a 2 j 0 4 s d i , j u 2 j 0 4 s d i D,eK@d, dK@d

U j o s d i duwohwela. OK22 S W U ' . His w r i t i n g i s c o n f u s i n g .


BafiL a d j

u 2k? 2hyo4da

dry

u2ni2kg2hyo4da, j u2ka2hyo4da
O ' h a f i L , dClfiL N e l a g i jugahnanv s v h i , g a y u l a ukahyoda i g i gadohi. ~ W Y st^ ng. S G L ~szfir, TY sr..G. . Although i t r a i n e d y e s t e r d z y , t h c g : - o ~ n d i s alrss3;; dr;..

hi2yg2ga1ss2sde3sdi, ja2ksg2sde3sdi A3S42S2d. C f 42SZ-J u2kse2sdoh3di 8S4,11TJ Ahyvki u k s e s d i u l i t i s d i n i g e s v n v uyelvs\.?i. ])BY O'S 40;:J @f3?cl hFRO 0'3 ?Ri. tic:s --.. w2tci:l.n:~ a p r i s o n e r s o h e \+or.'? ---r

172

uksojaneda Ahwi duhyalvsv svhi asehnv ukwolvsv?i DB S 3 9 R R/;, 040 BV 4RT. He went deer hunting yesterday but had no luck. u21a1sih2de4ni B W b S h n. his foot Julasihdeni duksata duhnawosdv?i. dWbSh S S U W S t O 3 T . His feet -- are sticking out from under his covers. cf: ilasihdi ~ ~ l a ~ s u ~ ~ l n. his shoe BWCG o j ~ ~ l a l s u ~ ~WCG lo Julasulo dekalvsadvsga. 3a W P a f He's lacing up -his shoes.

get away. u2kso1ja2ne4da Bf-f.CAL n. goat u2nq2kso1 jg2ne4da B6SfCAL Gado usdi anigisgo unaksojaneda? S V B2d DhY@A B6ffGAL? What do goats eat? u2ksu3ti
~ f n. ~ diamondback j

rattler

~'n?~ksu~ti g f r j p Unaksuti aninayegi. Q9SCJ DhOBY. Diamondback rattlers are dangerous. u2kta QYW n. 1. grain 2. seed u2ni2kta Q hYW Gvgisdi unikta dalsinhdisgovi. EY@d Q hYW L PbQdJAT. She saves watermelon seeds. ~'k?~h?~da QE+L algi2kv2hg3da

. .

v.i. it's foggy DYE+I QEWT B E+VT c..@ EtSd

u1le2na23hi3ha QdeA+ losing his way a1gw?21e2na23hi3ha

v. i. he's

u 1kv2hg2d03'?i jg2kY2hG2de3sdi

~'le~na~~hlv~vi ~lle~na~~hi~ho~vi jg21e2na23ga u21e2na23sdi Ulenahlv hlahehno yaktahe ididla wulohisdi?i. Q ~ FP ~ asw+ TJA J G A ~ T . Z He got lost because he didn't know a i c h w q o go. u21e2s04da Qd-f. adj . thin (animate) L ju2na21e2s04da d9df I Gohida udlvjv iyusdi ulesoda nulstanv?i. RC) L BPC TCJd 0 11 4PdVO.T. 6He became skinny because he was sick for a long time. cf: usagevi ~'li~~da~~sdi~ha QPL,dt. makini a mistake a1gi21i23da"sdi2ha v.i. he's
DJ PL,~.I.G

-------------Ukvhada kohi sunalevi. Qt+L A.0 GOdT. It's foggy this -- morning. ~ ~ ~ k v l h l ~ BEA@d sdi adj cute

kesa anida unikvhisdi geso?i. 8 U DhL QhEAJd FfT. Kittens are cute. OCS 'J V' v.i. he's not having luck at hunting

~ l l i ~ ~ d a ~ ~ s t a ~ n r v L2WO.Ti I P~ ~ ?

ulogila
?i -,

173

u'1i23da32sdi2sgo3?i ja2li2da1sda

O'IZL@d@XT 61)L@L

u21i3si O P L n. his grandmother (maternal) Ulisi unvnelv gasaleni.


O P L @@A4 StI$h. -

~ ~ l i ~ ~ d a ~ ~ s d o h ~ Ld i d WP @V

. Jalidasdisgesdi vsgi
~~~ ~

nihiwesvTi.

C- L @ d @ f @ d i @ Y h A D R T . - P

You'll - making - mistake if you be a say that.


7-

His -grandmother gave him the coat. cf: unisi ~ ' l i ~ ~ y e ~ ~ d P 8~ . h av.i. he's Qi I G moaning DYP8I.G a1gi21i23ye32di2ha u11i23ye32tg2nv23?i QP8WD.T
U '

~ ~ 1 i ~ ~ o ~ ~ h n. fall~ d i QPAdIAJ ~ ~ Uligohvsdi iyv dvlenvhi dadehlohgwasgv?i.


Q P A B @ d T B P$OA L S G I 2 E T .

m i n fall.

g to start school in the adj . dead (nond h ~ m T

li23ye32di2sgo3?i

QP8d2AT CP8 L QP8VI

u21i2hwo1jv4?i QPWCT human) ju2ni21i2hwo1jv4?i Ulihwojv?is na inada?


QPGCT@ 8 T 0 L ?

ja21i2ye1da u21i23ye32doh2di Gado juliyediha?


S V dP8d.G?

Why - - moaning? is he u11~2ye32su2stga Q P 8 C X S v.t. he's wearing a ring a1gwa21i2ye32su2stga DIPBGXS u11i2ye32su2stgv23~i u11j2ye32su2stgo3~i jg21i2ye32su2stge3sdi
Q P 8 C a ET BPBCXAT CPBCXF@d

Is that snake dead? cf: ayohusga, galihwoga, uyohusv?i u21i2ji1sgwa2ne4da curl;


QP122IA L

adj

Josdadahnvhli ulijisgwaneda ustihga.


K@L L W Q P k A m L 022.5.

My brother has curly hair. ~ ~ 1 i ; ~ j o ~ ~Qh K A L d a fat E i ~ n. Ulijohida nigvnhde hawiyohi.


Q f K d 9 L h EOS

+@fin.

Degegachvsdisgv unaliyesustosdi aliyesusto uliyesustgvTi. She was --wearing


S f f d ' 2 d J E 8 8 P B G @ V @ d DPBG@V Q P B G X ET .

He's taking the - off the meat fat cf : galijohida u21i2ksi B f Y b n. intestine ju21i2ksi
JP.Yb

a - wedding ring. -

cf: aliyesustgiTa, aliyesusto, aliyesustvsga


QGYbr v.i. it's cloudy

Sihgwa juliksi deganvgaliha.


b T dPYb Sf&SfcP.

-------------u11032g121v23?i
QGY~T

She's cleaning some hog intestines u31i2sdi


J

adj. weak

~ ~ l o ~ ~ ~ 1 ~BGYG T~ ? i 1 o

j ~ ~ n ? ? ~ l j ; ~ sjd iu L . l O( Hla udohiyu ulisdi yigi

O>I.:lG' PPiLJ

Ugahnanidena iyusdi ulogila.


Q f t h S B TG@J B G Y W .

He's not too i\.eak. -

174

ulogili caps. cf: alsdule?a, alsduli?a, alsdulo u12sge4da


@ P Z k l adj . important

It's cloudy like it's going to rain. cf: ulogili ~ ~ l o ' g 1 ~ 1@ G Y P n. cloud i Gajanuli a7i ulogili. The clouds are moving fast. cf: ulogila ~llsda~~hn~~ha Bp2LA.G happening to him v. i. it's
SG4P DT BGYP -

Hla ase ulsgeda yigese7i. I? C4 BPi2FL ~ 3 F 4 7 . I guess it wasn't important.

--

~l~sgw?~l?~da BP,?XPd adj. 1. broken (long object) 2. he's broke (when used in plural form) jul 3sgwa21i2da
JPJXPL

Gvnosasdi ulsgwalida jiyvwahta.


EZB2.I e P 2 1 P L 6 B G W .

I found a broken broom


Julsgwalida adiha. Gosdi ulsdahnelv dlv wedohv. Hla yi?uluhje?i. .42J B P J L A Y P OVJ?.. I? JD:MYT. Something happened -to him while he was away. He didn't come back. Gado ulsdahne na eihli? SV BP2L/1 8 Y C ? What's wrong with the dog?
Q -

d P J S P L DJ+.

He says -he's broke. cf: uligalida, uligvhalvda ~ l ~ s g w ~ ~ l BP@I,ML u~da v.i. he's sticking his head out u11sgwa21u3dv23?i ul 1sgw?21u3d03?i ja1 2sgw?21u3de3sdi
BPJ,TJfPT 0'PJ;35MVT CPJXMSJJ

--

ul2sdV2?i4da BPASTL adj ju12sdu2?i4da dfJS7.1.

. open

Galohisdi ulsdu?ida gesv agwadelohosa, wagiyvhlv7i. When I f o u n d u t the door was I went in. cf: asdu?i?a

~ & i n PJSTL B

-------------Kilo jolani ulsgwaluda asehnv hla yagwanhta vsgi gesvyi.


Yb' KlVh 8PJ.TML 0 4 Q J? FRT.

F R D Z S G E B ,G Y A P I . .

open,

3XQW i 2 Y

u11sdu31a B P i j ~ C Y v.t. he's wearing a cap

Someone is sticking --- of his head out the window, but I don't know who it is. u11sgwe3tuh2ga B P J L SS wearing a hat v.t. he's

Xa analasgalisgi d i j e dunnlsduln. -- - -- - .- ---,'; 38iJri'3,',c2' "I /' . S O f ' , i 5 !L -1 ~ ~ : u si z a ? l players .lr.e ,c:..i;.ing cii+:tf >

j a12sgue3tuh2ge3s~li
-- ----

CFJ=LSF ,;.i

---.

- --

unaligoha Nigolv yijigo nudale ulsgwetuhgo?i.


h.49 & A
41.8 Qfa?u?SAT.

175

hi21v2gwo1da, hi21v2kwda
AWL, AWL ~~lv~~kwdoh~di QWVJ

r..ery tl. I see him, -wearing he's a fferent hat. cf: alsgwetuhgiTa, alsgwetuhvsga, alsgwetuwo ull~ih~~a QPbS v.i. it's dark

Udanhtiyv iyusdi jilvgwodi.


OLDJIB TGaJ
. W-I. (

I like her because she's friendly

cf: adlvkwsga, udalvkwdi u21v23sg?2di 896rJ n. glass

Sudali iga ama judlisdohdi julvsa?di duhwasv?i .


GLP TS DJ' dC@VJ d 4 U J SGRT.

She bought six water glasses. Doyu ulsihga kohi usv9i.


VC; QPbS .
-

- AA B R T . It's really dark tonight.


8 8 P b Y , dPbY

u1na3?a BQD v.t. he has a flexible object

u123sih2gi BPbY adj. dark ~23nal~sih~~i, 3sih~~i ju1~ Sdayi agowhtvhdi ulsihgv kilo ulsihgi yuhnuwa.
A 1 6 DAGG'J 8 P b L YG O'PbY G 4 G .

It's hard to see someone in the dark if he has on a -sh'rt. dark

--

Jana?as dagwalela ahi?lidasdi adalsgohldanehi gohweli?


CQDA LXcf12' DAPLAJ DLPJA.7LA-9 R F T EP

~ l ~ s u ~ ~ h w B P r d la adj . colored i~ s ~ ~ n a l ~ s u ~ ~ h w i ~ld~ s u ~ ~ h w ~ ~ d a cf: uha, uneha, uwaya, uwekaha j~ a,


Q8PZ'OL, dPTB1.

U D have --- a driver's license?

Dalonige ulsuhwida dagwalela agiha.


LGhf BPZ'BL LXo0ll DYG.

u2na2da2de1sv4da CuBLSRL

n. chain

I have a yellow colored car.


cf: asuhwisga, disuhwisdl ~ ~ 1 v 0 . 7~ dn. poison ivy ~ 1 a tlla gohusdi yagwvneho ulvda. P A r 2 J GGAE 0 3 . I'm not allergic to poison ivy. ~ l l v ~ ~ k w 8.11-6 v.t. he likes him, di it
ji 21v 3 g ~32di, a lgi21v 23kwdi o
k W J , DY'WJ

Dagwalela gansanesgv duligalsv unadadesvda.


LXcfM' 30tl/lAE SPSPR 8 8 l S R L .

The chain broke as he was pulling a car. u2na21a1sgah13di4?i 80WJS 9 6 7 n. 1. ball field 2 . field house j ~ ~ n ? ~ l a l s ~ a h l ~ ddBM1;3S U T i~?i Unalasgahldi idena.
BBW,1S 4d T S 8 .

u l l ~ ~ ~ k w d v ~ ? ?lp6T 8i

Let's go to the -ball field. cf: alasgaliha

cf:

ganega, g a n e g a l i h a , u s d i n e ga?lv?i adj . ugly

u 2 n e 3 g i h 1 2 d i BAY 4~

O g i n a l i o g i n a l i g o h i woginedolv Nvdagi?i. dY8P bjY8PA-Q VYAV4 DLYT. M f r i e n d and I went t o Texas t o g e t h e r . y cf: analigohvsga

~ ~ n i ~ n e ~ ~ ij h l~ ~n de i ~, ~ i h l ~ d i ~ B M Y 9 d , JAY 9J Unegihldi adanelv u d i s g a h l v ? i . QAY9d DIA9 B J J S P T . He was h i d i n g i n an -house. ugly ~ ' n e ~ ~ g uBAJC j v . i . h e ' s being ~ ~ a mean a1gi2ne23gu32j a u1ne23gu32jv23?i u1ne23gu32j03?i j?2ne23gu32je 3 s d i

u2na21i4?i ju21i4?i

@OPT n . h i s f r i e n d JPT

DYAJC BAJCT BAJKT CAJYJd

Oginali?i widajiwhtvhidoli. AYBPT BLhGP'AVP. I am going t o go and v i s i t % f r i e n d . cf:

ali?i

~ ~ n ? ~ l i ~ 88PAd n . 1. h i s g i r l k d i f r i e n d 2 . h e r boy f r i e n d U n a l i k d i u n a l i g o s v j i j igo?v k o h i . 8 8 P A 1 BBPAR h h A i it9 I saw h e r w i t h -boy f r i e n d w h i l e her ago.

H l e s d i . Do j a n e g u j a . L@d. V CAJC. Q u i t . You're being t o o mean.

BAJhL

a d j . c r u e l , mean

~ ~ n i ~ n e ~ ~ B M J jh L ~ d a u ~ i Jadaksesdesdi, g i h l i s unegujida u n i kaha. C L S 4 J S J d , YCJ BAJhL BIG)+. Watch y o u r s e l f , t h e y have a -dog. mean u2ne2gv2ha4?i BAE+T n. blanket

cf:

analigohvsga, u n a l i ? i adj

u2na2103?i2da B8GTL ju2na2103?i2da

. plaid

d8GTL

Unalo?idas ahnawo t i n e s i ? B@GTL@ DI% J A b ? Are you going t o g e t a p l a i d s h i r t ? u2ne4ga BAS adj . white

Unegvha n i d v g i n a w i t d i agwvkewsv?i. BA E+ hPY8BJd D G f BRT I forgot t o bring - blanket. a

~ ~ n i ~ n j e ~~ ~ n ,eB M f~, adAS ~ a ~ Gigvha n u l s t a n v unega uhnuwv g i g a duhyvsgwola. YE+ 4PJWD - 8 4 6 YS S B X W . BAS H i s w h i t e s h i r t g o t bloody when h i s nose s t a r t e d b l e e d i n g . u 1 n e 3 g ? ? 2 1 ~ 4 ? i BAS 4T n. h i s skin

u1nc3ha @A+ v . t . h e h a s l i q u i d

Ugohnv?igwu u n e g a ? l v ? i . BADTJ BAS 9 T . H i s s k i n i s i u s t burned.

Nigohilv unvdi a g i n a d i n v d i a g i n e h o ? i . hAA 4 BDd DYf3dD-C DYAJ 7 . I have - always -m i l k t o s e l l . cf: ~ha, una9a, uwaya, uwekaha

unv sa ~ l n o ~ h y v hQ Z BaS ~~
O,'lrQ.3. OJ1f'Q,3

177

v.i. it is sounding

n. 1. cre~ l n o ~ h y v h ~ ~ o o .? i . ~ ~ ~ zB ja2no2hyvZ31a
CZBW

ator 2. God Yihowa dudo9a Unehlanvhi adiha Galvkwdi Gohweli.


JSfiG SVD BAED-4 Dd4, S W d AbP

The Bible says - name is Jehovah. God's u2ne23sda3la O'AJ1W n. ice Unesdala uhyaluga digaduhv?i. Uhalvni unohyvhgo udalenhdi yigi danilawinv?i.
B + 4 i BZBA QG6Qd IhU'QET. A bell rings when it's time for church

QA3dW Q&VS d S S & T .

He went to town after some ice. cf: ganesdaladiva

to start. Gohusdi unohyvhga gagwatv7i.


A r J d BZBS

~ n h ~ ~@Oh, n. snow j i Gohida ahv gadohi unhji.


AAG Dd SV.0 0'015. -

Somethine _ makine is " noise in the wheel. cf: adanohyvhlisdiha, ganohyvhlisdiha u2n021e B Z 6 n. wind, air, storm, tornado Unole uhi7lvstanv utana gaduhv7i.
B - ~ .?JW'OB W ~ S ~ T A S A tornado went through a big city. -

SZ6"T.

The -stayed on the ground for a snow long time. unhlta

@@wl

v.t. he knows it
DXW
Q Q6"T QQVT ~ m @ d

algwanh2ta unh1tv237i unh1t037i janh2te3sdi

cf: ganolvsga ~ ~ n o ~ l v l tQZqWQ n. January ~~na Unolvtana ka7lv adalenisgv ije adetiyisgv7i. QZ4W8 9 4 DCcCh@E TV DSJ&ET. The month of January is the beginning of a new year. ~ ' n v ~ ~ dB o d n. milk i Unvdi ulvgwdi uditasdi7i.

------------Unhte7is kohi iga ja7luhisdi gesv? Q m T @ AA TS CMA2d fR? Did he know -- oaay? that you were supposed to come t ~ ~ n i B h ~ s n. his grandparent ~ b i (paternal) ju2ni23sl d h b . Unisi utvhistanv7i.
Bhb -B 6 5 9 2 W Q ~ .

W d BdU112dT.

He likes to drink milk. cf: ganvdivi

His grandfather raised him. cf: ududu, ulisi n. sheep

~ ~ n v ~ ~ j i ~ d n. brain @@hI a Hila nika yvwi unvjida?


A h a B 8 QQlrl? W

u2n01de4na B Z S 8

u2ni2n01de4na BhZSf3 Dilsdoyhdi gvhdi dasdoye uninodena.


dP2VAd Ed L d V 8 B h Z S Q .

How big is the human brain? u2nvZ3sa 0.W pron. 1. themselves 2. one another, each other (see Gram. 111, A )

He's shearing the sheep with shears.

u2sg3ge4?i

~ t l adj . thin (inanimate) f ~

j ~ ~ s ? ~ g e ~di2sa3ge4?i ?i,
d t lT , d u f f ~

@@A Dnf& SPYD. I hear - little -crying. a baby

cf: y2sdi4 (little) v2sdi4 @@A adj. little


d e a l , j@A

dtlf d d s ow. -hast v a vthin tcovers. He on

Jusage dihnawosdohdi duhnawosdi

jun2sdi, jv2sdi

cf: ulesoda u1sa2no BtlZ n. her dress Nigada jusano datesga.


h f l , - LXdf. dtlZ

Jusdi dagwalela ugodi dagilvgwdi sihnv jutana gesvvi


d d A 6P6W B A A L Y W A 6 0 dW8 F R T .

I like small cars better than big ones.


v2sdi4 gf2nv2hnv4?i Q d J S W T n. trail

She's ironing all of her dresses.

cf: asano ~ ' s d a ~ ~ g a ~ l v ~ ? Si 5'T 0dL n. cave

jv2sdi4 deZ3ga3nv2hnv4?i d @ A S S W T Usdi -ganvhnv a?isv ulenahlv?i.


S e DTR B 6 8 P T .

Usdagalv wuphla, hla ta?line yi?unigohe?i . Q @ L f ^ ? B f , f WPA ZO'hAi'T. J When he entered the - they didn't cave, see him a second time. u2sda2g?2p23h~2da crisp pZ3hi2da
l,+@

He got lost walking through a trail. cf: ganvhnv?i, ? s i 'd4 (little) ~ ' s d i ~ n e ~ g a ? ~ l v ~ ?@ A S 9T n. his @ i scaip adlagosga.
Q J J A f 9 DWAdS

--

0dL S BAL

adj .

u2ni2sd?2gg2yv23h?2da, j ~ ~ s d ? ~ g ? ~ QhALfBAL, JdLfBAl,

Dahas gadu unisdagaphida?


~ ~ T h d l , f ~ A l , ?

He's scratching - scalp. his cf: unega?lv?i, ustihgv?i u1sdv2di3?a Q X A D v.i. he's receiving punishment ak1sdv2di3?a u'sd~~dv~~?i u1sdv2di32sgo3?i tsdvZ3da u2sdvZ3di32sdi
SV Q P A . 8 3 - 1 0 ? 1 DY2iPAD 0XPT 03-12AT

Are trere any crackers? cf: asdagayhdiha, asdagaphiha ~ ~ s d a l ~ ~ ~ h Q d~ B 8 g Yi n. his v Ls d wife Usdayvhvsgi udetiyisgv usdayvhnv?i.
BZLB82Y Q . W J S E QdLBOT. He cooked for -his wife on her birth-

CXl,
Q 2P.J2A

Gado udvnelv usdvdi3a? What --is he being punished for? cf: udasdvdisdi

day.

cf: adasdaphvsga, udali?i u2sdi4

0 a ~n.

baby u2se2ga1jv4?i, seZga1 jv4?i


4SCT Q4SCT,

jun2sdi d 8 d J Usdi -adlohyihv gatvgi?a

adv. barely

Segajv usaladanv gageda nvya. 4sc - BUWLO- S F L 0-3. He barely lifted the heavy rock. u2sga2n041i @ @ S Z p adj., adv. slow ~~ni~sg?~no'+li, ju2sg?2n041i 0 h@S ZP , J@SZP ' Igada unisganoli geso unadvnv7isdohdi?i.
TSL BhaSZP FI 88610T2VJT.

Tsgwisdi goksgv iyusdi usihwas a.


b P . J AsaE TG2-I B b G a a . . .
. .
~ ~

He's coughing because he smokes too

+
.

much.
u2ska 0a n. head, skull . Yvwi uska uhwahtvhv asgosgv?i
B 8 --~5& DaAaET.

Some people are -to get ready. slow Usganoli galohi nigvwsdi kohi iga.
0'2s ZP SGA hEG2-l AA TS

Todavseemed to eo bv slow. u2sgo4sdi


@@A@J adj

. bright

He found - human skull while digging. a cf: askoli u2sko41i B2AP n. peak (of object)

Na dagwalela jusgosdi dujvsta.

L I ~ W6arn-1

scaw.

The car h m i g h t lights.

T E B@AP JGP tlGP YC O F ? @ . uZ3sgwa2ni2kdi 8 J I h Y J adj inter'est ing The squirrel climbed to the t o p o f ~ ~ n i ~ ~ s ~ w ~ ~ n i ~ k d i , ~ n i ~ k thei tree when the dog chased it. j ~ ~ ~ s ~ w ~ d cf: askoli B h@IhYJ, J2IhY-l Usgwanikdi anihnohehlvsgo yuniwonisa. u1s02tv4?i B I 5 T prep. behind a person B @ I h Y J DhZ?P@A GhBhU. ju2na1s02tv4?i ~ 8 1 . 5 ~ They talk about interesting things when they talk. Hla sgwu yagigohe usotv jijidogv?i. f &' a A ? @If' h h m . cf: asgwanigosga He didn't even see me standing behind u2sgwo2hli47i B X C T n. his abdomen, him. stomach cf: gasohi?i

Hlgv uskoli wulohlv saloli gihli ukehena.

Usgwohli asgoliye?a.
B X C DJAPBD.

~ l s t i h ~ ~Ov ~ ~ iTn. his (head of) ~ E hair Nigohilv udanvgalvda geso ustihgv?i.
hR9.1 BLQS.1L I I B X E T .

He's rubbing - stomach. his u23s12hwa BbG adj . empty

Her hair -- is always clean. Usihwa talugisgi eskvsi.


BbG WMYJY R a E b .

cf: usdinega?lv?i u3~uh2g?2h1v47i BrSPT n. his claw

and

me an empty can.

u1s12hwa3sga BbG@S v. i he's coughing Na wesa dusuhgahlv digosdayi. The cat's claws are sharp.
8 Dtl - JAaLJ3. SrSP

180

usula v2sv47i Q R T n. night OginaliTi usv dulvhwisdaneho?i.


dJYBPT -S ~ @ @ L A E QR T.

u3su21a QCW v. i. he's wearing pants algwa3su21a u3su21v23?i u3su2103?i ja3su21e3sdi


DPCW QC47 QfGT Cff.21

My friend works during nights. ~lt?~de~gi~?a QWSYD v.i. he's thirsty ak1t?2de2gi3?a D WSYD Y
Q W S f OT

Hlas yunhte ganektahyvda usulv?i?

PZ GO% SASWB L -? QfqT


Didn't he know that -- wearing he was his pants inside out? cf: asuleva, asuli?a, asulo, usulo u1su210 Q f G n. his pants ju1su210 dCG Hadlvsgini duhwasgo jusulo.
+P@Yh SG@A dCG

~ ' t ? ~ d e ~ g i ~ s ~ o &WSY@AT ~?i tsta2de2gv1ga u2tg2de23g032di Ama aktadegi?a.


DK DYWSYD. CWSES QWSAd

I am - - thirsty for water.

~'t?~hl?~wo~s~a QWCB@f becoming enraged

v.i. he's

I wonder where he buys his Dants.

cf: asulo, usula u2sv2de4na QRSf3 n. shotgun ju2sv2de4na J R S 8 Usvdena ujeli ganvgaliha.
O R 3 8 QYP f O -cleaningf P + . He's his

ak t?2hl?2w02sga DYWfB2S ~ ' t ? ~ h l a ~ w o ~ s v ~Q W f B R T ~?i ~ ~ t ~ ~ h l a ~ w o ~ s Q W f B J? i g o ~ AT t ~ t ? ~ h l ? ~ w o ~ ~ h i CWCBA ~ ~ t ~ ~ h l ? ~ w o ~ h QWCBA@d i~sdi Gohusdi agoselvnela, utahlawosv?i.
A r @ d DA4%lW, QWCBRT.

shotgun.

u2sv2d04ni Q R V h

n. conduit, pipe

When he was called names, - became he enraged. cf: atahlawohisdi

Ama juwedasdi jusvdoni dunesdala?dv usv j igesv?i .


Db' d d L X - S A J L W 6 O R h F R T . dRVh

The water pipes froze last night. u1sv2hi3ha BRA+ bed v.i. he's going to

u23t?2na QWf3 adj. big, large fuZ3na2ta2na,


d e w @ , dW8

Utana gahljode ahnesgeha.


SPKS DA2f.G.

ak1sv2hi3ha DYR9.G ~ ~ s v ~ h l v ~ QRP T ~ ? i u1sv2hi2h03?i


t sv i3ha
QRA17' GR.G

He is building a -house. big cf: utani u2ta2ni4 QWh adj. too big, large j ~ ~ n ? ~ t ? ~ ju2ta2ni ni,
d @ W h , dWh

nw

u2sv2sdi B R@d Hila iyv datsvhli?


TB - ? ~ c n c

Utani hi?a ahnawo.


QWh AD D t B .

When -- going - are you to bed? cf: junisvsdi?i

This shirt is too bie cf: utana

uwakewsga BVi'Z4L n. steam Utanolvda duleyhtanvvi . OWZ9L .TrCRWOT. . --He got burned by steam. cf : atanolega
-

181

Ahyvdagwalosgv akwtvdasdohdi agilvkwdi. DB L IGaE DIPLaVJ DYWJ I to - like - listen to thunder.

u2ti2p2 3hnv4?i 8 3 B 0 T n. leftovers Svhi utiyvhnv anigi?a. R9 8 3 B 0 D W D . They're eating leftovers from yesterday. u1tsgwg21v2tv4?i BhT%"T n. his ankle du1tsgwg21v2tv4?i ShTqPT Utsgwalvtv ulsgwalselv hlgv dojuhltadina. 8hX+?76BPaXP49 W E VJPWd8. He broke his ankle when he jumped from -a tree. uZ3tsgwi2di O h P 1 adj . crooked ~ ~ ~ n ? * t s ~ w ijuZ3tsgwi2di ~di, O'eh'PJ, JhPJ Hla yagilvkwdi utsgwidi gahlida. k G W W d B h P d SCL. I don't like a crooked arrow. u2tsgwi4sdi B h P a 1 adj. a lot u2ni2tsgwi4sdi 8hhP@1 Utsgwisdi ugahnanv svhi jigesv?i. 8hP@d @St0 R9 hFRT. It rained a lot vesterdav. u2tulgi BSy n. hope Utugi agwvha jiyatvgodi?i. S Y DE+ b Z A d T . I hope to hear from her. u l t ~ ~ d a ~ ~ 8PL@d v.t . he's listening sdi to him, it ji2ya1t.v2da32sdi, a1gwa2tv2da32sdi hGX'L@1, DTPL21 ~ ' t v ~ d a ~ ~ s d v 8PL@PT ~~?i ~ ~ t v ~ d a ~ ~ s d 8PL@VT o~?i hi2ya1tv2da32sde3sdi,j?2tv2da32sde3sdi BZLaS@d, CPL@S@J

u2ty2hi2sdi BPBa1 n. old chap (of men) Gago na utvhisdi? SA 8 OPB@1? Who is the old c h a ~ ? cf: atvsga u2ty2s02hnv4?i @p+DT n. old man

Asgaya yutvsohna utvsohnv anosehovi. D@f3 GPIt 8Pf0 DZ4BT. When a man becomes fully grown, they call him --an old man. cf: atvsga u1wa3?i2h1v4?i B G T P T n. bush du1wa3?i2hlv4?i SGTPT Duwavihlv udli didla udisgahla kilo?i. SGTP B C 1 BJaSk YGT. 1 G o n e is hidine behind the bushes. u1wa2ji23sga3hlv4pi OGh@SP T n. scales (of fish) Gado usdi hvhdisgo hnvnhdesgv aja?di uwajisgahlvvi? S V 0 2 BJ@A OI)S@E DC1 BGh@SP T? '1 What do vou use to take fish scales off? u1wa2kew2sga BGE.@@f getting v.t. he's for-

algwv2kew2sga DEE.@ S @ ~lwa~kew~sv~~?i OGE.@RT

Wi jvkew agwu. Just forget -- it. about

632Ga.

182

uwakulega ~'wa~nv~gv~~?i BGQET ~ ' w a ~ n v ~ ~ o ~B? i A T GO COY jv2nvlgi v2wa2nv1sdi BGO2l Gado niga jvnvga? S V hS COS? Why ---in such -are you a hurry? ~ ~ ~ w B G~ s adj. alone, only a U a u2nv4sa Uwasa uluhjv3i. B G U BMCT. He came himself. Uwasa unhta nulstanidolv7i. *O BW QPJWhV4T. Only he knows what happened. y2wa23sa B G U pron. himself, itself (see Gram. 111, A) v2wa1sv4hi BGIL9 adj. numb jv2wa1sv4hi dGIL9 Juwasvhi nidulstanv juwoyeni duhyvdladela. dCR9 hSP@\WO dO8h SBISW. His hands became -when they benumb came cold.

~ l w a ~ k u ~ ~ l BGJGSg a i. he's e ~ ~ v. belching a1gi2ku231e32ga DYJGS u1wa2ku231e32jv237i BGJGCT Bg G~ ~ ' w a ~ k u ~ ~ l e ~ ~ G Jo A T~ i ja2ku21elgi CJGY y2wa2ku231e3?i2sdi B GJ G T 2 1 Tsgwisdi yulsdayvhna, uwakulego3i. bB@l GP2LBt. BGJGAT. Whenever he eats a lot, - belches. he

. .

u1wa3na2wl3?a B G 8 8 D v.i. he's shivering a1gi3na2wi3?a DY88D u l ~ a ~ n a ~ w v ~ ~ ? i G86T B

Kanawogv iyusdi uwanawiva. a8OE T G 2 1 QG88D. She's shivering because she's cold. v2wan2sv4?i B G hRT adj . ripe u2nvn2sv47i B O h R T Aniwsvgis unvnsv dejaha? DhGRY2 B O h R SC6? Do you have any ripe cantaloupes? cf: gvhnisdiha

~ ' w a w ~ s v ~ O G G R ~ v.t. he smells it ~ga a'gi~~sv~~ga DYGRf ~ l w a w ~ s v ~ ~ j v ~ G G? i T O ~ RC GG i ~ ~ w a w ~ s v ~ ~ g oB~ ? R A T

~ ~ w ? ? ~On i n. wool Gh Uwa?ni gohlvhtanv ahnawo uhnuwa. BCh APWO DtO BQG. She's wearing a sweater made from wool. -

u1wa3ni2ga2hlv4?i B G h S P T n. limb ( ; tree) 0 d ~ l w a ~ n i ~ ~ a ~ h l G hSP i Sv ~ ? T


-

Gohusdi uhyvsdi uwawsvga adiha. Ma'l B B 2 l BGGRS Dl+. He says he smells something strong. cf: asvga

Duwanigahlv unakilvdi unilvkwdi wahuhi. u1wa23ya B G 3 v.t. he has a long object SGhSP B B Y 9 1 O h W GTA. l -. Owls like to sit on limbs. a1gwv23ya D63 ~ ' w a ~ ~ y v ~OGBT ?i u1wa2nv3ga O G O f v.i. he's i n a hurry ~ ' w a ~ 3 ~ ~ 3B i ~ ~ T 7G a ' g ~ ~ n v ~ DGOf ~a

uwekaha v2we23ji 8 , ~ b his offspring n. jy2we23ji Galogwe usvdena agwvya. f G 3 WRS8 D E 3 . I have -- a shotgun. cf: ~ h a , una?a, uneha, uwekaha ~ l w e ~ h i ~ s d a ~ ~ n ~ ~ h a v. i. 899A@LA+ he's aching
dflh

183

Juweji anichuja dahwahtvhega .

d&h. - G ? -DhdC Itof 'gof . visit -He's going his sons. Wbh. DdC

y2we23ji +2chu4ja son (child) jy2we23ji


L

n. his

?2ni2~hu4ja

dS9k DhdC

Uwei i achui a ahvoha. A

Odh DdC Dfi+.

He's looking for -his son. v2we23ji a2ge23hya Wbh. D F 2 his daughter (adult) Yidusihtvnila, uwoyeni uwehisdaneho?i.
LSbf'hW, h WO.OJLA1T.

n.

jc!2we23j ?2ni2ge23hya doh. D h F 3 i When he applauds, his hand hurts. cf: ehisdi Na udaj i uwejihnv agehya unihloyi digegaganhdi?i. 8 W I h . - D F 3 WhefJS d F f f 0 d T . Wdh.0 The mother and her daughter look alike. y2we23ji ?2ge2hyu4ja B d b DFGC n. his daughter (child) jy2we23ji ?2ni2ge2hyu4ja Uweji agehyuja dasgwadi?a kohi gogi
~ D F G L J I d D R3 A Y . C

u1we2hluh3ga @mf v.i. he's yelling, howling, meowing, etc.

E d a e r is graduating this summer. Uhljvdagwada unehluhnv wahya usv jigesv?i.


W P C I I I WiliTO G;;i W R h F R T .

U2~e23ji a2sga2ya Wdh. 0 2 5 3 his son (adult) Gago uhyanvhe uweji asgaya?

Wolves howled all night last night. !we2 3hn?2?i

ootr

adj . wealthy

j.,:'r~e~~hna~?iJ.16 i Gado ad~nehuuwehna?i nulstaqevi?


S I' Db7,1d
u2,iei 3 j

S A W 2 0 ? - D@f3? WSfh Whc did --marry? his son


u've'ka3ha BScc7;tmate) algi2kG3ha u!we2ka2h\.r'?7i u!we2kG2h03?i j e2k?2he3sdi v.t. he has it (aniDY9 ;G O'd(r7Jl.T
WScr7JIT

D d r t T ~PMIU.'T'? did he become wealthy? O'S'ir n. egg

ji2\ie2'j i Hila jugvwahldi sagwu ita71du jur'eji?


dl+ J F G G d tl,^ T k P S ddh? How much are a dozen eggs?

7'5 ?@d

-------------Gihli uhnalvhi uwekaha.

184

uwela
1 couldn't cross the river because it was too swift.

YC 8 t .1A 8d2.G. He has -- a mean dog. cf: ~ h a , una?a, uneha, uwaya


u2we21a 8 1 1 n. liver 61 Uwela gvhnisdiha.
BQ9W Eh J I + .

u2w02de23hwi4da @C'S@I adj . damp

Asila7dv duhlvnv juwodehwida dihnawo. DbCV6 SPD dB.SBL I t c . She hung thr* clothes on the line. u2w023di3ge4~i8 C I t T adj . brown

She's cooking liver. ~ ' w e ~ l i ~ ~ h i ~ ? a v.i. he's B,@fp,gD worried, anxious

Uwodige dagwalela natli.


B 8 I f LXdW U C -

There goes a brown car.

y2w02d~4hi @USA adj . pretty ~ ~ w e ~ l i ~ ~ h i ~ ~ B f ld A J I s Pi Hlesdi yijelihisgesdi. L@l JVPAJf@l. Don't worry. cf: uwelihisdi u2we21i23hi4sdi
BSPPA@l

ju2n02du4hi, jV2wo2du4hi
d zsn, d v s ~

Uwoduhi dagwalela ajinelv dusgwa7da.


BVS& I XdW DIPA .? SJXL -

She was given a pretty car when she graduated. n. foal3

adj . worried

q2w01g13hli BVYC

BJYPA'AI

Uwelihisdi udanhda?dv?i utvgana udoda udlvnv?i.


BLDLG'T B P S % B V L B P E T .

Uwogihli junehldohdi uduliha.


BUYC dAGVI @ S f + .

He felt worried when he heard that his father was sick. cf: uwelihi?a u2we4ti

He wants to play with foam.


8V.OG.G v.i. 1. he's coAfident 2. he has faith

@a3 adj.
dfl3

old (object)

ju2we4ti

Uwsti osi aganawohisdi?i uha.

-bb

D S W A J I T B+.

He has an - heating stove. old cf: agayvli n. creek, river,


SflBT

Uwohiyuso duyukdv nadvnehv?i.


BVL9G.I. SGAG' 0PAd T

u1we3yv4?i BEBT stream du1we3yv4?i

He's always confident that he's doing the right thing. Johiyusesdi.
KAG42J.

Aginulvhnv digisohisdi uweyv?i sdayi ganohugisgv iyusdi.


DY440 IY.I.A@I 899BT J L d S ZTYJE TGJI

Have faith. -~ l w o ~ ~ h O'Of v.i. 1. he's sitting la

uyohuseha
- -

185

2. he's at home algwoZ3hla FTf


~ ' w o ~ ~ h l v@C?P T ~~i ~ l w o ~ ~ h l ? ~Oi M T ?~ j ~ ~ ~ h l e ~ ~ s d i KL@d

~ ~ ~ e h l8 ~ . 1 6 i n. reason 8 d Gohusd uyehldi sdahlinohehdi uduliha.


AT@d 8 8 5'6 d I C Z ? d 8SP.G.

He wants to talk with you for some reason. ~ ~ y e ~ l o ~ ? ~ ~ s d i adv. suddenly 8BGTJ-J Uyelo?isdi ulehwisdohtanv dagwalela.
BBG T k J 8cfB@lrWD 6 Z d W .

-------------Hadlv iyv johlesdi?

d TB KL@d? P
Where will you be sitting? ~wohlassdadahnvhli?
@ O f @ d@I IDC?

He stopped the car suddenly. u2ye21v2ha4?i 8 8 5'.GT ju2ni2ye21v2ha4"i


8 8 5'.G BGUi B d B T .

adj . naked
dhBq.GT

Is - vour

brother home?

cf: ani?na u 1 w Q 2 h l g 3 ~ v 4 ~8 t 7 f i T n. bluff i Uwohla?v?i dayudetinv?i. B U f i T LGS30T. He dived from a bluff. v2woh14di
8CpJ

Uyelvha udawo?v uweyv?i. He swam naked in the creek u'ye2tsga


8d3@f

v.i. he's laughing

algi2ye2tsga DYB3@f ~ l y e ~ t s v ~ ~ ?Bi J R T B u1ye2tsgo3?i j?2ye23tsa


O*BJ@AT 68.2 br

adj . funny

Uwohldi kanohehlvsga utvsohnv9i. BGPd 9 Z?P2f BS"+fSDT. The old man is telling funny stories. v2w023ti2da 8CTC adj. sh-ollen j ~ ~ w o ~ ~ t ~ C d la i ~ d Uwotida agitsgwalvtv7i.
883L DYbT5'6T.
My ankle is swollen.

u2ye2tsdi BBJ@J gad^ j ijayetsga?

s 1-

IrCt33J;S:

\Thy are - laughing? - you u'yo2de3?a


OsR.SD v. i. he Is itching

a'gi2y02de3?a DYfiSD ~ ~ ~ y o ~ d e ~ s g v ~ ~ ~ i BfiS@ET u1y02de3sgo3?i j?2y02d?2ga u2y02de1sdi


BfiSJAT Cfi6 f BfiS26

cf: gotisga y2w01ye4ni


8 0 5 h n. his hand

Gosdi aksgahljv agiyodeva.


A216 DYJSPC DYfiSD

Uwoyeni gvhdi uyolilv?i. 8 G 5 h Ell BfiP Q7'. He greeted him with -his hand.

I'm - itching where something bit me ~ ~ y o ~ h u ~B ~i rs4 .~~ ~ .t.ahe's losing f v h it a1g~2y02hu23s~3ha u1y02hu23se31v23~i j?2y02hu23si
DYfiT4.G @fir427 CfiT b

v2wu23y?2ti 8 3 3 W

adj. furry

d ? a

Gosdi uwuyati jigowhtiha.


A216 8 3 a kAG3.G.

~ ~ y o ~ h u ~ ~ s e ~ hBo i~ 4 ET, f ~? i

I see something furry.

@fir46

Amayi hawini uyohuselv waj i .


D TJ3 +@h

He lost his watch underwater. -u2y02hu2~~4?i BfirRT adj . dead (human) ju2ni2y02hu2sv4?i dhfirRT Gado igada juniyohusv jidanisgaho? dead Why are some people afraid of people? cf: ayohusga, galihwoga, ulihwojv3i u2y04?i
BfiT adj. bad fV T S I dhfirR I r I h J f l ?

@fir .? 4

Gh

Vdali inasuhnuga. iI P TW?S. Let's go fishing at the

@.

v2hyu23gi iGY

n. disease

Usgasehdi vhyugi uniyvhv7i.


iGY B J f 4 6 - B hB&T

He caught - bad disease. a v.suf. future imperative (see Gram. I, D) v. suf. past tense (see Gram. I, Dl

-v?i -v?i

v21e i f n. locust Vle - anosda digahyesdi anadisgo igada.


i f D 6 6S82d D86JA T f I . m S m e say that locusts are good to eat.

Bfi f 00 BfiY.? WP 6 f 22.

- bicycle broke down on a bad His

ganvhnv uyochelv ta?li digagwati.

-road.

u2yo1jv4?i OfiCT adj . 1. broken 2. spoiled (person) u2ni2yo'jv4?i, ju2y01jv4?i


BhfiCT, dfiCT

v1sgi2gi3 i J y y interj . really? v'sgi2hnv3 i2yu4sdi i J Y Q TGJ6 adv. therefore, for that reason Tsgwisdi jugvwahldi gesv gahljode; vsgihnv iyusdi hla yakiwase7i. hP@6 dEGGd ?R SPKS; - TG@d C iaY@ The house cost too much; therefore I didn't buy it. vZ3sgi3hyi i J a3 n. December Vskihyi ka?lv geso Danisdayohihv7i.
i J U3 3YG4T.

Ulvsa?di uyojv gute?a.


B.?Ud

BfiC JZD.

He's picking up a broken glass. Udohiyu uyojv ayohli uwekaha.


BVJG BfiC DfiC Qdi3.G.

She h a s a v e r y spoiled child. u1y03si2ha @fib+ v.i. he's hungry a1gi2y03si2ha DYfib+
QfibJET

a4

?f Lh@LfiA&T.

Christmas is in the month of December. v1sgi2na iU0 pron. that Gado yigalsda vsgina yinunadvnela?
f V ASPAL i 2 Y 8 d?8PAW?

ulyo3si2sgo3?i BfibJAT jaZyo l ~ i ~ ~ s a Gfibtr ~ ~ y o ~ s i ~ ~ s o Qfibi-d h~di Hla yagwalsdayvhne sunale, nogwuhnv agiyosiha. I didn't eat this m o r n i m now I'm -hungry.
f @IPJLBA r e f ,
DYfiboG.

What would happen if they did

that?

w-

v.pref. translocative (see Gram. I, A ) n. dragonfly

wa23da3du23ga GISS v2da21i


i I P n. pond, lake

Vdali na?v aninohilidoho wadaduga. i I P Qi D h U P V l -. GISS Dragonflies fly around close to a

walela pond. wa2di3?a G I D v.t. he's sending a long object w?2hy3sga G&S

187

v.t. he's sending it

Hadlv wagidisdi jaduli hi?a kanesavi?


.G.P G Y I a I C S P AD a A t l T ?

Vskihyi ta?lsgo nvhgine wuhnv Danisdayohihv adahnehdi. i J Y A W P a A 0-YA 90 I h@LfiA& D L A I . He sent -- the Christmas gift on December the 24th. cf: wadi?a, wigakahvsga, wiganehvsga, wiganvvvsga wa2hya, wq2h?2ya G 3 , G+3 n. wolf Wahya yiduniyosi aninayego?i.
G3 - Ashfib D h e S A T .

Where do you want me to send this box? --cf: wahvsga, wigakahvsga, wiganehvsga, wiganv?vsga

do

GV interj thank you

wa3du21i3si G S p b n. 1. bee 2. honey, syrup, sorghum Wadulisi anohlvsgo wadulisi.


GSPb DD@A G S .

Wolves are dangerous when they're hungry.

Bees -make honey. w?2du23na G S ~ blood vessel n. ju2wg2du23na J G S Q Waduna ugalstanv ulasihdeni udaluhya.
G S 0 WSP@W0- W W b S h W L M 3 .

wa23ji G b n. clock, watch Hila ahlivili adiha waji?


BW DCTP D l + G b ?

What time doesthe clock say? wa2ji11a GbW n. saliva Waj ila yvkisga vtlisv, doyawe?isdisgo?i
G b W BY@S i I C R , V U T a I a A T .

~ e c u t blood vessel when he cut hima self o n - t h e o t with an axe. ~ a h ~ S~ n. cow G a Hi?a asgaya tsgwisdi wahga dunahlava,
AD 0 2 5 3 bW@I SBCD. GS +83

r y o u swallow saliva while running, it tires you out. ~ ? ~ k t G 5 3 v.i. heqs heading in the i direction of wi2j i2ga32ti 8b S 3 wa1ktv237i GS6"T w?'ktq3?i
GS V T

This man owns a lot of cows. ~ a h ~ ~wi 2ya h? 2 a steak n. beef,

Wahga hawiya agilvkwdi agigisdi7i. G S +83 - - DY W I D Y Y a I T I like to eat beef. cf: hawiya, wahga

h ~ i ~ k t e ~ ~ s d8i Z a - f S Digaduhv wij igati.


I am - - headed for town
I S S a -. 8b 5 3

wa23hu3hi G r A n. owl Wahuhi wusdehldi agehyuja jiyoligi.


G r A J2SP-i

wa31e21a
G$UI -C

G6W n. hummingbird DAVA &V.

-o nw

a girl whose last name is Owl.

DPGC b f i P Y .

Walela hla anedohi yigi.

188

walosi
@ f a B Z f v .t. he's sinding, taking it (animate)

Hummingbirds cannot walk. wa2103si


GBb n. frog

wi2j i23ya32ka2hv3sga

Walosi naniwe?a.
GGb BhdD. --

. .

@h-2@&JS

~ u l w a ~ k g ~ n v ~ ~ ? i 3GaD.T

The frogs are croaking. w?'ne3?i GAT n. hickory tree Wanevi hlgv?i galuysga.
GAT E T s n f s - Vchopping aon. a He's

hickory tree.

Dlv yega, na?v ijunadali diganelv wigakahvsgo uweji ayohli.

P B S , 0 i TdeGP d f A 4 8 S a W A 8 8 h
wa2ni3ge4?i GhkT adj. soft di2w?2nr3ge4?i J G ~ ~ T Wanige akwsdo uwhdohdi ulvkwdi.
Ghl- DIaV 8 6 V d 8 Y d . -

Whenever she goes somewhere, she takes her child to her neighbor. cf: wadi?a, wahvsga, wiganehvsga, wiganv?vsga ~ ? ~ g ? ~ n e ~ h y ~8SAdLJf v. t. he's sga sending, taking it (liquid) w12j?2n53?y2sga BhA i 2 S ~ u ~ n e ~ h n v ~ ~ ? i9AOT w?2g;!3ne3hy2sgo3?i hwi2ne3hvlga wu1neh2di
SPKS @SA&2AT @A BS JAJ DT DCW O'.?brd.

DfiC

She likes to use a -pillow. soft

wa3s02hla G I . ~ n. moth Wasohla uwelisv asehnv kamama gesv?i. G I . ~ BOPA D ~ a rr r-RT . O She thought it was -a moth, but it was a butterfly. ~ a ~ s v ~ d ? ? ~ n a0 GAL n. Washington

Hiyoligis kilo WasvdaTna judo?ida?


BfiPY@ YG GRL8 JVTL?

Do you know anyone named Washington? cf: Wasvda?no?i


GAL ZT n. Washington ~a~sv~dg?~no'?i (place) Jedo lv?is Wasvda?no?i?
Y V 4 T J GRLZT?
~-

Gahljode wunehnv ama adlisdv ulvsa?di. She took -- the glass of water inside. cf: wadi?a, wahvsga, wigakahvsga, wiganv?vsga wi2g?3nY3?y2sga BSOiAS v.t. he's sending; taking it (flexible) wi2j ?3ny3?y2sga @h.Din?f wuln~~nv~~?i W? '? 3nY3?y2sgo37i g hwi2nY3?v1ga wulnvldi
JOUT 19s O i 2 A T 8Oi f 30.1

Have you been to Washington? cf: WasvdaTna -weweZ3sa v.suf. reversive (see Gram. I, C) n. cat

~~~@AAGJ? -

Wesas higowhti? Do you see - a cat?

Adela jutayosela uwej i talsgo adelv wunvnelv?i .


DSW J\Vfi4W BLfh- WPJA DS9 9O119T.

wi-, w-

~ . ~ r e f . motion away from 1. speaker 2 . back toward speaker (see Gram. I, A )

When his son asked him for some money, ---him a twenty dollar he sent bill. cf: wadi?a, wahvsga, wigakahvsga,

wiganehvsga woZyi, wo2ya eld, 03 n. pigeon

@hbr 8 8 J R h J . -

The buffalo is almost extinct. yisee yif (see Gram. I, G)

Kanoheda anihidohi geso igada woyi. a Z ? L Dh9VB kI T S L Some pigeons are message carriers.

m.

yi4gi J U

w ~ ~ ~ d e ~ lJi~lp~ f av.i. he, it's going out of sight wa2gw? 3de21i lga wlde231i32jv237i wu2de31i1g03?i wi2jp3de31ilgi wu1de21i 3sdi
GXSPS 9SPW
JSPAT 8CSPY JSPJd

pron. anywhere, wherever Yinigalsdihagwu ilvhdlv uwenvsdi yuduli ego yinigalsdihagwu iyv7i.
J%SP@J& n P 8&Q@@d GSP RA dhS P@d.G;c?T B T

He goes wherever he wants to go anytime .

Wudeligv ididla wudeligo iga ehi nvda. J S P E T d h JSPA T f R @ I . O he sun goes out of sight in the west. cf: wudeligv?i wu23de31i1gv47i JSPET
JSPE T d h JfGYWdD.

n. west

pron. anyone Yinigalsdihagwu kilo hiyasuyesdi t sdelisgi .


dhfPdJ.GJ YG A X 8 2 6 C J 3 P d Y .

Wudeligv ididla digalogiladi?a Clouds are forming in the west cf: wudeliga w2wa3kdv4?i JCAPT nants wuZ3nv3kdv4?i n. rest of, rem-

You may choose anyone to help you. n. bear Higo?v?is kilo -ahnesdisgv7i? yona
BAIT@ YO

fie

Have you seen anyone wrestle -a bear? yo 3ne2ga, y-v 3wy 3ne 2ga f i A S , BcQjlS n. 1. white man 2. English (language)
. .2 ? 2nl2 yo3ne2ga, 3 2ni yv3wu3ne2ga

fie

DAaJJET?

SOAPT

Gado digwvnhdi jaduli wunvkdv adela? SV .f&AJ CSP m DSW? 6 What do you want me to do with the rest --of the money?

DhfiAf

DhBJAS

Na ayonega y * YYn.pref. non-factual (see Gram.


I , A)

gawoniha.

0 DfiAS fiAS f oh+.

That white man is speaking English. cf: ayvwunega

v.pref. negative (not), conditional (if) (see Gram. I, A )

TGL P.GT

adv. sometimes

-ya, -ya?i n. suf. pure blood, full blood (see Gram. I I , B) yan2sa 3hbT n. buffalo Yansa unatsvhnidi.

Yudaha hla agwadulisgv yinigalsdisgo.

G6.G DDISP2E dhSP26@A. Sometimes things don't turn out the way I want them to. p Z g i BY n. 1. fork 2. nail, needle

Ganvgwalosdi uyochelv & gahatvsgv7i. f G-6~2,d f i Y 4 B Y S W A E T . 8 He broke his hammer driving -a nail.

Gohigiyv jigesv aniyvwagisgi danihnohesgv Ani j alagi . A A Y B bf R D h B G Y J Y d hZ?@E D h C W Y . Long ago Cherokees used to tell stories about cannibals.
cf:

yv2wa3gi1sgi BG.Y%Y

n. cannibal

agi7a, yvwi

2nl 2 y ~ ~ w a ~ ~ i l s D hi G Y J Y . g B

English Yonega

Cherokee Jalagi CWY

a
abdomen above accept usgwohli3i galvladidla dadanilvga 863t"CT S 7WId L L h7S adjourn daniyelisga

L h8PJS
DB4C DW4C

adolescent boy adolescent adulterer adultery

awinuja atanuja

accumulate accuse ache acorn

kanehgwo3a d A Y D kanehgwoga d A Y S JA63I.G

adahyoneni adahyonehdi

DL fi/lA DL fiAI S S ZCP63.S

guhisdiha uwehisdaneha gule

advertise Q99AJLA.G afloat

deganojahlvsga uhyoluha asgaha 8fiM.C. D63S.G Ah kohi iyv3i


bE:

J8
afraid gohlgi APY after ohni EtSPJd DYQS DPAP2.Y agitate ganhgwa3eha S0,TR.G DPAP.G agony
+T

acquaintance active act like -actor

gvhnagalsdi ajelvsga advnelisgi

after --- a while again sigwu

AA TBT

act - silly Adam Adawi

advneliha

D L8
so'i

agihliyi DYCJS agihliyoga DYCfiS gohiyhdaneha MGL/l.G

additional one

agree

arm aid aim air alsdehldohdi DPaS4VJ and ale

191

D8
nogwule

-hno
23d

alsosdiha DP+@J.G dalsosdiha L Pl2J.E. unole


07 '8

and then --

angel
anger ahyvdladisdisgi DBoSJaJay
IG r

dikanowadidohi

Ja ZGJVA

kanalv'fisdi a04TJJ uhnalvha fft9.G RtT

air conditioner airplane jiyu

animals DSYJJ ankle announce

ehna'fi

alcoholic beverage a - little alive all all* alligator all over -all - right almost alone a lot -sdikida gvhna Et gvhnoda EZl nigada hS1

atugisdi

utsgwalvtv'fi BhX46T deganojahlvsga diganojahldi S S ZCP2S JSZe41

@JYl

announcement another answer

so'fi + T

all - around

gvwatuhwida udodagwada julasgi

EGSBL

gawohiliyv'a kanega a A S VRlp

SUAPBD

BVLXL dWaY

ant - dosvdavli anxious anyone anywhere

uwelihi'fa BDPAD yinigalsdihagwu kilo AhSP@J+2 Y G yinigalsdihagwu ilvhdlv'fi AhSPJJ.G;3 T?PT iyudali svkta TGLP RSW ganvhlohiha dlv SDnfA.C

nikv'fi hE7 osigwu


663

ale uwasa

Dd BGU udanvhida BLOB1

apart
apple

a - long distance

ugodi B A J ujati BGJ utsgwisdi BbW@J gayula sgwu SGW

1 3xY-brake approximately
April

already also -

Kawohni adlesado igvnadena atiyohiha

3Uh DLUV TEOSO DJfiA.6 DJ~~@J

a
adanedliyvsdiha
D L/ICB@I+

_apron area -

alternate

adanedliyvsdisgi DlACBJJaY always amazed nigohilv'fi asgwanigosga h24&?7 D;lhA,;IS

argue
argument arm -

atiyosdi

kanoge 9 Z F kanogeni 3 2h

192 arrest arrive arrow ascend ashes ask -

arrest ga7niyiha ga7luhga gahlida

S h~5.C
SWS

badge bad omen -bake -

akanesdi udalehi gaduhvsga sgwahlesdi

D~?iI2~-l

81 & 3
S S S S

SCL

alsaladi7a kanalusga kosdu atvdvhvsga atayohiha anihlina gahliha


.4J.S

DPB~.ID
6)OIWS

ball -

XI'L2d

ball field -ball -p l a y e r bank Baptist nuhlisdvvi QC26T baptize barbed

unalasgahldi7i i7OW;S .7dT alasgalisgi


DWLf P 2 Y

DPiCd.@S DWfiN

ask f o r -asleep

DhCB
SC8.C

adeldiyhdi7i DSWdJ7 amayuhldi DdCCd didawosgi gawo7a jujayosdi didasdoyesgi usegajv7i dasuhwisga svdoni
-ld6,~-

as as - quickly -possible

Sf:D
JG6,J.J dLZVB.33.

at home -attach attack attempt August aunt -

d i d a n e l v 7 i d1.1'17 uwohla O'C'E gasanenadvsga daktilega anehldiha Ga7lohni uhlogi


O'JF

barber

SU/IBoq2S

barely
bark barrel

84fC1
dL"O'2S

L SJuqS

DACJ+
SCh

RVh
JJT

Bartlesville bashful basket bat -

Gugu7i

udehosati taluja
WIVC

O.SIWI

away from
a w -- h i l e axe -

udli hlega

O'C

LS
S \l&-l

galuys d i

dlameha OW+ g o s d v n i h a .lA7h.l, gosdvnisdi .136h3.1 adawo7a gawo7a

bathe -

nGOn
Se'D DJSP@Y

baby

usdi

O'AJ

battery
SfAT
D6Jf

anagalisgi tuya yona


Sa

back - gasohi7i back -2 a s i n e g a backwards bad uyopi asini


Bfii

beans

bear

fiB

DLh

beat - a h l o s g a DPf;S beat 9 galvhniha

S 4h.L

board be born -because adehvsga -hehno


DS&@S
-?2

193

bend
better

ahliyvhgwidvsga DCBVP@f ahyvhgwidvsga DBVPaf dajehla


L7.C

become angry become blind become crisp become done

uhnalvga dakewaga
D@L SBA+

C't 4 f

bewitch
I f GS

ganegudiva
OW8

fAJ1D

asdagayvhiha gvnsga
EhaS

a
bird bite black

utana

binoculars

diktohdi
h@T

I fV 1

j isgwa asgahlga

become embarrassed become frosty become warm become wise bed ganihli

adehosga
DSJ@S

DJSCS Etf T 34fC DEtf T

gvhnage?i

ahyahtvhvsga
DXa@S

blackberries
D f Waf 0 f W@S
DS VadS

kanugahli agvhnage'i

aganawosga uganawosga aktohvsga


f hC

black person blacksmith shop blacksnake

ganvgwalosgi?i
SOZG@YT
f GY

ga7legi unegvha7i

bed -bug bedstead bee beef -

galuysdi

S M a I
S hrI@I

blanket blind blinding

OAE+T

ganihladisdi
GSPb
Gf

dikewi

IF@
dS V B T d A

wadulisi

juktoyv7isdi daktanawsga giga


YS

wahga hawiya

+@a

blink blood

L SW K @ S

begin

adaleniha DL8h.G aleniha DGh+ edoha


RV+

-belch

blood vessel bloom ohni didla


Ah I&

waduna
Dh..l@f DdCI

GS8

be here behind

aj ilvsga atihldi

blouse behind - person a usotv?i


OGJGS BI.6"T

belief bell belt -

uwakulega gohiyhdi uhalvni adadlosdi

blow -

ajotasga DK\Y/@S ganolv9vsga f Z . l i @ f sakonige?i dlayhga


HAMT

&I

blue
bluejay bluff L SC2I.E.

O+.lh DLg2I

&ZJS

be - married

galonasdiha f G8@1+ uwohla?v?i O 8 P i 7' hyahtena


3% 8

dagachvsdiha

board

194 boat bobcat

boat jiyu gvhe ayelvvi hG ayoga DfiS ayosdiha Dfi2J.G

E?
breast ganvdivi SDJT 9VWSD D6"LDT DBqT breathe kawoladeva nvya atvdanvvi asvhdlvvi usgosdi DRP T brick DdZXFJSL bridge bright

body
boil -

alidliha DPC+ tusdi S a d udigwalvdeyida kola AW

bolt bone book borrow borrowed both bottle bounce

(PaAaJ

digohweli atolsga atolida ijula gugu TdW

JMP
DVPJS

broken broom

ulsgwalida DPaIPL uyojvvi OfiGT gvnosasdi udo DV EZbraJ

DVPL brother brothers anahlinvdli DQCDC dinadahnvhli JBLDC uwodigevi yansa

JJ
brown buffalo

adadega DISS adadinvdiha DL d0J.G gahljavdi kanesavi achuja SPCJ 9ABT Ddc O8PAJ

0VJf T
3hbl

bow
box -

tsgoya

hA3 asohyoha ahnesgeha D+fi.G DA2f.G DlA4T d9Oo3S8

-build fence
unalikdi build house -building

!% ?
brag
braid brain brake brave

boyfriend

adanelvvi jukanvsdena gavni Sh

adlvkwsga asdeyoha unvjida

DPPaS D2Sfi.G DDhI bullfrog kanuna bull bullet

948

ganvhlohiha 5WA.G ganvhlosdi S W @ J julichvyasdi asdova DJVD DaVaYT dPC&J

burn -

bray
brayer bread break

adawelagiva DIBWYD agohvsdiha DAdT2J.G agohvsga DAdT2S galeyvsga S8B2S galiga SPS gavnisiha uwavihlvvi asehno D4Z 5hb.G DGTP T

asdosgivi gadu SS

bury

bush but -

agalsga DSWJS asgwalsga D@23af

change pants butter butterfly button gohlvhnvvi kamama gatdi uhwasga buzzard
S3.J
BG@S
APO.7

195

careful carpenter carry -- on carve

uksesdi

85426 dA@I.aY

9gg

dihnesgesgi
DZCh

shoulder ayohlvsga julasgi

ahnohlini
DfiP@S dW2Y ~ g p

suli FP gvhdi
Ed

b2 means of -

cast iron --

castrated animal

ganavli

C
cabbage cafe juganhdena junalsdayhdivi gadu uganasda nvda disesdi Adel juhlvvi
D3h+ SVD JSDSB JBP@LBdT

cat catch

wesa

dtl

asgwahleva DaXLD gavniyiha S h& gavniyisgi adlvtasga julisdanali Ajila Gehlohi


S h&JY
DPW@S

cake

catcher
SS B f 82L

catch
O.L A 4 2 6

calendar California call called

catfish
DSWJP T

dP@LBP

Catholic ahyaniha dudova kemili cave cedar


fHP

DbW f d A

usdagalvvi BAL S 4T ajina


DbB dlM.67

camel camera

cemetery didahlilosdisgi talugisgi


WMYa D18a d1CG@d&~

didanisohdivi

can

cent center

iyadanhtehdi ayehli
DBC

T31md

cancer candidate

adahyesgi

centipede atohgiyasgi
aP4.k DVYW

juganoji

dS Z b BBLSRL ~ G J13tT

candy
cannibal

chain kalseji chair yvwagisgi gawsvgi


DP@SQ DBY DBYJD BGYD

unadadesvda gasgilo
S

chairman cantaloupe
SGW

judatihnavi

change

5%

alsdulo ahyvki

adanedliyvva DLACBD ganedliyvva SACBD

captive capture

change clothes change pants asulaviyvva


DFWTBD

ahyvkidiva
L1onM'

car

dagwalela

196

change shirt ahnawaviyvva


DtGTBD

change shirt change shoes change socks chapter chase cheat Cherokee chest chew

circle

adeyoha

DSfi+ 1bPh.G

clap hands daliyosiha


D3VP T LPfib+

dasihtvniha

claw -

dekanugosga usuhgahlvvi gadagwala

S 9 4A@f @eSP T f LW Z

ayatohlvvi akehega
Df?S

2
clean climb

ganvgaliha S@SP+ udanvgalvda @ L @ f .1L gavlega


f6f

galonuheha

f G ??+

Dijalagi JCWY Jalagi CWY ganejivi


SAbT DYaVD

climb around clinic clock close

gavlidoha

SPV+ FbAPBJT

gejigoliyedivi waji
Gb

agisdova

chewing gum chickadee chicken chief child chipmunk Choctaw choke choose

adla 08 6 jilali bWP


jigilili
bYPP

asduhvsga

D@S&S

close eyes -close -- to cloth

daktasdiha
8i

L SW3J.G

navv ahnawo dihnawo juhnawo dihnawo

jitaga ugvwiyuhi ayohli

bWf

D W
JW d m JW

@ E m

clothes
DfiC YGS DCL

kiyuga Ajahda

clothing cloud cloudy coal coat cobra coffee cold collar

ulogili @GYP ulogila chinosga gasaleni


@GYW bZ@S f86h Z0Lfi.E-

ahyvsgiyiha D B U & uhyvhjinvtga @Bb@Jf asuyeva galuysga


DeBD
SM&f

chop
chop up chosen

kwandayoha kahwi 9 8

agvhaluysga agasuyeda

DE+M&JS

Dfe L B

Christmas church cigarette

Danisdayohihvvi L h@LfiAJIT digalawisdivi goksdi


AfaJ J f W8aJT

kanawoga 9 0 0 f uhyvdla @Bdb gahyavdlvvi


S3PT

collect colored

kanihlvsga ahP@S ulsuhwida


BPeBG

crossroads comb ahltawosdi


DPWE"2.J

197
dSWh@LC

copperhead cork corn DL6A.G

juktajisdahli
LOM;3l

comb hair -come here --

ahltawo?a D P W D atawo7a DWVD nula


4W

dawoliyusdi selu
4M

commit adultery commit crime -commit sin conduit confident

adahyoneha asganvga

corn cob -corner

selu uda

4M DL
DObBT 4M T t l

uhnvsiyv?i selu isa

D@SOS

asganvga D@SOS usvdoni


DRVh

corn meal -cotton cough

ujilv7i D h . 4 1 usihwasga D b G A S dasehiha


L 4A%

uwohiyuha 0 V X . E count dudlosga


DK@l SPf@S

confronted with confusing conjure conjurer consider container ujosdi

court house -cover covers


DL &AGD

didahi?lidasdi?i
lLAPL@lT

dadahnese7a didahnesesgi adanht ehi lo?a

L LA4D
lLA42.Y

guhlvdi J P J guhlvsga JP@S dihnawosdohdi wahga


GS EJZGD DL O b h h.@6"8 DAfDA ltO3Vl

adlisdohdi D C @ V l eahldohdi SPL'J galadisdohdi S W l @ V l galvdohdi S 9 V l kanesahlvsga kanesahla


aAEIP@S

cow crack crawl -

gvsgwalo7a adansini
jisdvna

contaminate contaminated contest converse coo cook -

crayfish Creator creek Creek crippled

aAtlr

Unehlanvhi uweyvvi Agusa


D&BT DJtl

anadagonatdisgv7i
D8L A 8 J l @ E T

dahlinoheha
hfdD

LCZ?+

ayo7uhli usdagaphida gadagugu utsgwidi

nigawe7a

DfWC @@L f B A L

adasdayvhvsga DC@C BL@S didasdayvhvsgi dC@LBB@Y gvhnisdiha E h A l * gatesa?di


sJb D I A L B A T

crisp crock crooked

S LJJ

cooking pan cook stove --

Saul

Dh.81

cross osi adasdayhdi7i gadugi


SSY

deganadiwsga S f e l 8 2 5 degasohga S S l f didahnawida l L t 8 L dadahnawsdvvi nvnohi


L L t 8 J P T 029

cooperative labor

crossroads

198 crow crowbar cruel

crow ayhga koga getilosdi unegujida adlohyiha gagama


f36@J

death decay deceive


OAJbL

ayohuhisdi ugosga

Dfil AaJ

OA@S
f 682J.G

galonasdiha Vsgihyi degukdiha ahawi


D+@

December

i2YA SJAJ*

Dd& SfP

decide deer -

cucumber cure -

kanvwi7a

908D
OPb@XAL

Democrat ul j isgwaneda demon dasginadi'fa LJYBJD dentures

Uganawa asgina

OSBG

curly
curse curve cut cute -

D@Y8 JZOV@J

didanhtosdi
DL&

adeyohvvi

DSfiBT

deny
agalsga DSWJS agvhaliha DEW* ukvhisdi
OU@J

adahyiha

destroy devil dew -

ayostanohvsga asgina

Dfi@WZ&JS

Due
OABW Odb0L

uhisata

d
damp
dance uwodehwida alsgi7a
@US81 DP@YD S @BY

dewberries

udlosinvda

diamondback rattler ganayegi


OPbS OPbY D8PAG3S

uksuti

@St-3

dangerous dark date -

die -

ayohusga D f i l @ S galihwoga SPOS judalehnvda dL&L nudale7i 4L6T sdaya

ulsihga ulsihgi

different difficult

analigohvsga

@La

daughter dawn -

uweji agehya O d b D f a uwej i agehyuja O d b DfGC


O'Yb@Sd

asgosga

D@US

dining table ugitsdeyi iga


TS JR~L DJVAA

gasgilo alsdayhdivi Say6 DPaLBJT

days
deacon dead deaf -

jusvhida ayatohihi

dipper dirty

akugisdi

DJY@J

agadahavi D f L +T gadahavi S L+T udlasitvveha Bdab6R.G digosisohdi


JAHJ

ulihwojv7i OPBCT uyohusv7i OfirRT julivena


dPR8

disbelieve discussion

dweller disease dish vhyugi atelido

199 LCG@J+

~GY
DaPV D3VA.G

draw -picture dream dress dresser

dahlilosdiha

asgitsga asano usano

D~J@S

distribute ditch dive divert do -

ayatohiha

DUZ
@HZ
J4A@JT DC@aS DW$aS AW$@J

udelisgalvhvvi @Spas 4dlT disehisdivi ajanvsga atalesga ditalesdi aditasdi aditasga asvhvsga adetvsga DS6aS dress % ahalugiva D6A.G drink drink 2 D.GMYD drill advneha agavnakti DSOSJ kanvwiva a@BD dadanvdisdiha gihli YC DACA D S9T drive ahivli

doctor dodge

Dmas
DRdlaS

L L @J@J.G

%
do1 1 -

anehldi adelvvi

DAP
SV0J.G A1 @-I+

dollars donkey don't door -

Prop
drum drunk

gadonhdiha gohonhdiha ahuli DrP

sogwili diga71envhida

IVP AS$QAL
hesdi ?@A hlesdi L@A galohisdi'i SGA@AT sdudi as1 daksi LYb

uhyvsdeda @B@SL uhyvsdesgi @B@Sa

drunkard

ukahyoda dry place duck dull -

DfL ai

door knob -doorway dough down -

ukahyodvvi JdfiGT 364 A@AGC


4@,g

galohisdivi SGA@J? sugeda eladi

kawonu

&-PL
RWJ
DSf @E?

gosdiyuhli

dumplings during day dust dusty Dutch dweller

digalvnvhi udodagwidisvvi OVLVJRT

downhill downstream

aksosgvvi gevi

PT
kosdu SebAS
G L SS

drag

& S
&S+T

gansinega

kosduhavi Advji ehi D6h

dragonfly

wadaduga

-draw line draw liquid

asdanvhnvsga adliha DC.G

D@LDi)as

Ri3

200

each other igvsa TEtl ijvsa TCtl oginvsa b Y W ogvsa d3Etl sdvsa X t l unvsa 0W
DfCd DV+P

each other --

enemies English enough enraged enter entrance

dinidahnawi Gilisi Yonega eligwu


YPb fiAS RP3

dhlt8

eager eagle ear -

agahliyi awoha71i gavleni

utahlawosga ayvhiha
DBA.G

OWtVaf

S6h

ayvsdohdivi asgolvdi7a asgolvdisdi alitiva


DPJD

DBJVJT

earlier than early in earring east easy eat -

igvyi
YW

TEA

erase eraser

D@A?JD D@A?J@J

kila

adlivado dikalvgv?i ahida


DAl

DCDV J 6 *?ET

escape ever -

ilvhiyuvi

T*?AGT hET DAP8D DPTJD JPPaVJ


f 9ATaVJT

everywhere examine exchange excuse

nikvvi agoliyeva ali?idi?a

agi?a DYD alsdayvhvsga DP@IB&@S asdigi7a D@JYD gahye7a f 8 D . asvhvsga tlvdegwa uwej i
PSI DR&S

didlvkwisdohdi ganugoga f 9AS ganugo?isdohdi?i degosisiha

eat -9 eel -

exit explain

0.81, CAW

SA6b.G

eight elbow

chanela

explode explosive

atasgi?a DWaYD atasgisdiha DW03J.G atasgisgi


DWaY@Y

akiyusge DycaF akiyusgeni DyCaF h anagalisgi kamama


6 gg DBf Pay

electricity elephant embarrass

akta D f W aktoli D f V p eyeglasses diktinvtdi


JSJOJ-4

adehohisdiha udehohisdi
0 b ~ DPJIJD SFPaf

DSfiA@J.G BSfiA@J

embarrassment empty end endure usihwa

f
face fade ukatvvi O66T asgolvga osi
D@A*?f bb

alsgwadiva degetvsga

fairly well

faith

gohiyhdi

AAGJ

fall

gadosga Sv@S galeyvsga $ $ B a s galosga S~as ganvga S0.S gohosga Atas uligohvsdi 8 p A a a J didanhtosdi
JL0.VaJ

ayvhwahtiha D B W G ganawhtiha S 8W .G ganehwahtiha S A W * find out -finger finish adelohosga


DSGEaS SBUPT DaXJD

gayesa7dvvi asgwadiva ajila D h W gotv7i A6'7 dikdladisgi dikdladisgi


TEdT

false teeth -family famine fan -

dudatihna7v7i agona
DA8

SL3tiT

fire fireman

JEdJaY JEdJ3

adahnoyeha D L Z B . G adahnoyo D L zfi kanoyeha 328.6 ina


T8 JSGY2.Y

firetruck first fish

igvyivi

far farmer fast fat father feather

digalogisgi ayanuli D39P gajanuli SC9P

ajavdi DCJ asuhvsga DCaaS suhdi


CJ CJ

fishhook fishing pole fist five flag

suhdi

galijohida SPK'KAL ulijohida 8PKAL udoda


8VL BYLC asp

sgwehnvvi hisgi gadavdi


A 3

@ a T

ugidahli Kaga7li
f6.G

SLJ D.GMYD DL99WY2Y

February feed feel fence few field

fla 2down flame

ahalugiva

adawelagisgi atoyawsga chuhga


dS

gehloha udanhta

flash
8 L W l

DVXaS

female animal

agisi
DtBT

DYb

flea flint flood floor

dawisgala ganohugiva

asohyv7i ilvsgi dlogesi

L 82s W
S ZrYD DfiLLBT

T?JY 6fb

ayodahlahvvi isa
TU

-field house fill find adliga

flour unalasgahldivi
Dewas ?JT DCS

flower

ajilvsgi

D 4 3 h

ganohili SUP tvhga 6'5

ahwahtiha

DW4,

202 fly away flyer foam -

fly away ahlawidiha Df8J.G full funny uwogihli ukvhada @OYC furry DE+L DaLGSS garden dlogesi sdudi asdawadega alsdayhdi uwuyati OJa kali7i uwohldi 9pT OVPJ

ahlawidisgi Df8JJY ahlawitdisgi Df82J2V

%x k
follow food foot -

g
pE6 f-

DPALBI

ilasihdi TWbJ ulasihdeni OWbSh agvdageni inage7i uwakewsga dulotsgv7i YVgi B Y DELE-h

gate
gather

aSJ

forehead forest forget fork

anadahlisiha D8LCb.G gahlisiha fC6.G udanhti Advj i @LO2 D6b

TeE-T @GFQ@~ SGh.ET

gentle German

get

former1y

juhli?ilvstanv7i dCT 4aWOT vsgihnv iyusdi iaY0 TGaJ


0y

agi7a DYD ahyaniha D3h3 ayiha D&+ gane7a SAD ganegi7a SAYD dugwenotisga uhyvsde?a S3Z7aS

for that reason -four fourth freedom freeze Friday fried friend friendly friendship nvhgi

get a --- rash get drunk

OB3D

get exhausted
nvhgine?i adudalesdi ganesdaladi?a Junhgilosdi gvjahlanvhi unali?i udanhti ali7i GGb get up DAK2f DYAT DsLdaJ SA@L WJD d0yGaJ EGCDA et L ready get short @LO2 DPT et short L-- on et full Lget in

dastayesga G@WB@S M@ 'S DCiaS DAWJD

gohlvsga aja7vsga

get married
get off

aneladi7a adloysga

DefTaS D60TJJ.C D2,TG.S D@,TGS

advnv?isdiha asgwaloga asgwaloga

OepT

frog
frolick

get together
walosi ahnejosga

analigohvsga DePAaaS

adidiha DJJ+ dalehvsga LdaJS

hai 1 get warm et well Lghost aganawosga uganawosga udiwsga tsgili adahnehdi digatisdi agehyuja
DSHMS O'f 6e72S

203

through o to L-- bed grain

aktvlesga usvhiha DYW ududu unisi ulisi unisi


f

DSG$@f

O'ltS+

DdBJS

ukta

bYP

gift
gig
girl

grandfather
DLAd JSd@d DFGC

PSS Phb PPb Ohb

grandmother

grass
girlfriend unalikdi
O'epAJ

ganulv

47 .
VWbS

grasshopper

tolatsga

give

adeha DS+ ahneha DA+ gakaneha f a i l + ganehneha S M + ganvneha s 0/1+ dadayosga ulvsa7di aliyesulo asgogiVa ega
RS
L LBJS

grave gravy grease

ajelisdv7i asusdi go?i

DYPJGT

DC@J AT AT+T

give u p

glass
glove

greasy
0 . 7 ~ ~

go?iha7i Go7i
AT

Greasy
DPBCG

gnaw

green
D@AYD

ije?i T Y T ij e7iyusdi TYTG@J selagwoya


DBP+ O'YbaJ DPJLBJ
4M3

green snake adeyoha


O'f #GAL DSBG

around curve

greet grin -

ayoliha ujetsdi

goat

uksojaneda

God - Unehlanvhi O'AlOLl down hill -- aksosga D f #a?f

groceries groundhog

alsdayhdi ogana
d f9

good

osda A S 1 sasa
8H

grow
guard

goose
out -

atvhisdiha DG'A@J+ atvsga DP@S aktiyi galogwe


DfdA 56'3 DlbU'YA?'

kdlosga

Ed3S

gun
wudeliga
,QSPS

out of sight --gospel gossip

kanoheda a Z L ? osda kanoheda .32L gawonida


fChL

gunpowder
aZ?L

adawelagisgi

h
hail ganesoysga
SA#Z'&&S

204
hair half -

hair ustihgv7i ayehli


DEC

@aET

have -church services have cold -have faith -have horns -have liquid have on -have time -have trial -hawk -

danilawiga
L h WBS

half -dollar hammer hand handle

uhyvdla uniyiha
(YBd (YhJSYG

ayehli

DBC

ganvgwalo7a SPXGD ganvgwalosdi S 0 X G t 3 1 uwoyeni


8VBh

uwohiyuha duhlga
SMS

0VK.G

ahidoha DAV.6 gahnidoha S hV.6 ganhjidoha S 0 h V . G ganidoha S hV.6 guhahldi J+PJ asgayegvsda
D@S BEJL

have in hand --- ahidoha uneha


@A+ 4GUd

~Av.6

nuwanhdi

handsome

have possession of -

ahi?leha

DA$%

han_g

udlanvda7deha (YOWLS+ danadahi7lidoha


6 f3LAPV.G

gada?a S L D gata SW kto?a EVD gadv7vsga S G i @ S gatvsga f P 2 S ktosadi7a E V B l D ulsdahneha aliheliga sdaya
213 DP@3SV DCTD S hX3+ 8P2LA.G DP?PS

hang up

tawodi kanesga askoli uska

WVl

!!%
head -

.i)Ail@S D@AP

happen

!su . !
hard hat hatch hate have -

@a

headband

aligvdanosdohdi
DPEL D V l

alsgwetuwo aja?i?a ganigwatiha

head of --in direction hear heart atvgi7a adanhdo udanhdo


DPYD DL0V 0101.'

wakti

GS3

uha @+ una?a @QD uwaya (YG3 uwekaha OS a . P+ udetiyiha uhnawasdiha udihlehvsga ahligi?a
O.3;IIS.C-

heating stove heaven heavy


@tG@d.G @dLa@S DCYD

osi aganawohisdi7i
h b DS W A 2 d T

have -- a birthday have --- a chill have --- a fever

galvladi gageda gadigeni igati jvsgino

S 9Wl

S tL Slfh 753
C 3 Z

heel height hell -

--

have a nightmare

huckleberries hello osiyo siyo


Abfi bfi

205

hoe hold -

galogiva galogodi

fGYD f GAl

help
help up hem here hew -

alsdeliha DPJSPQ asdeliha D2SP.G dalehdiha ahyvhgwidvsga na


8

gahneha fA+ ganeha fA.G ganhjeha f DW atahwosdiha ahyeha


DW6P.T drMORT DWU@l$-

161.G DBP63f

hold -breath hold in ---hand

D8.I-

ayohlvsga

DfiPaS
#A CAT

hole home -

atalesvvi
juwenvsvvi

hickory nut hickory tree hide -

sohi wanevi

homesick adisgahlvsga Dlaf P @ S gvsgahlvsga E 2 f Paf gvsgaladiva E 2 f W l D gvsgalvsga E 2 f 4 3 udisgahla D'l2ff galvladi higher hill himself
Q
f 4W1 f 4WlkT

uhisohdaneha newada wadulisi


AG 1 GSPb

@At 1A.G

hominy honey hook 2 -

gudalvsga uguku
D'JJ

Jl42S

hoot owl -hope

utugi uhyona

D'SY

galvladigevi gadusi uwasa


SSb

horn horse

@fie
#PP 16 dhPYT

sogwili damaga

D'GB

horsefly akasgeni
D&@kh

his hit hire

hospital ganahlvsga ujeli gvhniha


Eh.G

junidlvgivi
D'lLS

S BP@f

hot hotel

udihlehga

junisvsdivi
YC l S 6 0 A l

dhR@dT

hitch

hounddog gudalvsga
J142f

gihli digavlenvhida gahljode tvhga


.OW
f PKS

hit on -- abdomen

asgwohalvniha
D2V.G4h.G DS5MQf D2I4h.G

house housefly

--

6f

hit on eye hit on head

akteluhvsga asgwalvniha ahulvniha


DB2SMa2f

--hit on nose ---

---

how howl -

hila

hit on mouth

D 9h.G r

gehluhvsga k T a 2 f uwehluhga D'dY8'f kuwaya


JG3

ahyvsdeluhvsga

huckleberries

206

huge egwa ayvwi


RIC

huge human

in fire -- ajilvhi DB8 inject


G$lV

~k9A SefiA.~ TSOAI

gajayohiha iganvhida

hummingbird humpbacked hungry hunt hunter hurry husband hypocrite

walela

in - length in mud -insane inside instead

gasohgwati @fib+

SfIJ

hlawotuhi PVSA nudanhtvna aya?a uja7a DdD 8CD 8EBG.G ?LOP8

uyosiha

ganohalidoha ganohalidohi

f Z+PV.G

S Z+PVA

ugvwiyuha

nula 9 W uwanvga 8 G O S anineli D M P uhyehi 8 4 8 udlonasdi 8 8 J 6 @

interesting interpret

usgwanikdi O a I h Y J ahnehldiha DACJ.G

interpretation intestine

ahnehltanv?i DACWOT

uliksi 8 P Y b svhiyeyi so?iyi

1
1 -

Ayv

DB 8AJIW DBPD

in the evening -in the next ---inth --e = in view -invite in water -iron island room

RA86
fT6

ice -

unesdala

imitate

ahyeli3a

juhli?ilvstanv?i J C T .1JWOT kvhnigesv?i EhFRT udayvlata BIBW ahyaniha D3h+

immediately important in a shade in bed -inch include increase Indian

kilagwu iyvda YV? TBI I, ulsgeda 8PJFI 8lG.IaET

udawadisgv?i 8h.G

amayi Dr6 152s 8tMP7

uhniha

datesga ditesdi

isihtadisdi asesdiha

TbWJJJ uhnaludv3i uyode?a uwasa

D4JJ.E.
a,,lV"D 3lS !V itch itself

BfiSD
8GU

kanehgwo?a kanehgwoga Ayvwiya?i ehiya?i asiyvwi

DBQ,?T

indigenous individual

R32T
0680

J
jai 1 asduhvsga D@Sa63f didasdudi?i JI@SJT junadasdudi7i JBLASJT

learn January Unolvtana


6s.3ET
b~

207

O'ZilWB

Dlayhgv7i Jesus Jisa

lack D~M'JD s,@C.CJJAJJY JBtrB LPY9.S JPN19Y

galuloga ahyvhdlo vdali


j ~

SMFS
DB~/
f

join joke
judge

ateladi?a gawehliha digukdisgi Kuyegwona dahltadega

ladder lake lame -

ayo7ul~li ajvysdi

[)fi@c
[)CJJ DrCUWPJ

July

lamp

jump
jumper June -

lamp chimney
land large late later gada

ahujawoladvdi
5 1.

dihltadegi Dehaluyi

$.I.~.hl,t~
662

egwa RT utana 0 \\ H ugohniyoga kila YW kohi iyv?i uyetsga


0 AhfiS

fine -

osigwu tohigwu

VAL

AD T B T
DRJX Jc2 ZGP2)J
S q 4 DS PJJ

katydid key kick kill -

sigigi

bYY

laugh law -

sdu?isdi ahyvhte7a ahiha

2STJ-I

dikanowadvsdi

DBZD

lawnmower lawsuit lawyer lay down -lazy

ganulv agalsdi alasuhldi ditiyohihi adi?a


SH P

DA'F
O.EQG,O

DWCCJ JJR.3.9 DJD

king
kiss kitchen knee knife knock know -

ugvwiyuhi

atawedo?vsga

DWJ&Vid?S Dl21 BJ7

adasdayhdi?i kanigeni ahyelsdi hayelsdi gvhniha unhta


ah? h

ganali

lead -

DBPJJ -LBp~>.I th+

atihni DJh ga7ni Sh gelisineha kP6Ll.C gohinega R9ilS didatihnidohi ugaloga gvgusga
DSGS EJ@S DS~ZD

leader leaf -

8U 0 .

know how --

aktaha

DSW+

leak
DSVtT

knowledgeable

aktahna?i

learn

adehlohgwa7a

208
leather leave

leather ganoji ahnigi3a SZh

like limb -

D~YD
limp
line link lion

iyusdi TGaJ ulvkwdi D W ' J uwanigahlv?i adadega O-ChSPT

leave behind

adisiya7a 06630 ahiyava DAaD gakahiyava SaAaD ganehiya?a SAA3D ga7niya?a S h3D sBOJ.G

DLSS DaLDOT

asdanvhnvvi kihlvsga hlvdaji

lecture leech left

gawonhdiha dlanusi aksgani da9b DS@S~

YPaS

P Lh
@.GAS ?T

2
listen DS@S hL D'IBDT little live

uhanega?lv?i

left -handed left overs --

aksganida utiyvhnvvi

atvdasdiha DGL@d.G utvdasdi D'GL2J usdi ganela uwela eha

B@J
SAW D'DW
R.G

a
lender

ganvsge SOX ganvsgeni SOaf h didatolsdisgi igohida ADP

JL VP2JaY
TABL

liver lives

length of time letter liar lick lid lie gohweli gayhgogi aganadiva guhlvdi

livestock lizzard SBAY loan DS 8JD locust JPd Locust Grove atsgo7vsga DhAi2S gayhgogi SBAY ganhga EOT DBWJD DCaJ long time lightening light fire light match 1ightning anagaliha ajislvsga ajislvsga anagalisgi D8S P G . Dh2P3P3S Db2PaS D6S P A Y look ni
long

ganahla?i tiyohavli

S 8LT 3fi.GP

atolsdiha lo10
6'6'

DVP2J.G vle
id'

Kalogwekdivi 36'3YJT kalogwekdi

locust tree lonesome

WJYJ

lie down -life lift light

SOS

uhisohdaneha @A+ LA+ uhisohdi BAlJ SOAL JS d'OAl

gvhnv?i asaladiva ajvysdi

ganvhida

long eared

digaplenvhida gohida h dakanowadidoha LQZGJV.G aktenoha AQL

look after -look around

DS5Z.G

Mexican look --at look for -aktosdi ahyoha uhyoha Df V6d DfiG 0ii f.. male animal man asgaya achvya D@SS hP2d DD.3 dC2d SAP DhM' APd
DC2

209

look in -- mirror

adakeha

DIP$

many
March

tsgwisdi Anvhyi

loose hair -- gihla ~ ' f lose - uyohuseha 0fir4.G lose -way loudmouth ulenahiha ahalada
20
O.$@&+

marriage

dichvsdi

married person match

ganeli

ajila gohlvhdi ajesdo

DUI +',
mattress DYJV Ansgvti Dh2U

louse

tina

love

adageyhdi DIFGJ udageyuha D LPG+ ugeyuha @PC+

maybe me ayv

asedv DB

D46

meadow magical magician make adawehi adawehi gohlvsga DL&Q mean measure AP@S
6)89dl.I-

dlogesi

6Fb

uneguja @AJG uneguj ida D'AJh L ahlilova hawiya


4-83

D.& L@
DCGD meat -

make angry make an x make -crisp make fall --

kanalvsdiha dadahnawsdiha asdagayhdiha gadonhdiha galonhdiha gohonhdiha ahlawitdiha

medicine
1 t@@dd,

nvwoti

@j ? dbDBJY

DK I,SBJ4-

medicine man meet -

didahnvwisgi
I, W @ S

danadlosga

SVOd.ISGDJ+ Al; Oliodd$,

meeting place melt member mention meow metal Mexican

didlohisdivi &&@JT

make fly -

make footsteps
make -incision make mistake make noise -make smoke --

gvnawhdiha E6tld.G gvnawosga E W @ S keli Fp 6)ATad.G

dusdanohyvhga S@l.ZBS ahyehloha ulidasdiha

DM+
O'Pb;.li

kanevisdiha nigaweva uwehluhga talugisgi Asgwani hS$D D'mS

adanohyvhiisdiha D .ZB i@JqV l daksvsdih~

WMMV&?'

1 SrLyd3,

D25h

210 Mexico middle midnight

Mexico Anisgwani7i ayehli svnoyi DhAlhT mourn asgohniha DdAhe

D8C
RZJ5 aniyosgi?i DhfiaYT

mourning dove mouth move much aholi

gule disgohnihi Jcf &Ah0

military service milk mingle minute mirror miss unvdi

DIP

DOJ
fWJV+

ada?nv?a DLOD ahltelvhvsga D P W~a f ahv?a DJLD

keladidoha

iyatahwostanvli T;3WV@WOT adakehdi ganvdiva DL d f SOJD a4fiWJD

- ugodi D A J mud - hlawotu CVS mud dauber diguhldisgi muddy


mulberries mule murderer didahihi dawoli JLAA kuwa JG

JJPJaY

hlawotuhavi CVS+T hlawotuhi CVSA

mist
mix moan mock Monday money month moon

kanuyoladi3a asuyvsga uliyediha ahyeliqa DCB@S

DP8J.I. D8PD mushroom

Dodagwohnv3i VLTOT Udodagwohnv7i D V L T O T adela ka?lv?i nvda 06 ataladi7a


63

LOP
dikanogisdi W W@J SGRY JI.T

fnusical instrument muskmelon Muskogee gawsvgi Guso7i

DSW

a 3T
DWWJD

moor boat -more -

n
*n naked yvgi

sigwu ugodi dosa

BY
08q + ~ .

DAJ uyelvha?i dudo?a VFI JhR@dT named narrow sVD ;3VC D J B 667 hyahtohli udiyvda?dv3i na3v
8i

mosquito motel moth mother

junisvsdiyi wasohla uji G#C

r~avel Db to?i VT odalv7i d l 3T near neck -

motionless mountain

ahyvhjeni

DBYh

old woman necklace necktie needle ahyahldi ahyadlvdi yvgi


BY
DXJ D 2 J

211

nose bleed -not hla


C

giga dekayvsgwo3iha
Y S SC)BJlrT+

nothing nest never kanesdahlahvvi hla ilvhiyu adagepi DLF7 ije?i 7 Y T


&?,ILC&.T C TUG7

hla gohusdi kila Nvdadegwa


G yW

C AT@J

not long -November now -

0 1S P

new

nogwu

no where -numb numbers

hla ilvhdlvvi
OGU
J4@J

C TqPT

New - Mexico Sgwanijesdv3i d ? X h Y J P T news - kanoheda 3 2? L New York -- Nuyagi 42.Y next -morning ugijvda O Y C L

uwasvhi

disesdi
0

night

usvTi

OR7

oar ocean

gagawesdi amegwoTi

SS.Q92J DWT TGGh9T

nlght before last


Nighthawk nightly nine Asvnoyi

svhi usvqi

RQ 8 R T
DRZA JPb0L

o'clock October officer offspring

iyuwahnilv3i Duninhdi
ShhJ

julsihnvda sohnela
+AM'

asgayegvsda uweji iyudali


8996
TCLP

D J S B ~ L

ninth - sohneline3i no - hla C nod head -- alsgusga no luck -ukwolega

+APAT

often oil -

go3i AT galone3a SGAD howa


tG ASWtB

DPdV?I@S OVJS

%
old -

non -believer no one -north -

Oklahoma udlasitv3ehi
06b16"R.G f YG

Ogalahoma

agayvli D S B P uweti @SO utvhisdi O 6 1 9 2 J udahnilage3i


(YLhWFT (Yt'+UT DSBPF

hla kilo juhyvdlv3i

JBP T

old -chap

North -Carolina

oldest member of family Jalaguweti3i


CWJD2 T aB+P

nose

kayvsoli

old man -old woman --

utvsohnv3i

agayvlige3i

212
omit -

omit kanohiya''a
ilZ3GD SGY4T

operate

ahyehloha

DBd+
Jdh

on a c h a i r one sagwu

gasgilv?i

opposite side or ale

D6

skoni

LIZ
igvsa ijvsa oginvsa ogvsa sdvsa unvsa

one another

TEH TCH dYW dEH


2W b

ordained m i n i s t e r order ourselves adanvsga

udahnilage?i ObhWfT
DLOJS

OOU

one* one -d o l l a r one -f o u r t h one hundred one m a t t e r one month -oneself

siga

bS 02;31

uhnosda ginutdi

ginvsa Y W ievsa TEU . oginvsa dYOU ogvsa AEU doyi


VA

outside
yQI JUhZ

sgohitsgwa sudalegi sinvda

oven -

digatdi?i

IS31T
rRAL JAhA SGA4.C-

overnight
r 1 6 ~

susvhida skoniyi

overseas
601

overtake owasa
AU G

galohiseha age

--one -t o p i c one week --

one t h a t k i l l s

dihihi

IBA r16Y R8VL Z J I

over t h e r e -owe owl oyster aktuga wahuhi

DF

DYSS
CrA LEO

sudalegi

svnadodagwasdi

dagvna

one who -- d i s t r i b u t e s on f o --o t on - ground onion svgi uwasa gadu eladi


RWI

ayatohihi D3VAA

P
paddle
SVA

gadohi
RY OU G SS

gagawesdi gagawesga daksi


by6

s 5621 s 56035
OS0LPT

padlock

only
on - top

uganhda?dv?i

pain
0V,9

a g i h l i y i DYCA agihliyoga DYCfiS asuhwisga 068035 disuhwisdi Ir8031 digansodi?i asulo


I S OI I T

onthemo --- o n on t h e sun ---

nvdohi nvdohi

paint
OVA

open

a s d u ? i ? a DJSTD udlanvda @ O W L ulsduvida @PJST~

pantry pants

K O

pitch
-

213

paper
part

gohweli ugvhahli

..UP
@EN

persimmon person

sali

@f

ayvwi D B 8 yvwi B O ahlohdi DefJ

artwith P - kdega ESf pas galosga SgJf Passover Supper pasture patient dlogesi Kanohiyegi $fL 9WBy

phonograph record photograph

dahlilosdiha L ( Z & C;J didahlilostanvvi Jl CG@VIOT didahlilosdisgi JL CGoo7LJY

photographer udlvgi 8P.Y akwiyiha ~9.w akwiyv9eha D'PB R.G

pick

kanasdehldi 982SPJ degvtohiva SEVAD

peace
peach
peak

pick out nvwhtohiyada kwana uskoli digadvdi dagvna


26

KVA31 pick up agi?a DyD ayiha D m gane9a SAD ganegi9a 5AYD gute9a J X D didahlilostanv9i
FPXY

@ZAP

pear
pearl
peck

JfPJ picture LLf3 JLCGa?U107

pie
gagwayohiha asegi ff.4 Zi0 piece D4Y

gelistgi

agvhalvda sihgwa woyi


bX

DE.G31

peculiar

pig
peekthrough aktiha DS3.G pigeon

8 6

peel
pencil people pepper

ahyahketsga D3ff.S ganegaliha SASP.G digohwelodi yvwi B8 JMGJ

& i p

gahlusga Sv@S gasvtvsga 5 R0",3S jiyu dihlawitdisgi h G JL83JaY akisdi akwsdo dagvna nohji
Zb

pilot
dikwayodi agola DAN' dadawo9a

JfJ Zi

pill
pillow

DYAJ
DVdV
LEO

perch

perform baptism perhaps asedv

L L BD

pimple

D4P
sudetiyvda CS3B L DP2AG'LA.G

pine

period of one year permit

SOX ganvnowa usvdoni @RVh pitch udega


D'SS

alsgohldaneha

214 pitcher
pity

pitcher udegi gadoliga

OSY
SVPf

ponder popcorn V ~ V ~ D possessive

adanhtehilo7a

DLO~AQD

lace hand on P - asihtadi7a place object upright place on something

selu anhtasgisgi 4 M D8WJYJY ugeyuhna7i ugeyuha RPJ @Kt7


@fG+

alehdiha D8J.G ahlahvsga D'.S LS@

possessive of possible possum

eligwu

ujetsdi 8Yb@J uhnasuga F62A 48 OtrS

plant
plate

ahwisga gakohdi atelido

D@@S SAJ
DZPV

possum grape

post
potato

getvsdi nuna

danelohvsga la ball PY

LAGdLJS DW2SP.G J@i, Xf@I

pour

alasgaliha

playing cards la with PYplead pleasant

dikwanayosdi

adli7a VCD adliga DCS adlisdiha DCdA+ ajewi7a DYBD uhlinigida OChYL

powerful danehldiha LLIGJ+ ganiladi7a udanhti S hWJD

pray
prayer preach

adadolisdiha DLVP@J+ udadolisdi 8LVPJJ adadolisdi ahljadohvsga ah1jadohvsgi DLVP@J DPCVS,@S DPCV9X

OL@J
S L MYD S L IMAJ

plow
plug in

gadalugi7a gadalugodi gudalvsga kwanunsdi7i

preacher

JL .l@S
prepare advnv lisdiha DGDT2J.C. judatihnavi dLJt7 ugvwiyuhi 8EBGA H48JJT president

A ? @
pocket

pneumonia

golehi AB d ' adlawa7dv?i


DoKGT

ress down P - asonsdiha Df@aJ+ pretty uwoduhi 8VSA

poison ivy

ulvda 8 1 , .1 nvwoti

poisonous liquid medicine adahihi 0e%7 DLRA

pretty soon price

kilagwu

YC) I=

jugvwahldi gajayohiha ahyvki

dEGGJ SCf7A.G DBY DST2J.G

poke
pond

dla7ida

a%TL

prick
JL h.mY
prisoner promise

policeman

didaniyisgi iLP

vdali

atuvisdiha

rage provisions adanehlvvi D1,lP T put on gloves put on handle daliyesuliva 1 PBCPD guhahlvsga alsgwetuhvsga DPJJSLQJS guhlvsga asuliva JPaf DCPD

215

kanegwadiha m I J +

Pryor
puddle

J+P@S

Kuwayovi J G R T udanehvvi gansane'a

D lAdT
f QUAD

ut on E--hat ut on lid e-put on pants put on ring ut on shirt P--

pull out

asesiha

D4bG

pull trigger pumpkin punishment purple martin iya

gojane7a

T&
Eut- -on shoes L
D L~/1vpJ
ut on socks e-ut - fire eout-

aliyesustvsga DP8C32S ahnawova DtBD LWZ'PJS IPfiAJ. EbbJD

udasdvdisdi @L@O"J@J dludlu

dalasuhlvsga daliyohiha kdladiva

purse
push

adahlinesahldi gasadosga

S~VJS dahvtvsga

ut fuel E--- into fire put in container

L aras
gahldiha SPA+ gahlvsga Sp@s galadiva SWAD galvsga S 9 2 5

Q
quail
guant ity guarter quickly quiet guhgwe iga
J2

TS YQJ BC@L
WQPT

ginutdi uhlisda ehlawe7i

ut in E--fire ut in E--hole put in liquid

gvtvsga EVJS kdv7vsga EG"i2S gahlvsga ahudipa ayhdiha guhvsga


SPJS

quilt DrJD
C& J U

ahyehgahlvsga D8 S P J S hyehgahli 8 SC asuligoga DZ'PAS

put inside
ut in water e-put on

DB-I+

J&@S rabbit jisdu kvhli atohgiya'a

nigvnhdiha

hEVJ+ D1dA.traccoon

r
EC DliYaD D V Y ~
n!&TUB@l

e-ut on belt gut on cap put on clothes put on glasses

adadlohiha alsduli7a

DPJSPD
LtBD

dahnawoqa

daktinvtvsga L sno6"Js

race racer -

atohgiyasgi atahlawohisdi

rage

?id

rain agasga
Df2S

rain . rainbow raise

reply reprimand reprove

gawohiliyv'a asgaga asgaga

SG.3PBD
0@S f

uhnvkwolatv7i 0,0)"ll07~ alsaladi7a DP6rW.ID asaladi7a DtlUdD atvhisdiha D6".3.3;1+ osi adasdayhdi7i
6 6 DLiLBJI

DJSS
OB&

Republican reside resident rest -

Uhyvdla
SAW

range rat rattle

ganela ehi

kanikwsa ujonata

9 h P ~ OK8W

RJ

rattlesnake raw read really agosdi

ujonati O K 8 2
DM1
DAPB D

adawesolvsdiha DLdf 421.6 gawesolvsdiha S d f 421.6 junalsdayhdi7i


dOP2LBdT

restaurant agoliye7a rest of -return revenge ribs rick 826.fD

wuwakdv?i iga71uhga adle3isdi diganulaji igasvti akilvdiha

JGAPT TS M S DbT@J

doyu VC dohiyu V.OC udohiyu OG..OC vsgigi i2YY uyehldi ahyaniha


0541 DSh.6

reason receive

J S 4Wh

TSU DY41.6 0526 0526

receive punishment reckless recognize recuperate red gigage udajatdi gohlga

usdvdi?a
O LC21 APS

ride -

right handed

aktisi aktisi

right position
Ld,9b.G

dalehisiha
YSj VdG

ring -

aliyesusto

DPBC@V

adajagaliha DLCSP.6 gajagaliha SCSP.6 uwansv?i OGhRT adidiha


DJ1.6

redbird

tojuhwa

ripe
rise river road robin

refrigerator release

ahyvdladisdisgi D B a%J2JJY

uweyv7i O d B T nvnohi
0259

dayosga LfiaS dusgalesdiha S J S G ~ ~ J ~ duyosga Sfi2S anhdadi7a wuwakdv7i


DQL JD SG,IS'T

jisgwoywo dahlihgeha nvya (E;

h.;31'tm LCj.G

remember remnants

rock SSD

remove from hanging

gade3a

rocking chair

gasgilo dihlihgesgi
. 2 Y G ACFJY

scratch

217

rocky_
roll roof roofing

nvyohi

DfiA
Sbr&fd.6

saliva salt -

wajila ama
DT

GbW

gasagwalehiha gasanali
SbreP

same kind -SPKGVT

uhloyi
23

@tJd

gahljotdohdi kanvsulv?i

sand -

noya

room
rooster root -

aOc4T
b W S DC3

sandwich sassafras

jitagaachvya

asdvhahli DXK asdvhahlvsga D26=f?@S kansdaji


4Lh VLPSe PvLPSe a8@Lb

uhnasdedla Ot.2266 uhnasdedlvvi @t@.yP T kanasdedliha


38@SC.G

Satan Saturday saw -

Sedani

root out -i
!

rope rotate

asladiva DaWJD sdeyida @ S i x adigwalvdeyoha ugosida


OAbL SbrT4T SOUT ~JX4~fi.6

Dodagwidena Udodagwidena
SOVY

ganhdohgi

'

rotten

round
route row rub rubber

gasagwalv?i ganvhnv?i

adiha DJ+ goseha A4.G nigawe?a hSdD scales scalp scar scatter scenery digadvdi J S 5 d uwajisgahlv?i DGbaSP T usdinega?lv?i uhnelvsv?i
02JA.S 4T

gagawesga SSd2S udanvhnv?i O LOUT asgo1iye3a adla


D3 o D2APBD

0A4R7 DJS63D DJSdfiS DSZ82JT LRaJ.G

ruler - ahlilosdi DCGaJ run - atli DJC run -away aliti'a DPJD run for -- office atohgiya?a run over -adinvdiha
DJW+

adigaleya3a adigaleyoga aktenasdi'i

schedule time school


DVY@D

dasvsdiha

junadehlohgwasdi?i
deStJT2JT

scissors scold

dilsdoyhdi agvsgolv?vsga
b258 D LCaY

JPJVBJ DEJA4i2S

sack

scorpion degahldi
SSPJ

jisdvna adajvysgi adlagosga Dd6A@S dekanugosga S a 4A2S gajaligosga S C P m S

saddle

salesman

gahyahulo

S @rG
SWhVA

scratch

ganhtanidohi

218 scream screw sea second see seed seem seine sell send -

scream gehluhvsga udigwalvdeyida egwoni


RVh WpAT

m&as
@JZ~$&L

sharp sharpen

gosdayi kdliha
EC+
JP J

sharpener shatter

dikdlvhdi

ta?line?i agowhtiha ukta OYW elisdi


RpaJ

DAG2.G

ahlkodvsga D P A P @ s ahlkotdiha D P A P 1 . G unodena


DZSe SEVAD

sheep
shell DS;3It1 SeSS

degvtohipa

agayaludi ganadega

shell corn -- daktliha L f C + shin - asgvdageni D a E L f h shine shirt agaliha ahnawo atihldi uhnawo
DSP+

wadi7a G J D wahvsga G 9 . 2 S wigakahvsga B S a a 2 S wiganehvsga Q S A 9 . 2 S wiganv7vsga 8 S O i 3 S danagaleniha G 9 S g h . G Dulisdi ahvsga


S f 2 1 D9.S DPI.2J.G

to
DJCJ 8tV QGeQD

shiver separate September set down -set -goal set shoe shoot shopping getvsga
fvJS

uwanawi7a

alasulo DWCG ulasulo O W C G ayohiha DfiL3.G dasdayohiha 1 2 l f i A . G adananesvhvsga D l eARd2S amayuhldi asgwala7i usvdena
DGCJ D@IWT OR98

alsosdiha

set -

shore dagvwahldiha 1 EGG1.G short asadvsga


DU62S

set price

set -trap bed seven seventh sew -

shotgun ganihladi7a S hf J D shoulder


S W Y

ganvwoyi S W T akode7a D A S D akodesdi D A S J J

gahlgwogi

shovel gahlgwogine7i
S 8 82.5 SffYAT

gayewsga

show S8QDT

agowhtvhdiha DAGil"1.G aseheha D4?+ udlvga 8 P S udlvgi D P Y

sewing machine shake

gayewsgi7i
D3 4 G S ECEiZS

II
:

atelvhvsga kjagv?vsga

sick -

sick -person

shake head --

alsdvhniha

DP-hS

sometimes

219

sift

gvgusdiha agowhtvhdi

EJo3A.G DAGGA

goksga juksvsdi smoky juksvsdi

~sas
J S ~ J

JSR~J
Dma,+

sink sit six -

smother ganoyvga asganavi udo anina uwohla sudali


OV Dhe OV' CLP
f ZBf

ahawosdiha uhawosdiha inada


T ~ L

Omo3A.G

sinner sister

D@S 8T

snake

snapping turtle sneeze snobbish

saligugi

VPJY

duhyvsdoysga udalvkwdi dakwalagiva

SB@V;3;3S OL W A LIWYD

sixth - sudalinevi size - ikida TYL skin skull slam 'S slap

snore
CLPAT

snort snow soak -

ahliyvsanawsdiha DCBVeG@A+ gutiha J J Q unhji V @ h gvwahlvsga ohla aliyo wanigevi gada S L kanvwiva 3 @ Q D talugisgi dikanvwodohdi
wyay

ganega SAS ganegaliha fflfp.~ unega31vvi @AS ?T uska galviovi


0a .
f ?GT

EGPaS

soap
S f ?6h@A+

sJI
~pfi GhfT

degalvdvnisdiha asihtvniha gahliha gahlvsga agvhaliha dawisgvhi


OaSZP

sock soft soil solder

Db6h.G
SC.G

sleep
sleepy

SPaS DE.GP.G

Slice slippery slow -

~ac-0~1
DfiaY

soldier some someone something

avyosgi igada kilo


TfL YG

L Q2E.4

usganoli

Smart smell
2 5

small

ayohli DfiC usdi 022 asamadi


DbTTJ

gohusdi

ATaA

something that stings alsvsdiha DPR2d.G asvga DRS uwawsvga OGGRS daksvsdiha
L SPGA,

adajvysgi
DLC&U

smoke

something -to eat sometimes

agisdi DY@A asdigisdi DaAYaA gahyesdi S 8@A


GI + I

yudahavi

220

somewhere dlv
P
8 d k DJC 13db ~ z2

somewhere son -

spoon

aditohdi

DJVJ

uweji achuja uweji asgaya

spring sprinkle

ganugogv7i S qAET gogeyi ilk21 dakwayo7vsga 1 I R i @ S dasdudli7a 12SCD


LBYD JBY2J LkV2S tlGP

song book soon -

dikanogisdi
LY

J a Z.!JJJ

hleki

spur
udlvkwdi
@pvJ

dahyvgi7a dihyvgisdi daj ihlusga saloli

sophisticated sorcerer sorghum sound

squat squirrel stab -

adonisgi wadulisi

DVh;;LY GSPb

gatiha

S3.C SVSJ.G DY6mJT

ganohyvhlisdiha S ZBC2J.C unohyvhga BZBS ugama


@ST

stagger
stairs stand

dudokdiha

soup
sour south spade spank

akihlosvsdi7i anidona7a DhVeD gadoga S VS certain spot liquid

juhnajosdi
juganawvvi

dtK2J dS 86 T

stand -- in stand -- in

alehvsga
D 69.af

akodesdi DAS@I kodesgi AS2Y gali7vhniha


S P i h+

uduha 0S.G dalehdiha


zvb 16J.G

stand upright star starch


DW2LR.G

speak

gawoniha Soh+ kanega aAS alasdaveha


aeAX

nokwsi

speak badly of spider

asdagayhdiha

D 2 L SBJ+

start

kana7nesgi

ahnigi7a DhYD ahnigisdiha DhY2J.C. aleniha D&h+ wahga hawiya ganosgi7a atanolega utanolvda talugisgi
GS

steak

spin

adigwalvdeyoha DJI.1Sfi.G gadigwalvdeysdiha S JXqS&J+ aljikwsga


DPbP@f

steal steam steel

S Z2YD

DWZGS BWZ4L WMY@Y

splinter split

udlvdalvda O.P L . L I dasdlusga


132S

steering wheel

ahi71vsdi?i
DA 92JT

spoil
spoiled

ayosdiha DR2J.G ugosga @A3S


step

alasdvsga

DWXaS

uyojv7i

@ACT

swollen steps stick akihlosvsdi3i gansda


ShJl DYdmJT

221

strike string striped strong stub toe -student

gvhniha asti

Eh$.

DX
J G 4~

stick head out ---

alsgwaludi7a
DPXMJD

julohldi

ulsgwaluda BP@LTWl stick out -still sting si uksata


b
SC&S
0.FCt7
0 f ij\Y

uhlinigida OChYL uhyvsdi B B 2 J uhnasgwalo7a didehlohgwasgi uhnihlgvvi


iFh'iTET

@ta?xG~
JSdZAY

gajvysga

stingy person stir asuyeha

upeyuhna?i
DZ8.I.
S ZGIYI

stump

substitute

adanedliyvsdisgi
D I/ICB~IJ@Y DZlX4h.S

1i
I

stolen stomach

ganosgida

suck

asgwanutsga

usgwohlivi B X C T gatiyoqi
SIfiT

suddenly suffocate sugar summer sun Sunday supplies

uyelo7isdi 88GT;lJ ahawosdiha uhawosdiha


DW3J.G OKJ2J.G

stompgrounds

stop
stop by store

alehwisdiha D685J.G alehwisdohdiha D6BJVJ.G galohisdiha adana3nv3i


S G4dJ.L

kalseji a P 4 h gogi nvda


01
V l ,X X T O'Vl22ET DLlZP T

AY

Dl 8 0 7 810h

store owner -storm stove stove*

udana3ni

Dodagwasgvvi Udodagwasgvvi adanehlvvi didahyehlohi akisga ali


DP DYJf

unole 076 osi 6 6 surgeon ahujawoladvdi gachinosda S lPml jiyukdi hGAJ


DTCOWPJ J18tl4

swallow sweat sweep sweet swell swim swollen stretch adahyasdiha


Dl ;3;c?J+

straighten strain strap

gachinosiha

f h2b.G

gvnosasga uganasda gotisga

EZij2f 8 5 821

kanvsolvsdiha gadlohiha a?ni


Sd.O+ Dh

a@+ ?>A+

AT@S

strawberry street

galanvdvvi

adawova DIUD ahyu7inega DGTAS uwotida


0'021

f W06"T

222
sycamore

sycamore kuwajunega wadulisi


GSPh JGdAS

syrup

take off shirt --take off shoes ---

ahnaweva dalasuleva daliyogiva

D~DD
LWC~D

table

gasgilo

SJYG

take off socks --take out --- of

LP~~YD
.$d~ SP.G

container

Tahlequah tail take

Daligwa

L PZ

gale?a galiha

ganida7dv?i S h L f f T gatohga svf ganega S A S ganehwidiha SA@J.G ganhjega f 0% wigakahvsga @ S a & f wiganehvsga @ f A&AS wiganvvvsga @ fD i J f atsde7a
I)~@SD

take -revenge take -somewhere

adlecheha DLY+ udlega V L S ahwidiha D8J.G ahyega D8S ayvhwidiha DB8J.G gahnega SAS ganawidiha f 88J.G ganega S A f
DCTPV.G

take --- a bite take ---a break take --- a drink take --- a seat take -- a step take from -take off --

take time -take turns -tamed teach teacher

ahli7ilidoha
D1ACBJJ.G

ayohisdiha atugi7a alsdvhlusga alasgv7a ganegiveha

~fiA@j.~ DSYD

adanedliyvsdiha
VlOIbrOT LSfiaJf JSA&AY

~ ~ m a s

udanhtisahnv7i dadehyohvsga didehyohvsgi gawehliha

DWJED SAYR.G

tease nigvnhde7a ~ E O S D alsdule7a


DP@SGD

S99C.G JCZ?JT

take off -- cap

telephone telescope ahlawidiha


I SIOSD
DL'@&

dihlinohehdi7i aktohdi
DfVJ

takeoff -- flying take off -- glasses take off -- loves take off hat --take off -- pants take off ring -take off -running

television daktinvde7a tell ten tender

adayvlatvsgi

DLBW6J.Y

kanoheha sgohi

a Z?+
DIP T
f PK6"T

daliyesule7a
L P8edD

2A~3

adage7i gahljotv7i syohinevi daksi Nvdagi

alsgwetuhgi7a DPLJSYD asuleva


DP3TATYD DCdD

tent tenth

9,44117
LYb

aliyesustgi?a terrapin 'Texas adanawsdiha


I)18C,Llb
OLY

tornado than thank thankful thank that sihnv


60 DP?PY%

223

throw thunder Thursday

udega 0 . y ~ ahyvdagwalo7a D B L X G D ahyvdagwalosgi DB I m a Y Nvhgine Iga


DYA TS

alihelicheha aliheliga wad0

DP?PS

you

GY
tick gugu J J dahyvgi7a dakanehiha
LBYD L3AA.G

na 8 vsgina

i D 8 DOtl

tickle tie -

themselves then there

unvsa
813G

nahiyu uhna Q t

there are -therefore these thick thief thin -

nani7a

8hD

tie -2 gahlvviha SPT+ tie a -9- 3 ganvhlohiha time - iyuwakdi TGGAJ tin tired talugisgi duyawega tehga jola
55 WMYJY
SaS

SWB+

vsgihnv iyusdi
iGV0 TGJJ
AD OGFL S WYJY

hi?a

uhwageda ganosgisgi ulesoda usage7i

toad tobacco

KW
38@6T

O'&d @@kT

toe -

kanasavdvvi

toenail
DdA.9

uhnasuhgahlv7i O t r S P T unaligoha tamahli


\Y/K

thin that kills g-think third thirsty this thorny those thought thousand thread three -

adahihi

together tomato tomorrow

Qgp~+

adanhteha D d O % + eli7a RPD jo?ine?i


K7Xl

sunale?i &"8$T sunale svhiyeyi

tomorrow evening utadegiva DWSYD hi7a AD jujayosdi dC'fiAJ na


8 DLD~J T@SBP

re$
tongue tonsils too -big too far
7-

RA8d

ganhgovi tuleji utani invhi utani

SDAT
S$h

@Wh TDA QWh SDVET

adanhtehdi iyagayvli asti jo?i

too - large tooth tornado

D a
KT

ganhdohgvvi unole
QZJ

224

toss about ganvjidoha


DR~+ SebAS f0l~V.G

toss about -touch tow toward

turn off road --turn li ht -on A turn out light --turn over -twist twister

asvhniha gansinega didla Ad

adeyoha DPfi.6 adleva D L D ajvstvsga kdladiva


DCJmS EoXJD SaPISS

dekalihgwadega

toward morning town gaduhvvi

sunale didla

red'
SS&T

Ad

adanuteyoha D L 45fi.6 ganuteyoha S 4lfi.G agaluga


DSMS

dinehldohdi trade trail ali3idi?a

AAPVA DPTAD

two -

taTli WP

usdi ganvhnvvi @@A SOOT ahnehldiha


DACA.G DACWO-

u
unegihldi 8 M 4 A uncle under uduji
8Sb

translate translation

ahnehltanv?i

trap
tree trick trigger trim tromp truth tub Tuesday turkey turn -

asadvsga DUG25 sadvdi UGA hlgvvi


'PET

hawini +@h hawini didla gohlga dahnaweva gudale7a


APS +@h Ad

underneath understand galonasdiha gojanesdi7i asdoyeha alasda7eha duyukdv7i svdoni


RVh WPA T f SGe@JQ

undress
ACAAA7

LMD
JLd'D

unhitch
DJV8.G

unhook
DW2LR.G SGAGT

gudaleTa JLd'D Amayehli


D8'8C

United States unit --of measure unplug untie until uphill aktahv7a
DSWaD

iyuhliloda TGCGL suhliloda rCG L


J L $D LaAJ5.G

Ta9line Iga gvna


Ee

gudale?a dakanehyiha igohida

aktahvva D S W ~ D gadeysdiha S.S;3;3A.G

TAAL aeM@ET

turn back -turnip

kanalusgvvi jogi KY

upstream
LV'Uh DLJET

dakwsani

ganiladi?a turn off -- adlesgvvi use kdiha


EA+

ShWAD

wear shoes use -2 asvhvsga


DRaJS

225

-wash face
wash hair -Washington

agvsgwo7a alsduleha

DEXD
~p@Sd+

v
valley various ukedaliyv7i judalehnvda dohiyu VAG doyu VG udohiyu O'VAG adage7i
DLI.7

O I LPBT '.
~L$@L

Wasvda7na GRLe Wasvda?no?i GILL 27


CJB~JS~

wasp
waste watch

kanajisdeji ajewi7a

very

DY@D

~
!i

very young
Vian

aktosdi DSVJJ uksesdi O'S45J waji Gb ama


DB

Dahnugo7i

L ?AT DLGOT.0V+

water

visit vomit vouch

adahwahtvhidoha duksdiha
SSJJ6

waterbucket watercress watermelon water well --

amahldohdi ajila gvgisdi amahldi7i asolvdagi7a


DB
O'P21J DW b EYJJ

D f l VJ

gohiyhdaneha

A.9GLA.G

DflJT

wagon

dagwalela

LXdW

wave hand -we weak wealth wealthy ayv

DI. 9LYD

wait for -- aktiya wake -9 walk -

0533

ulisdi

ayega D8S aye7isdiha D8TJJ.L a7i


D T

jugvwahldi uwehna7i uhnuwa


O'4G

dEGGJ O'dt 7

walk -around walking cane walnut want war sedi uduliha dahnawa

edoha

RV+ DVW@JJ

wear
wear -- a

adolanvsdi
46 O'SP+
LtG

ulsdula

O'PJSW O'P3;?SS O'CDL O'P8Caf SSJW SPBCW

wear a hat

ulsgwetuhga udli7ada

wear an earring -wear a ring -wear -glasses wear -gloves wear pants wear shoes --

uliyesustga duktinvta duliyesula usula


@CW

warm
wash -

aganawhdiha D S 8e'J.G uganawa O'f B G guhilo?a


J.0GD

wash clothes wash dishes

dekgilo7a SEYGD degvdiye7a SEJ8D

dulasuhla

.SWCf

226

wear socks duliyoha

wear socks -wedge

SPfi+

white man --

yonega

fiAf DBJAS

gahatdi

S.6511
KTA TS

who -

white person whittle gagi

ayvwunega

Wednesday
weed weeks ganulv

J o 7 i n e Iga
f

ayohlvsga

DfiPAf

4Q
TG~vL X,aJ

gaga

iyunadodagwasdi dadlohyiha kanvwi7a dGi54-

SY sA
EG Z 2 1

weep
weld welder

whole

gvhwanosda gadohv Sv0

a 0 8 ~

a
wife -

t a l u g i s g i dikanvwisgi

u d a l i ? i BLPT usdayvhvsgi @2LB&&' gehyahtahi

WMYAY away
welding rod well osda tohi t a l u g i s g i dikanvwodohdi WMYAY A a W V d

wild

f.3W.Q
T8I.7 @POT@A

wilderness

inage?i

ha1

va

w i l l i n ~ udvnv?isdi wind

west wet -

wudeligv7i gadulida gad0 SV gado u s d i hila B W uj alesdi gagwatdi hilayv7i hadlv

JSPET SSP1

unole

@Z6
Kwh

window

jolani kanoge kanogeni

what wheat -

wing
SV @@A
wink -

a 2

a ZI. h
DSW2lJ.G

aktasdiha gola

O.C62d S a d AWBT

winter wisdom with withdraw withdrawn

A W D f ViA2A

when wheel where wherever which while= whinny

akto7vhisdi gvhdi

E l Dab=+ D4RL

dp

asesiha asesvda

yinigalsdihagw ilvhdlv?i IShS P@drb2 T QPT gad0 u s d i kohi nigawe?a


SI.' @@A

without -a mind witness wolf h.I$2W

nudanht vna 4 1O r 8
DSW8

R9
h f bD

aktahi wahya agehya ada

G3
DI.9

whippoorwill whistle white -

tsgwalegwala

woman wood -

gasvnhga unega
@/IS

SRhS

DL
dalala
L WW

woodpecker

nine wool work worker worm worried wound uwa7ni


OGh s~@JLA+ d*1@&LA&

227

years yell

ijudetiyvda gehluhvsga uwehluhga svhi

TJSJB L

dulvhwisdaneha julvhwisdanehi ujiya @ b 3

emf

~a'a2f

yesterday uwelihi?a @ d p , g ~ uwelihisdi O . d p , g ~ d

rn
svhi svhiyeyi

yesterday evening yesterday morning asonvsga gakwenvsga ahnehiha dihnehihi


~ $ 0 2 ~
fa^^

RA RA86
svhi sunale?i

RA C 8 8 T
yes, it - that's sgidv
2Y6

wrap
wrestle

DAB+ 1ABA SCGJ1.6

yet

si nihi

wrestler wring out wrinkled write

you

hA

gajvwasdiha udanegoyuha gohweliva


AdPD

young animal
young man young woman

a?da D L agina DY8 awina ata


D88
DW

0 LAAG+

Y
yawn
uhahlogeha
@MI.+

yourself yourselves

jvsa

C6r

ijvsa sdvsa

TCH 2W b

NUMBERS

Disesdi
14031 -

CARDINAL

one two three four five six seven eight nine -

sagwu ta?li jo?i nvhgi hisgi sudali gahlgwogi chanela sohnela

6 r J
WP

KT DY A2Y rLP
f my

CAW IAW

228
ten eleven twelve thirteen fourteen fifteen sixteen

ten sgohi sa?du ta?ldu jo?ga?du niga?du sgiga?du daladu gahlgwadu neladu sohneladu ta?lsgohi t a ? l s g o sagwu ta?lsgo ta?li ta?lsgo jo?i t a 7 l s g o nvhgi ta?lsgo hisgi tavlsgo sudali t a ? l s g o gahlgwogi t a ? l s g o chanela t a 7 l s g o sohnela jo?sgohi jo?sgo sagwu
j o?sgo t a ? l i

2/44

US
NPS KSS hSS @YSS LWS

seventeen eighteen nineteen twenty twenty one twenty two twenty t h r e e twenty f o u r twenty s i x

sP X S
AW S

CAWS
2 W P @ 49

WPJ.4

u,

W P @ A WP WP2A KT WP@A D Y W P @ A BAY WP@A C L P


WP@A S W Y

twenty f i v e twenty seven twenty e i g h t twenty n i n e thirty t h i r t y one

W P 2 A CAW W P J A fA W K@R9 K@A

u;

thlrty two
thirty three t h i r t y four

K@A W P KJ.4 K T K @ A QY K @ A A@Y K@A C L P K @ A 5 PVY K @ A CAW K J A ?AW OYOa A29

jo?sgo j o ? i jo7sgo nvhgi jo7sgo h i s g i jo?sgo s u d a l i j o ? s g o gahlgwogi jo?sgo c h a n e l a jo?sgo s o h n e l a nvksgohi nvksgo sagwu nvksgo t a 7 l i nvksgo jo?.i nvksgo nvhgi

thirty f i v e
thirty six t h i r t y seven thirty forty_

eight

t h i r t y nine

forty one
f o r t y two -forty three four -

OY2A
DYZA WP DYZA KT
QY2 A D Y

seventy nine fort 2five nvksgo hisgi nvksgo sudali nvksgo gahlgwogi nvksgo chanela nvksgo sohnela hiksgohi hiksgo sagwu hiksgo ta7li hiksgo jo7i hiksgo nvhgi hiksgo hisgi hiksgo sudali hiksgo gahlgwogi hiksgo chanela hiksgo sohnela sudalsgohi sudalsgo sagwu sudalsgo ta7li sudalsgo jo?i sudalsgo nvhgi sudalsgo hisgi sudalsgo sudali sudalsgo gahlgwogi sudalsgo chanela sudalsgo sohnela gahlgwasgohl gahlgwasgo sagwu gahlgwasgo ta7li gahlgwasgo J o7i gahlgwasgo nvhgi gahlgwasgo hisgi gahlgwasgo sudali gahlgwasgo gahlgwogi gahlgwasgo chanela gahlgwasgo sohnela

229

forty six

forty seven forty eight forty nine -

fifty
fifty one fifty two fift 2three fifty four fifty five fifty six fifty seven fifty eight fifty nine

sixty
sixty one sixty two sixty three slxty four sixty five sixty six sixty seven sixty eight sixty nine seventy seventy one seventy two seventy three seventy four seventy five seventy six seventy seven seventy eight seventy nine

D YA ~.QJY D Y ~ A fa CL @YaA S W Y DYJA e,? U' OYaA C;IW O~Y~AA O@Y@A V 2 .9@YaA WP QAVv@A K T .Q@Y@A DY .OaY@A 22Y ASYJA C L P AJYJA S W Y A~Y@A CAW AJYV@A CAW C L P@AA CLPdA G C L P J A WP C L P J A KT C L P J A DY CLPdA AaY CLP@A elf C l P d A SffY CIP@A CAW C L P@A $AW SPI2.U SPIJA H 2 i SPI@A W P S PZ2A KT SPXZA OY SPX2A A2Jr S PZ2A el P S PZ2A S W Y S.', PZGA CAW SPXZA +AW

230
eighty

eighty nelsgohi n e l s g o sagwu nelsgo t a 7 l i nelsgo jo7i n e l s g o nvhgi nelsgo h i s g i nelsgo sudali n e l s g o gahlgwogi nelsgo chanela nelsgo sohnela sohnelsgohi s o h n e l s g o sagwu sohnelsgo t a ? l i sohnelsgo j o ? i s o h n e l s g o nvhgi sohnelsgo h i s g i sohnelsgo s u d a l i s o h n e l s g o gahlgwogi sohnelsgo chanela sohnelsgo sohnela sgohitsgwa s g o h i t s g w a sagwu sgohitsgwa t a 7 1 i two -

Awau AW2A t13 AW@A W P AW2A KT AW2A UY AW@A A U AW2A t"l P AWJA S W Y AW2A CAW AW2A I.AW
I. A w a u

e i g h t y one e i g h t y two e i ht thre a-e eighty four eighty five eighty s i x e i g h t y seven eighty eight eighty nine ninety ninety one n i n e t y two ninety three ninety four ninety f i v e ninety s i x n i n e t y seven ninety eight ninety nine one -hundred one hundred one one -hundred
ORDINAL

I.AW2A E1;3 I.AW2A W P I.AW2A KT I.AW2A UY 1AW2A BAY I.AWaA CL P I.AW2A S W Y I.AW2A CAW I.AW2A I.AW 2AAbI

aubI

63 1

2 M b I WP

first second third fourth fifth sixth seventh eighth ninth tenth eleventh

TEdT WPAT KTAT UYAT BAYAT

t 7 L PAT
SWYA7 CAPA T I.APAT

2 AAA T
61SbAT

forty sixth twelfth thirteenth fourteenth fifteenth sixteenth seventeenth eighteenth nineteenth twentieth twenty first twenty second twenty third twenty twenty twenty twenty twenty twenty fourth fifth sixth seventh eighth ninth ta?ldusine?i jo?gavdusine?i niga?dusine?i sgiga?dusine?i daladusine?i gahlgwadusine7i neladusine?i sohneladusine?i ta?lsgohine?i ta?lsgo sagwuhinevi tavlsgo ta7linevi ta?lsgo jo?ine?i ta?lsgo nvhgine?i ta?lsgo hisgine?i ta?lsgo sudalinevi tavlsgo gahlgwoginevi ta31sgo chanelinevi tavlsgo sohneline?i jo?sgohinevi jo?sgo jo?sgo jo?sgo jovsgo jo?sgo jovsgo sagwuhine?i tavline?i jovine?i nvhginevi hisgineyi sudaline?i
VP.TbAT KSSbAT hSSbAT @YfSbAT L WSbAT
f PXSbAT

231

AWSbAT SAWSbAT WP@&A T WP@A K A A T WP@A WPAT


WP@A K TA T WP@A DYA T

WPJA A a ' A T WP@A CLPAT WP@A f W Y A T WP@A CAPAT WP@A SAPAT K @ U AT K@A i7'2AA T K2A WPAT K@A KTAT K@A PYA7 K@A A@YAT K@A CLPAT K@A S W Y A T K@A CAPAT K@A SAPAT @Y@UAT DY2A VZAAT DY@A WPAT DY@A KTAT DY@A DYAT DY@A A X A T DY@A CLPAT

thirtieth thirt 2first thirty second thirt 2third thirty fourth thirty fifth thirty sixth thirty seventh thirty eighth thirty ninth fortieth forty first forty second fort 2third forty fourth fort 2fifth forty sixth

jo?sgo gahlgwoginevi jo?sgo chaneline?i jovsgo sohnelinevi nvksgohinevi nvksgo sagwuhinevi nvksgo tavlinevi nvksgo jovinevi nvksgo nvhginevi nvksgo hisgine?i nvksgo sudalinevi

232

forty seventh nvksgo gahlgwogine'i nvksgo chaneline'i nvksgo sohnelinevi hiksgohinevi hiksgo sagwuhinevi hiksgo tavlinevi hiksgo jovinevi hiksgo nvhgine'i hiksgo hisgine'i hiksgo sudalinevi hiksgo gahlgwogine'i hiksgo chanelinevi hiksgo sohnelinevi sudalsgohine'i sudalsgo sagwuhine'i sudalsgo tavline'i sudalsgo jovine'i sudalsgo nvhginevi sudalsgo hisgine'i sudalsgo sudalinevi sudalsgo gahlgwogine'i sudalsgo chaneline'i sudalsgo sohneline'i gahlgwasgohine'i gahlgwasgo sagwuhinevi gahlgwasgo ta'linevi gahlgwasgo jo'inevi gahlgwasgo nvhginevi gahlgwasgo hisgine'i gahlgwasgo sudaline'i gahlgwasgo gahlgwogine'i gahlgwasgo chanelinevi gahlgwasgo sohnelinevi nelsgohinevi nelsgo sagwuhinevi
@YJA S f f Y A T @YJA CAPAT @Y@AIAPAT A@YJR9/1T AJY@A tl,?AAT A J Y J A WPAT A Z @ A KTAT AJYJ A @YAT AJY@A A Z A T A Z @ A CLPAT A@Y@A S W Y A T A@Y@A CAPA T A J Y J A -fAPAT CL PJAAAT CL P@A M A A T CLP@A WPAT CLP@A KTAT CLP@A DYAT CLPJA A U A T CL P@A CL PAT CL P@A S f f Y A T CLP@A CAPAT CLP@A IAPAT S P52RSAT

forty seventh forty eighth forty ninth fiftieth fift first Yfifty second fift 2third fifty fourth fifty fifth fift sixth Yfifty seventh fifty eighth fift 2ninth sixtieth sixty first sixty second sixty third sixty fourth sixty fifth sixty sixth sixty seventh sixty eighth sixty ninth seventieth seventy first seventy second seventy third seventy fourth seventy fifth seventy sixth seventy seventh seventy eighth seventy ninth eightieth eighty first

S P52A K2AAT
SP52A WPAT

S PB@A KTAT S PB@A @YAT


S P5@A A Z A T

SP52A CLPAT

S PX@A S f f Y A T
SPBaA CAPAT SPX@A IAPAT AW@&AT AW@A tl,?AAT

one million
i

233

II

eighty second elghty third

nelsgo tavlinevi nelsgo jovinevi nelsgo nvhginevi nelsgo hisgine?i nelsgo sudaline?i nelsgo gahlgwoginevi nelsgo chanelinevi nelsgo sohneline?i sohnelsgohine?i sohnelsgo sagwuhinevi sohnelsgo tavline7i sohnelsgo jo?ine?i sohnelsgo nvhginevi sohnelsgo hisgine?i sohnelsgo sudalinevi sohnelsgo gahlgwoginevi sohnelsgo chanelinevi sohnelsgo sohneline?i sgohitsgwine?i sgohitsgwa sagwuhinevi sgohitsgwa ta?line?i

elght_y fourth
eighty fifth eighty sixth eighty seventh eighty eighth

eighty ninth ninetieth ninety first ninety second ninety third ninety fourth ninety fifth ninety sixth ninety seventh ninety eighth ninety ninth one - hundredth one hundredth first one hundredth second

1
j
I

I
i
'

two - hundred three hundred four -hundred five -hundred six - hundred seven hundred eight hundred nine -hundred one - thousand one - million

talitsgwa jo7itsgwa nvhgitsgwa hisgitsgwa sudalitsgwa gahlgwogitsgwa nelatsgwa sohnelatsgwa saghu iyagayvli sagwu i y ~ g ~ a d i n v d a

I;? .:,

- . 11.s ,

-.

Sinvaa Dekaivj e g v 9 l
6 4 .S39YE7

j,,,,yy
February March

Unolvtana Kaga7li Anvhyi Kawohni Ansgvti Dehaluyi Kuyegwona Ga7lohni Dulisdi Duninhdi Nvdadegwa Vskihyi

April
June -

July
August September October November December

DAYS OF THE ---Svnadodagwasdi


RtlI'LI&J

WEEK

Lb'LLLT

Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday

Unadodagwasgv7i Unadodagwohnv7i Ta7line Iga Jo'ine Iga

Nvhgine Iga Junhgilosdi Unadodagwidena

OUTLINE OF CHEROKEE GRAMMAR

WILLIAM PULTE Assistant Professor Southern Methodist University Datlas, Texas

and

Cherokee ianguage Instructor ?.ic:theastern Okiahorna State University Tahlequah, Oklahoma

CHEROKEE R A T I O N O F OKLAHOMA

1975

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

............................ I . THE VERB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A . i n i t i a l prefixes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B . pronoun p r e f i x e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C . non-final suffixes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D. finalsuffixes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E . r e f l e x i v e . p a s s i v e and c l a s s i f i c a t o r y verbs . . . . . . . . F . verb "to be" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I 1 . THE NOUN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A . nounprefixes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. nounsuffixes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C . possessed nouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D . compoundnouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E . derived nouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F . f i r s t person s i n g u l a r forms o f nouns . . . . . . . . . . . .
INTRODUCTION

239 241 241 256 281 288 295 305 306 306 308 310 318 319 322 324 324 330 338 341 342 342

I11

OTHER PARTS OF SPEECH A B C D

. . . . E. F.
B

pronouns adjectives adverbs prepositions interjections conjunctions

... .. ... . .

..................... ....................... ....................... ....................... ....................... ....................... ........................


. . . . . .

IV

NOTES ON CHEROKEE SYNTAX

. . C. D. E. F. G.

negative sentences . . . . . . . questions coordination . . . . . . . . . . subordination possession . . . . . . . . . . . notes on word o r d e r i n Cherokee Cherokee t e x t . . . . . . . . .

........... .........

INTRODUCTION This outline or sketch of Cherokee grammar is intended primarily as an aid to the user of the Cherokee-English dictionary.l The authors hope that Cherokee speakers who utilize the dictionary will acquire a deeper understanding of the complex structure of their language by reading the grammar sketch. Students of Cherokee attempting to learn the language and linguists interested in studying the structure of Cherokee should also find the dictionary and grammar outline useful. The traditional parts of speech, used to classify the Cherokee entries in the dictionary, provide a useful framework by means of which the non-linguist can understand the grammatical systems of Cherokee. Each of the eight part of speech categories is described in the grammar outline. The first section is devoted to a discussion of the Cherokee verb. Since the structure of verbs in Cherokee is quite complex, this is the longest and most detailed section of the grammar sketch. The structure of Cherokee nouns is described in the second section, and the remaining parts of speech are discussed in the third section. The fourth section of the grammar outline consists of notes on various aspects of Cherokee syntax, the principles of sentence formation in the language. Throughout the grammar sketch examples are provided for each of the points discussed. In addition to the examples, the first section contains a number of complete and partial verb paradigms. In the examples and paradigms we have chosen to spell final syllables in their entirety, and the reader should remember that final vowels are ordinarily not pronounced in spoken Cherokee. Further study of the language is needed to determine the precise nature of the rules which govern the dropping of vowels in various contexts.2 Those examples in the grammar outline which can stand alone as sentences are followed by periods and are translated by sentences in English. This practice is not followed in the case of examples which cannot stand alone as sentences. In addition to the discussion of the various grammar points and the examples which illustrate them, the reader is urged to study the.illustrative sentences in the dictionary. These sentences provide further insight into the structure of the Cherokee language.

' e would like to thank Bill Cook for discussing various aspects of Cherow kee with us, and for pointing out a number of facts regarding the future tense prefix and the suffix system of the verb. We would also like to thank Willard Walker for generously making available to us many of his unpublished materials on Cherokee. We have also profited from reading Reyburnls study of Cherokee morphology ("Cherokee Verb Morphology I, 11," International Journal of American Linguistics, 19:172-180, 259-73, and "Cherokee Verb Morphology 111," International Journal of American Linguistics, 20:44-64). vowels are more often retained at the end of sentences or utterances *~~nal than elsewhere, apparently indicating that they function as carriers of the final part of intonation contours. The retention or dropping of final vowels also seems to mark the extent of formality of various speech styles; many more final vowels are retained in oratorical style than in casual spoken style, for example.

241

Section I .

The Verb

Verb forms i n Cherokee must c o n t a i n a verb stem, one o r more pronoun p r e f i x e s , and a f i n a l s u f f i x . They may a l s o e x h i b i t one o r more i n i t i a l p r e f i x e s , a r e f l e x i v e p r e f i x which d i r e c t l y p r e c e d e s t h e stem, and one o r more n o n - f i n a l s u f f i x e s . These f a c t s a r e d i s p l a y e d i n Figure 1 , with o p t i o n a l elements i n d i c a t e d by + and o b l i g a t o r y elements i n d i c a t e d by + .

I+ initial I-

p r e f i x (es)

pronoun prefix(es)

+reflexive prefix
-.

+verb stem

+non-final s u f f i x (es)

final suffix

Figure 1 I-A. The i n i t i a l p r e f i x e s . A v e r b form i n Cherokee may o p t i o n a l l y e x h i b i t one o r more i n i t i a l p r e f i x e s ; because o f t h e i r p o s i t i o n immediately preceding t h e pronoun p r e f i x e s , t h e i n i t i a l p r e f i x e s a r e a l s o r e f e r r e d t o a s prepronominal p r e f i x e s . Since s e v e r a l i n i t i a l p r e f i x e s may occur t o g e t h e r i n a s i n g l e v e r b form, i t i s necessary t o d e s c r i b e t h e o r d e r i n which t h e y appear r e l a t i v e t o each o t h e r ; t h i s information i s p r e s e n t e d i n F i g u r e 2 .
1

y-, negative j-, r e l a t i v e , past, e t c . da-, future d a - , motion toward speaker di-, distant position

w-, away from speaker

n-, lateral position, already, etc. ga-, s i n c e e-, distant imperative

L4

de-, plural obj e c t

i - , again

pronoun p r e f i x (es)

1 1 1 1
1

Figure 2

P r e f i x e s which a r e shown i n t h e same box i n F i g u r e 2 do n o t occur t o g e t h e r ; f o r example, t h e p r e f i x e s y- and j i - , which appear i n t h e f i r s t box i n F i g u r e 2 , do not co-occur. In a d d i t i o n , i n some c a s e s p r e f i x e s which occur i n d i f f e r e n t p o s i t i o n s cannot occur t o g e t h e r . T h i s i s g e n e r a l l y due t o an i n h e r e n t c o n t r a d i c t i o n i n t h e meaning of t h e two p r e f i x e s ; f o r example, t h e w- p r e f i x , which i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e person spoken o f has h i s back t u r n e d t o t h e s p e a k e r , obviously cannot occur t o g e t h e r with t h e n- p r e f i x which i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e person spoken o f i s positioned l a t e r a l l y i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e s p e a k e r . S i m i l a r l y , t h e j - p r e f i x which i s used with c e r t a i n p a s t t e n s e v e r b forms cannot co-occur with d a - , t h e f u t u r e t e n s e p r e f i x . A d i s c u s s i o n o f each of t h e i n i t i a l p r e f i x e s f o l l o w s .

:arm:

-, n e g a t i v e , c o n d i t i o n a l
y- b e f o r e a vowel, y i - b e f o r e a consonant, 9- f o r e w - ; be a.
b.
. algowh 2 tl; 3h a .

c f . (1-3).

1
1

(1)
(2)

"He s e e s i t . "

a. b.

h l a 3 ya2gowh3ti2ha. "tle d o e s n ' t s e e i t ." ji2gowh1ti3ha. "I see i t . " hla3 y i 2 j i 2 g o w h 3 2 t i 3 h a . "I d o n ' t s e e i t . "

(31

a. b.

wa2gowh3ti2ha. hla3

"He s e e s it ( w i t h h i s back t u r n e d )

yu2wa2gowh3ti2ha.

. .

."

"He d o e s n ' t s e e i t ( w i t h h i s back t u r n e d ) . "

When y- d i r e c t l y p r e c e d e s h - , m e t a t h e s i s o c c u r s a s i n ( 4 ) .

(4)

a.

hizgowh2ti3ha. hla3

"You s e e i t

."

hyi2gowh3ti2ha.

'!You d o n ' t s e e i t . "

f u n c t i o n : When y- i s used t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e n e g a t i v e word h l a ( t l a i n some d i a l e c t s ) " n o t , " it s e r v e s t o n e g a t e v e r b f o r m s , as i n ( 1 - 2 ) . When y- o c c u r s i n a v e r b form not preceded by h l a , i t s p r e s e n c e shows u n c e r t a i n t y on t h e p a r t of t h e s p e a k e r toward t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f t h e a c t i o n o r s t a t e e x p r e s s e d by t h e v e r b , a s i n
(5).

(5)

a. b.

ga2wo3ni2ha.

"He i s s p e a k i n g . " " i f h e i s speaking"

yi2ga2w032ni4ha

. .

as i n ( 6 ) .
(6)

C o n d i t i o n a l forms l i k e (5b) must o c c u r a s s u b o r d i n a t e c l a u s e s i n l o n g e r s e n t e n c e s , yj2ga2w032ni'+ba, h l a 3 ya2gwanh3ta. " I f he i s s p e a k i n g , I d o n ' t know i t . "

When used t o i n d i c a t e s o n d i t i o n a l i t y i n p a s t t i m e , y- r e q u i r e s t h e non-progressive form of t h e v e r b stem a d t h e s u f f i x o r d i n a r i l y employ.ed w i t h p r e s e n t p r o g r e s s i v e forms, -a; s e e ( 7 ) . (7) y ~ ~ w o ~ ~ n i ~h e a -*if s spoke" comments: The a d d i t i o n of y- t o v e r b forms r e s u l t s i n p i t c h changes i n t h e v e r b ; t h e same o c c u r s i n t h e case o f o t h e r i n i t i a l p r e f i x e s a l s o . The r u l e s which d e t e r m i n e t h e s e changes are n o t f u l l y u n d e r s t o o d a t p r e s e n t . j-, relative form: j - b e f o r e a vowel, j i - b e f o r e a c o n s o n a n t , c f . ( 8 - 9 ) ; j u - b e f o r e w-. a. b. a. b. a 2 s g a 2 y a ~ ' w o ~ ~ h l at A man i s s i t t i n g . " l . a2sga2ya a2sga2ya a2sga2ya julwo"hla " ' t h e man who i s s i t t i n g t 1
"A man i s s p e a k i n g . "

(8) (9)

ga2w03ni2ha. ji2ga2w03ni4ha

" t h e man who i s speaking"

f u n c t i o n : j - marks r e l a t i v e c l a u s e s ; i t c o r r e s p o n d s t o t h e E n g l i s h r e l a t i v e p r o nouns "who," "which," and " t h a t ," as (10-11) i n d i c a t e . (10) (11) a. b. a. b. a2sga2ya a2sga2ya gi2hli gi2hli ga2w03ni2ha.
"A man i s s p e a k i n g . "

j12ga2w03ni4ha " t h e man who i s speaking" "I s e e a dog." " t h e dog t h a t I s e e "

ji2gowh'tl3ha. ji2ji2gowh'ti4ha

comments: S i n c e t h e r e l a t i v e p r e f i x c a n n o t be a t t a c h e d d i r e c t l y t o a negated v e r b form, n e g a t i v e r e l a t i v e s a r e formed by a d d i n g t h e n e g a t i v e a f f i x e s n- ( o r n i - ) and -na t o t h e v e r b form; t h e r e l a t i v e j - i s t h e n a t t a c h e d t o t h e a u x i l i a r y v e r b - i g i , y i e l d i n g j i g i , a s i n ( 1 2 ) . When j - i s p r e f i x e d , t h e second l a s t s y l l a b l e i n t h e word t a k e s p i t c h 4 .

(12)

a. a2sga2ya hla3 y12ga2w032n12ha. "A man isn't speaking." b. a2sga2ya n~2g?2w032ni2sgv4na ji4gi "the man who isn't speakingt1

Similarly, j- cannot occur in the same verb form with ga- "since," but it is possible for j- to be attached to -igi in instances in which the main verb is marked with ga-, as in (13). (13) go1hi3gi gv2wa2g02hv4?i ji4gi "the one he hasn't seen in a long time"

j-, specific past time


form: j- before vowels, ji- before consonants, cf. (14-15) ; ju- before w. (14) (15) "He i . a. ~ ' w o ~ n i ~ s v ~ ~ ~spoke." b. v ~ ~ ~ i . sv2hi j ~ ~ w o ~ n i ~ s "He spoke yesterday ." a. ja2w03ni2sv23?i. "You spoke." b , sv2hi jj2ja2~03ni2sv23?i. YOU spoke yesterday ."

function: j- is used in sentences such as (14b and 15b) which contain a reference to a definite time in the past. It is also prefixed to verb forms in sentences which do not contain an explicit time reference if such a reference to a definite time in the past has previously been made or is understood by the speaker and hearer to exist; see (17), which would be the correct reply to (16). (16) (17) ga2d02 u1dv3ne21e3?i sv2hi? "What did he do yesterday?" j ~ ~ w o ~ n i ~ s v ItHe spoke." ~~?i.

The use of j- is required in sentences in which reference to a specific past time is understood, as noted above, provided that the past tense suffix -v?i is employed This suffix indicates that the speaker witnessed the action or state indicated by the verb form in question; when the reportative past tense suffix -e?i is employed, j- cannot be used regardless of the presence or absence of a specific time reference; cf. (18-19). (18) ga2d02 u1dv3ne21e3?i sv2hi? "What did he do yesterday?" (19) u1w03ni2se3?i. "He spoke (reportedly)."

j-, negative imperative


form: j- before vowels, ji- before consonants, cf. (20-21); ju- before wfunction: j- must be employed to mark negative commands; cf. (20-21). (20) a. e2nv3nilga. "Let's you and I hit him." b. hle'sdi je3nv2ni11i. "Let's you and I not hit him." j i2doZ3ja3de3si. "Don't throw them." a. di2ja2du32ga. "Throw them." b . hle'sdi

(21)

comments: See Section I-C for a discussion of the suffixes employed in imperative forms; see the discussion of de- in this section for the forms which this prefix takes when it occurs together with j- as well as with other prefixes.
j -, "again1'-imperative

form: j- before vowels, ji- before consonants, cf. (22-23); ju- before w-.

(22)

a. b. c.

e 2nv 3n . 1g a . l

" L e t ' s you and I h i t him."

j i 3 ? e 2 n ~ 2 n i 3 2 g a . " L e t ' s you and I h i t him a g a i n . " j ~ ~ n v ~ n il l~ e t f~ you . and I h i t him a g a i n . " L ~ s a ja2dulga. "Throw i t . " "Throw i t a g a i n . " c f . (22-23).

(23)

a. b.

ji23j?3du32 a. g

function:

j - must b e used t o mark a f f i r m a t i v e commands w i t h "again";

comments: When t h e f o l l o w i n g p r e f i x b e g i n s w i t h a vowel, j - may a p p e a r e i t h e r a s j i - o r a s j - ; i f i t a p p e a r s a s j i - , a g l o t t a l s t o p i s i n s e r t e d between i t and t h e vowel which f o l l o w s . Note t h a t t h e c o n t r a s t between commands w i t h "again" and t h o s e w i t h o u t i s n e u t r a l i z e d i n t h e c a s e of n e g a t i v e commands; s e e ( 2 4 ) . (24) hlelsdi jiZ3ja3de3si. "Don't throw i t " o r "Don't throw it a g a i n . "

w - , p o s i t i o n o r motion .away from s p e a k e r


form:
(25) w - b e f o r e vowels, wi- b e f o r e c o n s o n a n t s ; c f . (25-26)

a.
b.

algowh2ti3ha. ja2de3ga.

"He s e e s it ."

~ ~ ~ ~ o w l n ~ t"He s ea s l t (with h i s back t u r n e d t o t h e s p e a k e r ) i ~ h e. *Y,mutre throwing i t ." "You're t h r o w i n g i t (away from s p e a k e r )


YOU s e e i t . "

."

(26)

a. b.

wi2ja2de32ga. hi2gowh2ti3ha.

."

When it p r e c e e d s h-, m e t a t h e r i s o c c u r s , a s i n ( 2 7 ) . (27) a. b.

h ~ i ~ ~ o w h ~ t i "Y.oua s. e e i t ( l o o k i n g away from t h e s p e a k e r ) ~ h

."
."

I n some forms, w- may be d e l e t e d a f t e r t h e n e g a t i v e y-; n o t e ( 2 8 ) , i n which t h e n e g a t i v e p r e f i x y- becomes yu- w i t h w - o p t i o n a l l y d e l e t e d . (28) a. b. yq2wi2ga2w032ni2ha. yu2ga2w032ni2ha.
"Me i s n ' t s p e a k i n g ( w i t h h i s back t u r n e d )
"Be i s n ' t s p e a k i n g ( w i t h h i s back t u r n e d ) . "

f u n c t i o n : w - i s employed o p t i o n a l l y t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e s u b j e c t o f t h e v e r b i s f a c i n g away from t h e s p e a k e r . In t h e c a s e o f motion v e r b s , i t f o l l o w s t h a t t h e motion w i l l be away from t h e s p e a k e r . (29) (30) a. b. a. b. (31) a. b. ~ l w o ~ ~ h l ''He's s i t t i n g . " a. ~ ~ ~ w o ~ h H e r s s i t t i n g ( w i t h h i s back t o t h e s p e a k e r ) . " "l a . a3?i. wa3?i. "He's w a l k i n g . " "Hets walking (away from t h e s p e a k e r ) "Let me s p e a k . "

."

w - must be u s e d with non-second p e r s o n forms w i t h t h e meaning " l e t " ; s e e ( 3 1 ) .

ji2w032ni2hi.

~ i ~ j i ~ w o ~ ~ n i ~ me i s.p e a k . " "Let h

The u s e o f w- w i t h second p e r s o n i m p e r a t i v e forms r e s u l t s i n a change i n meaning; compare (31b) w i t h (32b). (32) a. h i 2 w o 1 n i Z 3 h i . "Speak

."

b. h ~ i ~ w o ~ ~ n i "Speak (facing away) ~hi.

."

When the subject of the verb is not within sight of the speaker, the use of w indicates distance; see (33). (33)

~h ~?i. a. d ~ ~ l v ~ ~ h w j ~ s d a ~ n e "He oworks ."


b.
w ~ 2 d ~ 2 3 1 v 3 h w ~ 2 s d a 1 n e 2 h 0 3 7 it e works (at a distance) ." ". l

In the case of certain verbs, in forms with the dative-benefactive suffix, w- is used to indicate dative meaning; cf. (34-35). (34) (35) de2g03hwe231137a. "He's writing them." a. de2g03hwe231a32ne2ha. "He's writing them for him ." b. w~2d~2goZ3hwe31a1ne2ha. "He's writing them to him . I 1 comments: A few verbs which inherently contain the notion of motion away from the speaker always occur with w-; e.g. wa2hv3sga "he's sending it ."

n-, lateral position


form: n- before vowels, ni- before consonants; metathesis occurs before -h-; cf. 136-3). (36) (37) a. b.
a.

a'gmh2t13hanaZgowh3ti2ha.

"He sees it ." "He sees lt (from a lateral position) ." "He's speaking (laterally). "
"YDU

ga2w03n~2ha. "He's speaking ." ni2ga2w03%~2ha. hniZgomh3tq2ha.

b.
b.

. .

(38) a. hj2go&2ti3ha-

see it

."

"You see it (laterally) . I 1

function: n- is used optionally to indicate that the person spoken of is in a lateral position with respect t 6he speaker; i.e., in (36b), (37b1, and (38b), the o subject of the verb is understood to be standing with his side to the speaker.
n- "'already"

form: n- before vowels, ni- before consonants, metathesis occurs when n- is followed by h-; cf. (36-38). Note that all the n- prefixes have the same forms exhibited by n-, lateral position, and illustrated by (36-38). function: n- may be attached to a past tense verb form to indicate that the action or state expressed by the verb had already taken place or was already in progress prior to some subsequent point in time; see (39). (39) a. u1ga2hna2nvZ3?i. "It rained ."

b. nu2ga3hnrt2n047i. "It had already rained."


Sentences like (39b) can stand alone, provided that the necessary time reference has been established; typically, however, forms with n- form a clause in a sentence such as (40). (40) nuZga3hna2no47i wa3g~?21uh2 ja. "It had already rained when I arrived there."

comments: The use of n-, "already," requires the use of the habitual suffix -07i

Note t h a t t h e v e r b i n t h e independent c l a u s e may i t s e l f b e i n t h e h a b i t u a l . When t h i s i s t h e c a s e , t h e v e r b marked w i t h n- i s a l s o u n d e r s t o o d t o be h a b i t u a l ; n o t e (41). (41) n ~ ~ w o ~ ~ n i ~ s o ~ i? ?i ~ l u h ~ ~) I a~ r?i v e. ( h a b i t u a l l y ) t h e r e a f t e r he ~ i ~ j ' o r i has a l r e a d y spoken." n- may a l s o be used w i t h t h e f u t u r e p r o g r e s s i v e , a s i n ( 4 2 ) . (42) n i 2 g a 2 w 0 3 2 n i 2 s g e 4 s d i . !!He w i l l a l r e a d y be s p e a k i n g ( a t some s p e c i f i e d f u t u r e t i m e ) ."

n-, negative form: c f . (36-38) f u n c t i o n : n- i s used t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e s u f f i x -na t o b r i n g a b o u t n e g a t i o n i n c e r t a i n t y p e s o f c o n s t r u c t i o n s ; s e e (12) f o r an i n s t a n c e of t h i s t y p e of n e g a t i o n i n r e l a t i v e c l a u s e s . Some a d d i t i o n a l examples f o l l o w i n ( 4 3 - 4 4 ) . (43) (44) a. b. a. b. "He was hungry." n ~ ~ ~ o ~ ~ s i ~ s ~ w i t h o u ta h. u n g e r . " "He's v ~ n a 1 g o w h 2 t i 2 3 s g v 3 ? i . "He was s e e i n g i t . " na2gowh3ti2sgv4na. "He's w i t h o u t s e e i n g i t ."

n-, specified action form: c f . (36-38). f u n c t i o n : T h i s p r e f i x o c c u r s w i t h t h e v e r b a1dv3ne2ha " t o do'!; i t must be used w i t h t h i s v e r b when t h e a c t i v i t y b e i n g done h a s been s p e c i f i e d o r i s u n d e r s t o o d ; c f . (45-46). (45) (46) ga2d02 a1dv3ne2ha? "What's h e doing?" ga3g02 n a 1 d v 3 n f 2 h a ? "Who's d o i n g i t ? "

I n ( 4 6 ) , t h e a c t i o n r e f e r r e d t o by t h e v e r b " t o do" i s u n d e r s t o o d t o be known; i n ( 4 5 ) , on t h e o t h e r hand, i t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t someone o r something i s d o i n g somet h i n g , b u t t h e e x a c t n a t u r e o f t h e a c t i o n b e i n g performed i s unknown. n- must be used i n i n s t a n c e s l i k e ( 4 6 ) , b u t may n o t be used i n s e n t e n c e s l i k e ( 4 5 ) . n - , a p r e f i x o c c u r r i n g b e f o r e d a - , motion toward s p e a k e r o r p o s i t i o n f a c i n g s p e a k e r form: T h i s p r e f i x i s found o n l y b e f o r e d a - , and t h e r e f o r e always a p p e a r s a s n i - . f u n c t i o n : T h e r e i s an n- p r e f i x which o c c u r s i n i n f i n i t i v e forms b e f o r e d a - , motion toward s p e a k e r , and b e f o r e t h e d a - form o f d i - , p o s i t i o n f a c i n g s p e a k e r ; s e e ( 4 7 ) . (47) ni2da2yu3gowh2tvh3di

. .

u1du21i3ha.

"He wants t o s e e i t ( l o o k i n g t h i s way)."

comments: T h i s n- p r e f i x d o e s n o t seem t o add any meaning t o t h e v e r b forms i n which it a p p e a r s ; i t i s s i m p l y i n s e r t e d b e f o r e t h e d a - p r e f i x i n i n f i n i t i v e forms. I t should be n o t e d t h a t a few v e r b s must o c c u r w i t h n - , n i - ; s e e ( 4 8 ) . (48) weZ3sa ni2g?2w5,2?a. "A c a t i s meowing." I n i n s t a n c e s such a s ( 4 8 ) , t h e p r e s e n c e o f n- d o e s n o t seem t o be m e a n i n g f u l , and t h e p r e s e n c e of n- i n a l l forms o f v e r b s l i k e "meow" seems t o be an a r b i t r a r y

property of the verbs in question. de-, plural object form: de- before consonants, d- before vowels, except before-i-; cf. (49-50). (49) a. jiZgowh1ti3ha. "I see it . I ' b. de2ji3gowh1ti3ha. "I see them." (50) a. b. When de- is (51) a. algowh2ti3ha. "He sees it." da1gowh2t13ha. "He sees them." followed by-i-,the -i- deletes, as in (51). ilni2gowh2t13ha- TIYouand I see it ." de3niZgowh2ti3ha. lfYou and I see them."

de- becomes di- after y-, w-, and n-, except when followed by a vowel with pitch 3; cf. 152-553.
(52) a. hla3 y i 2.;.2gowh32t53ha. 3

"I don't see it."

b.
(533

a .

hla3 *2d?2ji2gowh32ti3ha. '7 don't see them." ~ ~ ~ s d i ~ ~ ~ o w 'You t ~ ~ see it (facing away)." h ~ (dl) h a . ~ ~ % ~ ~ s d i ~ ~ ~ o w h ~ t i * h(dl) see them (facing away)." "You a . n52sdi23gowh3tj2ha. "You (dl) see it (facing sideways) ." n~2dj2sdi23gowh3t~2ha- l'You (dl) see them (facing sideways) . I 1 de2ji3gowhlti2 3sgv3?i. *#Iwas seeing them . I 1

b.

(4 53

a. b.

(55) a.

b. ~ ~ ~ d e ~ j ~ ~ g o w h ~ "I i ~ ~ s ~ v them i(facing away) ." t was seeing ~ ~ . de- also becomes di- in infinitive and imperative forms when followed by a consonant; cf. (56-57). (56) (57) a. b. a. sdi2gowh2tvh3di u1du22i3ha. "He wants you (dl) to see it." di2sdi2gowh2tvh3di u'du21i3ha. "He wants you (dl) to see them." ja2du1ga. "Throw it.'"

b. di2ja2du32ga. "Throw them." de- becomes j- in infinitive and imperative forms when followed by a vowel other than a-. When followed by a-, de- becomes di-; cf. (58-60). (58) a. uZgowh2tvh3di u1du21i3ha. "He wants to see it." b. (59) b. b. ju2gowh2tvh3di u1duZ1i3ha. "He wants to see them." je2na3di~2nv2si. "Let's you and I throw them for him." di2g~2gowh2tvh3di u1du21i3ha. "He wants me to see them." a. e2na3di72ny2si. "Let's you and I throw it for him."

(60) a. 62g~2go~h2tvh3di u1du21i3ha. IIHewants me to see it."


In those instances in which de- becomes di-, as noted above, and also preceding -h-, the prefix vowel drops and the combination of d- plus -h- yields t-; see (61).

.3 a. de2hl3gowh2t; ha. "You see them." b. ~ i ~ t ? ~ g o w h ~ t i ~ h a .see them (facing away) . I ' "You de- becomes do- before da-, future, before da-, motion toward speaker, and before di-, position facing speaker; cf. (62-64) .

(61)

(62)

a. da2j$2gS,3?i. "1 will see it." b. do2da2ji3g02?i. 111 will see them." (63) a. d ~ ~ ~ t l i . it's coming this way." "He, b. d ~ ~ d v ~ ~ t "They 're coining this way." li.

Note that the sentence in (63b) is understood to refer to vehicles, not people; a different prefix would be needed in (63b) for an animate subject. (64) a. di2gowh3ti2ha. "He sees it (facing toward speaker) ." b. d ~ ~ d i ~ ~ g o w h ~ t i ~ h sees them (facing toward speaker) ." "He a . function: The primary function of de- is to indicate plurality of inanimate direct objects of transitive verbs; compare (65) with (66). (65) a2ni2sga2ya ga2ji2gowh1ti3ha. "I see men. (66) di2ga2ne'sa3?i de2j l3gowh'tl3ha. "I see boxes ." de- may also indicate plurality of the action or state referred to by the verb; see (67). (67) a. a2ni2sga2ya ga2ji2y??21~3?i2ha. "I'm tying up the men." (a single act of tying) b. a2ni2sga2ya de2ga3ji2ya?21v3?i2ha. "I'm tying up the men." (plural acts of tying) In the case of (67a), it is understood that only one act of tying is taking place. (67b), however, indicates that two or more acts of tying are taking place. If six men were being tied, for example, (67b) would be appropriate to describe a situation in which each of the men were being tied individually, as well as a situation in which three men were tied together in two separate groups. (67b) could also be used to refer to a situation in which one group of men were being tied together, but with several ropes employed; the essential difference between (67a) and (67b) is, accordingly, one of plurality of the act described by the verb. Ambiguity can result from the use of de-; compare (68) with (69). (68) a. ga?21v3?i2ha. "I'm tying it up." b. de2ga?31v3?i2ha. ."I'm tying it up." (plural acts) (69) de2ga?31v3?i2ha. "I'm tying them (in) up." (single or plural acts) Forms (68b) and (69) are ambiguous; unless the context clearly indicates to the hearer that the meaning of (68b) is intended, however, the form in question would ordinarily be understood to have the meaning of (69). Note that de- cannot be used to make the distinction between single and plural acts of the verb in instances such as (69), since its use is required in these cases to signal the plurality of the direct object of the verb. de- must be used with certain intransitive verbs in the plural. The verbs "to

s i t , " " t o s t a n d , " " t o b e hungry," and " t o b e t h i r s t y , " f o r examplc, r e q u i r e d e when t h e s u b j e c t o f t h e v e r b i s p l u r a l ; s e e ( 7 0 ) .
(70) a. b. ulyo3si2ha. "He's h u n g r y . " d ~ l n i ~ ~ o ~ s i"Theya a r e hungry." ~ h .

The p r e s e n c e o f d e - i n forms l i k e (70b) i s r e d u n d a n t , s i n c e t h e p l u r a l i t y o f t h e s u b j e c t i s i n d i c a t e d by t h e p r e s e n c e o f t h e pronoun p r e f i x - n i - ; n e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e f a i l u r e t o u s e de- i n p l u r a l forms o f i n t r a n s i t i v e v e r b s o f t h i s t y p e r e s u l t s i n ungrammatical s e n t e n c e s s u c h a s ( 7 1 ) . ~ h . (71) * ~ l n i ~ ~ o ~ s i"Theya a r e hungry . I 1 When s e n t e n c e s s u c h a s (71) a r e s u g g e s t e d w i t h amusement and t h e y t y p i c a l l y comment two o r more p e r s o n s w i t h one stomach. On s i n g u l a r form "he i s hungry," a s i n ( 7 2 ) , v i d u a l has two o r more s t o m a c h s . ha (72) * d ~ ' ~ o ~ s i ~ "He . i s hungry." In a d d i t i o n , o t h e r i n t r a n s i t i v e verbs r e q u i r e t h e u s e of de- with both s i n g u l a r and p l u r a l forms; s e e ( 7 3 ) . (73) a. b. d a 1g .l 2 ya2we3ga. du1ni2ya2we3ga.
"I am t i r e d . "

t o Cherokee s p e a k e r s , t h e y t e n d t o r e a c t t h a t (71) f o r example, seems t o r e f e r t o t h e o t h e r hand, t h e u s e o f d e - w i t h t h e would seem t o mean t h a t a s i n g l e i n d i -

"They a r e t i r e d .

l1

d e - i s a p p a r e n t l y used w i t h t h e s i n g u l a r form o f t h e v e r b " t o be t i r e d " b e c a u s e t h e sensation of t i r e d n e s s i s perceived simultaneously i n various p a r t s of t h e body. comments: The u s e of d e - w i t h t r a n s i t i v e v e r b s i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n S e c t i o n 1 - 8 , i n Paradigm One. da-, f u t u r e form: d a - b e f o r e a c o n s o n a n t , d a - w i t h a -y- i n s e r t e d b e f o r e vowels, except a s noted below; c f . ( 7 4 - 7 5 ) . (74) (75) a. b. a. b. (76) a. b, (77) a. b. ga2w03ni2ha. e3ga. "He i s s p e a k i n g . " d a 2 g a 2 ~ 0 3 2 n i 2 s i . "He w i l l s p e a k . " "He i s g o i n g . " "He w i l l g o . " "He s e e s i t . " daZye3si.

When d a - i s f o l l o w e d by - a - , t h e s e q u e n c e o f d a - p l u s - a - y i e l d s d v - ; s e e (76) algowh2tl3ha. dvZgo3hi. "He w i l l s e e i t . " "You and I a r e s p e a k i n g . "

When da- i s followed by - i - , t h e -i- i s d e l e t e d ; s e e ( 7 7 ) . i1ni2w03ni2ha. d a l r ~ i ~ ~ w o ~ ~ "You s i . I w i l l s p e a k . " n i ~ and

When followed by t h e p r e f i x - i - , " a g a i n , " t o b e d e s c r i b e d below, d a - p l u s -i- b e comes d v - ; s e e ( 7 8 ) . (78) a. i23hi3w03ni2ha. "You a r e s p e a k i n g a g a i n . "

250
b. d ~ ~ ~ h i ~ w o ~ "You~ ws i il l. speak a g a i n . " n i

da- p l u s a f o l l o w i n g -h- becomes t - ; s e e ( 7 9 ) . (79) a. b. h?2w03n12ha. t/2w032ni2si. "You a r e s p e a k i n g . " IYou w i l l s p e a k . " i n c e r t a i n construction

d a - becomes d i - b e f o r e c o n s o n a n t s and j - b e f o r e vowels which w i l l be commented on below.

f u n c t i o n : d a - i s p r e f i x e d t o a v e r b form t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e a c t i o n o f t h e v e r b w i l l t a k e p l a c e i n t h e f u t u r e ; c f . (77-79). Note t h a t da- o c c u r s t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e f u t u r e t e n s e s u f f i x - i i n t h e s e i n s t a n c e s ( s e e I-C f o r a d i s c u s s i o n of t h e f u t u r e s u f f i x ) . When t h e -i s u f f i x i s a d d e d , t h e v e r b stem must appear i n i t s nonp r o g r e s s i v e form; s e e I - C f o r a d i s c u s s i o n of t h e changes which occur i n v e r b stems under s u f f i x a t i o n . d a i s used with t h e f u t u r e s u f f i x followed by t h e p a s t t e n s e s u f f i x - v 7 i t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e s u b j e c t of t h e v e r b was p l a n n i n g t o ~ e r f o r mt h e a c t i o n of t h e v e r b i n t h e p a s t ; see ( 8 0 ) . Note t h a t t h e f u t u r e s u f f i x becomes - i s - b e f o r e a vowel. (80) d a 2 g a 2 w 0 3 2 n i 2 s i 3 s v 2 3 7 i . "He was going t o s p e a k . " da- i s used with t h e f u t u r e s u f f i x followed by t h e h a b i t u a l s u f f i x - o ? i t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e s u b j e c t o f t h e v e r b i s accustomed t o speaking whenever t h e o p p o r t u n i t y presents; see (81). (81) d ? 2 g a 2 w 0 3 2 n i 2 s i 3 s 0 3 ? i . "He's always about t o speak." When da- i s used w i t h t h e h a b i t u a l , a s i n ( 8 1 ) , it changes i n form t o d i - , p r o v i d e d t h a t a consonant f o l l o w s ; i f a vowel f o l l o w s , i t changes t o j - , a s i n ( 8 2 ) . (82) je3si'so3?i. "He's always about t o g o . " da- i s used with t h e s u f f i x - e s d i t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e s u b j e c t of t h e v e r b w i l l i n t e n d t o perform t h e a c t i o n e x p r e s s e d by t h e v e r b a t a f u t u r e t i m e , a s i n ( 8 3 ) . When da- i s used i n t h i s c o n s t r u c t i o n , i t a p p e a r s a s d i - b e f o r e consonants and j b e f o r e vowels. (83) d i 2 g a 2 w 0 3 2 n i 2 s i 3 s e 3 s d i . "He w i l l be going t o s p e a k . "

da- i s used w i t h t h e - i s u f f i x followed by t h e r e p o r t e d p a s t s u f f i x - e ? i t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e s u b j e c t o f t h e v e r b r e p o r t e d l y i n t e n d e d t o speak i n t h e p a s t ; s e e (84). In t h i s c o n s t r u c t i o n a l s o , da- a p p e a r s a s d i - b e f o r e consonants and a s j - b e f o r e vowels. (84j (85) d i 2 g a 2 w 0 3 2 n i 2 s i 3 s e 3 7 i . "He was r e p o r t e d l y going t o s p e a k . " a. ga2wo3nl2ha. "He i s s p e a k i n g . " "He w i l l be s p e a k i n g .
l1

. .

The p r o g r e s s i v e f u t u r e i s formed w i t h o u t t h e u s e of d a - ; s e e ( 8 5 ) .

b.

ga2w03ni2sge3sdi.

There i s t h u s a c o n t r a s t between t h e n o n - p r o g r e s s i v e f u t u r e , i l l u s t r a t e d above i n (77b), (78b), and ( 7 9 b ) , and t h e p r o g r e s s i v e f u t u r e . T h i s c o n t r a s t i s i m p o s s i b l e i n t h e c a s e of v e r b forms e x h i b i t i n g t h e p r e f i x d a - , motion toward s p e a k e r , o r t h e p r e f i x d i - , d i s t a n t p o s i t i o n , s i n c e t h e s e p r e f i x e s cannot o c c u r w i t h d a - , f u t u r e ; compare (86) and ( 8 7 ) . (86) a. b. ga2w03ni2ha. "He i s speaking . I f "He w i l l s p e a k . "
C:

da2ga2w032ni2si.

c. (87) a.

g ~ 2 w 0 3 n i 2 s g e 3 s d i . "He w i l l be s p e a k i n g . " d i 2 g a 2 w 0 3 2 n i 2 h a . "He i s s p e a k i n g ( f a c i n g t h e s p e a k e r )


.'I

c.

d i 2 g a 2 w 0 3 2 n i 2 s g e 3 s d i . "He w i l l s p e a k , he w i l l be s p e a k i n g . "

-onI

The a b s e n c e o f t h e b-form i n (87) i s due t o t h e f a c t t h a t d a - , f u t u r e , cannot occur w i t h d i - , d i s t a n t p o s i t i o n . I n o r d e r t o form t h e f u t u r e t e n s e i n t h e c a s e of a v e r b form w i t h d i - ( o r w i t h d a - , motion toward s p e a k e r ) , t h e s u f f i x o r d i n a r i l y used t o form t h e p r o g r e s s i v e f u t u r e must be u s e d . A s a r e s u l t , forms l i k e (87c) can be understood t o have e i t h e r t h e f u t u r e p r o g r e s s i v e meaning o r t h e nonp r o g r e s s i v e one. d a - , motion toward s p e a k e r form: da- b e f o r e c o n s o n a n t s and vowels, w i t h - y - i n s e r t e d b e f o r e vowels, e x c e p t a s n o t e d below; c f . (88-89). (88) a. b, (89) a. b. ga3?i.
"I am w a l k i n g . "

IS

d a Z g a 3 ? i . ItI am walking ( i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e s p e a k e r , a s when watching o n e s e l f i n a movie) ." a37i. "He i s w a l k i n g . " "He's walking ( i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e s p e a k e r ) ." "You and I a r e w a l k i n g . "
"YOU and I a r e walking ( i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e s p e a k e r a s

d?'ya3?i. i1na3?i. da1na3?i.

The vowel -i- d e l e t e s f o l l o w i n g d a - ; s.ee ( 9 0 ) . (90) a. b.

ded

when watching o n e s e l f i n a m o v i e ) . " When t h e vowel f o l l o w i n g d a - i s - a - , t h e sequence o f d a - p l u s -a- y i e l d s dv-; s e e (91). (91) a. b. altli. "He's r u n n i n g . " "He's r u n n i n g ( i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e s p e a k e r ) . " dvZ3tli.

When da- i s used w i t h t h e h a b i t u a l s u f f i x , t h e r e p o r t a t i v e s u f f i x , and t h e f u t u r e p r o g r e s s i v e s u f f i x , i t t a k e s t h e form d i - b o t h b e f o r e c o n s o n a n t s and b e f o r e a f o l l o w i n g - a - . I n t h e l a t t e r c a s e , t h e -a- i s d e l e t e d ; c f . ( 9 2 - 9 7 ) . (92) a. b. (93) a. b. (94) a. b. (95) a. b. ga3?i2s03?i.
"I h a b i t u a l l y walk."

d i 2 g a 3 ? i 2 s 0 3 7 i . "I h a b i t u a l l y walk ( i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e s p e a k e r , a s when watching o n e s e l f i n a m o v i e ) . " a 1 d a n 2 s i 2 3 n e 3 2 g 0 3 ? i . "He h a b i t u a l l y c r a w l s . " di2dan3si2ni1s03?i. "He h a b i t u a l l y c r a w l s ( i n t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e speaker).

g a 3 7 i 2 s e 3 ? i . "I was r e p o r t e d l y w a l k i n g . " d i Z g a 3 ? i 2 s e 3 ? i . "I was r e p o r t e d l y walking ( i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e speaker). " a1tli3se3?i. "He was r e p o r t e d l y r u n n i n g . " d i Z 3 t l i 1 s e 3 ? i . "He was r e p o r t e d l y r u n n i n g ( i n t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e

s p e a k e r ) . I' (96) a. b. (97) a. b. g a 3 ? i 2 s e 3 s d i . "I w i l l be w a l k i n g . " diZga3?i2se3sdi. a1tli3se3sdi. di23tli1se3sdi.


"1 w i l l be walking ( i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e s p e a k e r ) . l l

"He w i l l be r u n n i n g . " "He w i l l be r u n n i n g ( i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e s p e a k e r )


.I1

The v e r b " t o walk" i s e x c e p t i o n a l w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e form of d a - expected w i t h t h e h a b i t u a l , r e p o r t a t i v e , and f u t u r e p r o g r e s s i v e s u f f i x e s . I n s t e a d of d a - a p p e a r i n g a s d i - b e f o r e a f o l l o w i n g - a - a s i n (93b), ( 9 5 b ) , and (97b) above, i t a p p e a r s a s j - i n t h e r e l e v a n t forms o f " t o walk"; s e e ( 9 8 ) . (98) a. b. a3?iZse3?i. ja3?i2se3?i. "He was r e p o r t e d l y w a l k i n g . " "He was r e p o r t e d l y walking ( i n t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e speaker)

."

The e x c e p t i o n a l s t a t u s o f " t o walk" w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e forms o f d a - seems t o b e due t o t h e p r e s e n c e o f a p i t c h o f l e v e l t h r e e on t h e -a- o f " t o walk." A sequence o f da- p l u s -h- y i e l d s t - . T h i s i s t h e change d e s c r i b e d above f o r d a - , f u t u r e t e n s e ; c f . ( 7 9 ) . A l s o , -i- i s d e l e t e d a f t e r da-; s e e ( 7 7 ) . f u n c t i o n : da- i s used w i t h i n t r a n s i t i v e v e r b s o f motion such a s "walk," " r u n , " and "crawl" t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e motion i s toward t h e p o s i t i o n occupied by t h e s p e a k e r . comments: T r a n s i t i v e motion v e r b s such a s "bring" seem t o r e q u i r e t h e d i - p r e f i x , which i n d i c a t e s p o s i t i o n f a c i n g s p e a k e r o r motion toward s p e a k e r , a s d e s c r i b e d below. In a d d i t i o n , some i n t r a n s i t i v e motion v e r b s t a k e d i - r a t h e r t h a n da-. dai s t h u s e x t r e m e l y l i m i t e d w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e number o f v e r b s w i t h which i t can appear. I t would be expected t h a t d a - would t a k e t h e form j - b e f o r e vowels o t h e r t h a n -aand -i-, j u s t a s t h e f u t u r e t e n s e p r e f i x d a - d o e s ; s e e ( 8 2 ) . S i n c e no i n t r a n s i t i v e motion v e r b s have been n o t e d which begin w i t h vowels o t h e r t h a n - a - , no i n s t a n c e s of d a - a p p e a r i n g a s j - have been f o u n d . S i n c e da- i s u s e d t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e s u b j e c t o f t h e v e r b i s moving toward t h e s p e a k e r , t h e u s e of f i r s t p e r s o n forms w i t h da- i s r e l a t i v e l y r a r e ; t h e s e forms a r e n a t u r a l , however, i n t h e c a s e o f n o n - p r e s e n t t e n s e forms s u c h a s "I w i l l b e walking ( t o t h e p o s i t i o n which I am now occupying) ." I t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e t o u s e da- i n t h e p r e s e n t t e n s e w i t h f i r s t p e r s o n forms i n s i t u a t i o n s i n which t h e s p e a k e r i s watching himself i n a movie, and commenting upon h i s own a c t i o n s . I n such s i t u a t i o n s i t i s p o s s i b l e f o r a s p e a k e r t o s a y "I'm walking t h i s way now" o r something similar. d i - , p o s i t i o n f a c i n g s p e a k e r o r motion toward s p e a k e r form: (99) (100) d i - b e f o r e c o n s o n a n t s , j - b e f o r e vowels o t h e r t h a n - a - o r - i - ; c f . a. ga2w03ni2ha. ulgo2he3?i. "He's s p e a k i n g (99-100).

."
.I1

b.
a.

dizga2wo 3 2 n i 2 h a .

I1Hels s p e a k i n g ( f a c i n g t h e s p e a k e r )

"He r e p o r t e d l y saw i t . "

"He r e p o r t e d l y saw it ( f a c i n g t h e s p e a k e r ) A f o l l o w i n g -a- o r -i- i s d e l e t e d a f t e r d i - ; c f . (101-102). (101) (102) a. b. a. b. a1gowh2ti3ha. di2gowh3ti2ha. "He s e e s i t . " "He s e e s it ( f a c i n g t h e s p e a k e r ) . I 1 "You ( p l ) s e e it . I 1

b.

juZgo3he37i.

."

i1ji2gowh2ti3ha.

d i 1 j i 2 3 g o w h 3 t i 2 h a . "You ( p l ) s e e i t ( f a c i n g t h e s p e a k e r )

."

When d i - a p p e a r s i n a v e r b form ending i n t h e p a s t t e n s e s u f f i x - v 7 i , it changes t o da- b e f o r e consonants and vowels, w i t h a -y- i n s e r t e d b e f o r e vowels o t h e r t h a n - a - ; a f o l l o w i n g -a- i s d e l e t e d ; c f . (103-105). These changes occur i n both p r o g r e s s i v e and n o n - p r o g r e s s i v e p a s t t e n s e forms w i t h - v ? i , b u t n c t w i t h - e ? i ; s e e (100). (103) (104) (105) a. b. a. b.
a.

j i 2 g o w h 1 t i 2 3 s g v 3 ? i . "I was s e e i n g it ." d a 2 j i 2 g o w h 3 2 t i 2 3 s g v 3 7 i . "I was s e e i n g i t ( f a c i n g t h e s p e a k e r ) ~ l g o ~ h v ~ ~ 7 i saw- it "He . d? y 2 3 go 3 h v 2 3 7 i . u a1gowh2ti23sgv3?i.

."

."
.I1

'?He saw it ( f a c i n g t h e s p e a k e r ) "He was s e e i n g i t . I t

b. (106) a. b.

d ~ ~ ~ o w h ~ t i ~ s g v ~ ~ e~ iin g it ( f a c i n g t h e s p e a k e r ) . " "He was s e . i 1 n i 2 g o w h 2 t i 2 3 s g v 3 ? i . "You and I were s e e i n g i t

A -i- i s d e l e t e d a f t e r d a - ; s e e (106) n

."

d a 1 n i 2 3 g o w h 3 t i 2 s g v 2 3 7 i . "You and I were s e e i n g i t ( f a c i n g t h e s p e a k e r ) ."

The changes n o t e d above i n (103-105) a l s o t a k e p l a c e i n i n f i n i t i v e forms; i n a d d i t i o n , any i n f i n i t i v e form w i t h d i - must be p r e c e d e d by n i - . Note (107), i n which d i - changes t o da- w i t h -y- i n s e r t e d b e f o r e a vowel, and i n which n i - i s added t o t h e i n f i n i t i v e form. (107) a. b. ~ ~ ~ o w h * t v hu1du21i. ~di "He wants him t o s e e i t . " "He wants him t o s e e i t ( f a c i n g t h e speaker) .I1 ni2da2yu3gowh2tvh3di u1du21i.

While n i - i s a l s o i n s e r t e d b e f o r e d a - , motion toward s p e a k e r , i n i n f i n i t i v e forms, t h e forms o f da- remain t h e same; i . e . , t h e forms o f da- which occur f o l l o w i n g n i i n i n f i n i t i v e s a r e t h o s e i l l u s t r a t e d by (88-91). f u n c t i o n : d i - i s employed w i t h non-motion v e r b s t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e s u b j e c t of t h e verb i s f a c i n g t h e s p e a k e r . I t a l s o o c c u r s w i t h v e r b s s u c h a s " t o f i g h t , " which i n v o l v e motion which does n o t t a k e p l a c e i n a s t r a i g h t l i n e ; i . e . , a l t h o u g h t h e r e i s obviously mction i n v o l v e d i n f i g h t i n g , t h e motion i s e s s e n t i a l l y nond i r e c t i o n a l . T r a n s i t i v e motion v e r b s such a s " t o b r i n g " a l s o t a k e d i - ; i n forms l i k e (108), i t i s understood t h a t t h e s u b j e c t o f t h e v e r b i s b r i n g i n g t h e o b j e c t i n q u e s t i o n t o a p o s i t i o n a d j a c e n t t o t h e s p e a k e r . With a few v e r b s , such a s " t o f i g h t , " d i - simply i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e s u b j e c t of t h e v e r b i s i n a d i s t a n t view from t h e s p e a k e r . T h i s f u n c t i o n of d i - seems t o be l i m i t e d t o v e r b s such a s " t o f i g h t " i n which t h e n a t u r e o f t h e a c t i o n i n d i c a t e d by t h e v e r b i n v o l v e s nond i r e c t i o n a l motion.

254 (108) di2hyo3h?2ha. "He i s b r i n g i n g i t ( t o a p o s i t i o n a d j a c e n t t o t h e s p e a k e r )

."

comments: A s i n d i c a t e d i n F i g u r e Two, d a - , f u t u r e , d a - motion toward s p e a k e r , and d i - a r e m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e . F u r t h e r s t u d y may i n d i c a t e t h a t d a - , motion toward s p e a k e r , and d i - , p o s i t i o n f a c i n g s p e a k e r o r motion toward s p e a k e r , s h o u l d be a n a l y z e d a s a s i n g l e p r e f i x . Such an a n a l y s i s would r e q u i r e f a i r l y d e t a i l e d r u l e s t o p r o v i d e t h e c o r r e c t form o f t h e p r e f i x i n t h e v a r i o u s c o n t e x t s d e s c r i b e d above.
i-

Magain"
i - b e f o r e c o n s o n a n t s and vowels, w i t h
-7-

form: 110). (109) (110)

i n s e r t e d b e f o r e vowels; c f . (109-

a. b. a. b.

ga2w03nj2ha. algowh2tj3ha.

"He s s p e a k i n g . "He Is s p e a k i n g a g a i n ." "He s e e s it ." "He s e e s it a g a i n . " see (111).

i23ga3w03n,2ha. ;3??2gowh2t13ha.

i- becomes v- b e f o r e ga- " s i n c e " ;

(111)

a. b.

g a 2 j a 2 w 0 1 n i 2 3 s v 4 ? i " s i n c e you have spoken" ~ ' ~ a ~ j ? ' w n i 2 3 s v 4 7 i " s i n c e you have spoken a g a i n " 1o

i- a l s o becomes v - i n v e r b forms with t h e p a s t t e n s e - v ? i (whether used i n i t s p r o g r e s s i v e o r n o n - p r o g r e s s i v e f u n c t i o n ) , with non-motion v e r b s i n t h e p r e s e n t , and i n i n f i n i t i v e forms; c f . (112-114).

(112) (113) (114)

a. b. a. b. a. b.

ja2w03ni2sv23?i. a3?i.

"You s p o k e . " lrYou spoke a g a i n . "

"He's w a l k i n g . " "He's walking a g a i n .I1 "He wants him t o s e e i t ; h e wants t o s e e it." "He wants him t o s e e i t a g a i n ; h e wants t o s e e i t a g a i n . "

y3?+2?i.

u2gowh2tvh3di u 1 d u 2 1 j 3 h a .

v3?u2gowh2tvh3di u 1 d u 2 1 i 3 h a .

A p e c u l i a r i t y o f t h e i- p r e f i x i s i t s b e h a v i o r i n forms w i t h a vowel f o l l o w i n g .

In t h e s e c a s e s , i n s t e a d of a g l o t t a l s t o p b e i n g i n s e r t e d , t h e p r e f i x may a p p e a r simply a s h i g h p i t c h on t h e vowel which would o t h e r w i s e have d i r e c t l y f o l l o w e d i - ; c f . (115-116). (115) (116) a. b. a. b.

13 ? ~ 2 g 0 2 h e 3 7 i . "He
u3g02he3?i.

r e p o r t e d l y saw i t a g a i n . "

"He r e p o r t e d l y saw it a g a i n . "

v 3 ? a 2 g o w h 2 t i 2 3 s g ~ 3 ? i . "He was s e e i n g i t a g a i n . a 3 g o w h 2 t i 2 3 s g v 3 7 i . "He was s e e i n g it a g a i n . "

The o p t i o n of d e l e t i n g t h e p r e f i x w i t h a change i n p i t c h t a k i n g p l a c e on t h e f o l lowing vowel i s a p e c u l i a r i t y o f i - , and a p p a r e n t l y h a s t o do w i t h t h e f a c t t h a t i - c a r r i e s high p i t c h , i . e . p i t c h t h r e e .


A sequence o f d e - , p l u r a l o b j e c t , p l u s - i - , y i e l d s do-; s e e ( 1 1 7 ) .

(117)

a.

d e 2 h i 3 g o w h 2 t i 3 h a . "You a r e s e e i n g them."

-r 1 . and

b.

do2hi3gowh2ti3ha. "You are seeing them again."

Other prefixes, such as di-, position facing speaker, coalesce with -i- as in (118)

(118)

a. a1gowh2ti3ha. "He sees it." b. di2gowh3ti2ha. "He sees it (facing speaker)

."

c. di3??2gowh2ti3ha. "He sees it again (facing speaker) When such a coalescence occurs, note that the deletion of -a- following di- does not take place; a glottal stop is inserted instead, as in (118~). Before vowels, the coalescence of a preceding prefix and -i- is optional. Instead, the -i- prefix may occur only as high pitch; see (119). (119) a. b.
C.

."

a1gi2g02hv23?i. ! I saw it." ' da1gi2g02hv23?i. 111 saw them." do3?a2gi2g02hv23?i. "I saw them again."

1 I

d. da3gi2g02hv237i. 111 saw them again." function: i- is used to indicate that an action or state is reoccurring. comments: Note that i- does not occur in imperative forms; see the description given above. of ji-, "again1'--imperative, ga- "since" form: ga- before consonants and vowels, with -y- inserted before vowels; gaplus -a- yields gv-; cf. (120-122). Exceptions are noted below. (120) (121) (122) a. b. b.
a.

I1
I

gi2ni2g02hv23?i. "You and I saw it." ga2gi2ni2g02hv47i "since you and I saw it" ga2y02gi2ni2g02hv4?i l l s i n ~ e and I saw it" he a1gi2g02hv23?i. "I saw it ." gv2gi2g02hv47i "since I saw it"

"He and . a. ~ ' g i ~ n i ~ g o ~ h v ~ ~ ~ i I sak it."

b. (123) (124)

In second person forms, ga- becomes ge-; cf. (123-124) a. ja2g02hv23?i. "You saw it." b. ge2j?2g02hv4?i a. !?sinceyou saw it" ~ d i ~ g o ~ h v ~ "You . ~ 7 i (dl) saw it."

b , ge2sdi2g02hv47i "since you (dl) saw it"

I
1

ga- appears as gvw- in third person forms; cf. (125-126) (125) (126) a. b. b. ~ l g o ~ h v ~ ~ "He .saw it." 7i gv2wa2g02hv4?i gv2wa2ni2g02hv"i "since he saw it" "since they saw it"

a. ~ ' n i ~ g o ~ h v ~"They . ~ 7 i saw it . I 1

A peculiarity of the third person form of ga- is that the pronoun prefix u-, which

256

normally o c c u r s i n n o n - p r o g r e s s i v e p a s t t e n s e f o r m s , changes t o -a- f o l l o w i n g gvw-. f u n c t i o n : ga- i s used t o i n d i c a t e t h a t a c e r t a i n p e r i o d o f t i m e h a s e l a p s e d s i n c e a n event o c c u r r e d ; s e e ( 1 2 7 ) . (127) ta?21i i2yu3na2d023d?2gwa1sdi j 2 g e 1 s v g a 2 j a 2 g 0 2 h ~ 4 ? i . " I t ' s been two weeks s i n c e you saw i t . " e - , d i s t a n t imperative form: (128) (129) e - ; d i - a f t e r d e - , p l u r a l ; c f . (128-129). a. b. a. b. ~ d i ' ~ o w h ' t ? ~ h a . "You [ d l ) see i t . " e2sdi23g03hwah2ta. de2sdi3gowh2ti3ha. "You ( d l ) s e e i t ( f a c i n g t h e s p e a k e r ) '!You ( d l ) s e e them. "

."
."

d ~ ~ d i ~ s d i ~ ~ o ~ h w a h ~[ d la) . s e e them ( f a c i n g t h e s p e a k e r ) IYou t

f u n c t i o n : e - i s used w i t h i m p e r a t i v e f o r m s when t h e p e r s o n spoken t o i s f a c i n g t h e s p e a k e r from a p o s i t i o n some d i s t a n c e away. comments: An a l t e r n a t i v e t o c o n s i d e r i n g e - and d i - , p o s i t i o n f a c i n g s p e a k e r , t o b e two d i s t i n c t p r e f i x e s i s t o a n a l y z e them a s a s i n g l e p r e f i x d i - , w i t h a v a r i a n t form e- which o c c u r s i n i m p e r a t i v e forms when n o t p r e c e d e d by a n o t h e r p r e f i x . I-B. The pronoun p r e f i x e s . The p u r p o s e o f t h i s s e c t i o n i s t o d e s c r i b e t h e pronoun p r e f i x e s which d i r e c t l y p r e c e d e v e r b s t e m s i n Cherokee. A number o f v e r b paradigms, i l l u s t r a t i n g t h e s e p r e f i x e s , w i l l be p r e s e n t e d and commented on. Verb stems i n Cherokee must b e p r e c e d e d by one o r more pronoun p r e f i x e s which r e f e r t o t h e s u b j e c t of t h e verb. I n t h e c a s e o f t r a n s i t i v e verbs, t h e presence o f a d i r e c t o r i n d i r e c t o b j e c t i s a l s o i n d i c a t e d by t h e pronoun p r e f i x e s . There a r e two s e t s o f pronoun p r e f i x e s i n Cherokee, S e t A and S e t B; w h i l e most v e r b s r e q u i r e t h e u s e o f t h e S e t A p r e f i x e s , a l a r g e number o f Cherokee v e r b s a l s o o c c u r w i t h p r e f i x e s from S e t B. I n t h e paradigms which f o l l o w , b o t h s e t s o f p r e f i x e s w i l l be i l l u s t r a t e d i n paradigms and commented on. Paradigm One: The v e r b forms i n t h i s paradigm e x h i b i t S e t A pronoun p r e f i x e s a s t h e y a p p e a r before a t r a n s i t i v e v e r b stem b e g i n n i n g w i t h a vowel. The stem of t h e v e r b " t o t i e up" i s e i t h e r - a ? l v ? i h - o r - a h l v ? i h - , depending on t h e p a r t i c u l a r c o m b i n a t i o n o f s u b j e c t and o b j e c t ; s e e t h e Notes on Paradigm One below. T h i s paradigm i s t h u s i l l u s t r a t i v e o f t h e a l t e r n a t i o n between g l o t t a l s t o p and -h- which c h a r a c t e r i z e s a number o f Cherokee v e r b s . I n a d d i t i o n , Paradigm One h a s been chosen t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e u s e o f t h e p l u r a l p r e f i x d e - ; o t h e r w i s e i d e n t i c a l forms a r e p r e s e n t e d which c o n t r a s t with r e s p e c t t o t h e presence o r absence of de-, demonstrating t h e f u n c t i o n of t h i s p r e f i x t h r o u g h o u t t h e paradigm. Cherokee form E n g l i s h meaning "I'm t y i n g you up" (a s i n g l e a c t o f tying) Analysis gv- " I - - y o u w : g - , 1st p e r s o n ; - v - , 1st p e r s o n s u b j e c t , 2nd p e r s o n o b j e c t ; -y- i s i n s e r t e d before a following vowel.

(1) gv2ya?21v37i2ha

"I'm t y i n g you up" ( p l u r a l acts of tying) "I'm t y i n g him up" (single a c t ) "I'm t y i n g him up" (plural acts) "I'm t y i n g it up" (single a c t )

de-, p l u r a l ; I f . (1) f o r a n a l y s i s of t h e pronoun p r e fixes.

j i - "I--himf': j - , 1st p e r s o n ; - i - , a n i m a t e o b j e c t ; -y- i s i n s e r t e d b e f o r e a vowel.


d e - , p l u r a l ; c f . (3) g- " I - - i t w : g - , 1st p e r s o n . d e - , p l u r a l ; c f . (5) sdv- "I--you ( d l ) " : s - , 2nd p e r s o n ; -d-, d u a l ; -v-, 1st p e r s o n s u b j e c t , 2nd p e r s o n object. de-, p l u r a l ; c f . (7). i j v - "I--you ( p l ) " : i - , p l u r a l ; - j - , 2nd p e r s o n ; -v-, 1st p e r s o n s u b j e c t , 2nd p e r s o n object. d e - , p l u r a l ; c f . ( 9 ) ; -i- i s d e l e t e d a f t e r de-. g a j i - "I--them (an)": g a - , 3rd person p l u r a l animate; - j - , 1st p e r s o n ; - i - , a n i m a t e o b j e c t ; -y- i s i n s e r t e d b e f o r e vowels. d e - , p l u r a l ; c f . (11).

"I'm t y i n g i t up"
(plural acts) "I'm t y i n g you ( d l ) up" ( s i n g l e a c t )

" I ' m t y i n g you ( d l ) up" ( p l u r a l a c t )

"I'm t y i n g you ( p l ) up" ( s i n g l e a c t )

" I ' m t y i n g you ( p l ) up" ( p l u r a l acts)


" I ' m t y i n g them (an) up" ( s i n g l e act)

"I'm t y i n g them (an) up" ( p l u r a l acts) " I ' m t y i n g them ( i n ) up" ( s i n g l e or plural acts) " y o u ' r e t y i n g me up" ( s i n g l e a c t ) " y o u ' r e t y i n g me up" ( p l u r a l a c t s ) " y o u ' r e t y i n g him up" ( s i n g l e a c t ) " y o u ' r e t y i n g him up" ( p l u r a l a c t s )

d e g a - "I--them ( i n ) " : d e - , p l u r a l ( i n t h i s i n s t a n c e , 3rd person p l u r a l inanimate o b j e c t ) ; -g-, 1st p e r s o n . sgw- "you--me1': s - , 2nd p e r s o n ; -gw-, 1st p e r s o n . de-, p l u r a l ; c f . (14). h i - "you--him1': h - , 2nd p e r s o n ; -i-, a n i m a t e o b j e c t ; -yis inserted. de-, p l u r a l ; c f . (16).

(18) h a 2 h l v 3 7 i 2 h a (19) d e 2 h a 3 h l v 3 ? i 2 h a (20) s g i 2 n a ? 2 1 v 3 ? i 2 h a

"you're t y i n g it up" ( s i n g l e a c t ) "you're tying i t up" ( p l u r a l a c t s ) " y o u ' r e t y i n g me and him up" ( s i n g l e a c t )

h- " y o u - - i t f ' : h - , 2nd p e r son. d e - , p l u r a l ; c f . (18). s g i n - "you--me and him": s - , 2nd p e r s o n ; - g - , 1st p e r s o n ; -i- i s i n s e r t e d b e f o r e -n-; -n-, d u a l . d e - , p l u r a l ; c f . (20) s g i - "you--me and them": s - , 2nd p e r s o n ; - g - , 1st p e r s o n ; - i - , p l u r a l ; -yis inserted. d e - , p l u r a l ; c f . ( 2 2 ) ; -ii s deleted a f t e r de-. g a h i - "you--them (an)": ga-, 3rd person p l u r a l a n i m a t e ; - h - , 2nd p e r s o n ; - i - , a n i m a t e o b j e c t ; -yis inserted. de-, p l u r a l ; c f . (24). deh- "you--them ( i n ) " : d e - , p l u r a l o b j e c t ; - h - , 2nd person. agwa- "he--me1': a - , 3 r d p e r s o n ; -gw-, 1st p e r s o n . d e - , p l u r a l ; c f . (27) j

(21) d e 2 s g i 3 n a ? 2 1 v 3 ? i 2 h a (22) i 1 s g i 2 y a ? 2 1 v 3 ? i 2 h a

" y o u ' r e t y i n g me and him up" ( p l u r a l a c t s ) " y o u ' r e t y i n g me and them up" ( s i n g l e a c t )

(23) d e 2 s g i 3ya721v3?i2ha

" y o u ' r e t y i n g me and them up" ( p l u r a l a c t s ) " y o u ' r e t y i n g them (an) up" ( s i n g l e a c t )

(24) g a 2 h i 2 y a ? 2 1 v 3 ? i 2 h a

" y o u ' r e t y i n g them (an) up" ( p l u r a l a c t s ) " y o u ' r e t y i n g them ( i n ) up" ( s i n g l e o r plural acts) " h e ' s t y i n g me up" (single act) " h e ' s t y i n g me up" (plural acts) " h e ' s t y i n g you up" (single act) " h e ' s t y i n g you up" (plural acts) " h e ' s t y i n g him, i t up" ( s i n g l e a c t ) " h e ' s t y i n g him, i t up" ( p l u r a l a c t s ) " h e ' s t y i n g me and you up" ( s i n g l e a c t ) (34) d e 2 g i 3 n a 2 h l v 3 ? i 2 h a (35) i l g a 2 h l v 3 ? i 2 h a " h e ' s t y i n g me and you up" ( p l u r a l a c t s ) " h e ' s t y i n g me and you ( p l ) up" ( s i n g l e a c t )

-, 2nd p e r s o n .

d e - , p l u r a l ; c f . (29) g - "he--him, i t " : g - , 3rd person s u b j e c t . de-, p l u r a l ; c f . (31). g i n - "he--me and you": g - , 1 s t p e r s o n ; -i- i s i n s e r t e d b e f o r e -n-; -n-, d u a l . de-, p l u r a l ; c f . (33). i g - "he--me and you ( p l ) " : i - , p l u r a l ; - g - , 1st person*

" h e ' s t y i n g me and you ( p l ) up" ( p l u r a l a c t s ) " h e ' s t y i n g me and him up" ( s i n g l e a c t )

d e - , p l u r a l ; c f . (35); -ii s deleted a f t e r de-. o g i n - "he--me and him": e - , exclusive; -g-, 1st person; -i- i s i n s e r t e d b e f o r e -n-; -n-, d u a l . d-, p l u r a l ; c f . (37). og- "he--me and them": o - , e x c l u s i v e ; - g - , 1st p e r s o n . d - , p l u r a l ; c f . (39) s d - "he--you ( d l ) " : s - , 2nd p e r s o n ; - d - , d u a l . de-, p l u r a l ; c f . ( 4 1 ) . i j - "he--you ( p l ) " : i - , p l u r a l ; - j - , 2nd p e r s o n . de-, p l u r a l ; c f . (43). deg- "he--them (an o r i n ) " : d e - , p l u r a l o b j e c t ; -g-, 3rd person. e n - "you and I--himt': e - , 3 r d p e r s o n animate o b j e c t ; -n-, d u a l ; -i- i s d e l e t e d a f t e r e-; c f . (48). d e - , p l u r a l ; c f . (46); -ei s deleted a f t e r de-. i n - "you and I - - i t u : i - , 1 s t person; -n-, dual. d e - , p l u r a l ; c f . ( 4 8 ) ; -ii s deleted a f t e r de-. gen- "you and I--them ( a n ) " : g e - , 3rd p e r s o n p l u r a l ; -n-, dual; -i- i s d e l e t e d a f t e r ge-; c f . (48). de-, plural; c f . (50). de-, p l u r a l o b j e c t ; -n-, d u a l ; -i- i s d e l e t e d a f t e r de-; c f . (48). ed- "you ( p l ) and I--him1': e - , 3rd p e r s o n animate; -d-, p l u r a l ; - i - i s d e l e t e d a f t e r e-.

" h e ' s t y i n g me and him up" ( p l u r a l a c t s ) " h e ' s t y i n g me and them up" ( s i n g l e a c t ) " h e ' s t y i n g me and them up" ( p l u r a l a c t s ) " h e ' s t y i n g you ( d l ) up" ( s i n g l e a c t ) " h e ' s t y i n g you ( d l ) upw ( p l u r a l a c t s ) " h e ' s t y i n g you ( p l ) up" ( s i n g l e a c t ) " h e ' s t y i n g you ( p l ) up" ( p l u r a l a c t s ) " h e ' s t y i n g them (an o r i n ) up" ( s i n g l e or plural acts) "you and I a r e t y i n g him up" ( s i n g l e a c t )

"you and I a r e t y i n g him up" ( p l u r a l a c t s ) "you and I a r e t y i n g i t up" ( s i n g l e a c t ) "you and I a r e t y i n g i t up" ( p l u r a l a c t s ) "you and I a r e t y i n g them (an) up" ( s i n g l e act) "you and I a r e t y i n g them (an) up" ( p l u r a l a c t s ) "you and I a r e t y i n g them ( i n ) up" ( s i n g l e or plural acts)
"YOU ( p l ) and I a r e t y i n g him up" ( s i n g l e act)

t l y (~ l ~ and I a r e t y i n g p ) him up" ( p l u r a l a c t s ) l'you ( p l ) and I a r e t y i n g i t up" ( s i n g l e a c t ) I1you ( p l ) and I a r e t y i n g i t up" ( p l u r a l ) "you ( p l ) and I a r e t y i n g them (an) up" (single act) "you ( p l ) and I a r e t y i n g them (an) up" (plural a c t s ) "you ( p l ) and I a r e t y i n g them ( i n ) up" (single or plural acts) "he and I a r e t y i n g you up" ( s i n g l e a c t )

de-, p l u r a l ; c f . (53). i d - "you ( p l ) and I - - i t " : i - , 1st p e r s o n ; - d - , p l u r a l . de-, p l u r a l ; c f . (55); -iis deleted a f t e r de-. ged- "you ( p l ) and I--them": g e - , 3rd p e r s o n p l u r a l ; -d-, p l u r a l ; -i- i s d e l e t e d a f t e r ge-; c f . (55). d e - , p l u r a l ; c f . (57)

ded- "you ( p l ) and I--them (in)": de-, p l u r a l object; -i- i s d e l e t e d a f t e r d e - . s d v - "he and I--you": s - , 2nd p e r s o n ; - d - , d u a l ; - v - , 1st p e r s o n s u b j e c t , 2nd p e r s o n o b j e c t ; -y- i s i n serted before a following vowel. de-, p l u r a l ; c f . (60). o s d - "he and I--him1': o - , exclusive; -s-, another person; -d-, d u a l . d - , p l u r a l ; c f . (62). o s d - "he and I - - i t w : o - , e x c l u s i v e ; -s-, a n o t h e r p e r s o n ; -d-, d u a l . d - , p l u r a l ; c f . (64). sdv- "he and I--you ( d l ) " : 2nd p e r s o n ; -d-, d u a l ; - v - , 1st p e r s o n s u b j e c t , 2nd p e r s o n o b j e c t ; -y- i s inserted.
5-,

"he and I a r e t y i n g you up" ( p l u r a l a c t s ) "he and I a r e t y i n g him up" ( s i n g l e a c t ) "he and I a r e t y i n g him up" ( p l u r a l a c t s ) "he and I a r e t y i n g i t up" ( s i n g l e a c t ) "he and I a r e t y i n g it up" ( p l u r a l a c t s ) "he and I a r e t y i n g you ( d l ) up" ( s i n g l e a c t )

"he and I a r e t y i n g you ( d l ) up" ( p l u r a l a c t s ) "he and I a r e t y i n g you ( p l ) up" ( s i n g l e a c t )

de-, p l u r a l ; c f . (66). i j v - "he and I--you ( p l ) " : i - , p l u r a l ; - j - , 2nd p e r son; -v-, 1st p e r s o n s u b j e c t , 2nd p e r s o n o b j e c t .

..

..

.
- i-

"he and I a r e t y i n g you ( p l ) up" ( p l u r a l a c t s ) "he and I a r e t y i n g them (an) up" ( s i n g l e a c t )

d e - , p l u r a l ; c f . (68). gosd- "he and I--them (an)": g - , 3 r d p e r s o n p l u r a l ; -0-, exclusive; -s-, another p e r s o n ; -d-, d u a l . de-, p l u r a l ; c f . (70). dosd- "he and I--them(in)": d - , p l u r a l o b j e c t ; -0-, e x c l u s i v e ; -s-, a n o t h e r p e r s o n ; -d-, d u a l . i j v - "they and I - - y o u n : i - , p l u r a l ; - j - , 2nd p e r s o n ; -v-, 1st p e r s o n s u b j e c t , 2nd p e r s o n o b j e c t ; -y- i s i n s e r t e d . d e - , p l u r a l ; -i- i s d e leted; c f . (73). o j - " t h e y and I--him1': o - , e x c l u s i v e ; - j -, o t h e r persons. d-, p l u r a l ; c f . (75). o j - "they and I - - i t " : o - , exclusive; -j-, other persons. d - , p l u r a l ; c f . (77). i j v - "they and I--you ( d l , p l ) " : i - , p l u r a l ; j - 2nd p e r s o n ; -v-, 1 s t p e r s o n s u b j e c t , 2nd person o b j e c t ; -y- i s i n s e r t e d . de-, p l u r a l ; c f . (79).

.-ial.

hem": .d-, 'ter

"he and I a r e t y i n g them (an) up" ( p l u r a l a c t s ) "he and I a r e t y i n g them ( i n ) up" ( s i n g l e o r plural acts) " t h e y and I a r e t y i n g you up" ( s i n g l e a c t )

. '

' . -,
. .- -,

" t h e y and I a r e t y i n g you up" ( p l u r a l a c t s ) " t h e y and I a r e t y i n g him up" ( s i n g l e a c t ) " t h e y and I a r e t y i n g him up" ( p l u r a l a c t s ) " t h e y and I a r e t y i n g i t up" ( s i n g l e a c t ) " t h e y and I a r e t y i n g i t up" ( p l u r a l a c t s ) "they and I a r e t y i n g you ( d 1 , p l ) up" ( s i n gle act)

" t h e y and I a r e t y i n g you ( d 1 , p l ) up" (plural acts) " t h e y and I a r e t y i n g them (an) up" ( s i n g l e act) " t h e y and I a r e t y i n g them (an) up" ( p l u r a l acts) "they and I a r e t y i n g them ( i n ) up" ( s i n g l e act)

g o j - "they and I--them (an)": g - , 3 r d p e r s o n p l u r a l ; -0-, exclusive; - j - , other persons. de-, p l u r a l ; c f . (81).

o j - "they and I--them (in)": o-, exclusive; -j-, other persons.

"you ( d l ) a r e t y i n g me up" ( s i n g l e a c t )

s g i n - "you (dl)--me": S - , 2nd p e r s o n ; - g - , 1 s t p e r s o n ; -i- i s i n s e r t e d ; - n - , dual. de-, p l u r a l ; c f . (84). e s d - "you (dl)--him": e - , 3rd person animate; -s-, 2nd p e r s o n ; -d-, d u a l . de-, p l u r a l ; c f . (86). s d - "you ( d l ) - - i t " : person; -d-, d u a l .
s - , 2nd

"you ( d l ) a r e t y i n g me up" ( p l u r a l a c t s ) "you ( d l ) a r e t y i n g him up" ( s i n g l e a c t ) "you ( d l ) a r e t y i n g him up" ( p l u r a l a c t s ) "you ( d l ) a r e t y i n g i t up" [ s i n g l e a c t ) "you ( d l ) a r e t y i n g i t up" ( p l u r a l a c t s ) "you ( d l ) a r e t y i n g me and him up" ( s i n g l e a c t )

d e - , p l u r a l ; c f . (88)

s g i n - "you (dl)--me and him": s - , 2nd p e r s o n ; - g - , 1st p e r s o n ; -i- i s i n s e r t e d ; -n-, dual. de-, p l u r a l ; c f . (90). i s g i - "you (dl)--me and them": i - , p l u r a l ; - s - , 2nd p e r s o n ; - g - , 1st p e r s o n ; - i - , p l u r a l ; -y- i s i n s e r t e d . c f . (92).

"you ( d l ) a r e t y i n g me and him up" ( p l u r a l a c t s ) "you ( d l ) a r e t y i n g me and them up" ( s i n g l e act)

"you ( d l ) a r e t y i n g me de-, p l u r a l ; and them up" ( p l u r a l a c t s ) "you ( d l ) a r e t y i n g them (an) up" ( s i n g l e a c t ) "you ( d l ) a r e t y i n g them (an) up" ( p l u r a l a c t s ) "you ( d l ) a r e t y i n g them ( i n ) up" ( s i n g l e o r plural acts) "you ( p l ) a r e t y i n g me up" ( s i n g l e a c t )

g e s d - "you ( d l ) - - t h e m (an)": ge-, 3rd person animate; - s - , 2nd p e r s o n ; -d-, d u a l . d e - , p l u r a l ; c f . (94). de-, p l u r a l object; -s-, 2nd p e r s o n ; - d - , d u a l . i s g i - "you (p1)--meM: i - , p l u r a l ; - s - , 2nd p e r s o n ; -g-, 1st p e r s o n ; - i - , p l u r a l ; -y- i s i n s e r t e d . de-, p l u r a l ; c f . (97). e j - "you (p1)--him1!: e - , 3rd person animate; - j - , 2nd p e r s o n . d e - , p l u r a l ; c f . (99).

"you ( p l ) a r e t y i n g me up" ( p l u r a l a c t s ) "you ( p l ) a r e t y i n g him up" ( s i n g l e a c t )


" Y ~ U ( p l ) a r e t y i n g him up" ( p l u r a l a c t s )

"you ( p l ) a r e t y i n g i t up" ( s i n g l e a c t ) "you ( p l ) a r e t y i n g i t up" ( p l u r a l a c t s ) "you ( p l ) a r e t y i n g me and him, me and them up" ( s i n g l e a c t )

i j - "you ( p 1 ) - - i t 1 ' : i - , p l u r a l ; - j - , 2nd p e r s o n . d e - , p l u r a l ; c f . (101). i s g i - "you ( p l ) --me and him, me and them": i - , p l u r a l ; -s-, 2nd p e r s o n , -g-, 1st p e r s o n ; -i-, p l u r a l ; -y- i s i n s e r t e d . d e - , p l u r a l ; c f . (103)

inyou ( p l ) a r e t y i n g me and him, me and them up" ( p l u r a l a c t s ) "you ( p l ) a r e t y i n g them (an) up" ( s i n g l e act) "you i ( p l ) a r e t y i n g them (an) kp" ( p l u r a l a c t s ) "you ( p l ) a r e t y i n g them ( i n ) up" ( s i n g l e o r plural acts' " t h e y a r e t y i n g me up" (single a c t ) "they a r e t y i n g me up" (plural acts) " t h e y a r e t y i n g you up" (single act) " t h e y a r e t y i n g you up" (plural acts) "they a r e t y i n g him, i t ilp" ( s i n g l e a c t ) " t h e y a r e t y i n g him, it up" ( p l u r a l a c t s ) "they a r e t y i n g me and you up" ( s i n g l e a c t ) "they a r e t y i n g me and you up" ( p l u r a l a c t s ) " t h e y a r e t y i n g me and you ( p l ) up" ( s i n g l e a c t )

g e j - "you ( p l ) --them (an) " : ge-, 3rd person animate; -j-, plural. d e - , p l u r a l ; c f . (105). d e j - "you ( p l ) --them ( i n ) " : de-, p l u r a l object; - j - , 2nd p e r s o n . gvgw- "they--me" : gv-, 3rd p e r s o n p l u r a l ; -gw-, 1st person. d e - , p l u r a l ; c f . (108). g e j - "they--you1': g e - , 3 r d p e r s o n p l u r a l ; - j - , 2nd person. d e - , p l u r a l ; c f . (110). an- "they--him, i t " : a - , 3 r d p e r s o n ; -n-, p l u r a l . d - , p l u r a l ; c f . (112). g e g i n - "they--me and you": ge-, 3rd person p l u r a l ; - g - , 1st p e r s o n ; -n-, d u a l . d e - , p l u r a l ; c f . (1141. ge-, 3rd person p l u r a l ; -g-, 1st p e r s o n .

e d e - , p l u r a l ; c f . (116). " t h e y are t y i n g m and you ( p l ) up" ( p l u r a l a c t s )


"they a r e t y i n g me and him up" ( s i n g l e a c t ) gogin- "they--me and him": g-, 3ra person p l u r a l ;

- 0 - , e x c l u s i v e ; -g-, 1 s t person; -i- i s inserted; -n-, dual.

(119) deZgo3 g;. 2na2hlv3?i2ha "they a r e t y i n g me and him up" ( p l u r a l a c t s ) (120) go 2 ga 2h l v 3 ? i 2 h a "they a r e t y i n g me and them up" ( s i n g l e a c t ) "they a r e t y i n g me and them up" ( p l u r a l a c t s ) "they a r e t y i n g you ( d l ) up1' ( s i n g l e a c t ) !'they a r e t y i n g you ( d l ) up" ( p l u r a l a c t s ) "they a r e t y i n g you ( p l ) up" ( s i n g l e a c t ) "they a r e t y i n g you ( p l ) up" ( p l u r a l a c t s ) "they a r e t y i n g them (an o r i n ) upt1 ( s i n gle or plural acts) Notes on Paradigm One

d e - , p l u r a l ; c f . (118) gog- "they--me and them" : g - , 3rd person p l u r a l ; - 0 - , e x c l u s i v e ; -g-, 1 s t person. d e - , p l u r a l ; c f . (120). gesd- "they--you ( d l ) " : ge-, 3rd person p l u r a l ; - s - , 2nd p e r s o n ; -d-, d u a l . d e - , p l u r a l ; c f . (122). g e j - "they--you ( p l ) " : ge-, 3rd person p l u r a l ; - j - , 2nd person. d e - , p l u r a l ; c f . (124). dan- "they--them (an, i n ) ' I : d - , p l u r a l o b j e c t ; - a - , 3rd p e r s o n ; -n-, p l u r a l .

(121) de2g03ga2hlv37i2ha (122) ge2sd?2hlv3?i2ha

(123) de2ge3sda2hlv3?i2ha (124) g e 2 j a 7 2 1 v 3 ? i 2 h a

(125) d e 2 g e 3 j a ? 2 1 v 3 ? i 2 h a (126) da1na2hlv3?i2ha

The a n a l y s i s of t h e pronoun p r e f i x e s . I t i s f r e q u e n t l y t h e c a s e i n Cherokee, a s w e l l a s i n many o t h e r American Indian lannuanes, t h a t combinations of s u b j e c t and o b j e c t p r e f i x i s cannot r e a d i l y be analyzed i n t o t h e i r component p a r t s . I n t h e above paradigm, t h e meaning of each s u b j e c t - o b j e c t pronoun combination is given, followed by an a n a l y s i s of t h e i n d i v i d u a l e l e m e n t s found w i t h i n t h a t combination. In a number of c a s e s a l t e r n a t i v e a n a l y s e s a r e p o s s i b l e . Person, number, and gender. The pronoun p r e f i x e s i n d i c a t e whether v e r b a l s u b j e c t s and o b j e c t s a r e f i r s t , second, o r t h i r d p e r s o n . In a d d i t i o n , non-singular f i r s t person forms must be e i t h e r i n c l u s i v e or e x c l u s i v e . F i r s t person d u a l i n c l u s i v e forms a r e t r a n s l a t e d i n t o English w i t h "you and 1"; f i r s t person p l u r a l i n c l u s i v e forms a r e t r a n s l a t e d "you ( p l ) and I . " Dual and p l u r a l f i r s t person e x c l u s i v e forms a r e t r a n s l a t e d "he and I " and "they and I " r e s p e c t i v e l y . There i s a c o n t r a s t between s i n g u l a r and p l u r a l i n a l l p e r s o n s i n Cherokee. In a d d i t i o n , t h e r e i s a d u a l number which a p p e a r s i n f i r s t and second person forms but n o t i n t h e t h i r d p e r s o n . The c a t e g o r y of gender i s p r e s e n t i n t h e t h i r d p e r s o n , where t h e r e i s a cont r a s t between animate and inanimate o b j e c t s of v e r b s . I t should be noted t h a t Cherokee has no s e x gender. The a l t e r n a t i o n between -h- and g l o t t a l s t o p . The stem of t h e v e r b ."to t i e up" e x h i b i t s t h e a l t e r n a t i o n between -h- and g l o t t a l s t o ~ which i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of many Cherokee v e r b s . G l o t t a l s t o p a p p e a r s under t h e f o l l o w i n g c o n d i t i o n s : i n a l l forms with a f i r s t person s i n g u l a r s u b j e c t ; i n forms w i t h a second person s i n g u l a r s u b j e c t and a t h i r d person animate o r f i r s t person e x c l u s i v e o b j e c t ; i n forms with

. ,

a f i r s t person i n c l u s i v e s u b j e c t a n d a t h i r d person animate o b j e c t ; i n forms w i t h a f i r s t person e x c l u s i v e s u b j e c t and a t h i r d person animate o r second person d u a l o r p l u r a l o b j e c t . In a l l o t h e r c a s e s , -h- a p p e a r s . The u s e o f t h e p l u r a l p r e f i x d e - . The use of t h e p l u r a l p r e f i x de- t o i n d i c a t e both p l u r a l i t y of t h e a c t i o n o r s t a t e of t h e v e r b and a l s o t o mark t h i r d p e r son inanimate o b j e c t s o f v e r b s i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n Paradigm One. See S e c t i o n I-A f o r a more complete d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e f u n c t i o n s of t h i s p r e f i x . The i n i t i a l p l u r a l marker i - . A redundant p l u r a l marker, i - , a p p e a r s i n forms 22, 92, 97, and 103. This i n i t i a l element may o r may not be p r e s e n t ; many Cherokee s p e a k e r s a p p a r e n t l y never u s e v e r b forms w i t h redundant i - .
A p r o c e s s o f l i n g u i s t i c change. Many Cherokee s p e a k e r s make no d i s t i n c t i o n between t h i r d Derson a l u r a l animate and inanimate d i r e c t o b i e c t s i n forms w i t h f i r s t o r second p e r s o n d u a l o r p l u r a l s u b j e c t s . For t h e s e s p e a k e r s , t h e t h i r d p e r son p l u r a l animate o b j e c t marker h a s been r e p l a c e d by t h e p l u r a l p r e f i x d e - ( o r one of i t s v a r i a n t f o r m s ) , which i s used t o mark t h i r d p e r s o n p l u r a l inanimate d i r e c t o b j e c t s . For example, t h e form g e 2 s d a ? 2 1 v 3 7 i 2 h a "you ( d l ) a r e t y i n g them (an) up" has been r e p l a c e d , i n some d i a l e c t s o f Cherokee, by t h e form d e 2 3 s d a 3 h l v 3 ? j 2 h a . The l a t t e r form h a s t h u s come t o mean "you ( d l ) a r e t y i n g them (an o r i n ) up" i n these dialects.
~d
~ ~ ~

Paradigm Two : This paradigm with a vowel, tween -h- and One, but n o t e

"to h i t " i l l u s t r a t e s t h e u s e o f t h e S e t A p r e f i x e s with a v e r b stem beginning a s i n Paradigm One. The stem o f " h i t " e x h i b i t s an a l t e r n a t i o n bei t s absence; -h- a p p e a r s under t h e same c o n d i t i o n s a s i n Paradigm t h a t t h e r e a r e no i n s t a n c e s of g l o t t a l s t o p . E n g l i s h meaning "I'm h i t t i n g you" "I'm h i t t i n g him" "I'm h i t t i n g it" "I'm h i t t i n g you ( d l ) " "I'm h i t t i n g you ( p l ) " "I'm h i t t i n g them ( a n ) " "I'm h i t t i n g them ( i n ) " " y o u ' r e h i t t i n g me" " y o u ' r e h i t t i n g him" " y o u ' r e h i t t i n g it" Analysis c f . PI, 1 . c f . P1, 3 . c f . PI, 5. c f . PI, 7 . c f . PI, 9. c f . P I , 11. c f . P1, 13. c f . P1, 1 4 . c f . P1, 1 6 . c f . PI, 18. c f . P1, 20. c f . PI, 2 2 . c f . PI, 24. c f . P1, 26 c f . P1, 27. c f . P I , 29.

Cherokee form (1) gv2yv1ni3ha (2) j i 2 y v 1 n i 3 h a (3) gv1ni3ha


( 4 ) sdvZyv1ni3ha

(5) i l j ~ ~ ~ v l n i ~ h a (6) g a 2 j i 2 y v 1 n 1 3 h a

(11) s g i 2 n v 1 n i 3 h a (12) i 1 s g i 2 y v 1 n i 3 h a (13) ga2hi2yv1n+3ha (14) de2hv3hni3ha (15) algwv'hni3ha (16) j v 2 h n i 3 h a

" y o u ' r e h i t t i n g me and him" " y o u ' r e h i t t i n g me and them" " y o u ' r e h i t t i n g them ( a n ) " " y o u ' r e h i t t i n g them ( i n ) " " h e ' s h i t t i n g me" " h e ' s h i t t i n g you"

" h e ' s h i t t i n g him, it" " h e ' s h i t t i n g m and e " h e ' s h i t t i n g me and
YOU" YOU

cf. P1, 31. cf. P1, 33.


(pl)"

cf. P I , 35. cf. P1, 37. cf. cf. cf. cf.


P1, 39. P I , 41. P I , 43. P I , 45.

" h e ' s h i t t i n g m and him" e

e " h e ' s h i t t i n g m and them"


" h e ' s h i t t i n g you ( d l ) " " h e ' s h i t t i n g you ( p l ) " " h e ' s h i t t i n g them (an o r i n ) " "you and I are h i t t i n g him" "you and I a r e h i t t i n g i t " "you and I a r e h i t t i n g them (an) "you and I a r e h i t t i n g them (in)" "you ( p l ) and I are h i t t i n g him" "you ( p l ) and I a r e h i t t i n g it1' "you ( p l ) and I are h i t t i n g them (an)" "you ( p l ) a n d I a r e h i t t i n g them ( i n ) " (33) sdv2yv l n i 3 h a (34) o sdv 3ha "he and I are h i t t i n g you" "he and I a r e h i t t i n g him" "he and I are h i t t i n g it" "he and I a r e h i t t i n g you ( d l ) " "he and I a r e h i t t i n g you ( p l ) " "he and I a r e h i t t i n g them (an) l 1 "he and I a r e h i t t i n g them (in) " t h e y and I are h i t t i n g you" " t h e y and I a r e h i t t i n g him" " t h e y and I a r e h i t t i n g it" " t h e y and I a r e h i t t i n g you (dl o r p l ) " " t h e y and I are h i t t i n g them (an) I t " t h e y and I a r e h i t t i n g them (in)"

cf. P I , 46. cf. P I , 48. cf. P I , 50. cf. P I , 52. cf. P I , 53. cf. P1, 55. cf. P I , 57. cf. P I , 59. cf. P1, 6 0 . cf. P I , 62. cf. P I , 64. cf. P I , 66. cf. P I , 68. cf. P I , 70. cf. P I , 72. cf. P I , 73. cf. P1, 75. cf. P I , 77. cf. P I , 79. cf. P I , 81. cf. P I , 83.

(35) 01sdv2hni3ha (36) sdv2yv1ni3ha

(37) i 1 j v 2 y v 1 n i 3 h a (38) go2sdv1ni3ha

"you ( d l ) a r e h i t t i n g me" llyou ( d l ) a r e h i t t i n g him" "you ( d l ) a r e h i t t i n g it" "you ( d l ) a r e h i t t i n g me and him" "you ( d l ) a r e h i t t i n g me and themt1 "you ( d l ) a r e h i t t i n g them (an)" "you ( d l ) a r e h i t t i n g them ( i n ) " "you ( p l ) a r e h i t t i n g me" "you ( p l ) a r e h i t t i n g him" "you ( p l ) a r e h i t t i n g it1' "you ( p l ) a r e h i t t i n g me and him" "you ( p l ) a r e h i t t i n g them (an)" "you ( p l ) a r e h i t t i n g them ( i n ) " "they ' r e h i t t i n g me" "they ' r e h i t t i n g you" " t h e y ' r e h i t t i n g him, i t " " t h e y ' r e h i t t i n g me and you" " t h e y ' r e h i t t i n g me and you ( p l ) l t " , t h e y ' r e h i t t i n g me and him" "they ' r e h i t t i n g me and them1' " t h e y ' r e h i t t i n g you ( d l ) ' ' "they're h i t t i n g you (pl)" "they ' r e h i t t i n g them (an o r i n ) " Notes on Paradigm Two

c f . P I , 84. c f . P I , 86. c f . P I , 88. c f . P I , 90. c f . P I , 92. c f . P I , 94. c f . P I , 96. c f . P I , 97. c f . P I , 99. c f . P I , 101. c f . P I , 103. c f . P I , 105. c f . P I , 107. c f . P I , 108. c f . P I , 110. c f . P I , 112. c f . P I , 114. c f . P I , 116. c f . P I , 118. c f . P I , 120. c f . P I , 122. c f . P I , 124. c f . P I , 126.

r r
r
-

The u s e of t h e p l u r a l p r e f i x de- w i t h forms o f " t o h i t . " S i n c e t h e u s e o f t h e p l u r a l p r e f i x de- was i l l u s t r a t e d i n Paradigm One. forms i n which de- i n d i c a t e s p l u r a i i t y of t h e a c t i o n o f t h e v e r b a r e n o t g i v e n i n t h i s paradigm n o r i n subse u e n t paradigms. I t s h o u l d be p o i n t e d o u t , however, t h a t forms such a s g e 2 j v n13ha "you ( p l ) a r e h i t t i n g them" ( s e e 57) a r e r e l a t i v e l y uncommon. S i n c e it i s d i f f i c u l t t o c o n c e i v e o f a s i t u a t i o n i n which t h r e e o r more i n d i v i d u a l s a r e c o l l e c t i v e l y h i t t i n g a second roup o f i n d i v i d u a l s , t h e form d e 2 g e 3 j v 2 n i3ha i s . much more common t h a n i s g e 2 j v n+3h a . I n d e 2 g e 3 j v 2 n i 3 h a , i t i s understood t h a t t h e r e a r e a number o f i n d i v i d u a l a c t s o f h i t t i n g . Forms l i k e g e 2 j v 2 n i 3 h a do o c c u r , however, and would be u s e d , f o r example, i f a c a r c o n t a i n i n g s e v e r a l occup a n t s were t o s t r i k e a second c a r w i t h s e v e r a l o c c u p a n t s .

9 .

Paradigm Three:

Itto s e e "

This verb r e q u i r e s t h e The stem of t h e v e r b " t o s e e " i s -gowhtih- (or -gowahtih-). u s e of t h e S e t A p r e f i x e s , a s do t h e v e r b s " t o t i e up" and " t o h i t . " A i m p o r t a n t n

difference exists, however: since the stem of "to see" begins with a consonant, the prefixes appear in somewhat different form. In particular, the insertion of -y- between the final vowel of the prefix and the initial vowel of the stem does not take place. Other differences will be noted below. Cherokee form (1) gv2gowh1ti3ha (2) ji2gowh1ti3ha
(3) ji2gowh1ti3ha

English meaning

Analysis cf. P1, 1. cf. PI, 3. ji- ~lI--it~~: 1st j-, person; -i- is inserted before a following consonant (see notes below). cf. PI, 7. cf. PI, 9. cf. PI, 11 deji- "I--them (in)": de-, plural object; -j-, 1st person; -iis inserted before a following consonant. sgi- ffyou--me": s-, 2nd person; -g-, 1st person; -i- is inserted before a following consonant. cf. PI, 16. hi- ffyou--it": h-, 2nd person; -i- is inserted before a following consonant. cf. P1, 20; -i- is inserted before a following consonant. cf. P1, 22. cf. P1, 24. cf. PI, 26; -i- is inserted before a following consonant. agi- "he--me": a-, 3rd person; -g-, 1st person; -i- is inserted before a following consonant. ja- "he--youw: j-, 2nd person; -a-, 3rd person.

"I see you"


"I see him"

"I see it"

( ) sdv2gowh1ti3ha 4
(5) i1jv2gowh'ti3ha

"I see you (dl)" "I see you (pl)" "I see them (an)" "I see them (in)"

( ) gg2ji2gowh1ti3ha 6

( ) de2ji3gowh1ti3ha 7

. (8) sgi2gowh2t; 3ha

"you see me"

(9) hi2gowh1ti3ha (10) hi2gowh2ti3ha

"you see him" "you see it"

(11) sgi2ni2gowh1ti3ha

"you see me and him"

(12) i1sgi2gowh1ti3ha (13) ga2hi2gowh1ti3ha (14) de2hi3gowh2ti3ha

"you see me and them" "you see them (an)" "you see them (in)"

. , (15) a 1g; 2 gowh2 t; 3 ha

"he sees me"

"he sees you"

"he s e e s him, i t " "he s e e s me and you"

a - "he--him, 3rd p e r s o n .

it": a-,

c f . P 1 , 33; -i- i s inserted before a consonant. c f . P 1 , 35; -i- i s inserted before a consonant. c f . P 1 , 37; -i- i s inserted before a consonant. c f . P 1 , 39; -i- i s inserted. c f . P 1 , 41; -i- i s inserted. c f . P I , 43; -i- i s inserted

"he s e e s me and you ( p l ) "

"he s e e s me and him"

"he s e e s me and them" "he s e e s you ( d l ) ' ! "he s e e s you ( p l ) " "he s e e s them (an o r i n ) "

da- "he--themq1: d-, plural object; -a-, 3rd p e r s o n . c f . P I , 46; -i- i s inserted. c f . P 1 , 48; -i- i s inserted. c f . P I , 50; -i- i s inserted. c f . P 1 , 52; - i - i s inserted. c f . P I , 53; -i- i s inserted. c f . P 1 , 55; -i- i s inserted. c f . P 1 , 57; -i- i s inserted. c f . P I , 59; - i - i s inserted. c f . PI, 60. c f . P 1 , 62; - i - i s inserted. c f . P I , 64; - i - i s inserted. c f . P I , 66. c f . P I , 68.

"you and I s e e him" "you and I s e e it" "you and I s e e them (an)" "you and I s e e them ( i n ) " "you ( p l ) and I s e e him" "you ( p l ) and I s e e it" "you ( p l ) and I s e e them (an)" "you ( p l ) and I s e e them ( i n ) " "he and I s e e you "he and I s e e him" "he and I s e e i t " "he and I s e e you ( d l ) " "he and I s e e you ( p l ) "

"

"he and I s e e them (an)" "he and I s e e them ( i n ) " "they and I s e e you" "they and I s e e him" "they and I s e e it" "they and I s e e you ( d l , ~ 1 ) " "they and I s e e them (an)" "they and I s e e them ( i n ) " "you ( d l ) s e e meff "you ( d l ) s e e him" "you ( d l ) s e e i t " "you ( d l ) s e e me and him" "you ( d l ) s e e me and them" "you ( d l ) s e e them (an)" "you ( d l ) s e e them ( i n ) " "you ( p l ) s e e me" "you ( p l ) s e e him" "you ( p l ) s e e it" "you ( p l ) s e e me and him, me and them" "you ( p l ) s e e them (an)" "you ( p l ) s e e them ( i n ) I q "they s e e me" "they s e e you"

c f . P1, 70; -i- i s i n serted. c f . P I , 72; -i- i s i n serted. c f . P1, 73. c f . P I , 75; -i- i s i n serted. c f . P I , 77; -i- i s i n serted. c f . P I , 79. c f . P I , 81; -i- i s i n serted. c f . P I , 83; -i- i s i n serted. c f . P I , 84; -i- i s i n serted. c f . P I , 86; -i- i s i n serted. c f . P I , 88; -i- i s i n serted. c f . P I , 90; -i- i s i n serted. c f . P I , 92. c f . P I , 94; -i- i s i n serted. c f . P1, 96; -i- i s i n serted. c f . P1, 97. c f . P1, 99; -i- i s i n serted. c f . P1, 101; -i- i s i n serted. c f . P1, 103. c f . P1, 105; -i- i s i n serted. c f . P I , '107; -i- i s i n serted. c f . P I , 108; -i- i s i n serted. c f . P I , 110.

"they s e e him, it" "they s e e me and you" "they s e e me and you (~1)" "they s e e me and him" "they s e e me and them" (66) ge2sdi2gowh2ti 3ha (67) g e 2 j i2gowh2ti3ha (68) da1ni2gowh2ti3ha "they s e e you ( d l ) " "they s e e you ( p l ) " "they s e e them (an o r in) Notes on Paradigm Three

c f . P I , 112; -i- i s inserted. c f . P 1 , 114; -i- i s inserted. c f . P1, 116; -i- i s inserted. c f . P 1 , 118; -i- i s inserted. c f . P 1 , 120; -i- i s inserted

(64) go2gi2ni2gowh2ti3ha

c f . P 1 , 122; -i- i s inserted. c f . P 1 , 124; -i- i s inserted. c f . P 1 , 126; -i- i s inserted.

The i n s e r t i o n of - y - and of -i- between t h e pronoun p r e f i x and t h e v e r b stem.


A -y- i s i n s e r t e d between pronoun p r e f i x e s ending i n a vowel and a f o l l o w i n - v e r b g -

stem beginning w i t h a vowel; numerous examples may be seen i n Paradigms One and Two. On t h e o t h e r hand, an -i- i s i n s e r t e d between a pronoun p r e f i x ending i n a consonant and a verb stem beginning with a consonant; s e e t h e forms i n t h i s p a r a digm f o r examples. The f i r s t person s i n g u l a r s u b j e c t pronoun p r e f i x . The f i r s t person s i n g u l a r s u b j e c t pronoun p r e f i x o c c u r s a s g- b e f o r e stems beginning w i t h a vowel; b e f o r e stems beginning with a consonant, -i- i s i n s e r t e d and g- changes t o j - . The t h i r d person s i n g u l a r s u b j e c t pronoun p r e f i x . The form of t h e t h i r d p e r son s i n g u l a r s u b j e c t pronoun p r e f i x i s g- b e f o r e v e r b stems beginning w i t h a vowel, and e i t h e r ga- o r a - b e f o r e stems beginning with a consonant. A few v e r b s w i t h stems beginning with vowels do n o t t a k e a s u b j e c t pronoun p r e f i x i n t h e t h i r d p e r son s i n g u l a r . Paradigm Four: "to forget"

A umber of Cherokee v e r b s r e q u i r e a second s e t of pronoun p r e f i x e s , which we w i l l

r e f e r t o a s t h e S e t B p r e f i x e s . While most of t h e s e v e r b s a r e i n t r a n s i t i v e , some t r a n s i t i v e v e r b s do t a k e t h e S e t B p r e f i x e s . One such v e r b i s -vkewsg- " t o f o r g e t . " Most of t h e s u b j e c t - o b j e c t pronoun p r e f i x combinations found i n p a r a d i p s of v e r b s t a k i n g t h e S e t B p r e f i x e s a r e t h e same a s t h o s e used with v e r b s r e q u i r i n g t h e S e t A p r e f i x e s . The following paradigm i s t h e r e f o r e a p a r t i a l one, w i t h o n l y t h o s e forms l i s t e d which e x h i b i t pronoun p r e f i x e s which d i f f e r from t h e c o r r e sponding Set A p r e f i x e s . The c o r r e c t pronoun p r e f i x f o r any form n o t g i v e n below can be determined by f i n d i n g t h e correspondin form i n Paradigm One. For example, t h e form f o r "I am f o r g e t t i n g you," gv2yv1kew s g a , i s n o t iven below s i n c e t h e p r e f i x gv- is found i n t h e form f o r "I am t y i n g you up" gv ya?21v3?i2ha i n Paradigm One. I n b o t h c a s e s , s i n c e t h e v e r b stem b e g i n s with a vowel, Iy- i s i n s e r t e d .

Cherokee form (1) a1gwv2kew2sga

E n g l i s h meaning "I 'm f o r g e t t i n g it" l ' I 1 m f o r g e t t i n g them ( i n ) " "youlre f o r g e t t i n g it" " y o u ' r e f c r g e t t i n g them (in)" " h e ' s f o r g e t t i n g him"

Analysis agw- " I - - i t " : person. agw-, 1 s t

(2) dalgw2kew2sga
(3) jv2kew2sga
-

dagw- "1--them ( i n ) de, plural object; c f . 1. j - "you--itqf: j-, person. 2nd

(4) de2jv3k=w2sga

d e j - "you--them ( i n ) " : de-, p l u r a l object; c f . 3. g - "he--himff: g - , 3rd p e r s o n ; s e e t h e Notes on Paradigm Four. uw- " h e - - i t " : u - , 3rd p e r s o n ; -w- i s i n s e r t e d between u - and a f o l lowing vowel. (Note t h a t i n i t i a l -v i n stems changes t o - a i n 3rd person f o r m s . ) deg- "he--them (an) : de-, p l u r a l object; c f . 5. duw- "he--them ( i n ) " : d-, p l u r a l o b j e c t ; c f . 6. g i n - "you and I - - i t 1 ' : g - , 1 s t person; - i - i s i n s e r t e d b e f o r e -n-; -n-, dual. d e g i n - "you and I--them (in)": de-, plural object; c f . 9. i g - "you ( p l ) and I - it!!. i - , p l u r a l ; -g-, 1 s t person.

(5) gv2kew2sga

(6) u1wa2kew2sga

" h e ' s f o r g e t t i n g it"

" h e ' s f o r g e t t i n g them (an) " " h e ' s f o r g e t t i n g them (in)" (9) gi2nv2kew2sga "you and I a r e f o r g e t t i n g it"

(10) de2gi3nv2kew2sga

"you and I a r e f o r g e t t i n g them ( i n ) " "you ( p l ) and I a r e f o r g e t t i n g it" "you ( p l ) and I a r e f o r g e t t i n g them ( i n ) " "he and I a r e f o r g e t t i n g him"

(11) i1gv2kew2sga

(12) de3gv2kew2sga (13) olsdv lkew'sga

de-, p l u r a l object; c f . 11. osd- "he and I--himf1: o-, exclusive; - s - , a n o t h e r person; - d - , dual. o g i n - "he and I - - i t M : o - , e x c l u s i v e ; -g-, 1 s t p e r s o n ; -i- i s i n s e r t e d b e f o r e -n-; -n-, dual.

(14) 01gi2nv2kev?sga

"he and I a r e f o r g e t t i n g it"

( I S ) do1sdv2kew2sga

"he and I a r e f o r g e t t i n g them (an)" "he and I a r e f o r g e t t i n g them ( i n ) " "they and I a r e f o r g e t t i n g him" "they and I a r e f o r g e t t i n g it" "they and I a r e f o r g e t t i n g them (an)"

dosdand I--them (an)": d - , p l u r a l obj e c t ; c f . 13. dogin- Ifhe and I - them ( i n ) " : d-, p l u r a l o b j e c t ; c f . 14. o j - "they and I--himf': o-, e x c l u s i v e ; - j - , other persons. og- "they and I - - i t " : o-, e x c l u s i v e ; -g-, 1st p e r s o n . g o j - "they and I - them (an)": g - , 3rd person p l u r a l animate object; -0-, exclusive; - j -, o t h e r persons. dog- "they and I - them ( i n ) " : d-, p l u r a l o b j e c t ; -0-, e x c l u s i v e ; -g-, 1st person. an- "they--himtf : a - , 3rd person; -n-, p l u r a l . un- "they--him": a - , 3rd person; -n-, p l u r a l . dan- "they--them (an)": d-, p l u r a l o b j e c t ; c f .
Ll.

"they and I a r e f o r g e t t i n g them ( i n ) "

" t h e y ' r e f o r g e t t i n g him" "they ' r e f o r g e t t i n g it" " t h e y ' r e f o r g e t t i n g them (an) " t h e y ' r e f o r g e t t i n g them (in) "

d-, plural object; c f . 22.

1
-[

Notes on Paradigm Four

f o r m s . .

T
(

The c o n t r a s t between t h i r d person animate and inanimate d i r e c t o b j e c t s i n In t h e paradigm of " f o r g e t " t h e r e i s a c o n t r a s t between t h i r d person animate and t h i r d person inanimate d i r e c t o b j e c t s i n v e r b forms with t h i r d person s u b j e c t s Compare, f o r example, gv2kew2sga "he's f o r g e t t i n g him" and u1wa2kew2sga " h e 7 s f o r g e t t i n g i t . " T h i s c o n t r a s t i s n o t p r e s e n t i n paradigms o f v e r b s r e q u i r i n g t h e S e t A p r e f i x e s , nor i n t h e paradigms of a l l t r a n s i t i v e v e r b s which t a k e t h e S e t B p r e f i x e s . The change from -v t o - a i n t h i r d person forms. I n v e r b s which t a k e t h e S e t B p r e f i x e s , stem i n i t i a l -v changes t o -a i n t h i r d person forms; n o t e t h e forms algwv2kew2sga "I 'm f o r g e t t i n g it" and u1wa2kew2sga "he Is f o r g e t t i n g i t . " Paradigm F i v e : "to like"

The paradigm of " t o l i k e , " l i k e t h e paradigm of " t o f o r g e t , " f u r t h e r i l l u s t r a t e s t h e u s e of t h e S e t B p r e f i x e s w i t h t r a n s i t i v e v e r b s . There a r e some important d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e paradigms of "to l i k e t ' and "to f o r g e t , " however. The stem

. -

of " t o l i k e , " -1vkwd-, b e g i n s w i t h a consonant r a t h e r t h a n a vowel. I n a d d i t i o n , t h e c o n t r a s t between t h i r d person animate and t h i r d person inanimate d i r e c t o b j e c t s i n forms w i t h t h i r d person s u b j e c t s does n o t appear i n t h i s paradigm. A s i n t h e paradigm of " t o f o r g e t , " o n l y t h o s e forms which d i f f e r from t h e corresponding p r e f i x forms i n Paradigms One, Two, and Three a r e l i s t e d below. To f i n d t h e c o r r e c t p r e f i x f o r any form of " t o l i k e 1 ' n o t given below, s e e t h e corresponding form i n Paradigm Three. S i n c e t h e stem of "likeI1 b e g i n s with a consonant, no -y- i s i n s e r t e d between p r e f i x e s ending i n a vowel and t h e stem. An - i - i s i n s e r t e d , however, between p r e f i x e s ending i n a consonant and t h e i n i t i a l consonant of t h e stem. Cherokee form (1) a1gi21v23kwdi English meaning "I l i k e it" Analysis a g i - w ~ - - i t g f . a g - , "I"; -i- i s i n s e r t e d b e f o r e a following consonant. d-, p l u r a l o b j e c t ; c f . 1. j a - "you--it1': j -, 2nd person; - a , 3rd p e r s o n . d e - , p l u r a l o b j e c t ; c f . 3. u- "he--him, person.
it": u - , 3rd

(2) da1gi21v23kwdi (3) ja21v23kwdi

"I l i k e them ( i n ) " "you l i k e it" "you l i k e them ( i n ) " "he l i k e s him, it" "he l i k e s them (an o r in)!! "you and I l i k e i t "

(4) d e 2 j a 3 1 v 2 3 k ~ d i

du- "he--them (an o r i n ) " : d - , p l u r a l o b j e c t ; c f . 5. g i n i - "you and I - - i t v v : g - , 1st person; -i- i s i n s e r t e d b e f o r e -n-; -n-, d u a l ; -i- i s i n s e r t e d b e f o r e a consonant. d e g i n i - "you and I--them ( i n ) " : de-, p l u r a l o b j e c t ; c f . 7. i g i - "you ( p l ) and I - it": i - , p l u r a l ; -g-, 1st p e r s o n ; -i- i s i n s e r t e d . d e - , p l u r a l o b j e c t ; c f . 9. o g i n i - "he and I - - i t 1 ' : o-, e x c l u s i v e ; -g-, 1 s t person; - i - i s i n s e r t e d b e f o r e -n-; -i i s i n s e r t e d b e f o r e a consonant. d o g i n i - "he and I--them (in)": d-, p l a r a l object; c f . 11. o g i - "they and I - - i t v t : o-, e x c l u s i v e ; -g-, 1st p e r s o n ; -i- i s i n s e r t e d .

(7) g i 2 n i 2 1 v 23kwdi

(8) de2gi3ni21v23kwdi

"you and I l i k e them ( i n ) I' "you ( p l ) and I l i k e it" "you ( p l ) and I l i k e them ( i n ) "

(9) i1gi21v23kwdi

(10) d e 3 g i 2 1 v 23kwdi

(11) ~ l ~ i ~ n i ~ l v ~ ~ k w d i and I l i k e it" Ithe

(12) d ~ l ~ i ~ n i ~ l v ~ ~ k w "he and I l i k e them d i (in)"

(13) ~ ' ~ i ~ l v ~ ~ k w d i "they and I l i k e i t "

(14) d ~ l ~ i ~ l v ~ ~ k w d i

"they and I like them (in)" "they like him. it"

dogi- "they and I--them (in)": d-, plural object; cf. 13. uni- "they--him, it": u-, 3rd person; -n-, plural; -i- is inserted. duni- "they--themsv: d-. plural object; cf. 15

(15) ~ l n i ~ l v ~ ~ k w d i

(16) d ~ l n i ~ l v ~ ~ k w d i

"they like them (an or in)"

Paradigm Six: "to speak" The following paradigm illustrates the use of the Set A subject pronoun prefixes with an intransitive verb stem. The stem is -wonih-. Cherokee form (1) ji2w03ni2ha English meaning "I'm speaking" Analysis ji- "I": j-, 1st person; -i- is inserted before a consonant. hi- "you": h-, 2nd person; -i- is inserted. ga- "he". ga-, 3rd per. son. ini- "you and I": i-, 1st person; -n-, dual; -i- is inserted. idi- "you (pl) and I": i-, 1st person; -d-, plural; -i- is inserted. osdi- "he and I": o-, exclusive; - s - , another person; -d-, dual. oji- "they and I": o-, exclusive; -j-, other persons; -i- is inserted. sdi- "you (dl)": s-, 2nd person; -d-, dual; -iis inserted. ij- "you (pl)": i-, plural; -j-, 2nd ptrson; -i- is inserted. ani- "they": a-, 3rd person; -n-, plural; -i- is inserted.

"you are speaking" (3) g?2w03ni2ha "he 1 s speaking" "you and I are speaking"

( ) i1ni2w03n12ha 4

(5) i1di2w03ni2ha

"you (pl) and I are speaking" "he and I are speaking"

(6) 01sdi2w03ni2ha

(7) 01ji2w03ni2ha

"they and I are speaking"

(8) sdi2w03ni2ha

"you (dl) are speaking"

(9) i1ji2w03ni2ha

"you (pl) are speaking"

(10) a1ni2w03ni2ha

"they are speaking"

Notes on Paradigm Six Intransitive verb stems beginning with vowels which require the Set A prefixes. The Set A prefixes which appear in this paradigm are also used with

i n t r a n s i t i v e stems beginning with a vowel, w i t h t h e f o l l o w i n g d i f f e r e n c e s . The form of t h e f i r s t person s i n g u l a r p r e f i x i s g - , and t h e t h i r d person s i n g u l a r i s g- o r i s n o t marked, depending on t h e v e r b i n q u e s t i o n . In a d d i t i o n , -1- i s never i n s e r t e d a s it i s i n t h e c a s e of stems beginning w i t h a consonant. Paradigm Seven: " t o be hungry"

The stem of " t o be hungry1' r e q u i r e s t h e S e t B p r e f i x e s . The stem i s -yosih-, r e q u i r i n g t h e i n s e r t i o n of - i - a f t e r a p r e f i x ending i n a consonant. Cherokee form English meaning "I 'm hungry"
(2) ja2y03si2ha

Analysis a g i - "I": a g - , 1st p e r son; - i - i s i n s e r t e d . j a - "you": j a - , 2nd person.


U-

"you're hungry" "he ' s hungry" "you and I a r e hungry"

(3) u l y o 3 s i 2 h a
(4) d e 2 g i 3 n i 2 y 0 3 s i 2 h a

flhe". u - , 3rd person. .

d e g i n i - "you and I": de-, p l u r a l ; -0-, e x c l u s i v e ; - g - , 1st person; -i- i s inserted. d e g i - "you ( p l ) and I": de-, p l u r a l ; -g-, 1st person; -i- i s i n s e r t e d . d o g i n i - "he and I": d-, p l u r a l ; -0-, exclusive; -g-, 1st person; -i- i s i n s e r t e d ; -n-, d u a l ; -iis inserted. d o g i - "they and I": d-, p l u r a l ; -0-, e x c l u s i v e ; -g-, 1st person; -i- i s inserted. d e s d i - "you ( d l ) " : d e - , p l u r a l ; - s - , 2nd person; -d-, d u a l ; -i- i s i n serted. d e j i - "you ( p l ) " : de-, p l u r a l ; - j - , 2nd person; - i - i s i n s e r t e d . Note t h a t i - , p l u r a l , i s del e t e d a f t e r de-. duni- "theyf1: de-, plural; -u-, 3rd person; -n-, p l u r a l ; -i- i s i n s e r t e d .

(5) d e 3 g i 2 y 0 3 s i 2 h a

"you ( p l ) and I a r e hungry"

h (6) d ~ ' ~ i ~ n i ~ ~ o ~ s i ~ "hea and I a r e hungry"

"they and I a r e hungry"

"you ( d l ) a r e hungry"

"you ( p l ) a r e hungry"

(10) d ~ l n i ~ ~ o ~ s i ~ h a

"they a r e hungry"

Notes on Paradigm Seven I n t r a n s i t i v e v e r b stems beginning w i t h vowels which r e q u i r e t h e S e t B p r e f i x e s . The S e t B p r e f i x e s used w i t h t h e forms of "to be hungry" a l s o occur w i t h i n t r a n s i t i v e stems beginning with a vowel, w i t h t h e f o l l o w i n g changes. The f i r s t s i n g u l a r p r e f i x

changes from a g i - t o agw-, t h e t h i r d p e r s o n s i n g u l a r p r e f i x i s uw-, and -i- i s n e v e r i n s e r t e d a s it i s i n t h e c a s e of s t e m s b e g i n n i n g w i t h a c o n s o n a n t . The u s e o f t h e p l u r a l p r e f i x de-. w i t 1 1 t1.e v e r b '!to b e hungry." The p l u r a l p r e f i x d e - must b e u s e d w i t h t h e n o n - s i n g u l a r foi-111s o f " t o b e h u n g r y . " F a i l u r e t o u s e d e - i n p l u r a l f o r r i ~ so f t h i s v e r b l e a d s t o ludicrous r e s u l t s . F o r example, t h e s i h hungry" would seem t o i m p l y t o Cherokee s p e a k e r s t h a t form * ~ ' n i ~ ~ o ~ " t o ~be a two o r more i n d i v i d u a l s h a v e a s i n g l e s t o m a c h . O t h e r v e r b s which behave s i m i l a r l y e i e t i a r e d ~ ' n i ~ t ~ ~ d "et h~ y~ a r ~ ? ha r s t y " and d u 1 n i 2 y a 2 w e 3 g a " t h e y a r e t i r e d . " "To be t i r e d " r e q u i r e s t h e p l u r a l p r e f i x i n s i n g u l a r form. presumably b e c a u s e t h e s e n s a t i o n o f t i r e d n e s s i s f e l t i n a l i p a r t s o f t h e body. Paradigm E i g h t : "to h i t , " p a s t t e n s e

The s t e m s of a l l Cherokee v e r b s must a p p e a r i n one o f two b a s i c f o r m s : p r o g r e s s i v e I n t h e preceding paradigms, each v e r b appeared with t h e p r o o r non-progressive. g r e s s i v e form of t h e s t e m . I n S e c t i o n I-C, t h e d i f f e r e n c e between p r o g r e s s i v e and non-progressive stems w i l l be d i s c u s s e d f u r t h e r . For our p r e s e n t purposes it i s s u f f i c i e n t t o p o i n t o u t t h a t t h e S e t A p r e f i x e s a r e used o n l y with p r o g r e s s i v e v e r b s t e m s . Those v e r b s which r e q u i r e t h e S e t A p r e f i x e s w i t h p r o g r e s s i v e s t e m s t a k e S e t B p r e f i x e s w i t h n o n - p r o g r e s s i v e s t e m s . T h e r e a r e , a c c o r d i n g l y , two c l a s s e s of v e r b s i n Cherokee: t h o s e which a p p e a r w i t h t h e S e t B p r e f i x e s r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e form o f t h e s t e m , and t h o s e which t a k e S e t A p r e f i x e s w i t h p r o g r e s s i v e stems a n d Set B p r e f i x e s w i t h non-progressive stems. " H i t " i s an i n s t a n c e of t h e l a t t e r g r o u p o f v e r b s . I n t h e f o l l o w i n g paradigm t h e stem o f " h i t " i s i n i t s n o n - p r o g r e s s i v e form, - h n i l - , f o l l o w e d by t h e p a s t t e n s e s u f f i x - v 7 i . Only t h o s e forms a r e l i s t e d which e x h i b i t s u b j e c t - o b j e c t p r e f i x c o m b i n a t i o n s d i f f e r i n g from t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g p r e f i x e s i n Paradigm Two. To d e t e r m i n e t h e c o r r e c t p r e f i x f o r any form n o t g i v e n , f i n d t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g form i n Paradigm Two. Cherokee form
(1) a l g w v 2 h n i 3 1 v 3 ? i
(2) d a l g ~ v ~ h n i ~ l v ~ ~ i

E n g l i s h meaning " I h i t it1'


"I h i t them ( i n ) "

Analysis c f . P4, 1. c f . P4, 2 . c f . P4, 3 . c f . P4, 4 . uw- "he--him, i t " : c f . P4, 6. duw- "he-them ( a n , i n ) I t : c f . P4, 8. c f . P4, 9 . c f . P4, 1 0 . c f . P4, 11. c f . P4, 1 2 . c f . P4, 1 4 . c f . P4, 1 6 .

(3) jv2hni31v37i (4) d e 2 j v 3 h n i 3 1 v 3 7 i


( 5 ) u1wa21ini31v3?i

"you h i t it" "you h i t them ( i n ) " "he h i t him, i t "

"he h i t them (an o r i n ) "

"you and I h i t it" "you and I h i t them ( i n ) " "you ( p l ) and I h i t i t " "you ( p l ) and I h i t them ( i n ) " "he and I h i t it" "he and I h i t them ( i n ) "

"they and I h i t i t " (14) d ~ l ~ v ~ h n i ~ l v ~ ~ i "they and I h i t them ( i n ) " (13) o l g v 2 h n i 3 1 v 3 7 i (15) ~ l n v ~ h n i ~ l v ~ ~ i (16) du1nv2hni31v3?i "they h i t it" "they h i t them ( i n ) " Notes on Paradigm Eight

c f . P4, 18. c f . P4, 2 0 . c f . P4, 2 2 . c f . P4, 24.

The a l t e r n a t i o n between -h- and t h e a b s e n c e of - h - . The a l t e r n a t i o n between -h- and i t s absence i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f b o t h t h e p r o g r e s s i v e and n o n - p r o g r e s s i v e I t i s a p p a r e n t l y t h e c a s e i n Cherokee t h a t a l t e r n a t i o n s of t h i s stem of " h i t . " k i n d , a s w e l l a s a l t e r n a t i o n s between -h- and g l o t t a l s t o p , always occur i n b o t h t h e p r o g r e s s i v e and n o n - p r o g r e s s i v e stems o f t h e v e r b s s u b j e c t t o them. The change from S e t A t o S e t B p r e f i x e s i n v e r b s w i t h stems beginning w i t h a consonant. To determine t h e c o r r e c t form of a S e t B p r e f i x w i t h a non-progressive stem of a v e r b l i k e " s e e , " f i n d t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g p r e f i x i n Paradigm F i v e . For example, t h e p r e f i x used i n t h e form a1gi21v23kwdi " I l i k e i t " i s a l s o used i n t h e form a 1 g i 2 g 0 2 h v 2 3 ? i 1 1 1 saw i t . " Summary o f S e c t i o n I-B The v a r i o u s s e t s o f pronoun p r e f i x e s i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h e p r e c e d i n g paradigms a r e d i s p l a y e d below i n F i g u r e s 1 - - 4 . F i g u r e 1 i s a d i s p l a y o f t h e S e t A s u b j e c t pronoun p r e f i x e s which o c c u r w i t h i n t r a n s i t i v e v e r b s . The S e t B s u b j e c t pronoun p r e f i x e s a r e shown i n F i g u r e 2 . F i g u r e 3 d i s p l a y s t h e s u b j e c t - o b j e c t pronoun combinations which o c c u r w i t h t r a n s i t i v e v e r b stems t a k i n g t h e S e t A p r e f i x e s . F i g u r e 4 shows t h o s e S e t B s u b j e c t - o b j e c t p r e f i x combinations which d i f f e r from t h e corresponding S e t A p r e f i x e s i n F i g u r e 3 . The S e t A s u b j e c t pronoun p r e f i x e s . The S e r A s u b j e c t pronoun p r e f i x e s which o c c u r with i n t r a n s i t i v e v e r b s a r e d i s p l a y e d i n F i g u r e 1. The numerals 1 , 2 , and 3 i n d i c a t e whether a g i v e n p r e f i x i s f i r s t , s e c o n d , o r t h i r d p e r s o n . he headings s i n g u l a r , d u a l , and p l u r a l i n d i c a t e t h e number o f each p r e f i x . Note t h a t t h e l a b e l " i n c l u s i v e " i s employed t o r e f e r t o forms i n which t h e s e a k e r and t h e p e r s o n o r p e r s o n s spoken t o a r e t h e s u b j e c t of t h e v e r b ; e . g . i 1n l wo3ni2ha "you and I a r e speaking" i s a f i r s t p e r s o n d u a l i n c l u s i v e form. The l a b e l " e x c l u s i v e " i s used t o r e f e r t o forms i n which t h e p e r s o n spoken t o i s excluded w h i l e t h e s e a k e r and one o r more o t h e r p e r s o n s a r e i n c l u d e d a s t h e s u b j e c t ; e . g . 01sdi2w03ni ha "he and I a r e speaking" i s a f i r s t p e r s o n d u a l e x c l u s i v e form. I t should be noted t h a t t h e pronoun p r e f i x e s d i s p l a y e d i n F i g u r e s 1--4 a r e p r e s e n t e d a s wholes; i . e . , t h e y a r e not f u r t h e r a n a l y z e d . For such a n a l y s i s , s e e t h e a n a l y s i s p r e s e n t e d above with each paradigm. Each form i s p r e s e n t e d f i r s t a s i t a p p e a r s b e f o r e a stem beginning w i t h a vowel; d i r e c t l y below t h i s form t h e same p r e f i x i s shown a s i t a p p e a r s bef o r e a stem beginning w i t h a c o n s o n a n t . For example, t h e form o f t h e f i r s t p e r s o n s i n g u l a r s u b j e c t pronoun p r e f i x b e f o r e a stem b e g i n n i n g w i t h a vowel i s g - ; t h e form o f t h e same p r e f i x b e f o r e a consonant i s j i - , however. Note t h e t h i r d p e r s o n s i n g u l a r p r e f i x forms. Some v e r b stems b e g i n n i n g w i t h vowels r e q u i r e t h e p r e f i x g - , while o t h e r s t a k e no p r e f i x i n t h i r d p e r s o n s i n g u l a r ; e . g . gv2n02.sa3sga "he i s sweeping" b u t e 3 g a "he i s going." Some v e r b stems b e g i n n i n g w i t h consonants t a k e ga- i n t h e t h i r d p e r s o n s i n g u l a r , w h i l e o t h e r s r e q u i r e a - ; e . g . ga2wo 3n;. 2ha "he i s s p e a k i n g , " but a l g o w h 2 t i 3 h a "he s e e s i t . "

.5

singular inclusive gjihh igga-, ainini-

dua 1 exclusive osdosdisdsdiinclusive ididi-

plural exclusive oj ojii jiji-

-----------------Figure 1

------------------

The S e t B s u b j e c t pronoun p r e f i x e s . The S e t B s u b j e c t pronoun p r e f i x e s which occur with i n t r a n s i t i v e v e r b s a r e d i s p l a y e d i n Figure 2 . A s i n Figure 1, each p r e f i x i s given f i r s t i n t h e form it t a k e s b e f o r e a stem beginning with a vowel, followed by t h e form of t h e same p r e f i x which occurs b e f o r e stems beginning with consonants. singular inclusive agwagij ginginisdsdidua 1 exclusive oginogini inclusive igigiiji j iun uniplural exclusive O g ogi-

j au w u-

-----------------Figure 2

The S e t A s u b j e c t - o b j e c t p r e f i x e s . The complex s u b j e c t - o b j e c t p r e f i x e s used with t r a n s i t i v e v e r b stems r e q u i r i n g t h e S e t A p r e f i x e s a r e shown i n Figure 3 . To f i n d a given s u b j e c t - o b j e c t p r e f i x , f i n d t h e l a b e l f o r t h e s u b j e c t component of t h e p r e f i x a t t h e l e f t of F i g u r e 3 and t h e l a b e l f o r t h e o b j e c t component a t t h e t o p o f t h e c h a r t . The box where t h e row l a b e l e d f o r t h e s u b j e c t component and t h e column l a b e l e d f o r t h e o b j e c t component i n t e r s e c t w i l l c o n t a i n t h e p r e f i x . For example, t o f i n d t h e p r e f i x used i n v e r b forms w i t h f i r s t person s i n g u l a r s u b j e c t s and t h i r d person s i n g u l a r animate o b j e c t s , l o c a t e t h e i n t e r s e c t i o n o f t h e row l a b e l e d f i r s t person s i n g u l a r s u b j e c t and t h e column l a b e l e d t h i r d person s i n g u l a r animate obj e c t . The box l o c a t e d a t t h a t p o i n t w i l l c o n t a i n t h e p r e f i x being s o u g h t .

3 sg.

3sg.

ldl.

ldl.

lpl.

lpl.

3 pl.

3 PI..

1 sg. 1 sg. 2 sg.


3 sg.

2 sg.

gvY -

gvsgwsgiagwagi-

1 dl. incl .
1 dl. excl

. . .
sginsginiisgiyisgigvgwgvgi-

sdvysdv-

1 pl. incl 1 pl. excl

ijvyijv-

2 dl. 2 pl.
3 pl.

gej gejiFigure 3
~~~~

The S e t B s u b j e c t - o b j e c t p r e f i x e s . The S e t B s u b j e c t - o b j e c t p r e f i x e s which d i f f e r from t h e corresponding S e t A p r e f i x e s a r e d i s p l a y e d i n F i g u r e 4 .

3 sg. in.

3 pl. in.

2 sg.
3 sg.

1 dl. incl.
1 p1.

incl .
1 dl. excl.
1 pl.

excl .
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Figure 4 The r e f l e x i v e p r e f i x -adad-. The r e f l e x i v e p r e f i x -adad- occurs f o l l o w i n g t h e pronoun p r e f i x e s and d i r e c t l y p r e c e d i n g t h e v e r b stem. T h i s p r e f i x i s des c r i b e d i n S e c t i o n I-E.

I-C. The n o n - f i n a l s u f f i x e s . Every v e r b form i n Cherokee must end i n a s u f f i x . Those s u f f i x e s which can end v e r b forms a r e r e f e r r e d t o a s f i n a l s u f f i x e s . Most f i n a l s u f f i x e s , however, a r e n o t l i m i t e d t o o c c u r r e n c e i n f i n a l p o s i t i o n : two o r more of t h e s e s u f f i x e s f r e q u e n t l y occur t o g e t h e r i n a s i n g l e verb form. The f i n a l s u f f i x e s w i l l be discussed i n S e c t i o n I-D. There a r e a l s o a number o f s u f f i x e s which cannot end v e r b forms. One o r more o f t h e s e n o n - f i n a l s u f f i x e s may o c c u r i n a v e r b form, followed by a t l e a s t one f i n a l s u f f i x . The n o n - f i n a l s u f f i x e s a r e d i s c u s s e d i n d i v i d u a l l y i n t h i s s e c t i o n . F i g u r e 1 shows t h e r e l a t i v e o r d e r i n which t h e n o n - f i n a l and f i n a l s u f f i x e s occur f o l l o w i n g t h e verb stem. F i n a l s u f f i x e s a r e i n d i c a t e d by a n ( f ) following t h e s u f f i x l a b e l . The s u f f i x e s i n box 13 a r e l i m i t e d t o f i n a l p o s i t i o n .

1- g i.- , - e - J -yreversive
4

2 .

-is-, d u p l i c a t i v e -is- lvbecome"

3 . -110-, r e p e t i t i v e

-dan-,

instrumentalcausative -dohdan-, u n i n t e n t i o n a l - i d o l - I1around"

5 -ohn-, completive

- e l - , dative-benefactive

7 .

8- e - " a t i n t e r v a l s " - i h l - "come t o "

9 -g-, p r o g r e s s i v e -idi-, pre-incipient (f) -i-, f u t u r e ( f )

10

11-gwu "only, j u s t , s t i l l " 12

-v7i, past (f) -e?i, reportative (f) -esdi, future progressive (f) -o3i, pluperfect (f) -03i, h a b i t u a l ( f ) -di, infinitive (f) -a, present, recent past imperative (f) - v ? i , f u t u r e imperative

-sgo, i n t e r r o g a t i v e ( f )

1 3 - j ~ ,i n t e r r o 6 t i v e -ke "or" -na "and what i f " -hv "but" - i s i "or e l s e " -dina, imperative i n t e n s i f i e r -dv, f o c u s s u f f i x

Figure 1

I t should be noted t h a t t h e r e i s a c e r t a i n amount of v a r i a t i o n among Cherokee speakers regarding t h e order of t h e non-final s u f f i x e s . W w i l l not attempt t o e d i s c u s s t h i s v a r i a t i o n ; t h e r e a d e r should b e a r i n mind t h a t t h e preceding c h a r t r e f l e c t s t h e speech of some Cherokee s p e a k e r s , while o t h e r s p e a k e r s may u s e v e r b forms with s u f f i x e s o c c u r r i n g i n a somewhat d i f f e r e n t o r d e r . I n p a r t i c u l a r , f o r some speakers - i l o - f o l l o w s t h e s u f f i x e s shown a t p o s i t i o n s 4--6 i n t h e c h a r t , A discussion of the individual and -ohn- follows t h e s u f f i x e s shown a t 6--7. non-final suffixes follows. -gi-, reversive form: - g i - b e f o r e consonants, - g i s - b e f o r e vowels, b e f o r e -g-, and b e f o r e t h e i n s t r u m e n t a l - c a u s a t i v e and a c c i d e n t a l s u f f i x e s ; ( c f . 1 - 5 ) . (1) (2)
(3)
(4)

a. b. a. b.

gv 1 sga. g v 2 g i37a.

"I'm weaving i t . " "I 'm unweaving i t . " "He's unweaving i t f o r him."

gv2se3ha "He's weaving i t f o r him." gv2gi37e2ha.

g v 2 g i 3sgv23 7 i .

"He was unweaving i t .


"He's a c c i d e n t a l l y unweaving it . I f

g v 2 g i 3 s d i 2 h a . "He's u s i n g i t t o unweave i t . " gv2gi3sdoh2di3ha. - g i - i s used w i t h a number of v e r b s i n Cherokee t o r e v e r s e t h e b a s i c

(5)

function: meaning.

comments: - g i - i s a t t a c h e d t o t h e f i n a l vowel of t h e v e r b stem. Note t h a t a s e quence of - g i - p l u s -g-, p r o g r e s s i v e , p l u s -a, p r e s e n t , y i e l d s - g i 7 a , a s i n ( l b ) . A sequence of - g i - p l u s - e l - , d a t i v e , y i e l d s - g i 7 e l - , a s i n ( 6 ) . (6) d? gv 2 3g;. 3 7 e 2 1 i . -e-, r e v e r s i v e form: -e-. "He w i l l unweave it f o r him."

f u n c t i o n : A r e v e r s e meaning i s achieved i n some v e r b s by changing t h e f i n a l stem vowel t o -e-, a s i n ( 7 )

(7)

a.

da1hna2w03sgv237i.

IIHe was d r e s s i n g .

"

b. da1hna2we3sgvZ37i. "He was u n d r e s s i n g . " -y - , r e v e r s i v e form: -y-. f u n c t i o n : A r e v e r s e meaning i s achieved f o r some v e r b s by i n s e r t i n g -y- b e f o r e t h e l a s t stem vowel, a s i n ( 8 ) . (8) a. b. form: 10). a1da3dlo2h+3ha. "He i s p u t t i n g on h i s b e l t . " a1da3dlo2hyi3ha. "He i s t a k i n g o f f h i s b e l t . I 1

-is-, duplicative -is- b e f o r e vowels, except a s noted below, and - i s i s - b e f o r e -g-; c f . (9(9) (10) g ? 2 w 0 3 n i 2 s i 2 3 ~ i 3 1 ? 2 ? a . "He i s making t h e same speech r e p e a t e d l y . " a. b. (11) g ( t 2 ~ 0 3 n i 2 s g v 2 3 7 i'?He was speaking. . ga2w03ni2si23si3 s g v 2 3 ? i . "He was making t h e same speech

."

Note, however, t h a t -is- p l u s -g- p l u s - a y i e l d s t h e sequence - i s i h a , a s i n (11) g a 2 w 0 3 n i 2 s i 2 3 ~ + 3 h a . "He i s making t h e same speech."
- i s becomes - i s a h n - b e f o r e t h e p a s t t e n s e s u f f i x -v7i and b e f o r e t h e f u t u r e imperat i v e - v ? i ; c f . (12-13).

(12) (13) (14)

u1w03ni2si23s?3hnv237i. "He made t h e same speech." hi2w03ni2si23s?3hnv27i. "Make t h e same speech l a t e r . " i n f i n i t i v e s u f f i x - d i , - i s - changes t o - i s o h - , a s i n (14). u1du21i. "He wants him t o make t h e same speech again. " a. b. ~ ~ w o ~ n i ~ ~ u 1 d~ 1 id i "He wants him t o speak." h / 2s . ~ ~ w o ls 'n3 sio h 2 d i l ~ ~

When followed by t h e

f u n c t i o n : - i s - i s used t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e a c t i o n of t h e verb i s being r e p e a t e d i n t h e same manner a s on a p r e v i o u s o c c a s i o n . I n ( 1 0 b ) , f o r example, i t i s understood t h a t t h e same c o n t e n t s used i n a p r e v i o u s s p e e c h w e r e b e i n g repeated,.

- i s - "become"
form: -isahn- before vowels, s e e ( 1 5 ) , except a s n o t e d , and -isis- before -g-; s e e (16). (15) u l y o 3 s i 2 s a 2 h n e 3 7 i . "He r e p o r t e d l y g o t hungry."

(16)

u 1 y 0 3 s i 2 s i 2 3 s g v 3 ~ i ."He was g e t t i n g hungry . I f

The sequence of - i s - p l u s -g- p l u s - a y i e l d s - i s i h a , a s i n ( 1 7 ) . 1 3 .2 . 3 (17) u yo s l s t h a . "He i s g e t t i n g hungry." Rather than - i s a h n - , - i s - i s used b e f o r e t h e r e p e t i t i v e s u f f i x - i l o - ; n o t e ( 1 8 ) . (18) (19) u 1 y 0 3 s i 2 s i 2 3 1 0 3 2 s g o 3 ~ i ."He r e p e a t e d l y g e t s hungry." ~ ' ~ o ~ s i ~ s a ~ ~ "He's h e t.t i n g hungry because of him." n , ~ ga The form - i s a n - i s used b e f o r e t h e d a t i v e - b e n e f a c t i v e , a s i n ( 1 9 ) . Note t h a t t h e d a t i v e - b e n e f a c t i v e s u f f i x a l s o h a s a meaning which may be t r a n s l a t e d a s "because o f . " This i s a t h i r d , r e l a t i v e l y r a r e f u n c t i o n o f t h e d a t i v e - b e n e f a c t i v e ; f o r t h e two major f u n c t i o n s , s e e t h e d i s c u s s i o n of - e l - below. f u n c t i o n : T h i s s u f f i x a p p a r e n t l y o c c u r s w i t h a l i m i t e d number o f i n t r a n s i t i v e v e r b s o f s e n s a t i o n t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e s u b j e c t o f t h e v e r b i s beginning t o e x p e r i e n c e the sensation i n question. -ilo-, repetitive form: - i l o - b e f o r e vowels, w i t h a g l o t t a l s t o p i n s e r t e d , a s i n ( 2 0 ) ; - i l o s - b e f o r e consonants, a s i n ( 2 1 ) . Exceptions a r e noted below. . (20) a . u 1wo 3n l 2 s e 3 ? i . "He r e p o r t e d l y spoke." b. (21) a. b. u 1 w 0 3 n i 2 ~ i 2 3 1 0 3 7 e 3 ? i ,"He r e p o r t e d l y spoke over and o v e r . " g? 2 w 3n . 2 s g v 2 3 7 i . o l "He was s p e a k i n g . "

ga2~03ni2si231032sgv23?i "He w a s speaking r e p e a t e d l y . "

- i l o - changes t o - i l o j - b e f o r e t h e i m p e r a t i v e s u f f i x , - a , a s i n ( 2 2 ) ; n o t e t h a t t h e i m p e r a t i v e s u f f i x -i changes t o -a when preceded by a n o t h e r s u f f i x . (22)

a.
b.

h i 2 w o 1 n i Z 3 h i . "Speak." . hi2wo 1n l 2 s .l 2 l o 2 3 j a . "Speak r e p e a t e d l y . "

f u n c t i o n : - i l o - i s used t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e a c t i o n o r s t a t e expressed by t h e v e r b i s being r e p e a t e d s e v e r a l t i m e s . -dan-, i n s t r u m e n t a l , c a u s a t i v e form: -dan- b e f o r e vowels, - d i s - b e f o r e -g; c f . (23-24), e x c e p t a s n o t e d . (23) (24)

~ ' w o ~ n i ~ h i ' s d a ~ ~ n e ~ l e ~"He .r e p o r t e d l y used it t o speak w i t h f o r him." ?i ga2w03ni2hi2sdi23sgv3?i. "He was u s i n g i t t o speak w i t h . "

The sequence o f - d i s - p l u s -g- y i e l d s - d i h - b e f o r e - a , p r e s e n t t e n s e ; c f . ( 2 5 ) .


3 .2 2 (25) ga2wo n l h i s d i 3 h a . "He's u s i n g it t o speak w i t h . " The sequence o f -dan- p l u s - d i , t h e i n f i n i t i v e s u f f i x , y i e l d s -dohdi, as i n ( 2 6 ) .

(26) (27)

t ~ ~ w o ~ n i ~ ~ h i ~ sud d uh 1 i . i "He wants t o u s e i t t o speak w i t h . " 1 o 2~ d a s i n C27). hq2w01ni2hi2sda. lUse it t o speak w i t h . I 1

Before t h e i m p e r a t i v e s u f f i x - a , -dan- changes t o -d-,

f u n c t i o n : There a r e two i m p o r t a n t f u n c t i o n s s e r v e d by -dan-. When used w i t h t r a n s i t i v e v e r b s , i t s p r e s e n c e i n d i c a t e s t h a t some i n s t r u m e n t i s b e i n g employed by t h e animate s u b j e c t of t h e v e r b t o a s s i s t i n c a r r y i n g o u t t h e a c t i o n of t h e

v e r b . This f u n c t i o n i s i l l u s t r a t e d by (23-27) above. The second f u n c t i o n i s a c a u s a t i v e one: -dan- may be used w i t h i n h e r e n t l y i n t r a n s i t i v e v e r b s t o show t h a t t h e a c t i o n o f t h e v e r b i s being performed by an i n a n i m a t e o b j e c t i n d i r e c t l y through t h e c a u s a l i t y of an animate a g e n t ; c f . ( 2 8 ) . (28) a. b. a11sgi3?a. "He's d a n c i n g . " "He's making i t dance ."

a11sgi3sdi2ha.

I t i s p o s s i b l e f o r -dan- t o have t h e c a u s a t i v e f u n c t i o n i n t h e c a s e of t r a n s i t i v e v e r b s with animate d i r e c t o b j e c t s , a s i n ( 2 9 ) , b u t t h i s i s r e l a t i v e l y r a r e . F u r t h e r more, i t i s understood i n (29) t h a t t h e s u b j e c t of t h e v e r b i s a c t i v e l y a s s i s t i n g t h e person who i s d r i n k i n g by h o l d i n g t h e d r i n k t o h i s l i p s . (29) a1di2ta2sdi3ha. "He's c a u s i n g him t o d r i n k ."

The use of t h e c a u s a t i v e w i t h t r a n s i t i v e v e r b s i s t h u s allowed o n l y when t h e subj e c t of t h e v e r b i s understood t o be a c t i v e l y a s s i s t i n g t h e animate d i r e c t o b j e c t t o perform t h e a c t i o n . comments: -dan- i s a t t a c h e d t o t h e i n f i n i t i v e stem o f v e r b s when i t i s n o t p r e ceded by a n o t h e r n o n - f i n a l s u f f i x . The i n f i n i t i v e stem of v e r b s may be found by removing t h e i n f i n i t i v e s u f f i x - d i from t h e i n f i n i t i v e form of v e r b s found i n t h e d i c t i o n a r y . The i n f i n i t i v e form of " t o speak" i s l i s t e d i n t h e d i c t i o n a r y a s ~ ~ w o l n i ~ ~ h i ~ s d i t.h e s u f f i x - d i and t h e p r e f i x u- a r e removed, t h i s l e a v e s When t h e i n f i n i t i v e stem -wonihis-, t o which -dan- i s a t t a c h e d . -dohdan-, u n i n t e n t i o n a l form: -dohdan- b e f o r e vowels, -dohdis- b e f o r e -g-; e x c e p t i o n s correspond t o t h e e x c e p t i o n s noted f o r -dan-. That i s , -dohdan- p l u s -g- p l u s - a y i e l d s -dohdih-, a s i n (30); -dohdan- p l u s t h e i n f i n i t i v e s u f f i x - d i y i e l d s -dohdi, a s i n (31); -dohdan- p l u s - a , i m p e r a t i v e , y i e l d s -dohda, a s i n ( 3 2 ) . (30) (31) (32) a1gowh2tvh2doh3di3ha. "He's s e e i n g i t a c c i d e n t a l l y . I 1 ~ ~ ~ o w h ~ t v h ~ du'du21i. i oh~d hi2w01ni2hi2sdoh2da. "He wants.him t o s e e i t a c c i d e n t a l l y . " "Speak u n i n t e n t i o n a l l y . "

I t should be noted t h a t forms l i k e ( 3 2 ) , w h i l e b i z a r r e , a r e u n d e r s t a n d a b l e and i l l u s t r a t e t h e form which -dohdan- would t a k e when followed by t h e i m p e r a t i v e suffix. f u n c t i o n : The p r e s e n c e o f -dohdan- i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e a c t i o n of t h e v e r b has been performed u n i n t e n t i o n a l l y . The adverbs " u n i n t e n t i o n a l l y " and " a c c i d e n t a l l y " can both be used i n t r a n s l a t i n g forms w i t h -dohdan- i n t o E n g l i s h . -ohn-, completive form: -ohn- b e f o r e vowels, -ohvs- b e f o r e -g- and b e f o r e t h e i n f i n i t i v e s u f f i x ; c f . (33-35). (33) (34) (35) function: (36) (37) u1w03ni2sp3hnv3?i. lrHe f i n i s h e d speaking . I 1 ga2wo3n.i 2 so 3hy 3 s g a . "He's f i n i s h i n g speaking

."
Note (36-38).

~ ~ w o ~ n i ~ ~ s p 1~ u 2 1 i .~ s d iwants t o f i n i s h speaking . I 1 u d h ~ "He -ohn- i s used t o r e f e r t o t h e completion o f an a c t i o n . ga2w03ni2s03hv3sga. "He i s f i n i s h i n g s p e a k i n g . " ga2w03ni2s03hna. "He j u s t f i n i s h e d s p e a k i n g . " p a s t i n t h i s form.) (-a marks t h e r e c e n t

286
(38)

- -

da2gg2w032ni2sS,3hni. "He w i l l f i n i s h speaking ( a t a s p e c i f i c p o i n t i n time) .l 1

- e l - , dative-benefact i v e form:

- e l - b e f o r e vowels, -eh- b e f o r e t h e i n f i n i t i v e s u f f i x ; c f . (39-40).


a. b. d? 2 g? 2 ~ o ~ ~ n i "He w i. l l speak." ~ s i da2ga2wo 32 n .l 2 h;- 2~ e ~ ~ "Hei w i l l speak f o r him." l . "He wants t o speak f o r him."

(39) (40) (41)

~ ~ w o ' n i ~ ~ h i ~ s u1du21i3ha. eh~di

The sequence of - e l - p l u s -g- p l u s - a y i e l d s -eha; s e e ( 4 1 ) . ga2w03ni2hi2sB3h?. "He i s speaking f o r him." f u n c t i o n : - e l - i s used t o show t h a t an a c t i o n i s being undertaken on b e h a l f of someone, a s i n (40-41). T h i s is t h e b e n e f a c t i v e f u n c t i o n of - e l - . The second major f u n c t i o n , t h e d a t i v e one, i s i l l u s t r a t e d by (42). (42) a1hne3ha. "He i s g i v i n g it t o him." The converse o f (42) i s a l s o achieved i n Cherokee by t h e use of - e l - i n i t s d a t i v e f u n c t i o n ; n o t e (43). (43) a1hwa2hi3se2ha. "He i s buying i t from him."
A t h i r d f u n c t i o n of - e l - was d i s c u s s e d i n r e l a t i o n t o (19) above.

comments: Verb stems ending i n -s- b e f o r e - v ? i and e x h i b i t i n g -s- p l u s -g- p l u s - a i n t h e p r e s e n t t e n s e ( i n c l u d i n g t h o s e stems i n which - s - p l u s -g- p l u s -a y i e l d s -ha) r e q u i r e t h e i n f i n i t i v e form o f t h e stem when t h e stem i s d i r e c t l y followed by - e l - ; c f . (44-47). (44) (45) (46) (47) form: du1da3y02sv23?i. "He s u r r e n d e r e d . ' I da1da3y02sga. "He's surrendering. "He wants him t o s u r r e n d e r . " "He's s u r r e n d e r i n g f o r him." j u 2 d a 2 y 0 3 h i 3 s d i u1du21i3ha. da1da3y02h/2se3ha.

- i d o l - "around" - i d o l - b e f o r e vowels, - i d o l - p l u s -g- y i e l d s -idoh-; c f . (48-49). (48) (49)

a.
b. a. b.

~ ~ w o ~ n i ~ s v spoke." i . "He ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ w o ~ n i ~ s i ~ ~ "Heo went around ~speaking. d ~ ~ l v ~ ~ i . ga2w03ni2sgv237i. "He was speaking. g?2w03ni2si23d032hv23?i "He was going around speaking."

The sequence - i d o l - p l u s t h e i n f i n i t i v e s u f f i x - d i y i e l d s -idoh-, a s i n ( 5 0 ) (50) ~ ~ w o ~ n i ~ ~ s i ~ d d u 2 d "He wants t o go around speaking." u 1 a ~ s i Before - a , i m p e r a t i v e , and - a , r e c e n t p a s t , - i d o l - becomes i d - ; c f . (51-52). (51) (52) h12wo l r ~ i ~ s i ~ ~"Goa around speaking. d . ga2w03ni2si23da. "He j u s t now went around speaking. "

f u n c t i o n : The presence o f - i d o l - i n a v e r b form i n d i c a t e s movement from p l a c e t o p l a c e on t h e p a r t of t h e s u b j e c t of t h e v e r b . The u s e of - i d o l - does not necess a r i l y imply l a c k of purpose on t h e p a r t of t h e s p e a k e r , o r unplanned random

movement; (53) could be said of a politician who is going from place to place speaking during his campaign. (53) ga2w03ni2si23d032ha. '!He is going around speaking." -idol- can also be used to refer to essentially random movement within a small area; (53) could be used in a situation in which a person is pacing while talking. -e- "at intervals" form: -vs- before vowels and before -di; -e- before -g-; cf. (54-56). a. ~'wo~ni'sv~~?i."He spoke." v ~ spoke b. ~ ~ w o ~ n i ~ s v ~ s "He ~ ? i . at intervals." (55) ~ ~ w o ' n i ~ ~ s v ~u1du21i3ha. "He wants to speak at intervals." ~sdi (56) a. b. ga2w03ni2sgv237i. "He was speaking." ga2w03ni2se3gv23?i. "He was speaking at intervals ." (54)

An exception is the form -es- which appears before the future tense suffix -i, as in (57). (57) da2ga2w032ni2se3si. "He will speak at intervals ." A second exception is the change to -ug- before -a, recent past, as in the verb ga2w03ni2su32gaIthe just now went to speak." function: -e- is used to indicate that the action of the verb takes place at intervals of time or space. Note the spatial example in (58). (58) a11e2hwi2sta2ne3ga. "He, it's stopping at intervals." A second major function of this suffix is to indicate that the subject of the verb is going to a certain place in order to perform the action of the verb; note (59). (59) ga2w03ni2se3ga. "He is going (to acertain location) in order to speak." All forms with -e- are thus ambiguous. (59) could also mean "He is speaking at intervals." Form (54b)could also mean "He went in order to speak." Which meaning -e- has in a given instance is determined by the context. -ihl- "come to" form: -ihl- before vowels, -ihis- before -di, -ihl- plus -g- yields -ihih; cf. (60-62). -ihl- becomes -ig- before -a, recent past and -a, imperative; cf. (6364). (60) (61) a. da2ga2w032ni2si. "He will speak."

. b. da2ga2w032ni2si23hli. "He will come to speak." sdi a. ~ ~ w o ' n i ~ ~ h i ~ u1du21i3ha. "He wants to speak .I1 .23 . .2 b. u2wo 1ni si 3hi sdi u1du21i3ha. "He wants to come to speak."
b. ga2w03ni2,i23h/3hv23?i. "He was coming to speak." . si ga. "He just now came to speak." ga2wo3ni 2 .23

(62) a. ga2w03ni2sgv237i. "He was speaking. (63) (64)

h ~ * ~ o ' n i ~ s i ~ ~ g a . to speak." "Come

f u n c t i o n : - i h l - i s u s e d t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e s u b j e c t o f t h e v e r b i s coming t o t h e speaker's l o c a t i o n i n order t o perform t h e a c t i o n of t h e v e r b . -g-, progressive When p r e c e d e d by v a r i o u s s u f f i x e s , a s n o t e d a b o v e , -g- f r e q u e n t l y form: - g - . becomes - h - ; n o t e ( 6 5 ) . (65) a. b. ga2w03ni2sge3sdi. '!He w i l l be s p e a k i n g . "

ga2w03ni2si23d032he3sdi.

"He w i l l b e g o i n g a r o u n d s p e a k i n g . "

I n ( 6 5 b ) , -g- changes t o -h- b e c a u s e i t i s p r e c e d e d by t h e s u f f i x - i d o l - ( s e e t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f - i d o l - a b o v e ) . O t h e r c h a n g e s i n v o l v i n g -g- when p r e c e d e d by c e r t a i n s u f f i x e s have been n o t e d a b o v e i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l s u f f i x e s . - g - a l s o u n d e r g o e s c h a n g e s when p r e c e d e d d i r e c t l y by v e r b s t e m s o f v a r i o u s c l a s s e s o f v e r b s . Note (66) f o r example, i n which t h e s e q u e n c e of s t e m f i n a l -s- p l u s -gp l u s -a y i e l d s - h a . -g- r e m a i n s unchanged, however, i n ( 6 7 ) , when f o l l o w e d by t h e past tense suffix. (66) (67) ga2w03n;2ha.

"He i s s p e a k i n g . "

g a 2 w 0 3 n i 2 s g v 2 3 v i . "He was s p e a k i n g . I 1

For f u r t h e r d e t a i l s r e g a r d i n g t h e c h a n g e s which -g- u n d e r g o e s when p r e c e d e d d i r e c t l y by v e r b s t e m s , s e e t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f Cherokee v e r b s i n t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e dictionary. f u n c t i o n : -g- i s u s e d w i t h v e r b forms d e s c r i b i n g a n a c t o r s t a t e i n p r o g r e s s or which i s h a b i t u a l . P r o g r e s s i v e v e r b forms a r e shown i n (65-67); n o t e t h e u s e o f -g- i n h a b i t u a l forms s u c h a s ( 6 8 ) . (68) ga2w03ni2sgo3"i. "He s p e a k s h a b i t u a l l y . P e r h a p s t h e t e r m " n o n - p u n c t u a l " m i g h t be more a p p r o p r i a t e t h a n " p r o g r e s s i v e " a s a l a b e l f o r -g-; i t i s u s e d w i t h v e r b forms which d o n o t r e f e r t o a s p e c i f i c p o i n t i n t i m e , b u t i s n o t u s e d w i t h t h o s e which d o . To i l l u s t r a t e t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n , compare (69) a n d ( 7 0 ) . (69)
(70)

a.
b. a. b.

ga2w03ni2sgv237i. ga2w03ni2sge3sdi. da2ga2w032ni2si.

"He was s p e a k i n g . "


(at a s p e c i f i c p o i n t i n t i m e )

~ ' w o ~ n i ~ s v"He ~ s ~ oik e . " ~ p .

"He w i l l b e s p e a k i n g . "
"He w i l l s p e a k . " ( a t a s p e c i f i c p o i n t i n time

comments: S e e t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l f i n a l s u f f i x e s i n S e c t i o n f u r t h e r i l l u s t r a t i o n o f the function o f -g-.

I-D f o r

A c o n c l u d i n g n o t e on t h e n o n - f i n a l s u f f i x e s . S e e t h e l i s t o f v e r b forms a t t h e end o f S e c t i o n I - D f o r a d d i t i o n a l examples o f t h e n o n - f i n a l s u f f i x e s .

I-D. The f i n a l s u f f i x e s . The s u f f i x e s d e s c r i b e d below may o c c u r a t t h e end o f v e r b forms i n Cherokee. Two o r more f i n a l s u f f i x e s may o c c u r t o g e t h e r , and o n l y t h o s e s u f f i x e s which o c c u r i n t h e f i n a l box i n t h e c h a r t a t t h e b e g i n n i n g of S e c t i o n I-C a r e l i m i t e d t o o c c u r r e n c e a t t h e end o f v e r b f o r m s . D i s c u s s i o n o f the individual f i n a l suffixes follows.

- i d i , pre-incipient form: - i d i i n f i n a l p o s i t i o n , - i d i s - b e f o r e vowels; c f . (71-72). u'wo3ni2si4di. "He i s about t o speak." u ' ~ o ~ n i ~ s i ~ ~ d i ~ ~ swas ~abouti t o s p e a k . " lfHe v ~ ? . (71) (72)

f u n c t i o n : - i d i i s used t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e s u b j e c t of t h e v e r b i s about t o p e r form t h e a c t i o n of t h e v e r b o r i s about t o e x p e r i e n c e t h e s t a t e e x p r e s s e d by t h e v e r b . When used w i t h o u t r e f e r e n c e t o p a s t o r f u t u r e t i m e , and when used i n a nonh a b i t u a l s e n s e , - i d i o c c u r s i n f i n a l p o s i t i o n , a s i n ( 7 1 ) . - i d i may be followed by t h e f o l l o w i n g s u f f i x e s : - v ? i , p a s t ; - e 7 i , r e p o r t a t i v e ; - e s d i , f u t u r e p r o g r e s s i v e ; - o ? i , p l u p e r f e c t ; - o ? i , h a b i t u a l . Examples o f t h e co-occurrence o f - i d i w i t h each of t h e s e s u f f i x e s f o l l o w . (73) (74) (75) (76) (77) ~ ' w o ~ n i ~ s i ~ ~ d i ~ ~ s v ~abouti t o s p e a k . " "He was ~ ? . ~ ~ w o ~ n i ~ s i ~ ~ d "He was e e~ o r tie . l y about t o speak." i ~ ~ s r p ? d ~ ' w o ~ n i ~ s i ~ ~ d i ~ ~ s ew~i ls l dbe . a b o u t t o s p e a k . " "He i ''He was a l r e a d y about t o speak." ~ ~ w o ~ n i ~ s i ~ ~ "Hei i s ~ a bo t u a l l y about t o s p e a k . " d ~ hs i ~ ~ i .

comments: - i d i cannot o c c u r w i t h t h e i m p e r a t i v e s u f f i x e s . When it i s used w i t h s u f f i x e s which r e f e r t o p a s t o r f u t u r e t i m e , as i n (73-76), t h e d i s t i n c t i o n between p r o g r e s s i v e and p u n c t u a l t i m e i s n e u t r a l i z e d . ( 7 3 ) , f o r example, can be used i n a s e n t e n c e l i k e "He was about t o speak when I a r r i v e d " o r i n a s e n t e n c e l i k e "He was about t o speak f o r an i n s t a n t . "
A v a r i a n t form of - i d i , - i d e n a , i s sometimes u s e d .

T h i s form can o n l y be f o l l o w e d by t h e q u e s t i o n s u f f i x e s -sgo and - j u and i s t h u s l i m i t e d t o p r e s e n t t i m e . When i t i s used, a s i n ( 7 8 ) , it i m p l i e s t h a t t h e a c t i o n t o be performed w i l l occur immediately. (78) ~ ~ ~ a ~ h n ? ~ n i ~"d te' s about t o raih'." I ~ n a . (immediately)

- i d i r e q u i r e s t h e u s e of t h e S e t B pronoun p r e f i x e s . -i, f u t u r e form: -i i n f i n a l p o s i t i o n o r when followed by a s u f f i x beginning w i t h a conso-is- when followed by a vowel, a s i n ( 8 1 ) . n a n t ; c f . (79-80). (79) (80) (81) d? 2g? 2wo 3 2 i 2s .l . "He's going t o speak." n. . d? 2 g? 2wo 32n l 2 s;. 3sgo? " I s he going t o speak?" d a 2 g ? 2 ~ 0 3 2 n i 2 s i 3 s v 2 3 ? i . "He was going t o speak."

f u n c t i o n : -i i s o r d i n a r i l y used t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e s u b j e c t of t h e v e r b w i l l perform t h e a c t i o n of t h e v e r b a t a p o i n t of t i m e i n t h e f u t u r e . C o n t r a s t t h e p u n c t u a l f u t u r e of (79) w i t h t h e f u t u r e p r o g r e s s i v e of ( 8 2 ) . (82) ga2w03ni2sge3sdi. "He w i l l b e s p e a k i n g . I 1

(79) can be used i n s e n t e n c e s l i k e "He's going t o speak a t 2:001' w h i l e (82) i s a p p r o p r i a t e i n s e n t e n c e s such a s "He w i l l be s p e a k i n g when I g e t t h e r e . " -i can a l s o be used w i t h t h e p a s t t e n s e s u f f i x - v ? i , a s i n (83). (83) d? g? wo 32 n . 2 s l 3 s v 2 3 7 i . i . "He was going t o s p e a k . "

There i s no d i s t i n c t i o n between t h e p u n c t u a l and t h e p r o g r e s s i v e i n forms l i k e (83), which imply t h a t t h e s u b j e c t of t h e v e r b was i n t e n d i n g t o perform t h e a c t i o n of t h e verb a t some p o i n t i n t h e f u t u r e . Forms l i k e (83) a r e n e u t r a l w i t h r e s p e c t t o whether t h e a c t i o n was a c t u a l l y performed subsequently o r n o t .
-i can be followed by t h e p l u p e r f e c t - o ? i , a s i n ( 8 4 ) .

(84)

ni2d~2g?3w03ni2~i3s04?i. "He was a l r e a d y going t o speak."

The h a b i t u a l - o ? i can be used w i t h -i t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e s u b j e c t o f t h e v e r b h a b i t u a l l y i n t e n d s t o speak, a s i n (85). (85) d i 2 g a 2 w 0 3 2 n i 2 s i 3 s 0 3 ? i . "He always i n t e n d s t o speak." d ~ 2 g ? 2 w 0 3 2 n i 2 s i 3 s e 3 s d i . "He w i l l b e going t o speak . I 1 The f u t u r e p r o g r e s s i v e - e s d i can a l s o f o l l o w i-; n o t e ( 8 6 ) . (86) Form (86) could be used i n r e s p o n s e t o t h e q u e s t i o n "What w i l l he be doing a t 1:30?11 i f t h e person i n q u e s t i o n i s due t o speak a t 2:OO. On t h e o t h e r hand, (79) would be t h e a p p r o p r i a t e response t o t h e q u e s t i o n "What w i l l he do a t 2:00?"
-i can a l s c be followed by - e ? i , 8 i t h e r e p o r t a t i v e p a s t , a s i n (87).

(87) -v?i, past form:

di'g?2w032ni2si3se37i.

"He was r e p o r t e d l y going t o speak. "

-v?i.

f u n c t i o n : T h i s s u f f i x can o n l y be used w i t h v e r b forms r e f e r r i n g t o p a s t a c t i o n s o r s t a t e s which were d i r e c t l y experienced o r witnessed by t h e s p e a k e r . I n (88), f o r example, t h e speaker i s understood t o have witnessed t h e a c t of speaking. (88) ~ ~ w o ' n i ~ s v ~ "He ispoke." ~? . When - v ? i i s used without being preceded by -g-, it i s understood t o r e f e r t o a s p e c i f i c p o i n t of time i n t h e p a s t . For i n s t a n c e , (88) i s understood t o r e f e r t o a s i n g l e a c t of speaking a t some p a s t t i m e . The p a s t p r o g r e s s i v e i s formed by t h e u s e o f -g- followed by - v ? i ; n o t e (89). (89) gg2w03ni2sgv23?i. "He was s ~ e a k i n .g1 I

--

See a l s o t h e d i s c u s s i o n s of - i d i and -i above. The f u t u r e i m p e r a t i v e i s formed by - v 7 i , a s i n ( 9 0 ) . (90) h i 2 w 0 3 n i 2 s v 2 ? i . "Speak ( l a t e r ) ." comment: The f i n a l -?i of s u f f i x e s c o n s i s t i n g of a vowel p l u s -?i i s o p t i o n a l . When a n o t h e r s u f f i x f o l l o w s , t h e f i n a l -?i may o r may n o t be p r e s e n t .

-e7i, reportative form: -e?i. f u n c t i o n : T h i s s u f f i x f u n c t i o n s a s does - v ? i , except t h a t it i s understood t h a t t h e speaker d i d not d i r e c t l y e x p e r i e n c e o r w i t n e s s t h e a c t i o n o r s t a t e expressed by t h e v e r b . Compare (91-92) w i t h (88-89). (91) u1w03ni2se3 7 i . "He r e p o r t e d l y spoke. g?2wo ' n i 2 s g e 3 ? i . "He was r e p o r t e d l y speaking. (92)

-esdi, future progressive form: -esdi. f u n c t i o n : - e s d i i s used t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e a c t i o n o r s t a t e expressed by t h e verb w i l l be t a k i n g p l a c e d u r i n g a p e r i o d of t i m e i n t h e f u t u r e ; n o t e ( 9 3 ) . (93) ga2w03ni2sge3sdi. "He w i l l be speaking." See a l s o (86) above f o r t h e u s e of - e s d i f o l l o w i n g t h e f u t u r e t e n s e s u f f i x -i. - e s d i may a l s o be used t o form i m p e r a t i v e s i n t h e f u t u r e p r o g r e s s i v e ; n o t e (94). ( a s i n "Be speaking when I g e t t h e r e . " ) With some v e r b s , i m p e r a t i v e forms can o n l y be formed by t h e u s e of - e s d i . These verbs can be found by checking t h e i m p e r a t i v e e n t r y f o r each v e r b i n t h e d i c t i o n ary. -o?i, pluperfect form: -o?i. f u n c t i o n : - o ? i i s used with t h e p r e f i x n- ( s e e S e c t i o n I-A) t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e a c t i o n o r s t a t e expressed by t h e v e r b had a l r e a d y taken p l a c e p r i o r t o a subsequent p o i n t i n time; n o t e (95). (95) -o?i, habitual form: -o?i. f u n c t i o n : T h i s s u f f i x i s used t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e a c t i o n o r s t a t e expressed by t h e verb i s h a b i t u a l , a s i n (96-97). (96) ga2w03ni2sgo3?i. "He h a b i t u a l l y speaks." Note t h e u s e s of - o ? i w i t h - i d i and - i ; s e e (77) and (85). Forms l i k e (96) may be negated i n t h e u s u a l way, w i t h t h e a d d i t i o n of t h e n e g a t i v e p r e f i x and t h e u s e of h l a , a s i n (97). (97) (98) form: hla3 hla3 yi2gg2w032ni2sgo37i. "He d o e s n l t speak h a b i t u a l l y
-09i

(94)

h i 2 w 0 3 n i 2 s g e 3 s d i . lrBe speaking."

"He had a l r e a d y spoken.

( p r i o r t o some o t h e r e v e n t )

comment: - o ? i does n o t occur w i t h t h e p r o g r e s s i v e -g-.

."

Note a l s o t h e n e g a t i v e u s e of -di, infinitive -di.

i n forms l i k e ( 9 8 ) . (although he could)

y ~ ~ ~ w o ~ ~ n i ~ s 0 ~ 7 i speaks." "He never .

f u n c t i o n : - d i i s d i r e c t l y a t t a c h e d t o t h e i n f i n i t i v e stem, which i s given f o r each verb i n t h e d i c t i o n a r y . Note t h a t i n f i n i t i v e s t a k e t h e S e t B s u b j e c t pronoun p r e f i x e s , a s i n (99-100). (99) (100) ~ ~ w o ' n i ~ ~ h iu1du21i3ha. ~ s d i "He wants him t o speak" o r "He wants t o speak. "He wants me t o speak."

a 2 g i 2 w 0 1 n i 2 3 h i 3 s d i u1du21i3ha.

For f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n of t h e i n f i n i t i v e s u f f i x , s e e S e c t i o n 1 1 - E .

-a, present form: -a.

f u n c t i o n : When t h i s s u f f i x d i r e c t l y f o l l o w s -g-, i t i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e a c t i o n o r s t a t e expressed by t h e verb i s i n p r o g r e s s a t p r e s e n t , a s i n (101). (101) d a l d a 3yo 2 s g a . "He i s s u r r e n d e r i n g . " When - a i s n o t preceded by -g-, it i n d i c a t e s t h a t an a c t i o n h a s j u s t been completed. T h i s f u n c t i o n of -a i s u s u a l l y r e f e r r e d t o a s t h e r e c e n t p a s t . The b a s i c meaning of -a s t i l l ' s e e m s t o be p r e s e n t t i m e , however; t h e f u n c t i o n o f t h e r e c e n t p a s t i s t o i n d i c a t e t h a t an a c t i o n has j u s t been completed i n t h e p r e s e n t . -a i s a l s o used with p r e s e n t i m p e r a t i v e s , a s i n (102). (102) hi2w01ni2si23103ja. "Speak o v e r and o v e r . " Note, however, t h a t - a i s used w i t h i m p e r a t i v e s only when preceded by a n o t h e r s u f f i x . -a changes t o -i i n i m p e r a t i v e forms i n which no o t h e r s u f f i x i n t e r v e n e s , a s i n (103). (103) hi2wo1niZ3hi. "Speak."
-i i s added d i r e c t l y t o t h e stem

Motion verbs a r e e x c e p t i o n a l w i t h r e s p e c t t o - a . i n p r e s e n t t e n s e forms; n o t e (104). (104) (105) a1h;v31i. "Hets d r i v i n g . "

When a n o t h e r s u f f i x i n t e r v e n e s , however, -a marks t h e p r e s e n t t e n s e , a s i n (105).

a1hi?31i23d032ha. "Hels d r i v i n g around."

The i m p e r a t i v e of motion v e r b s i s formed by adding t h e s u f f i x -e- "at i n t e r v a l s " followed by -a, a s i n (106). (106) hi2hi?21u1ga.

. .

"Drive."

When t h e d a t i v e - b e n e f a c t i v e s u f f i x o c c u r s d i r e c t l y p r e c e d i n g t h e i m p e r a t i v e s u f f i x , it d r o p s , and -a changes t o - i , a s i n (107). (107) hi2w01ni2hi2si. "Speak f o r him." Another major f u n c t i o n of -a i s t o show doubt on t h e p a r t o f t h e speaker r e g a r d i n g whether t h e a c t i o n of t h e v e r b has a c t u a l l y been performed, a s i n (108). (108) yy3w03ni2sa. "He may have spoken.
If

Note t h a t t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n used i n (108) r e q u i r e s t h e u s e of t h e S e t B p r e f i x e s t o g e t h e r with t h e n o n - f a c t u a l p r e f i x y - . I n a d d i t i o n , -a may n o t be preceded by -g-, t h e p r o g r e s s i v e s u f f i x , i n p a s t forms e x p r e s s i n g d o u b t . , When -a i s used w i t h p r e s e n t t e n s e forms e x p r e s s i n g d o u b t , -g- p r e c e d e s i t , a s i n (109); n o t e t h a t -gp l u s -a y i e l d s -ha i n t h e c a s e o f "speak." (109) yi23ga3w03ni2ha. "He may be speaking

."

The -i s u f f i x which i s used i n i m p e r a t i v e s i s t r e a t e d above a s a v a r i a n t of -a. A a d d i t i o n a l u s e o f -i i s shown i n (110). n (110) y i 2 ji2w03ni2hi. "I can speak . * I Note t h a t t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f c a p a b i l i t y i n (110) r e q u i r e s t h e y- p r e f i x and t h e -i s u f f i x . When a n o t h e r s u f f i x i n t e r v e n e s , -i changes t o -a, a s i n (111). (111) y i 2 ji2w03ni2si23103ja.
111

can speak o v e r and o v e r

."

- v ? i , f u t u r e imperative form: -v?i. F u t u r e i m p e r a t i v e s a r e formed by t h e use o f - v 7 i , a s i n (112b). a. hi2w01ni23hi. "Speak." function: (112)

b. hi2w03ni2sv2?i. Speak l a t e r . " One or more s u f f i x e s may precede - v ? i i n t h i s c o n s t r u c t i o n , a s i n (113). (113) h ~ 2 w 0 3 n i 2 s i 2 3 d 0 3 2 1 v 2 ~ "Go around and speak l a t e r . I 1 i. -gwu "only, j u s t , s t i l l " form: -gw. f u n c t i o n : -gwu i s used with t h e meaning "only" o r " j u s t " a s i n (115). (114) a. b. (115) si ga2wo 3n;. 2 h a . "He's speaking." ga2w03ni2h?3gwu. llHels j u s t speaking . I t o r "He's only speaking . I t ga2w03nj2ha3gwu. "He's s t i l l speaking. "

When preceded by t h e adverb s i , gwu-means " s t i l l , " a s i n (115).

-sgo, i n t e r r o g a t i v e form: -sgo. f u n c t i o n : Questions which can be answered with yes o r no a r e formed by t h e a d d i t i o n of -sgo, o r by i t s s h o r t form -s, t o verb forms; n o t e (116). (116) a. b. c. g? 2w 3 n i 2h a . o "He i s speaking." l f I s he speaking?" g a 2 ~ 0 3 n i 2 h a 3 s g o ? " I s he speaking?" g?2w03ni2has3?

comments: -sgo must d i r e c t l y f o l l o w one of t h e p r e f i x e s shown a t p o s i t i o n 10 i n Figure 1 above. I t may be followed o n l y b y -hv "but." When -sgo i s n o t followed by -hv, it o r d i n a r i l y appears i n i t s s h o r t form, -s, a s i n ( 1 1 6 ~ ) .
-ju, i n t e r r o g a t i v e

form:

-ju.

f u n c t i o n : - j u i s used with yes-no q u e s t i o n s , b u t i t c a r r i e s an a d d i t i o n a l component of meaning not p r e s e n t i n t h e c a s e of -sgo; n o t e (117). (117) ga2w03ni2ha3ju? "Well, is he speaking?11

. .

(117) would be an a p p r o p r i a t e q u e s t i o n t o ask someone i f a c e r t a i n person who was expected t o make a speech i s speaking. S i m i l a r l y , i f t h e weather f o r e c a s t c a l l e d f o r snow, and someone goes t o t h e window t o s e e i f snow is f a l l i n g , a second p e r son might ask t h e q u e s t i o n i n (118). (118) -ke form: g u 2 t $ 3ha 3j u ? "Well, i s it snowing?" "or1'-interrogative -ke. -ke i s a t t a c h e d t o t h e second verb i n d i s j u n c t i v e q u e s t i o n s ; s e e ( 1 1 9 ~ ) a. g a 2 ~ 0 3 n ; 2 h a s ? " I s he speaking?"

function: (119)

294 b.
c.

de23ka3n02gi3?as3? " I s h e Singing?" ga2w03ni2has3, de23ka3,oZgi3?a3ke? " I s h e s p e a k i n g o r s i n g i n g ? "

-na form:

"and what i f ? " -na.

f u n c t i o n : -na i s a n i n t e r r o g a t i v e s u f f i x which c a r r i e s t h e meaning "and what i f 1 ' o r "and what a b o u t ? " Note ( 1 2 0 ) . (120) a. b. e3w03ni2sa. "He may have s p o k e n . " y u 2 3 w 0 3 2 n i 4 s a 2 n a 1 ? "And what i f h e spoke?"

comments: -na i s more f r e q u e n t l y a t t a c h e d t o nouns o r p r o n o u n s , a s i n ( 1 2 1 ) ; s e e t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f nouns i n S e c t i o n 11. (121) -hv form: "but" -hv. ni2hi4na1? "And what a b o u t you?"

f u n c t i o n : -hv o c c u r s f o l l o w i n g -sgo t o q u e s t i o n a n a s s e r t i o n , a s i n ( 1 2 3 ) , which is appropriate a s a r e p l y t o (122). (122) (123') e 2 d a 3 2 t v 2 d a 3 2 s d a . " L e t ' s you ( p l ) a n d I l i s t e n t o him." g?2w03ni2ha3sgo1hv? "But i s h e s p e a k i n g ? "

The q u e s t i o n o f (123) shows d o u b t t h a t t h e man m e n t i o n e d i n (122) i s r e a l l y s p e a k i n g . Note a l s o ( 1 2 4 ) , which c o u l d b e a s k e d a s a r e s p o n s e t o a s t a t e m e n t s u c h a s " L e t ' s go s e e him." (124)
-isi

~ ~ w o ~ ~ h l ~ ~ s "But 'i s h e ~ home?" ~ o h v ?

"or e l s e "

form:

-isi. - i s i i s u s e d w i t h t h e meaning " o r e l s e , " a s i n ( 1 2 5 ) .


ja2kse2sde3sdi, t i 2 n v 3 2 j i 3 2 s i . "Be c a r e f u l , o r e l s e y o u ' l l f a l l . "

function: (125)

comment: - i s i always o c c u r s i n f i n a l p o s i t i o n ; i t may be p r e c e d e d by n o n - f i n a l s u f f i x e s , a s i n (126). (126) form:

d 0 ~ d ~ ~ c h ~ ~ n a ~ ~ s v ~ h l i ~O~ de l s ~ ~ o uir ~ ~ o i n g. t o s l i d e a r o u n d . " " r o e y1 ' e gs i

-dina, concessive imperative -dina. f u n c t i o n : - d i n a may f o l l o w t h e i m p e r a t i v e s u f f i x t o show t h a t t h e s p e a k e r i s w i l l i n g f o r t h e p e r s o n spoken t o t o p e r f o r m t h e a c t i o n e x p r e s s e d by t h e v e r b ; n o t e (127). (127)

a.
b.

hi2w01ni23hi.

"Speak.

hi'w~lni~~hi~di~na. "Speak, t h e n . "

Forms s u c h a s (127b) i m p l y t h a t t h e s p e a k e r h a s b e e n i n f l u e n c e d t o u t t e r t h e i m p e r a t i v e form by some c o n s i d e r a t i o n which h a s been b r o u g h t t o h i s a t t e n t i o n .

-dv, form:

focus s u f f i x -dv.

f u n c t i o n : -dv i s used t o i n d i c a t e a kind of focus which i s not f u l l y understood. I t f r e q u e n t l y appears on v e r b forms used i n r e p l y i n g t o q u e s t i o n s ; n o t e (129). (128) (129) g u 2 t i 3 h a s 3 a1ga2sga3ke? " I s it snowing o r r a i n i n g ? " a1ga2sga3dv3. " I t ' s r a i n i n g . "

Notes on t h e co-occurrence of s u f f i x e s Several of t h e s u f f i x e s l i s t e d a t p o s i t i o , , 10 on t h e c h a r t i n Figure 1 o p t i o n a l l y drop t h e vowel -i when followed by -sgo, - j u , and -ke. These s u f f i x e s which drop -i a r e - v ? i , p a s t ; - e ? i , r e p o r t a t i v e ; - o ? i , p l u p e r f e c t ; - o ? i , h a b i t u a l . N o t e , f o r example, (130). (130) a. b. u1w03ni2se3?is3? "Did he speak?" u1w03ni2ses 3? "Did he speak?"

A l i s t of forms of t h e verb "to speaku c o n t a i n i n g two o r more s u f f i x e s . The forms contained i n t h e following l i s t i l l u s t r a t e t h e occurrence of two o r more s u f f i x e s i n a s i n g l e v e r b form. I t should be borne i n mind t h a t t h e t o t a l number of s u f f i x combina;ions which i s p o s s i b l e i n Cherokee i s a c t u a l l y much l a r g e r than t h e number of combinations found i n t h e l i s t , which i s intended t o b e i l l u s t r a t i v e of t h e kind of complex v e r b forms which can occur. . u 1wo 3n . 2 s .l2 3 s .i 4 d l . '?He's about t o make t h e same speech again." l

u 1w 3n .i 2 s . 2 3s .i 3d . 1s v Z 3 ? i . "He was about t o make t h e same speech again." o i l


da2ga2w032ni2si23si3102?i. "He w i l l make t h e same speech r e p e a t e d l y . ' '

. .

da2ga2w032ni2~i23si3102?i32~i. "Or e l s e h e ' l l make t h e same speech r e p e a t e d l y . ' '


ga2w03ni2hi2sta2n03hv3sga.

. . .

"He's f i n i s h i n g u s i n g i t t o speak w i t h . " "He had a l r e a d y been about t o speak."

ga2w03ni2si231032sdi2ha. "He's using it t o speak w i t h r e p e a t e d l y . "

g a 2 w 0 3 n i 2 s i 2 3 1 0 3 ? y 2 ~ g a ."He's f i n i s h i n g speaking r e p e a t e d l y . " ga2w03ni2si23103?e1ga. "He's going t h e r e t o speak r e p e a t e d l y . " ga. ga2w03ni2h?2se231e32 "He's going t h e r e t o speak f o r him." g a 2 w 0 3 n i 2 s i 2 3 d 0 3 2 h 0 3 ~ i . "He h a b i t u a l l y goes around speaking." ga2w03ni2si231037i2hi3ha. "He i s coming t o speak r e p e a t e d l y . " ga 2w 3n .l 2 s . 2 3 s . 3 l o 2 ? e l g a . "He's going t h e r e t o make t h e same speech o l l r e p e a t e d 1 y. " g?2w03ni2si23si31027e21e3ga. "Hers going t h e r e t o make t h e same speech r e p e a t e d l y f o r him."

ga2w03ni2si23si315,27e21e3ga3sgo1hv3? "But i s he going t h e r e t o make t h e same speech f o r him r e p e a t e d l y ? ' ? I-E. The r e f l e x i v e , t h e p a s s i v e , and c l a s s i f i c a t o r y v e r b s The r e f l e x i v e . There i s a r e f l e x i v e p r e f i x i n Cherokee which d i r e c t l y

follows the pronoun prefix and precedes the verb stem. It appears as -adad- before a stem beginning with a vnwel other Chan -a-, as -ad- before -a-, and as ada- before a stem beginning with a consonant; cf. (1-3). (1) a. gv2hni,3ha. "He's hitting it." b. a1da2dv2hni3ha. "He's hitting himself ." "He's tying it up." a1da2hlv3?i2ha. "He's tying himself up .I1 a1gowh2ti3ha. "He sees it ." a1da2gowh2ti3ha. "He sees himself ."

(2)
(3)

a. g?2hlv3?i2ha. b. a. b.

When preceded by the Set B third person pronoun prefix u-, the initial -a- of -adad- is dropped; cf. (4a-b) . (4) a. u1wa2hni31v3?i. "He hit it." b. u1da2dv2hni31v3?i. "He hit himself ."

Note the following reflexive paradigms. Paradigm One: "to see oneself" In this paradigm, the reflexive prefix appears as -ada- before the stem of "to see," which begins with a consonant. ga2da2gowh1ti3ha. "I see myself ." ha2da2gowh2ti3ha. "You see yourself. a1da2gowh2ti3ha. "He sees himself ." i1n?2da2gowh2ti3ha. "You and I see ourselves." i1da2da2gowh2ti3ha. "You (pl) and I see ourselves.I t o1sda2da2gowh2ti3ha. "He and I see ourselves ."
. . o 1 J ? 2da2gowh2t; 3ha.

"They and I see ourselves."

sda2da2gowh2ti3ha. "You (dl) see yourselves ." i1ja2da2gowh2ti3ha. "You (pl) see yourselves." a l r ~ ? ~ d a ~ g o w h ~ t i ~"They see themselves. ha. Paradigm Two: "to see oneself," past tense In this paradigm the Set B pronoun prefixes are required because of the presence of the past tense suffix -vVi used to indicate the punctual past (see Section I-B for discussion of the change from Set A to Set B prefixes). a1gwa2da2g02hv23?i. "1 saw myself." ja2da2g02hv237i. "You saw yourself. ~ ' d a ~ g o ~ h v ~ ~"He . ? i saw himself." gi2na2da2g02hv23?i. "You and I saw ourselves." i1ga2da2g02hv23?i. "You (pl) and I saw ourselves ." ~ ~ g i ~ n ~ ~ d a ~ g "He~ andv I~ saw~ ourselves. o h ~ i .

"They h saw ? i . ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ d a ~ ~ o ~ and vI ~ ~ ourselves ." sda2daZgo2hv23?i. lqYou(dl) saw yourselves." i1ja2da2g02hv23?i. "You (pl) saw yourselves." u1na2da2g02hv23?i. "They saw themselves ."

V'
This paradigm illustrates the use of the reflexive prefix, appearing as -adad-, before a verb stem beginning with a vowel other than -a-; as noted above, the reflexive appears as -ad- before a stem beginning with -a-. ga2da2dv1ni3ha. "I am hitting myself
.It

ha2da2dv2hni3ha. "You are hitting yourse1f.l' a1da2dv2hni3ha. "He's hitting himself. " i1n?2da2dv2hni3ha. "You and I are hitting ourselves .It i1da2da2dv2hni3ha. "You (pl) and I are hitting ourselves." 01sda2da2dv2hni3ha. "He and I are hitting ourselves." 01ja2da2dv2hni3ha. "They and I are hitting ourselves." sda2da2dv2hnj3ha. "You (dl) are hitting yourselves ." i1jB2da2dv2hni3ha. 91You(pl) are hitting yourselves." a1na2da2dv2hnj3ha. "They are hitting themselves ." Paradigm Four: "to hit oneself," past tense This paradigm illustrates the use of the reflexive following the Set B prefixes preceding a vowel stem. a1gwa2da2dv2hni31v3?i. "I hit myself ." " ja2da2dv2hni31v3?i. "YOU hit yourself. u1da2dv2hni31v3?i. ItHehit himself ." gi2na2da2dv2hni31v3?i. "You and I hit ourselves ." i1ga2da2dv2hni31v3?i. "YOU (pl) and I hit ourselves."

. .

. .

~ ' ~ i ~ n a ~ d a ~ d v ~ h n i ~"He ~ ? i I hit ourselves .It l v and . ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ d a ~ d v ~ h ltThey andv I~ hiti ourselves n i ~ l ~ . sda2da2dv2hni31v3?i. "YOU (dl) hit yourselves ."

. .

."

i1ja2da2dv2hni31v3?i. "You (pl) hit yourselves ." u1na2da2dv2hni31v3?i. "They hit themselves ." Paradigm Five: "to forget oneself" "Forget" is a verb which ordinarily requires the Set B prefixes in all tenses. follow the When the reflexive prefix is employed, however, verbs like "forget11 in the present tense (see same pattern as those verbs which take Set A prefixes Section I-B for discussion and illustrative paradigms). Note the use of the Set A prefixes in this paradigm, and the use of the Set B prefixes in Paradigm Six, in which reflexive forms of "forget" are shown in the non-progressive past. The

pattern followed is thus iike that of verbs like "hit" and "tie up," which take Set A prefixes in most tenses, but which require Set B prefixes in the nonprogressive past (see Section I-B for paradigms of these verbs). ga2da2dv lkew2sga. "I am forgetting myself ." ha2da2dv2kew2sga. "You are forgetting yourself .I1 a1da2dv2kew2sga. "He is forgetting himself ." i1na2da2dv2kew2sga. "You and I are forgetting ourselves." i lda2da2dv2kew2sga. "You (pl) and I are forgetting ourselves." sda2da2dv2kew2sga. "You (dl) are forgetting youselves ." i ja2da2dv2kew2sga. "You (pl) are forgetting yourselves." a1na2da2dv2kew2sga. "They are forgetting themselves. Paradigm Six: "to forget oneself," past tense a1gwa2da2dv2kew2sv237i. "I forgot myself." ja2da2dv2kew2svZ37i. "You forgot yourself ." ~ l d a ~ d v ~ k e w ~ s v ~ ~ ?forgot himself ." !'He i . gi2n?2da2dv2kew2sv237i. lYou and I forgot ourselves .I1 (pl) and I forgot ourselves." i1ga2da2dv2kew2s~237i. r'Y~u "You (dl) forgot yourselves ~d~~da~dv~kew~sv~~7i.
. I 1

i 1j?2da2dv2kew2~v237i. "You (pl) forgot yourselves." ~ ~ n a ~ d a ~ d v ~ k e w "They ~ ~ ~ i . ~ s v forgot themselves .I ' The reciprocal. Reciprocal forms, translated by "each other" in English, are formed in Cherokee by the use of the plural prefix de- together with -adad-, as in '5. () (Note that de- appears as d- before. a following vowel; see the discussion of de- in Section I-A.) (5) da1n?2da2dv2hni3ha. "They are hitting each other." Verb forms combining de- and -adad- can also have a plural reflexive meaning. (5), for example, can also mean "they are hitting themselves," with the understanding that there are plural reflexive actions involved; i.e., each of the individuals involved is understood to be hitting himself separately. Note (6), in which it is understood either that the parties involved are tying each other up, or that each of the individuals in question are tying themselves separately. da1n?2da2hlv3?i2ha. "They are tying each other up," "They are tying themselves up." (plural acts of tying) See (7), in which it is understood that the individuals referred to are tyi.ig themselves collectively. (7) a1na2da2hlv3?i2ha. "They are tying themselves." (a single act of tying) The reciprocal meaning is impossible in the case of (7), since the absence of the prefix de- means that only a single act of tying is taking place. Other uses of the reflexive. There is a non-reflexive use of -adad- which is possible only when there is no overtly expressed direct object; compare (8) and
(9)

(6)

(8)

a2sga2ya a1gowh2t13ha.

"He s e e s a man."
.I1

(9)

a1da2gowh2t13ha. "He s e e s (him)

Form (10) i s understood t o mean "the man s e e s , " n o t "he s e e s a man." (10) *a2sga2ya aldaZgowh2ti3ha. "He s e e s a man. " This n o n - r e f l e x i v e u s e of -adad- i s p o s s i b l e o n l y when i t i s understood t h a t t h e r e i s a c o v e r t animate d i r e c t o b j e c t of t h e v e r b . I n s e n t e n c e s i n which an inanimate d i r e c t o b j e c t i s n o t o v e r t l y e x p r e s s e d , b u t i s understood, forms without -adadmust be used, a s i n (11). I t i s important t o n o t e , however, t h a t forms without -adad- can a l s o be used when an animate d i r e c t o b j e c t i s understood. (11) a1gowh2ti3ha. "He s e e s him, i t . In s i t u a t i o n s i n which an animate d i r e c t o b j e c t i s understood, b u t n o t o v e r t l y expressed, it i s t h u s p o s s i b l e t o f i n d v e r b forms w i t h o r without -adad-. There a r e some r e s t r i c t i o n s , however; forms w i t h -adad- may n o t be used with t h e h a b i t u a l s u f f i x , a p p a r e n t l y . Note t h a t (12) may be used a s a r e s p o n s e t o a s t a t e m e n t l i k e "Tom works a t Muskogee now," w h i l e (13), an ungrammatical form, c a n n o t . (12) h i 2 g o w h 1 t i 2 3 s g o 3 ? i s 3 ? "Do you ( h a b i t u a l l y ) s e e him?" (13) *ha2da2gowh2ti23sg937is3? lrDo you ( h a b i t u a l l y ) s e e him?" There a r e s i t u a t i o n s i n which -adad- must be used when t h e animate d i r e c t o b j e c t i s not expressed o v e r t l y . Note ( I S ) , t h e response t o ( 1 4 ) . (14)
Ali

u2sgwo2hli

gvnhZga Foreman.

"Foreman j u s t h i t A l i i n t h e stomach." (immediate p a s t ) (Note t h a t v -

(15) Alihnv y3?a2da2dvnh2ga. "And A l i j u s t h i t back." -adad- i s a p p a r e n t l y r e q u i r e d w i t h v - "back," i n c a s e s l i k e (15). is a v a r i a n t of i - , l l a g a i n l f ; s e e S e c t i o n I-A.)

Non-reflexive -adad- must a l s o be used w i t h a g e n t i v e forms, derived from v e r b s , when no d i r e c t o b j e c t i s s p e c i f i e d ; n o t e (16-18). (16)
(17)

a2daZ3hi2hi "killer" di2daZ3hi2hi "killer" gi2hli

(inanimate) (animate)

(18)

d i Z 3 h i 2 h i "dog k i l l e r " (animate o r inanimate)

Agentive forms never t a k e -adad- when t h e d i r e c t o b j e c t i s s p e c i f i e d , a s i n ( 1 8 ) . An animate a g e n t i v e w i t h u n s p e c i f i e d d i r e c t o b j e c t must t a k e -adad- preceded by t h e p l u r a l o b j e c t p r e f i x de-, a s i n ( 1 7 ) . (Note t h e following changes which t a k e p l a c e i n t h e c a s e of (17): de- becomes d i - , a change which t a k e s p l a c e i n nouns; t h e i n i t i a l -a- of -adad- d e l e t e s a f t e r - i - , and t h e f i n a l -d- of -adad- does n o t appear because t h e stem of " k i l l " begins with a c o n s o n a n t . ) Note t h a t t h e p l u r a l o b j e c t p r e f i x does not occur i n t h e c a s e of inanimate a g e n t i v e s w i t h u n s p e c i f i e d d i r e c t o b j e c t , a s i n (16)

I t should a l s o be p o i n t e d o u t t h a t a q u e s t i o n l i k e (19) seems t o c a r r y a meaning component not p r e s e n t i n forms such a s (20). I n (19), t h e q u e s t i o n seems t o imply t h a t t h e person spoken of has a t f i r s t not seen t h e person o r p e r s o n s , while i n (20) t h e r e i s no i m p l i c a t i o n of t h i s s o r t . In o t h e r words, (19) might be t r a n s l a t e d "is he beginning t o s e e him" o r "is he becoming aware of him by s e e i n g him." (19) a1da2gowh2ti3has3? llDoes h e s e e (him)?"

--

(20) algowh2ti3has 3? "Does he see him?" Verb forms which take the non-reflexive -adad- do not admit the plural object prefix de-; (19) could thus also mean "does he see (them)?" (20), on the other hand, can only mean "Does he see him, it?" Agentive forms like (17-18) are exceptions. The non-reflexive use of the prefix -adad- is a fundamental aspect of Cherokee structure which requires further study. The Cherokee passive constructions The passive with unspecified actor. There is a passive construction in Cherokee which is used when the agent performing the action of the verb is unspecified. This construction is illustrated in (21). (21) a2sgaZya aljiZgowh1ti3ha. "A man is being seen." In (21) it is understood that a man is being seen by one or more unspecified individuals. Paradigms Five and Six illustrate the form that the special passive pronoun prefixes required by this construction take before consonants and vowels, respectively. Paradigm Five: "to be seen" vlgiZgowh2ti3ha. "1 am being seen." e1ja2gowh2ti3ha. "You are being seen." a1ji2gowh1ti3ha. "He's being seen." e 1gi 2ni 2gowh1ti3ha. "You and I are being seen." elgi2gowh1ti3ha. "You (pl) and I are being seen." e1sdi2gowh1ti3ha. "You (dl) are being seen." el jiZgowh1ti3ha. "You (pl) are being seen .It ge2ji2gowh1ti3ha. "They are being seen:" Paradigm Six: "to be hit" vlgwv2hni3ha. "I am being hit ." e1jv2hni3ha. "You are being hit." algv1ni3ha. "He's being hit." e1gi2nv1ni3ha. "You and I are being hit .I1 e1gv1ni3ha. "You (pl) and I are being hit." e1sdv1ni3ha. "You (dl) are being hit ." el jv1nj3ha. "You (pl) are being hit ." ge2gv1ni3ha. "They are being hit .It The passive prefixes illustrated in the preceding paradigms are summarized in Figure One. In each box, the form which a given prefix takes before a following vowel is shown directly above the form used before a following consonant.

301

singular inclusive vgwvgiejejaagajieginegini-

dual exclusive oginoginiesdesdiinclusive egegi-

plural exclusive Ogogi ejejigeggeji-

.----------------

A second p a s s i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n . Cherokee e x h i b i t s a second p a s s i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n which i s formed by r e p l a c i n g t h e S e t A pronoun p r e f i x w i t h t h e corresponding S e t B p r e f i x and i n v e r t i n g t h e o r d e r of t h e s u b j e c t and d i r e c t o b j e c t . Compare t h e p a s s i v e s e n t e n c e i n ( 2 3 ) with t h e corresponding a c t i v e s e n t e n c e i n ( 2 2 ) .

(22) (23)

a2ge23hya a'gowh2ti3ha woman sees

a2sga2ya. man

"A man s e e s a woman.It "A woman i s being s e e n by a man."

a2sga2ya ulgowh2ti3ha ? l g e Z 3 h y a . man i s being seen woman

The kind of p a s s i v e i l l u s t r a t e d by ( 2 3 ) can only be formedwhen both t h e s u b j e c t and o b j e c t of t h e v e r b a r e t h i r d person and when t h e v e r b i s one which t a k e s t h e S e t A p r e f i x e s . Furthermore, even when t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s a r e met, p a s s i v e s l i k e ( 2 3 ) can only be formed i n t h o s e t e n s e s which a l l o w t h e S e t A p r e f i x e s . I t would t h u s be impossible t o form a p a s s i v e from s e n t e n c e ( 2 4 ) , t h e past t e n s e e q u i v a l e n t of ( 2 2 ) . Passives l i k e ( 2 3 ) can b e formed i n t h e immediate p a s t t e n s e , however, s i n c e t h e immediate p a s t s u f f i x t a k e s S e t A p r e f i x e s .
(24)

a2ge23hya ~ ~ g o w h ~ t v ~ h v ~ ~ ? i ?2sgg2ya. woman saw man

"A man saw a woman . I 1

The second p a s s i v e r e q u i r e s t h a t t h e r e c i p i e n t of t h e a c t i o n be animate. of t h e a c t i o n may be e i t h e r animate o r inanimate; compare ( 2 5 - 2 6 ) .


(25) (26)

The d o e r

alga2sga. ulga2sga.

" I t ' s raining .I1 " I t ' s r a i n i n g on him."

Since t h e second p a s s i v e C o n s t r u c t i o n can o n l y be formed when both t h e s u b j e c t and o b j e c t a r e t h i r d Person, t h e r e a r e o n l y f o u r p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r p a s s i v i z a t i o n : forms with t h i r d person s i n g u l a r s u b j e c t and o b j e c t ( 2 7 ) , with t h i r d person singul a r s u b j e c t and t h i r d person p l u r a l o b j e c t ( 2 8 ) , with t h i r d person p l u r a l s u b j e c t and s i n g u l a r o b j e c t ( 2 9 1 , and w i t h t h i r d person p l u r a l s u b j e c t and o b j e c t ( 3 0 ) .
(27) (28)

a2sga2ya u1gowh2ti3ha g i 2 h l i . man i s being seen dog

"A dog i s being seen by a man."

a2sga2ya u1ni2gowh2ti3ha2 g i 2 h l i . man a r e being s e e n dogs

"Dogs a r e b e i n g s e e n by a man."

302

(29) a2ni2sg?2ya g~r2wa2gowh2ti3ha gi2hli. "A dog is being seen by men." men is being seen dog (30) a2ni2sga2ya gv2w?2ni2gowh2ti3ha gi2hli. "Dogs are being seen by men." men are being seen dogs Forms (27-30) illustrate the form of the prefixes used in the second passive when the following verb stem begins with a vowel. Forms (31-34) illustrate the same prefixes as they occur before a stem beginning with a vowel; note, however, that the plural prefix is used in forms (32-34) to show that separate acts of hitting are taking place. (31) a2sgaZya u1wa2hni gi2hli. "A dog is being hit by a man." (32) a2sga2ya du1nv2hni gi2hli. "Dogs are being hit by a man." (33) a2ni2sga2ya de2gv3wa2hni gi2hli. "A dog is being hit by men." (34) 62ni2sga2ya de2gv3wa2nv2hni gi2hli. "Dogs are being hit by men." A third passive construction. There is a third construction in Cherokee which is sometimes best translated with English passive forms. This construction is marked by -ad- before vowels, by al- before -s-, -t-, and -k-, by ad- before vowels, by al- before the voiceless consonants -s-, -t-, and -k-, and by ali- before voiced consonants; cf. (35-37). It occurs only in the third person singular and seems to be used when the action expressed by the verb takes place without a human agent or when the action itself is being focused on as if there were no human agent. (35) a. go2hwe231i37a. "He's writing it . I 1 b. a l d 0 ~ h w e ~ ~ l i ~ 7"It's being written." a. d i ~ ~ a . a. a l ~ ~ o ~ ~ l v ~ "He's erasing it .I1 b. a11sgo231v3d~2~a. "It's erasing itself ." (37) a. algv2ha21i3ha. "He's cutting it out." . b. a11i2gv2ha21i3ha "It's cutting itself out." (35b) would be appropriate in a situation in which a pen were self, without any apparent causality, and could be translated itself" instead of "it's being written." (36b) might be used sign which goes off automatically. For a further instance of construction; note (38). (36)

seen writing by itas "it's writing to refer to a neon the third passive

(38)

a. a l s ~ ~ ~ h w i ~ "He's .painting it ." s~a b. al1suZ3hwi3sga. "It's being painted." or "It's painting itself ."

The form in (38b) could be used in the sentence shown in (39). (39) 04sdas a l l ~ u ~ ~ h w i ~ "IS athe painting going well?" s~ ? In (391, although the painting is being carried out by an animate agent, the third passive is still used since the act of painting is focused on without regard for the person doing the painting. This construction requires further study and might more appropriately be termed a reflexive rather than a passive. Classificatory verbs. There are a number of verbs in Cherokee which appear in one of several stem forms, depending on the nature of the direct object in the case of transitive verbs and on the nature of the subject in the case of intransitive verbs. These verbs are termed classificatory verbs; note, for example, (40-44).

(40) (41) (42)


(43)

ga2ka2h1.2yp3?a. "He's l e a v i n g a l i v i n g t h i n g behind." ga2ne2hi2ya3?a. g??3ni2ya3?a. alhi2ya3?a. "He's l e a v i n g a c o n t a i n e r o f l i q u i d behind." a 1 d i 3 2 s i 2 y g 3 ? a . "He's. l e a v i n g a long o b j e c t behind." llHe's l e a v i n g a f l e x i b l e o b j e c t behind." uble's l e a v i n g i t behind ." (an o b j e c t not belonging t o any o f t h e shape c a t a g o r i e s o f (40-43)

(44)

Note a l s o (45-49). (45) (46) (47) (48) (49) ganh2ga. g?2ne3ha. jiZ3ya. ga2n?3?a. alha.

"A l i v i n g t h i n g i s l y i n g . "
:'A c o n t a i n e r of l i q u i d i s l y i n g . I '
"A long o b j e c t i s l y i n g . "

"A f l e x i b l e o b j e c t i s l y i n g . "

" I t ' s l y i n g . " (an o b j e c t n o t belonging t o any o f t h e preceding shape c a t e g o r i e s )

The t r e e diagram i n Figure Two d i s p l a y s t h e c a t e g o r i e s i n t o which t h e c l a s s i f i c a t o r y verbs a r e grouped. Classificatory verb categories

aniAate

inanimate

long and r i g i d or flexible

non-long , inflexible

long and r i g i d

flexible

Examination o f F i g u r e Two w i l l r e v e a l t h a t t h e primary d i s t i n c t i o n made w i t h i n t h e system of c l a s s i f i c a t o r y v e r b s i s t h a t between animate and inanimate, Inanimate o b j e c t s a r e f u r t h e r c a t e g o r i z e d i n t o l i q u i d s and n o n - l i q u i d s , and t h e n o n - l i q u i d s i n t u r n i n t o two c a t e g o r i e s : o b j e c t s which a r e e i t h e r long and r i g i d o r f l e x i b l e , and o b j e c t s which a r e n o t long and r i g i d n o r f l e x i b l e . The following l i s t cont a i n s some o f t h e c l a s s i f i c a t o r y v e r b s a l p h a b e t i z e d by t h e form used f o r t h e

animate category. The related forms are listed under each entry in the list. It should be noted that the individual stem forms of each classificatory verb are treated as distinct verbs in the dictionary; i.e., for each classificatory verb there are five separate entries. List of Classificatory Verbs a1hwah2ti3ha "He's finding a living thing." (liquid) ga2ne2hwah2ti3ha (long-rigid) alyv2hwah2ti3ha ga2nawh32ti3ha a1hwah2ti3ha a1hya2ni3ha "He's receiving a living thing." (liquid) ga2ne2gi3?a (long-rigid) alyi3ha (flexible) ga2ne3?a (neutral) a 'gi 37a a1ti2hne3ga "He's taking a living thing somewhere. (flexible) (neutral)

. .

(liquid) ganh2je3ga ga2ne3ga (long-rigid) ga2hne3ga (flexible) a1hye3ga (neutral) a1ti2hne3ha "He has a living thing with him." ganh2je3ha (liquid) ga2ne 3ha (long-rigid) (flexible) ga2hne 3ha a1hye3ha (neutral) ga2hni23d032ha IrHe handling a living thing." 's ganh2ji 3do 2ha (liquid) ga2ni23d032ha (long-rigid) ga2hni23d032ha (flexible) a1hi23d032ha (neutral) ga2ka32ne2ha "He's giving him a living thing." ga2ne2hne 3ha (liquid) a1de3ha (long-rigid) g?2nv3np2ha (flexible) a1hne3ha (neutral) u1we2ka3ha "He has a living thing." u1ne3ha (liquid)

(long-rigid) (flexible) (neutral) ~ i ~ g a ~ ~ k ? ~ h \l1He'sgsending a l i v i n g t h i n g . " !~s a wi2ga2ne3hv2sga wa2di3?a w$2g?2nv3?v2sga wa2hv3sga (liquid) (long - r i g i d ) (flexible) (neutral)

I-F. The v e r b " t o be." The v e r b " t o be" i n Cherokee i s i r r e g u l a r . I t appears a s i Z 3 g i i n t h e p r e s e n t t e n s e , a s g e 1 s v Z 3 ? i i n t h e p a s t , and a s g e 1 s e 3 s d i i n t h e f u t u r e . The p r e s e n t t e n s e form i Z 3 g i r a r e l y o c c u r s except when preceded by t h e r e l a t i v e p r e f i x j - o r by t h e n e g a t i v e p r e f i x y- (see I-A f o r a d i s c u s s i o n of t h e s e p r e f i x e s ) . The verb " t o be" i s n o t r e q u i r e d i n Cherokee i n s e n t e n c e s l i k e ( 1 ) . (1) na a2sga2ya u Z 3 t a 2 n a . the man big "The man i s b i g ."

The p r e s e n t t e n s e form of " t o b e , " i Z 3 g i , g e n e r a l l y f u n c t i o n s a s a b e a r e r of t h e p r e f i x e s j - and y-, a s i n (2-3). (2) (3) na 6 2 ~ g p 2 y a u 2 3 t a 2 n a j i 4 g i 0 2 g i 2 n a 2 1 i 4 ? i . "The man who i s big i s m y the man big who i s m friend y friend

."

hla not

a2sga2ya yi2gi. " I t ' s n o t a man." man i s not


i 2 3 g i ."And t h e i r names a r e t h e s e . " are

i Z 3 g i can occur a l o n e i n s e n t e n c e s l i k e ( 4 ) .
(4)

d ~ l n ? ~ d o ~ ? v ~ h in o a 2? t h e i r names and t h e s e

Sentences such a s (4) a r e n o t commonly used i n Cherokee; t h e y t e n d t o occur i n formal s t y l e s , such a s t h e s t y l e employed i n w r i t i n g o b i t u a r i e s . The p a s t t e n s e form of " t o be" i s g e l ~ v ~ ~ c?o i s i s t i n g o f t h e stem ges- followed n, by t h e s u f f i x - v ? i . g e 1 s v 2 3 ? i may be used w i t h a noun o r a d j e c t i v e t o i n d i c a t e p a s t time, a s i n (5)

(5)

?'geZ3hya woman 04sda 04sda

g e l ~ v ~ ~ ?" I t. was a woman." i i t was l l I t was good.I1 " I t was good ( r e p o r t e d l y )

(6)

ge1sv23?i. ge1se3?i.

The r e p o r t a t i v e p a s t t e n s e s u f f i x - e ? i i s a l s o used w i t h " t o b e , " a s i n ( 7 ) .


(7)

."

The f u t u r e p r o g r e s s i v e - e s d i i s a t t a c h e d t o g e s - t o d e r i v e t h e f u t u r e form of " t o be"; n o t e (8-9).


(8)

?2ge2hyu4ja 04sda

ge1se3sdi.

" I t w i l l be a g i r l . "

(9)

g e 1 s e 3 ~ d i . " I t w i l l be good."

The c o n t r a s t between p r o g r e s s i v e and non-progressive i s n o t p r e s e n t i n forms of " t o be"; c f . (10-11).

(10) (11)

a2ge23hya woman

it was

ji2ga2w03ni2sgv47i. "It was a woman who was who was speaking speaking.I t

a2ge23hya g e l ~ v ~ ~ ? i ju1w03ni2sv4?i. "It was a woman who spoke." woman it was who spoke

There is also a habitual form of "to be" formed by adding the habitual suffix -07i to ges-, as in (12). a2ge23hya ge1s03?i. "It's a woman (habitually) . ' I woman it is (habitual) Another important function of "to be" is illustrated by the comparative sentence in (13). (12) (13) ja23ni ~ ' g o ~ ~ u1ta2na ~ i ~ ~ hjaZ31i ge1sv4?i. di n v John more big than Charley is "John is bigger than Charley."

The past tense form of "to bet1is always employed in comparative sentences like (13). Note that the comparative ge1sv4?i is the same as the past tense ge1svZ3?i except for a difference in pitch. A complete analysis of "to be" has not been attempted and further study of this highly important irregular verb is needed. Section 11. The Noun The prefixes and suffixes which can occur with nouns in Cherokee are discussed in 11-A and 11-B. Section 11-C deals with the possessed nouns, nouns which always refer explicitly to a possessor. Section 11-D is a brief discussion of compound nouns, and Section 11-E lists some of the more important kinds of nouns derived from verbs in Cherokee. 11-A. Noun prefixes di-, plural form: di- before a following consonant, j- before a vowel, d- before -u- in some non-possessed nouns; cf. (1-3). (1) a. ka2nelsa37i "boxtf b. di2k?2ne1sa3?i "boxes"

function: di- marks the plural of some inanimate nouns in Cherokee. Many nouns referring to inanimate objects do not mark the plural, however; compare (4-5). (4) (5) a. b. a. ka2ne1sa33i ji2gowh1ti3ha. "I see a box." di2ka2ne1sa3?i de23ji3gowh1ti3ha. "I see boxes ." gulgu ji2gowh1ti3ha. "I see a bottle."

b.

gulgu

deZ3ji3gowhlt+3ha. "1 s e e b o t t l e s . "

Each inanimate noun which t a k e s d i - i n t h e p l u r a l i s given i n i t s p l u r a l a s well as i t s s i n g u l a r form i n t h e d i c t i o n a r y . Nouns f o r which no p l u r a l form i s given are not inflected f o r p l u r a l i t y . comment: d i - i s t h e same p r e f i x which a p p e a r s a s de- i n v e r b forms. verb form i n (6) with t h e noun d e r i v e d from it i n ( 7 ) . (6)
(7)

Compare t h e

de23gv3n02s?3sga. ItHels sweeping them." d+2gv2n023s92sgi "sweeper (of p l u r a l o b j e c t s ) "

a - , human form: a-. Nouns r e f e r r i n g t o persons e x h i b i t a - i n t h e t h i r d person, a s i n (8-10). a2sg?2ya "man" (8) (10)
i

function:

(9) a2geZ3hya llwomanll


a 2 c h u 4 j a "boy"

comment: Some nouns r e f e r r i n g t o p e r s o n s t a k e a - o p t i o n a l l y i n t h e s i n g u l a r , although a - must appear i n p l u r a l forms o f t h e same noun; n o t e (11). (11) a. b. +2gg?3n+2kti l l d o c t o r f t g a ? 3 n g 2 k t i "doctorll

1
T

1 -n-, p l u r a l
form: -n- b e f o r e a vowel, - n i - b e f o r e a consonant.

f u n c t i o n : -n- marks t h e p l u r a l i n t h e c a s e of animate nouns, a s i n (12); i t a l s o i n d i c a t e s p l u r a l i t y of t h e p o s s e s s o r i n forms such a s ( 1 3 ) . (12) (13) a2ni2sgg2ya a, b. y2we23ji u 2 n e 2 3 .1 j' "ment1 "his offspring" "their offspring"

T
T I

r r
r
!-

P r e f i x e s employed i n n o n - t h i r d person forms. Nouns r e f e r r i n g t o human beings a r e i n f l e c t e d f o r person and number by t h e u s e of t h e S e t A p r e f i x e s used w i t h a l a r g e c l a s s of Cherokee v e r b s ( s e e S e c t i o n I-B f o r d i s c u s s i o n and examples). Paradigm One i n c l u d e s t h e f i r s t , second, and t h i r d person forms of "man" i n t h e s i n g u l a r , d u a l , and p l u r a l . Paradigm One
1. 2.

ji1sga2ya hi2sga2ya a2sga2ya

"I

man"

"you "man"

man" and I

3. 4.
5. 6.

i1ni2sggZya

"YOU

men"

i 1 d i 2 s g a 2 y a "You ( p l ) and I - men" 02sdi2sga2ya "he and I - men"

7.
8.
9.

,2j i2sga2ya i1ji2sga2ya ?2ni2sga2ya

"they and I

- men11
men" men"

s d i 2 s g a Z y a "you ( d l ) "you ( p l ) Ilmenl'

10. (14)

Noun forms r e f e r r i n g t o human b e i n g s may b e used a s complete s e n t e n c e s , a s i n (14) j i l ~ g + ~ ~ a 'm a man . I 1 "I .

The p r e d i c a t i v e u s e of form (14) i s s h a r e d w i t h o t h e r nouns i n Cherokee; n o t e (15) which could answer t h e q u e s t i o n "what i s i t ? " (15) ka2ne1s?37i. " I t I s a box." Second person human forms may be used a s terms o f a d d r e s s , a s i n ( 1 6 ) . (16) s i Z y o h j 2 c h u 4 j a . I1Hello, boy." Inanimate nouns may t a k e t h e same p r e f i x e s shown i n Paradigm One t o form surnames. Note Paradigm Two, i n which t h e noun a3ma l v s a l t " t a k e s t h e S e t A p r e f i x e s t o c r e a t e t h e surname " S a l t . " Note t h a t a g l o t t a l s t o p i s i n s e r t e d between t h e p r e f i x and t h e i n i t i a l -a- o f a3ma i n each form. Paradigm Two
1.

ji27a3ma hi27a3ma a27a3ma

"I

Salttt

2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

"you "Salt"

Salt"

i1ni27a3ma

"you and I

Saltsu

i1di27a3ma "you ( p l ) and I o2sdiZ7a3ma "he and I 02ji27a3ma "they and I sdi27a3ma i1ji27a3ma a2ni27a3ma Noun s u f f i x e s
-i.

Saltsf1

Saltsff Salts"

7.
8. 9.
10. II-B. form:

"you ( d l ) - S a l t s 1 ! "you ( p l ) "Salts" Salts"

-i, l o c a t i v e
f u n c t i o n : The l o c a t i v e s u f f i x c a r r i e s t h e meaning " p l a c e o f . " nouns i n Cherokee t o form p l a c e names, a s i n ( 1 - 4 ) . (1) (2) (3) a. b. a. b. a. b. ?2gu4sa gu2s047i gi2hli gi2hli47i "Creek" "Muskogee" (i e I t i s added t o

..

"Creek place")

"dog" "dog p l a c e " ttwomen" " p l a c e o f women"

?'ni2ge2 3hya

a2ni2ge2hyv47i

(4)

a. ko3ga "crow" b. k ~ ~ ~ v " lfcrowplace" ?i


-0- in

comment: When -i is added to a noun ending in -a, the -a changes to nouns, and to -v- in others; note (11, (31, and (4). -hi "on, in" form: -hi. function: This suffix means "on" or "in," cf. (5-7). as in (8).

some

It can also mean "into";

(5)

a.

ga2nu231v "grass"

b. ga2nu21v4hi "in the grassff (6) a. a3ma "salt" b. a2m04hi "in salt"
(7)

a. ga2sgi210 "table" b. ga2sgi21v4?i "on the table" ta21u2j04hi "into the basket" a. ta21uZ3ja "basket" b.

(8)

comment: -hi requires a change of final -a to -0- in (6b) and (8b). In (7b) the suffix takes the form -i rather than -hi, requiring a change in the final vowel of the noun form -0 to -v-. Further study is needed to determine whether more than one suffix is involved and precisely what kinds of final vowel changes are caused by the addition of the suffix or suffixes illustrated by (5-8b). -ha "all, only" form: -ha. function: -ha is used with the meaning "only1'as in (9-lo), and with the partitive meaning, as in (11). (9) a. yo3ne2ga ga2w03n12ha. "He's speaking English." b. (10) a. b. yo3ne2gv2ha ga2w03n12ha. "He's speaking only English."
. a2nl 2sga2ya "men" . a2nl 2sga2yv2ha !!only the men"

(11) a.

hi2sgi

da1gwa2du2113ha. "I want five."

b. h12sgi2ha dalgwa2du21i3ha. "I want five of them." Further examples of -ha are contained in (12-13). (12) a. ja21a2gi go2hwe41i go2hwe21i a'go21i23ye3?a. "He's reading a letter written in Cherokee." b. ja21a2gi2ha go2hwe41i go2hwe21i a1g021i23ye3?a. "He's reading a letter written entirely in Cherokee." (13) a. a2ni2sga2ya da1ni2hno2gi3sv2?i. "Let the men sing." .2 2nl sga2yv2ha da1ni2hno2gi3sv27i. "Let only the men sing." b. comment: A sequence of -a plus -ha yeilds -vha, as in (lob) and (13b).

310 -ya?i "pure, real" form: -ya?i. function: -ya?i is added to animate nouns to convey the meaning "pure" or "real," as in (14-15). (14) a. a2yv2wi "person" b. a2yv2wi2ya4?i "pure person, real person (Indian)" (15) a. sihZgwa "hog!' b. sihZgwazya4?i "pure hog" comment: A sequence of final -a plus -ya?i yields -iya?i in the case of some nouns, but not in others. Suffixes which also occur with verbs. A number of suffixes occur with both nouns and verbs. These include - g w , -sgo, -na, -ju, -ke, -hv, and -dv. Since each of these suffixes has been described in I-D above, they will not be discussed in detail, but simply illustrated in noun forms. (16) a. t ? 1 a'i "two"
. (

(17)

a. a2sga2ya "man" b. a2sga2ya4sgo? "IS it a man?"

(18) a. wiZ31i "Bill" b. wiZ31i3na1? "and what about Bill?" (19) a. gi2hli "dog" b. gi2h1i3ju? "Well, is it a dog?" (20) gi2hlis3, ~e'~s?~ke? IlIs it a dog or a cat?" (21) a. a2chu4ja "boyvt b. a2~h~4j?3~go1hv? "But is it a boy?" (22) a. giZhli "dog" b. v, gi2hli3dv3. !'Yes, it's a dog." The relative order of the noun suffixes is shown in Figure One. -i, locative -hi "on, in" -ha "all, only1I -ya?i "pure, real" Figure 1 II-C. Possessed nouns A number of nouns in Cherokee always occur with a possessive prefix. Kinship terms as well as terms for body parts and some articles of clothing fall into this - g w "only" -sgo, interrogative -na "and what about?" -ju, interrogative -ke "orel -hv "butlf -dv, focus suffix

category. I t i s impossible, f o r example, t o say simply "hand" i n Cherokee u n l e s s a detached hand o r an image of a hand i s understood; it i s n e c e s s a r y t o say "my hand, your hand," e t c . Discussion and i l l u s t r a t i v e paradigms f o l l o w . Body p a r t s . Some terms f o r body p a r t s i n d i c a t e t h e p o s s e s s o r by t h e use o f t h e S e t A pTonoun p r e f i x e s used with v e r b s , while o t h e r s t a k e t h e S e t B p r e f i x e s ( s e e S e c t i o n I-B f o r d i s c u s s i o n ) . The u s e o f t h e S e t A and S e t B p r e f i x e s with body p a r t terms i s i l 1 u s t r a t e d . b ~Paradigms One and Two, r e s p e c t i v e l y . Paradigm One :
1. 2.
3.
4.

"nose" "my nosev1 " h i s nose" "your and m noses" y " h i s and m noses" y

ji1yv2s041i ka2yv2s041i

h i 2 h y v 2 s 0 4 1 i "your nose" di1ni2hyv2s041i jo2sdi2hyv2s041i

5.
6.

d i 1 d i 2 h y v 2 s 0 4 1 i "your ( p l ) and m noses" y j o 2 j i 2 h y v 2 s 0 4 1 i I t t h e i r and m noses" y d i 2 s d i 2 h y v 2 s 0 4 1 i llyour ( d l ) noses" d i ' ji2hyv2s041i "brain" Ifmy b r a i n " Ityour b r a i n " "your ( p l ) noses" d i 2 n i 2 h y v 2 s 0 4 1 i " t h e i r noses" a2g?2nv23j 3 d a i j a 2 n v 2 3 ji 3 d a ~ ~

7.
8.
9.

10. 1.
2.
3.

Paradigm Two :

ni 3 d a ~ h i ~ b j a i n " v " s r
:$

4. 5.

d i 2 g i 2 n i 2 n v 2 3 j i 3 d a "your and m b r a i n s " y j ~ ~ g i ~ n i ~ n v ~h~s j and d ya b r a i n s " " i i ~ m j ~ ~ g i ~i 3n a ~ t h e i r and m b r a i n s " dv " ~ j y d i 2 s d i 2 n v 2 3 j i 3 d a Ityour ( d l ) b r a i n s " d i 1 j i 2 n v 2 3 j i 3 d a "your ( p l ) b r a i n s " j ~ ~ n i ~i 3n a ~ t h e i r b r a i n s 1 ! dv " ~ j

. .

d i 1 g i 2 n v 2 3 j i 3 d a "your ( p l ) and my b r a i n s v

6.

7.
8.

9. 10,

Paradigms One and Two i l l u s t r a t e t h e formation o f p l u r a l s of s i n g l e body p a r t s i n c a s e s i n which two o r more i n d i v i d u a l s a r e i n v o l v e d . Compare Paradigm Three, which i l l u s t r a t e s how p l u r a l s a r e formed i n t h e c a s e o f p a i r e d body p a r t s . Paradigm Three : 1.
2.

"knee"

j i 1 n i 2 g e 4 n i "my knee" d i 2 j i 1 n i 2 g e 4 n i Irmy knees" h i 2hni 2ge4ni ltyour knee" t i 2 h n i 2 g e 4 n i "your knees" k a 2 n i 2 g e 4 n i " h i s knee"

3.
4.

5,

6.
7.
8.

d i 2 k a 2 n i 2 g e 4 n i I f h i s knees" di'ni2hni2ge4ni "your and m knees" y d i 1 d i 2 h n i 2 g e 4 n i "your ( p l ) and m knees" y j o 2 s d i 2 h n i 2 g e 4 n i I f h i s and m knees" y j o 2 j i 2 h n i 2 g e 4 n i " t h e i r and m knees" y d i 2 s d i 2 h n i 2 g e 4 n i tlyour ( d l ) knees" d i l j i 2 h n i 2 g e 4 n i llyour ( p l ) knees"

9.

10.
11.

12. 13.

d i 2 n i 2 h n i 2 g e 4 n i I t t h e i r knees" A n o t e on detached body p a r t s . Terms f o r detached body p a r t s d i f f e r from t h e corresponding non-detached forms w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e noun stem a s w e l l a s by t h e absence o r presence of t h e p o s s e s s i v e p r e f i x ; c f . ( 1 - 2 ) . (1) (2) a2kta "eye" (detached) a 2 k t o 4 1 i " h i s eye"

N o t e - t h a t o s s e s s i o n of detached body p a r t s i s i n d i c a t e d by t h e u s e of t h e possess i v e a2gw?!.] e 2 1 i 4 ? i "my," a s i s t h e c a s e w i t h o t h e r non-possessed nouns; c f . (3-4). (3) (4) ka2ne1sa3?i a 2 g w a 2 j e 2 1 i 4 ? i limy box" a2kta a 2 g w a 2 j e 2 1 i 4 ? i "my eye" (detached)

The eye r e f e r r e d t o i n (4) could be understood t o have been detached from t h e s p e a k e r ' s body, from someone e l s e ' s body, o r t o be a p i c t u r e o r some o t h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of an eye. I t was p o i n t e d o u t i n S e c t i o n 11-A t h a t t h e p l u r a l p r e f i x appears a s de- b e f o r e a following consonant i n verb forms and a s d i - b e f o r e a consonant i n nouns. There a r e a few e x c e p t i o n s t o t h i s , i n c l u d i n g t h e p l u r a l forms f o r t t t o e t tand " f i n g e r t 1 ; n o t e (5-6). (5) (6) a. b. a. b. k a 2 n a 3 2 s a ? 2 d ~ 4 7 i" h i s t o e " de23ka3na32sa?2dv4?i " h i s t o e s " ga3ye2sa?3dv4?i "his finger" de2 3 g a 3 2 y e 2 s a ? 3 d v 4 ? i ! ) h i s f i n g e r s "

A l i s t of body p a r t terms. A l i s t of some of t h e more f r e q u e n t l y used terms f o r body p a r t s i n Cherokee f o l l o w s . Terms f o r detached a s w e l l a s non-detached, possessed forms a r e i n c l u d e d ; n o t e t h a t some s e p a r a t e terms f o r detached body p a r t s a r e n o t a s common a s o t h e r s and do n o t always e x i s t .

a2h041i

" h i s mouth" " h i s neck, t h r o a t "

-------------a2hyvh2j e "neck"

a2hyvh2jehi

a 2 k a 2 s g e 4 n i " h i s hip" a 2 k i h 2 s g e 4 n i Ithis elbow" a2kto41i


2 2

a 2ka 2sge "hip" a 2k;. 2 p 2 s g e "elbow"


?2kta "eye" ?2sgv2d?2ge "shin" 2 sgwa 2 ge "side"

" h i s eye"
4

?2sgv d? ge n i

"his shin"

a 2~ g w ~ ~ g e ~hni si .s i d e " "

-1
-

a 2 s k o 4 1 i " h i s head" a2ye21v47i r r h i s body" ju2nu21a2ji ga1di2ge4ni '?his ribs" "his heel"

u2ska

"head"

-------------di2grt2nu21g2ji "ribs" g a l d i 2ge ga7 'le "heel" "ear"

-!

ga721e4ni " h i s e a r " 2 2 . . 47i g? ne 11 "his chest"

--------------------------ganh lga ga 2nv 1s g e "tongue" "legff

ganh2doh3gv4?i " h i s t o o t h " ganh'go4?i " h i s tongue" gq2nv2di 4 7 i " h i s b r e a s t " gq%v ' s g e 4 n i " h i s l e g " ga2nv2wo4?i Ithis shoulder"

- - -- - - - -- - -- --

1 I
7
I

ga2s02hi47i "his backtt ga3ye2sq73dv47i " h i s f i n g e r " ka%a32s+72d~47i "his toe" k a % i 2 g e 4 n i " h i s knee" k?%02ge4ni " h i s arm, i t s wing" ka2yv 2s041i I q h i s nose" u l d i 3yv2dq73dv47i " h i s n a v e l " u lha2ne 3 g a 7 2 1 ~ 4 7 i " h i s l i p " ~ ' h n a ~ ~ s u h ~ g q ~" h il v t ~ e n i i l " s o~ a u 'hne21v 3 s v 4 ? i I q h i s s c a r " u21a1sih2de4ni Ifhis footIt u 1sdi2ne3g?721v47i " h i s s c a l p " u lne 3ga721v47i " h i s s k i n n u2sgwo2hli47i " h i s abdomen, stomachll ~ l s t i h ~ ~ v" h i s i ~ 7 head o f h a i r " u 3suh2ga2hlv47i " h i s claw" u1tsgwa21v2tv4~i "his ankle" u%e21a " h i s l i v e r " y 2wo 1ye4 n i. " h i s hand"

---------------------------

--------------------------k q % i 2ge kc %O 2ge "knee" "arm, wingff

--------------

---------------------------

I
T

----------------------------------------

-------------ga 2ne 1ga u 2sgwo2 31a "skin" "stomach"

I
I-

--------------

r r

--------------------------u2we21a rfliverfl "hand"

y 2wo 3 2ya

Kinship terms. Nouns i n d i c a t i n g f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e i n h e r e n t l y p o s s e s s e d . The same s e t o f p r e f i x e s used w i t h t r a n s i t i v e v e r b s such a s "to l i k e " ( s e e S e c t i o n 1-8) i s used w i t h k i n t e r m s , a s i l l u s t r a t e d by Paradigm Four. Paradigm Four :
1.

llfatherft

,gv2d02da "I ji2d02da

your f a t h e r " his fatherw

2.

"I

sdv2d02da "1 - your ( d l ) f a t h e r " i l j v 2 d 0 2 d a 111 - your ( p l ) f a t h e r " ga2j i2d02da sgi2d02da hi2d02da

I1you "1

t h e i r father" my f a t h e r

"you - h i s f a t h e r 1 '

s g i 2 n i 2 d 0 2 d a "you i1sgi2d02da

h i s and m f a t h e r " y

y "you - t h e i r and m f a t h e r "

ga2hi2d02da "you - t h e i r f a t h e r " a2gi2d02da "he- m f a t h e r " y ja2d02da "he

"he

your f a t h e r " h i s father"

u2d02da "he gi2ni2d02da

your and my f a t h e r "

i1gi2d02da llhe - your ( p l ) and my f a t h e r " 02gi2ni2d02da "he 02gi2d02da "he i1ji2d02da u2ni2d02da I1he

h i s and m f a t h e r " y

t h e i r and my f a t h e r " your ( p l ) f a t h e r u

sdi2d02da "he - your ( d l ) f a t h e r " "he - t h e i r f a t h e r "

di2ge2ni2d02da "you and I di2sdv2d02da di1jv2d02da jo2sdi2d02da di'jv2d02da jo2ji2d02da "he and I llhe and I lvhe and I "they and I

t h e i r fathers"

di2ge2di2d02da "you ( p l ) and I

their fathers"

your ( d l ) f a t h e r s " your ( p l ) f a t h e r s "

their fathers" your ( p l ) f a t h e r s "

Ifthey and I - t h e i r f a t h e r s "

d i 2 s g i 2 n i 2 d 0 2 d a ''you ( d l ) di2sdi2d02da di'sgi2d02da llyou ( d l ) "you ( p l )

h i s and my f a t h e r s v f

d i 1 s g i 2 d 0 2 d a "you ( d l ) - t h e i r and m f a t h e r s " y

t h e i r fathers" t h e i r and m f a t h e r s " y t h e i r fathers"

d i 1 j i 2 d 0 2 d a rlyou ( p l ) di2ge2gi2d02da I1they di2g02gi2d02da "they

dl2ge2gl2ni2do2da "they - your and m f a t h e r s " y

your ( p l ) and m f a t h e r s " y

di2g02gi2ni2d02da "they

h i s and m f a t h e r s " y

t h e i r and m f a t h e r s " y

di2ge2sdi2d02da "they - your ( d l ) f a t h e r s "

38. 39.

di2ge2ji2d02da

"they

your ( p l ) f a t h e r s "

di2gv2wa2ni2d02da "they

t h e i r fathers"

Compare P a r a d i p F i v e , t h e paradigm o f " c h i l d , " which i n c l u d e s forms which do n o t occur i n t h e paradigm of " f a t h e r . " For example, t h e r e i s no form i n t h e paradigm o f " f a t h e r " which c o r r e s p o n d s t o (35) i n Paradigm F i v e , s i n c e a s i n g l e person n e v e r has more t h a n one f a t h e r , except i n a n o n - l i t e r a l s e n s e which seems s t r a n g e t o Cherokee s p e a k e r s . Paradigm F i v e :
1. 2.

"offspring, child"
111

gvZyez3ji ji2ye23ji

- your c h i l d "

"I

I1I

h i s child" your ( d l ) c h i l d H

3.

"1

4.
5. 6,

i1jvZyez3ji

your ( p l ) c h i l d " t h e i r child"

g a 2 j i Z y e z 3 j i '1 ' s g w e Z 3 j i "you hi2ye23ji

m childg1 y

7.
8.

rryou - h i s c h i l d " "you

~ g i ~ n e ~ ~ j -i h i s and m c h i l d g 1 "you y i1sgi2ye23ji 92gwe23ji je23ji "he


-

9.
10.

t h e i r and m c h i l d " y

g a 2 h i 2 , y e 2 3 j i "you - t h e i r c h i l d "

11.
12. 13.

m child" y

Ifhe

your c h i l d t 1 h i s child" your and m c h i l d " y your ( p l ) and m c h i l d " y

y2w,e23Ji Ifhe g;2ne23j i 02gi2ne23ji "he


i l g e Z 3 j i Ifhe
02ge23ji Ifhe

14.
15.
16. 17.

"he

h i s and m c h i l d f 1 y

t h e i r and m c h i l d " y

18.
19. 20. 21. 22. 23.

~ d e ~ "hej - your ( d l ) c h i l d " ~ i i1je23ji je2ne23ji Ifhe your ( p l ) c h i l d " t h e i r child" u 2 n e Z 3 j i Ifhe

"you and I

h i s children"

d i 2 g e 2 n e Z 3 j i "you and I di2ge2deZ3i j

t h e i r children"

j e 2 d e Z 3 j i "you ( p l ) and I d i ' s d ~ ~ ~ e "he~ and I ~ j i j o 2 s d e Z 3 j i "he and I

h i s children"

24.
25. 26. 27. 28. 29.

"you ( p l ) and I

t h e i r children"

your c h i l d r e n " your ( d l ) c h i l d r e n "

h i s children" your ( p l ) c h i l d r e n "

d i 2 s d v Z y e z 3 j i "he and I d i 1 j v Z y e z 3 j i "he and I

j ~ ~ s d e ~ ~ j i I - t h e i r children" lthe and

316
30. 31.

d i l j ~ ~ ~ e "they and I - your children" ~~ji

j ~ ~ j e ~"theyi and I - his children" ~ j 32. d i ' j ~ ~ ~ e ~ ~ j i and I - your (dl) children" "they ~ ~ j and I 33. d i l j ~ ~ ~ e "they i
35.

your (pl) children"

34. jo2jeZ3ji "they and I - their children" di2sgi2neZ3ji "you (dl) - my children" 36. je2sdeZ3ji "you (dl)

his children"

37. di2sgi2neZ3ji Ifyou (dl) - his and my children" 38. di1sgiZyez3ji "you (dl) - their and my children" 39. je2sdeZ3ji "you (dl) - their children" 40. di1sgeZ3ji "you (pl) - my children" 41. je2jeZ3ji Inyou (pl) - his children"
2 42. dilsgi ye23.. "you (pl) - his and my children" j1 43. di1sgeZ3ji "you (pl) - their and my children"

44. di2ge2. 23ji je

"you (pl)

their children"

45. diZgwez3ji '!they

my children"

46. di2jeZ3ji "they - your children" 47. jy2weZ3ji "they - his children" 48. di2gi2ne23ji "they- your and my children" 49. di1geZ3ji "they - your (pl) and my children" 50. joZgi2nez3ji "they

his and my children"

51. joZgez3ji 5 2 . di2sdeZ3ji 53. di1je23ji 54. ju2neZ3ji

"they - their and my children" "they - your (dl) children" "they - your (pl) children" "they - their children"

Notes on Paradigms Four and Five In Paradigm Four, as noted above, forms which do not ordinarily occur have not been included. An example is "you (dl) are my fathers" which is somewhat unnatural for Cherokee speakers since an individual can have only one natural father. In Paradigm Five all possible forms are included in the paradigm, although (4), (IS), (17), and (19) are somewhat odd since these forms involve situations in which a single individual is the child of more than two parents, once again forcing a non-literal interpretation. These forms have been included in Paradigm Five, however, so that the full range of forms is displayed in at least one entire paradigm. Note that the stem of "child" begins with a vowel, while that of "father" begins with a consonant. As a result, the prefixes indicating possession change in form in exactly the same way in which they change in verb forms. See Section I-B for more detailed discussion of the changes in form which the pronoun prefixes undergo depending on whether the following stem begins with a vowel or with a consonant.

Non-singular kinship terms. Some kinship terms, as well as a few other nouns referring to persons, do not exhibit singular forms. A noun of this type is "friendI1lshown in Paradigm Six. Paradigm Six : "friend" 1. gi2na21i4?i lVyou and I - friends" 2. ilga21i4?i Ityou (pl) and I - friends" 3. 02gi2na21i4?i "he and I - friends"
4. oZga21i4?i "they and I

- friends"
\ '

5. sda21i4?i "YOU (dl) - friends" 6. i1ja21i4?i r l y ~(pl) - friends" u 7. u2na21i4?i "they - friends" The forms in Paradigm Six can be used as the subjects of plural verbs, as one would expect; cf. (7-8). (7) sda21i4?i sdi2w03ni2ha. q'You (dl) friends are speaking." (8) gi2na21i4?i i1ni2w03ni2ha. "You and I, friends, are speaking." Since there are no forms of "friend" in the singular, it is necessary to utilize the forms in Paradigm Six to express meanings such as '!my friend" and "your friend." Note (9-IS), in which the forms from Paradigm Six are given their singular meanings. (9) oZgi2na2li4?i "my friend" (10) sda21i4?i 'lyour friend" (11) u2na21i4?i '!his friend" (12) (13) ilga21i4?i "your (sg or pl) and my friend" oZga21i4?i "his and my, their and my friend"

(14) i1ja21i4?i "your (d1,pl) friend" (15) u2na21i4?i "their friend" When a non-singular noun like "friend" occurs as the subject of a sentence in its singular sense, it requires a singular verb form; cf. (16-17). In addition, the verb form must exhibit the third person singular prefix. (16) 02gi2na21i47i ga2w03ni2ha. "My friend is speaking." (17) u2na21i4?i a1 1sda32y,2hv3sga. "His friend is eating."
A list of kinship terms. The following is a partial list of some of the more important Cherokee kinship terms. a2ni2ne41i "her husband" di2ni2da23hna2wi Ithis enemy" du1da2ti2hna3?v4?i "his family"

u2da21i2?i I1hiswife" u2do Ifhissister, her brother" u2d02da "his father"

u2du1du u2du2j i u2hlo2gi u2hnv2hli u2hye4hi u2ji u21i3si u21v3?i

"his grandfather (maternal)" " h i s uncle" "his aunt" "his brother" "her husband" Ifhis grandmother ( m a t e r n a l ) " "her s i s t e r " Ithis g i r l f r i e n d , her boyfriend"

I t h i s mother"

u2na21i4?i "his friend" u2na21i4kdi ~ ~ n i " h i s grandparent ( p a t e r n a l ) " ~ ~ s i u2sda1yv23hv2sgi " h i s w i f e " ~ ~ w eIthis o f f sjp r i n g t 1 i ~ ~ a2chu4ja u2we2 3 ji y2we2 3ji ,'weZ3j i

"his s o n ( c h i l d ) "
"his daughter ( c h i l d ) "

a2ge23hya I f h i s d a u g h t e r ( a d u l t ) " a2ge2hyu4ja " h i s son ( a d u l t ) "

~ ~ - , i e a2sgg2ya i ~ ~ j
I I -D

Compound nouns

The formation o f compound nouns i s somewhat l i m i t e d i n Cherokee. The compound i n ( l c ) i s grammatical, w h i l e t h a t o f (2c) i s n o t ; t h e grammatical e q u i v a l e n t of (2c) i s (3). (1) a, b. c. (2) a.
b.

go2hlv2nv go2hlv2nv a2sg?2ya

"butter" "container" "butter container" gahl 3doh2di "man" a 2 s g a 2 y a I ' w o l f - l i k e man"

g a h l 3doh2di

~ * ~ h y "wolf" a

c . * ~ ? ~ h y a2sg?2ya "wolf man" a (3) wa2hya i2yu4sdi P r o d u c t i v e p a t t e r n s do e x i s t f o r t h e f o r m a t i o n of compound nouns. A t r a n s i t i v e verb form may be changed t o a noun by t h e n o m i n a l i z i n g s u f f i x -i ( s e e S e c t i o n 1 1 - E ) ; when such v e r b forms have a d i r e c t o b j e c t , t h e n o m i n a l i z a t i o n r e s u l t s i n a compound noun; n o t e ( 4 ) . (4)

a.
b.

a 2 j i Z 3 1 a ge2hlo3ha.

"He's f e e d i n g t h e f i r e

."

a 2 ji Z 3 1 a geZ3hlq2hi " f i r e - f e e d e r "

S i m i l a r l y , a n i n t r a n s i t i v e v e r b form w i t h a s u b j e c t may be nominalized, y i e l d i n g a compound l i k e ( 5 ) .

(5)

a.

j i 2 t a 2 3 g a a 1 n i Z y v 2 h i3ha.

"Chickens a r e goirig i n . "

b.

j i 2 t a Z 3 g a u 2 n i 2 y v 2 s d i 4 ? i "where chickens go i n " ( i . e . , chicken house)

Note t h a t forms l i k e u 2 n i 2 y v 2 s d i 4 ? i a r e formed by adding t h e l o c a t i v e s u f f i x t o t h e i n f i n i t i v e s u f f i x -di. Compound nouns l i k e (4b) and (5b) can t h e n be used a s s u b j e c t s o r o b j e c t s o f sent e n c e s , a s i n (6-7). (6) (7) a2ji231a g e Z 3 h l o 2 h i ga2w03ni2ha.
"A C a t h o l i c i s speaking." j + 2 t a 2 3 g a u 2 n i Z y v 2 s d i 4 ? i a l k ~ u ~ ~ 3 sw 2 3 7 i . h v?

"I p a i n t e d t h e chicken house. l 1

11-E.

Derived nouns

There a r e a number of p r o c e s s e s i n Cherokee by which nouns may be d e r i v e d from v e r b s . S e v e r a l t y p e s o f noun d e r i v a t i o n a r e commented on b r i e f l y i n t h i s s e c t i o n . Agentive forms. Agentive nouns, which can f r e q u e n t l y be t r a n s l a t e d by t h e - e r s u f f i x i n E n g l i s h , a r e formed by adding -i t o t h e v e r b stem, a s i n t h e example ( l b )

(1) a .

g ? 2 ~ 0 3 n i 2 s g o 3 ? i . "He speaks ( h a b i t u a l l y ) . " ga2w01ni4sgi "speaker" j i2sdu ji2sdu dalyo2hi2h03?i. "He s h o o t s r a b b i t s ( h a b i t u a l l y ) . l 1

b.
(2)

Note t h e a d d i t i o n a l examples i n ( 2 - 3 ) . a. b. (3) a. b. di2y023hi2hi "rabbit shooterf1

ga2~03ni2hi2si23d0321e2ha. "He's going around speaking f o r him."


~ ~ w o ~ n i ~ ~ h i ~ s i ~ d o who e ~ h around making speeches f o r !lone ~ l goes i him"

There a r e s i t u a t i o n s which r e q u i r e noun forms with -i r a t h e r -than t h e corresponding v e r b form. An example i s ( 5 ) , which i s d e r i v e d from ( 4 ) . While (5) can be understood t o have a n animate o r inanimate s u b j e c t , (4) must have an animate subject. (4) a. b. a 1 d i Z 3 s g o 3 ? i . "He s a y s i t , " o r "He s a y s ( h a b i t u a l l y ) . " a2di4sgi llone t h a t says"

The d e r i v e d form i n (4b) would have t o be u s e d , f o r example, i n ( 5 ) , i n which a n inanimate o b j e c t i s s a i d t o "say" something. (5) (6) hi2?a "ha" j i 2 g ~ 2 h w e 4 1 a "ha" a1di23sg93?i. a2di4sgi. "This l e t t e r says ' h a .
11'

The s e n t e n c e i n (6) can o n l y be understood t o have a n animate s u b j e c t . "He s a y s ' h a 1 ( h a b i t u a l l y )


.It

Nouns d e r i v e d from i n f i n i t i v e v e r b forms. Nouns which r e f e r t o t h e a c t i o n or s t a t e o f t h e v e r b may be formed from i n f i n i t i v e forms, a s i n (7).
(7)

a.

~ ~ w o ~ n i ~ ~ u1du21i. i "He wants him t o speak." h i ~ s d he wants him t o speak ga2w01ni2 3 h i 3 s d i llspeechll

b.

Derived nouns l i k e (7b) r e q u i r e t h e u s e o f t h e t h i r d person s i n g u l a r p r e f i x used i n p r e s e n t t e n s e forms o f t h e r e l e v a n t v e r b , and t h e i n f i n i t i v e s u f f i x - d i . Not

all verbs permit the formation of derived nouns such as (7b); an unabridged dictionary would include derived forms like "speech" as separate entries. The infinitive suffix may be used with the Set B prefixes to form derived nouns referring to one's facility in performing the action of the verb, as in (8-10). (8) (9) a2gi2w01ni23hi3sdi "my facility in speaking" ja2w01ni23hi3sdi "your facility in speaking"

i~sd (10) ~ ~ n i ~ w o l n i ~ ~ h "their ifacility in speaking" (7b) might be used to refer to a class in speech, while (8-10) can only be understood to refer to an individual's facility in speaking. Cherokee infinitive forms may be modified in pitch to express obligation or necessity; compare the a-forms in (11-13) with the b-forms. (11) (12) (13) u1du21i3ha. "He wants to speak." a. ~ ~ w o ' n i ~ ~ h i ~ s d i b. ~ ~ w o l n i ~ ~ h i ~ s d imust speak." "He . a. ~ ~ ~ o w h ~ t v u1du21i3ha. !!He wants to see it . I t h~di b. b. ~ ~ ~ o w h ~ ~ t v "He d i . see it ." h ~ must j ~ ~ l v ~ ~ h w i ~ s d a n h ~ dhas to work." "He i . a. j ~ ~ l v ~ ~ h w i ~ s d a n h ~ d i u1du21i3ha. "He wants to work."

The b-forms in (11-13) function a5 verbs, but this construction is discussed here because of its similarity to the nouns derived from infinitives. Note that forms like (7b) and ( ) can serve as subjects and direct objects of sentences, as in 9 (14-15). (14) (15) (16) ga2w01ni23hi3sdi a1gt21v23kwdi. "I like speech." ja2w01ni23hi3sdi 04sda. "Your ability to speak is good."

On the other hand, forms like (llb) serve as.predicates in sentences such as (16). na3 a2sga2ya ~ ~ w o l n i ~ ~ h i ~ s d i . I1That man must speak.I t Instrumental nouns may also be derived from infinitive forms by using the third person singular prefix for the verb in question and replacing the infinitive suffix by the instrumental -dohdi; cf. (17-19). (17) (18) (19) a. ~ ~ w o ~ n i ~ ~ h u1du21i3ha. "He wants him to speak." i~sdi b. g?2w01ni23hi2sdoh2di "instrument to speak with" a. u1du21i3ha. "He wants to hear it." b. a. b. a2tv23g01doh2di "instrument to hear with1' g ~ ~ ~ v ~ n i u1du21i3ha. "He wants me to hit you." ~sdi g ~ ~ n v ~ ~ w a ~ l o ~ s lfinstrument for me to hammer you with" doh~di

The infinitive suffix may be used with the third singular prefix used in present 11. progressive forms to form derived nouns with the meaning "something to be note (20). (20) a. u2gi1sdi u1du21i3ha. "He wants to eat it." b. a3gi1sdi "something to be eaten"

Note t h a t t h e t y p e o f d e r i v e d noun i l l u s t r a t e d by (20b) d i f f e r s from t h e t y p e i l l u s t r a t e d by (7b); c f . (21-22). (21) a. b. (22) g a 2 w 0 1 n i 2 3 h + 3 ~ d i "speech" g a 2 ~ 0 1 n i 2 3 h i 2 ~ d"something t o be spokenw ( i . e . i u2nv2'gwa2101~di u 1 d u 2 1 i 3 h a . g? 2nv 2 gw? 2 l o 4 s d i

,. a speech t o be made)

a.
b.

"He wants t o hammer."

"something t o be hammered, hammer"

I n t h e c a s e of a few l e x i c a l i t e m s , forms l i k e (22b) a r e u s e d t o r e f e r t o t h e instrument i t s e l f . The Cherokee term f o r "hammer" i s t h u s (22b) r a t h e r t h a n t h e expected i n s t r u m e n t a l form ( 2 3 ) , formed on t h e same p a t t e r n as (17-19b). (23) ga2nv2gwa2103sdoh2di "instrument t o hammer with" (23) i s t h u s understood t o r e f e r t o any kind of a n i n s t r u m e n t f o r hammering i n c l u d i n g t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l hammer.

-1

The i n f i n i t i v e s u f f i x i s a l s o used t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e p r e f i x e s i l l u s t r a t e d below i n Paradigm One t o i n d i c a t e a b i l i t y o r c a p a c i t y t o perform t h e a c t i o n ' o f t h e v e r b . Paradigm One : " t o speak" g ~ ~ g ; ~ w o ~ n i ~ "1 h ~ a bs ed ti o speak" ~ am ~ l g a 2 j a 2 w 0 1 n i 2 3 h i 2 ~ d i "you a r e a b l e t o speak"

I
1

g ~ ~ w a ~ w o ~ n i ~ ~ h i i~ sad l e t o speak" "he s b i g a 2 g i 2 n i 2 w 0 1 n i 2 3 h i 2 s d i "you and I a r e a b l e t o speak" g ? 2 y 0 2 g i 2 ~ ~ 1 n i 2 3 h i 2 s d"they and I a r e a b l e t o speak" i

1 7
7 I

ga2y02gi2ni2w01ni23hi2sdi llhe and I a r e a b l e t o speak"


g a 2 s d i 2 w 0 1 n i 2 3 h i 2 s d i "you ( d l ) a r e a b l e t o speak" g a 1 j i 2 ~ 0 1 n i 2 3 h i 2 s d i llyou ( p l ) a r e a b l e t o speak" r g ~ ~ . ~ ~ w ~ % i ~ w o ~ n i"they ha~ e~ asb lde i t o speak" The forms c o n t a i n e d i n Paradigm One a r e v e r b forms, b u t we have i n c l u d e d t h i s cons t r u c t i o n i n t h i s s e c t i o n because o f i t s s i m i l a r i t y t o t h e d e r i v e d nouns under d i s c u s s i o n . Note t h a t t h e forms i n Paradigm One can o n l y be understood t o r e f e r t o t h e a b i l i t y o f a p e r s o n t o speak i n p r e s e n t t i m e . ( 2 4 ) , f o r example, might be used a s a r e p l y t o t h e q u e s t i o n " I s he a b l e t o speak?" when i n q u i r i n g about a p e r son who has l o s t h i s v o i c e . (24) i ~ s e s a . v , g ~ ~ w ~ ~ w o ~ n i ~ ~ h "Yes, dhi ~i d v b l e t o speak . I t Forms such a s (8-20), on t h e o t h e r hand, a r e d e r i v e d nouns and r e f e r t o t h e f a c i l .ity a person has a t performing t h e a c t i o n o f t h e v e r b r a t h e r t h a n t o t h e p h y s i c a l o r mental a b i l i t y t o do s o . Nouns d e r i v e d from past t e n s e v e r b forms. Derived nouns which may be t r a n s l a t e d by an - i n g v e r b form i n E n g l i s h may be formed i n Cherokee from p a s t p r o g r e s s i v e forms by means o f a s h i f t i n p i t c h , a s i n (25-27). (25) a . g? 2wo 3n . 2s g v Z 3 ? i . "He was speaking." l b. (26) a. ga2w03ni2sgv4?i I t h i s speaking" a1gowh2ti23sgv3?i. "He was s e e i n g i t . "

1
1 1
T
T T

b.
(27)

a l g ~ w h ~ t i ~ ~ s g"v i~ ? sie e i n g i t " h s t ~ d e ' l i ~ ~ s g v ~ ? i . was h e l p i n g you." "He t ~ d e ~ l i ~ ~ s g h i s h eil p i n g you" "v ~ ?

a. b.

The b-forms i n (25-27) a r e understood t o r e f e r t o s p e c i f i c a c t s ; (25b), f o r example, might be used i n a s e n t e n c e such a s " H i s s p e a k i n g y e s t e r d a y was n o t c l e a r . " Derived nouns l i k e (28b) may be formed from p a s t t e n s e forms l i k e ( 2 8 a ) . (28) a. b.
11-F.

~ l h i ~ y v ~ ~ v i l. e f t i t behind." "He a 2 h i 2 y v 4 ? i "something l e f t behind"

F i r s t person s i n g u l a r forms of nouns

I t was noted i n S e c t i o n I-A t h a t a l l nouns, i n c l u d i n g t h o s e r e f e r r i n g t o inanimate o b j e c t s , can be p e r s o n i f i e d by t h e u s e of t h e s u b j e c t pronoun p r e f i x e s , a s i n ( 1 ) . See a l s o 11-A, Paradigm Two. (1) a. a3ma "salt" "Salt" "I ' m a S a l t . I 1

5.
c.

?2?a3ma

' j i2?a3ma.

P e r s o n i f i e d forms of i n a n i m a t e nouns l i k e " s a l t , " which b e g i n w i t h a vowel, a r e formed by t h e a d d i t i o n o f t h e pronoun p r e f i x e s d i s p l a y e d i n 11-A, Paradigm Two, w i t h a g l o t t a l s t o p i n s e r t e d i n e a c h i n s t a n c e between t h e p r e f i x and t h e i n i t i a l vowel of t h e inanimate noun. Note a l s o t h a t t h e p r e f i x vowel which occurs d i r e c t l y b e f o r e t h e g l o t t a l s t o p i s s h o r t . The same s e t of p r e f i x e s a r e used w i t h inanimate nouns beginning w i t h a consonant, except t h a t no g l o t t a l s t o p i s i n s e r t e d a f t e r t h e p r e f i x ; c f . (2a-c) . (2) a. b. c. gan2sda "stick" "I'm a S t i c k . "

a2gan2sda "Stick" ji2gan2sda.

These nouns form t h e f i r s t p e r s o n s i n g u l a r by r e p l a c i n g t h e t h i r d person p r e f i x i n h e r e n t i n t h e noun. The f o l l o w i n g l i s t i n c l u d e s t h o s e nouns which do n o t form n o n - t h i r d person forms a s i n (1-2) above. For each of t h e s e nouns, t h e t h i r d p e r s o n and f i r s t person s i n g u l a r forms a r e shown. Given t h e f i r s t p e r s o n s i n g u l a r form, t h e f i r s t person d u a l and p l u r a l and t h e second person forms of each v e r b can be p r e d i c t e d . For example, if a f i r s t p e r s o n form has t h e s u b j e c t pronoun p r e f i x j i - , t h e second person s i n g u l a r form w i l l have t h e p r e f i x h i - , e t c . , a s i n ( 3 ) . (3) a. b.
C.

ji2w01ni4sgi. hi2w01ni4sgi. sdi2w01ni4sgi.

"I'm a s p e a k e r . " "You're a s p e a k e r ." "You ( d l ) a r e s p e a k e r s .

I f t h e f i r s t p e r s o n s i n g u l a r form o f a g i v e n noun has g - a s t h e p r e f i x , t h e n t h e second person s i n g u l a r form w i l l have h - , e t c . , a s i n ( 4 ) . (4) a. b. c, g ~ ~ n o ~ s ? ~ s"I'm. a sweeper." gi hv2no2 3 s? 2 s g i . llYou1re a sweeper."

~ d v ~ n o ~ ~ s ~ ~ s ( d i ). a r e sweepers . I f "You g l

Third person p l u r a l animate forms r e q u i r e t h e use o f t h e p r e f i x an- b e f o r e noun stems beginning with a vowel, and of a n i - b e f o r e noun stems beginning with a consonant, a s i n (5-6). (5) (6) a. b. a. b.

g? 2 w 1n i 4 s g i ttspeaker't o . 2 .2 . n l wo 1n l 4 s g i "speakers"

llsweeper" a2nv2n023sa2sgi "sweepers"

L i s t o f nouns forming f i r s t person s i n g u l a r forms by a p r e f i x change. Note t h a t t h i s l i s t does n o t i n c l u d e nouns which r e f e r t o k i n terms; s e e 11-C f o r t h e p r e f i x changes which occur i n t h e s e nouns.

?2w023ha731i - ji2w023hg731i 2 .2 . a3ya1t02hi2hi - ji3ya1tq h; hi 62ye21v4?i - ji2ye21v4?i p2y023hli

j~2y023hli

92yv2wi - jiZyv2wi +2yv2wi2ya4?i - ji2yv2wi2ya4~i a2yv3wV3nezga - j ~ 2 y v 3 w ~ 3 n e 2 g a ga721e1gi - ji?21e1gi ga?21e4ni - ji?21e4ni g?Zne2j i4?i - jiZne2ji47i ga2ne41i - ji2ne41i ganh1g04?i - jinh1g04?i ga2ni 3dp?2dv4?i - j i2ni 3da?2d~4?i gp?2ni23yi4sgi
-

j~?2ni23yi4sgi

gp2n02hp21i2d04hi

ji2n027a21i2d04hi

g~2n02sgi4sgi- ji2n01sgi4sgi ga2nv1sge4ni - j i2nv1sge4ni ga2nv2w04?i - ji2nv2w04?i ga2sp2hi4?i - ji1s02hi4?i ga3ye2sa?3dv4?i - j i3ye2sa?3dv4?i kp2ni2ge4ni - ji 'ni2ge4ni kp2n02ge4ni - ji1noZge4ni Section 111. Other Parts of Speech I1 I-A. Pronouns Personal pronouns ayv "I, we1' This pronoun has a variant, ?y, 'a which is. used by some speakers. It refers to one or more first persons. It is frequently used in replying to questions; note (2) as a response to the question in (1). (1) ga3go u1we2nv3se3?i? "Who went?" who went
I

? ' y v

is also used in stative sentences like (3). (3) ?2yv

ji2jg21?2gi Cherokee

"I 'm a C h e r ~ k e e . ~ ~ This use of is

a2yv can also be used for emphasis as the subject of a verb. optional, as (4) indicates.

(4) nihi

a. b.

j i 2 w 0 3 n i2 h a .
?ZYv

" I am s p e a k i n g . "
" I am s p e a k i n g . "

j l2wo3ni2ha.

"you" I t functions like

n i 2 h i i s u s e d i n a d d r e s s i n g o n e o r more s e c o n d p e r s o n s . a s i l l u s t r a t e d by ( 5 - 8 ) . (5)
(6)

ga3go ni2hi. n12hi you

n u 1 d v 3 n e 2 1 e 3 ? i ? "Who d i d i t ? " "You." hiZyo3ne2ga. w h i t e man " Y o u ' r e a w h i t e man." " Y o u ' r e s p e a k i n g ."

(7)
(8)

n i 2 h i hi2w03ni2ha. you a r e s p e a k i n g

a Z y v and n 1 2 h i a r e t h e o n l y i n d e p e n d e n t p e r s o n a l pronouns i n C h e r o k e e . The demons t r a t i v e pronouns a r e employed i n p l a c e o f t h i r d p e r s o n i n d e p e n d e n t p r o n o u n s , a s n o t e d below. Demonstrative pronouns The d e m o n s t r a t i v e a d j e c t i v e s d i s c u s s e d i n S e c t i o n 1 1 1 - B c a n s t a n d a l o n e a s demons t r a t i v e p r o n o u n s , as i n ( 9 - 1 0 ) .
(9)

hi2?a this

a1gwa2du21i 3 h a . i want a l g o w h 2 t i 3ha. he s e e s

" I want t h i s

."

(10)

v1sgi2na t h a t one

"He s e e s t h a t o n e . "

T h e s e d e m o n s t r a t i v e p r o n o u n s may r e f e r t o human b e i n g s when t h e c o n t e x t makes i t c l e a r t h a t a human i s b e i n g r e f e r r e d t o , a s i n ( 1 1 - 1 3 ) . (11)


(12)

h127a

j i 2 g ~ ~ h 1 t ; 3 h a . " I s e e him." ga2ji2gowh1ti 3ha. I see " I s e e them ( a n )

v1sg12na them hi2?a

."

(13)

ga2w03n?2ha.

"He i s s p e a k i n g . "

I n (11) t h e v e r b form i n d i c a t e s a n a n i m a t e d i r e c t o b j e c t ; compare ( 1 4 - 1 5 ) . (14) (15) jiZgowh1tl3ha. j?2gowh1t?3ha. "I s e e him." "I see i t . "

S i n c c it i s c l e a r from t h e v e r b form u s e d i n ( 1 1 ) t h a t a p e r s o n i s b e i n g s e e n , t . : i s u n d e r s t o o d t o mean "him." S i m i l a r l y , t h e form o f t h e v e r b u s e d i n ( 1 2 ) i . < c i t e s t h a t t h e r e i s a n a n i m a t e p l u r a l d i r e c t o b j e c t . h i 2 7 a c a n t h u s mean " 1 : ~ . him, s h e , h e r , t h e y , them" when r e f e r r i n g t o a n i m a t e nouns which a r e n e a r t h e s p e a k e r , v 1 s g 1 2 n a h a s t h e same E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n s when r e f e r r i n g t o a n i mate nouns which a r e some d i s t a n c e from t h e s p e a k e r . Reflexive pronouns. The r e f l e x i v e p r o n o u n s a r e more complex t h a n t h e p e r s o n a l and d e m o n s t r a t i v e p r o nouns. They a r e i n f l e c t e d i n a manner similar t o v e r b s . Paradigm One c o n t a i n s t h e r e f l e x i v e pronoun f o r m s " m y s e l f , y o u r s e l f , " e t c .

Paradigm One rt2gwv23sa "myself" j ~ ~ ~ s a "yourself" u2wa23sa "himself, itself" gi2nv23sa "ourselves" ilg~~~sa 02gv23sa "ourselves" (you sg. and I) (you pl. and I) (they and I)

"ourselves" (he and I) 5d~~~s.a llyourselves" (you dl. ) i1jv23sa tlyourselvesll(you pl.) The stem of the reflexive pronoun is -vsa; -v- changes to -a- in the third person singular form v2wa23sa. For discussion and analysis of the pronoun prefixes used in Paradigm One, see Section I-B. Sentences (16-17) illustrate the reflexive use of the above forms. (16) (17) a2gwv23sa ga2da2gowh1ti3ha. "I see myself." u2wa23sa a1da2dv2hni3ha. "He Is hitting himself.

Note thst the reflexive pronouns are redundant, and do not have to be used in sentences like (16-17) since the presence of the reflexive prefix in the verb form makes the reflexive meaning clear; compare (18-19). (18) (19) ga2da2gowh1ti3ha. "I see myself." hitting himself." a1da2dv2hni3ha. ItHels

Reflexive pronouns often stand alone in sentences like (21), said in reply to questions like (20). (20) (21) ga3go hi2gowh1t<3ha?" "Who do you see?" rt2gwv23sa. "Myself ."

The dual and plural reflexive pronouns may never be used with verb forms understood reciprocally. While verbs with the reflexive prefix -adad- and the plural prefix de- can ordinarily be interpreted as either plural reflexives or reciprocally, sentences like (22-23) can only have the plural reflexive meaning because of the presence of the reflexive pronouns. See the discussion of de- and -adad- in Section I-A for further details of forms which can be interpreted either as plural reflexives or reciprocally. (22) (23) ~ ~ n v ~ ~ s a da1na2da2gowh2ti3ha. "They see themselves (plural acts) .I1 02gv23sa do1ja2da2gowh2ti3ha. "They and I see ourselves (plural acts) ."

There is a second set of reflexive forms identical to those of Paradigm One except in pitch. These reflexives, displayed in Paradigm Two, have the meaning "1 alone" or "only I," etc. Paradigm Two a2gwv4sa "I alone"

jv4sa

"you alone"

~ ? ' w a ~ s a "he alone" gi2nv4sa Ifwe a l o n e u (you s g . and I ) i1gv4sa


0

"we a l o n e u
4

(you p l . and I ) (he and I ) (they and I )

2 .2

g; nv s a

"we alone"

02gv4sa "we alone" sdv4sa i1jv4sa u2nv4sa (24) kilo

"you ( d l ) alone" "you ( p l ) alone" "they alone"


j ~ 2 w 0 3 n i 2 s g v 2 3 ? i . "1 a l o n e was speaking."

The forms of Paradigm Two occur i n s e n t e n c e s l i k e ( 2 4 ) . ?'gwv4sa I n d e f i n i t e pronouns "somebody, someone" (25) hla kilo (26) gohusdi
ki210

k i l o i s i l l u s t r a t e d by ( 2 5 ) . gg2wo3nl2ha. "Someone i s speaking. " "no one, nobody1' hla3 k1210 "something" yi2gri2w032ni2ha. "No one i s speaking."

This pronoun i s formed by combining t h e n e g a t i v e h l a "not" and k i 2 1 0 a s i n (26)

This form has s e v e r a l v a r i a n t s , i n c l u d i n g gohusd, gosd, and gusd. The use of a p a r t i c u l a r form depends upon t h e speaker and upon t h e f o r m a l i t y of t h e speech style. h l a gohusdi nigada "nothing" The s t r u c t u r e of t h i s pronoun p a r a l l e l s t h a t of hla3 k j 2 1 0 . " a l l , everyone, everything" This pronoun may sta.nd a l o n e o r may s e r v e a d j e c t i v e l y t o modify nouns; i t s u s e i s i l l u s t r a t e d by (27-28). (27) (28) gag0 n l 2 g a 4 d a a1gwa2du21j3ha.
'

"I want a l l of i t

."

n i 2 g a 4 d a a 2 n i 2 s g a 2 y a a1ni2gowh2t13ha. " A l l t h e men s e e i t . I 1

I n t e r r o g a t i v e pronouns "who"

This pronoun r e f e r s o n l y t o persons; n o t e ( 2 9 ) . (29) ga3go h i 2 g 0 2 ? e 3 ? "Who d i d you see?" gagi "who" This pronoun r e f e r s t o p e r s o n s and i s used i n s i t u a t i o n s i n which t h e speaker has n o t understood t h e i d e n t i t y o f a person j u s t r e f e r r e d t o by someone e l s e ; n o t e (30-31).

(30) (31) gado

j a 2 3 n i g ? 2 w 0 3 n i 2 s g v 23 7 i . "John was s p e a k i n g . " ga32gi? "Who?" ( i . e . "Who d i d you s a y ? " )

"what"

The u s e o f t h i s q u e s t i o n word c a l l s f o r a n answer c o n t a i n i n g a v e r b ; i . e . , t h e q u e s t i o n r e f e r s t o t h e n a t u r e of t h e a c t i o n b e i n g p e r f o r m e d by t h e p e r s o n spoken t o . An example i s ( 3 2 ) , which might b e a n s w e r e d by ( 3 3 ) . (32) (33) gad0 u s d i g?2d02 "what" I t calls for a ha2dv3ne2ha? Itwhat a r e you d o i n g ? " di2g02hwe21i d e Z 3 ji 3 g 0 2 1 i 2 3 y e 3 ? a . "1 Im r e a d i n g a book."

T h i s q u e s t i o n word i s a compound c o n s i s t i n g o f ga2d02 a n d u 2 s d i . noun a n s w e r . The q u e s t i o n i n (34) m i g h t b e answered by ( 3 5 ) . (34) (35) g?2d02 u2sdi hi2gowh2ti3ha? "What do you s e e ? " u Z 3 t a 2 n a da2gwa21e31a.
"A b i g c a r . "

ga2d02 u 2 s d i c a n a l s o be u s e d t o q u e s t i o n t h e s u b j e c t o f t h e s e n t e n c e , a s i n ( 3 6 ) , which c o u l d b e answered by ( 3 7 ) . , (36) (37) gado u s d i ga2d02 u2n021e. "which" u 2 s d i "whatu o n l y i n p i t c h . "Which o n e d o you want?" "Which o n e i s d o i n g i t ? " "Which man i s s p e a k i n g ? " I t s use is i l l u s u2sdi na1dv3ne2ha? "What's d o i n g i t ? " "The wind."

T h i s pronoun d i f f e r s from g a 2 d 0 2 t r a t e d by ( 3 8 - 3 9 ) . (38) (39) (40) grt2d02 u 4 s d i ga2d02 u4sdi

ja2du21i3ha? na1dv3ne2ha? a2sga2ya

gad0 u s d i c a n a l s o modify n o u n s , a s i n ( 4 0 ) . ga2d02 u 4 s d i ga2wo 3 n i 2 h a ? P o s s e s s i v e pronouns The s t e m o f t h e p o s s e s s i v e pronoun i s - j e l i 7 i . T h i s s t e m i s employed t o form t h e p o s s e s s i v e p r o n o u n s d i s p l a y e d i n Paradigm T h r e e . Paradigm T h r e e a 2 g w a 2 j e 2 1 i 4 ? i 'lminett d i 2 g w a 2 je 2 1 i 4 ? i ja2j e21i4?i u2je21i4?i ju2je21i4?i di2ja2je21i4?i llmine" ( p l ) ttyoursfl (PI) IIyoursl' "his"
I I ~ ~ ~ I I (~1)

g i 2 n a 2 j e 2 1 i 4 ? i "ours" i1ga2je21i4?i di1ga2je21i4?i "ours"

( y o u r s g . and m i n e ) ( y o u r s g . and mine, p l . ) ( y o u r p l . and mine)

d i 2 g i 2 n ? 2 j e 2 1 i 4 ? i "ours"

t l o u r s t t ( y o u r p l . and m i n e , p l . )

0 ~ ~ i ~ n ~ ~ j lloursl' i ~ h ? s i and mine) e ~ 1 ( i j o 2 g i 2 n a 2 j e 2 1 i 4 ? i M ~ ~ (rh i~ a n d m i n e , p l . ) s l l oZga2,e21i4?i jo2ga2je21i"i sda2je21i4?i di2sda2je21i4?i i1j?2je21i4?i di1j?2je21i4?i ju2na2je21i4?i llours1l "ours" ( t h e i r s and mine) ( t h e i r s and m i n e , p l . ) (pl) (pl)

Ifyours ( d l ) " "yours (dl)" "yours (pl)" (PI)

l q y o u ~(pl)" s

u2na2je21i4?i "theirs" lltheirslt The p l u r a l p r e f i x o c c u r s w i t h t h e p o s s e s s i v e f o r m s i n i n s t a n c e s i n which t h e r e a r e two o r more p o s s e s s e d i t e m s . T h i s p r e f i x a p p e a r s a s d i - b e f o r e a f o l l o w i n g c o n s o n a n t and a s j - b e f o r e a f o l l o w i n g vowel. The u s e o f t h e p o s s e s s i v e p r o n o u n s i s i l l u s t r a t e d by ( 4 1 - 4 2 ) . (41) (42) ga2dc2 hi27a u4sdi a 2 g w ? 2 j e 2 1 i 4 ? i ? "Which one i s mine?" "These a r e h i s ( p l ) ju2je21i4?i.

."

The p e r s o n a l p r o n o u n s may b e u s e d t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e p o s s e s s i v e p r o n o u n s , a s i n (43-44). (43) (44) a2yv I a2gwa2je21i4?i 04sda. mine good "Mine i s g o o d . "

n i 2 h i j a 2 j e 2 1 i 4 ? i a l g w a 2 d u 2 1 i 3 h a . IrI want y o u r s ." You yours i want' The p o s s e s s i v e p r o n o u n s may a l s o f u n c t i o n a s a d j e c t i v e s , a s i n ( 4 5 - 4 6 ) . (45) (46) da2gwa21e31a car da2gwa21e31a car ja2je21i4?i yours gi23ga3ge4?i. red "Your c a r i s r e d . " "My c a r i s b i g . "

?2gwa2je21i47i uZ3ta2na. mine big

Pronoun s u f f i x e s The pronouns can o c c u r w i t h t h e s u f f i x e s -gwu, - s g o , - j u , - k e , -hv, - d v , and - n a , described in 11-B. Examples f o l l o w . (47) a2y\!3gwu " j u s t me" (48) (49)
(50)

n,2his3?

"Is i t you?"

u2je21i4ju?

"Well, i s it h i s ? " l l I s i t J o h n o r you?"

jaZ3nis3, ni2hi3ke?

(51)

n i 2 h i 3 s g o 1 h v ? "But i s i t YOU?" v, ni2hi3dv. ni2hi4na? "Yes, i t you." "And what a b o u t you?ll

(52)
(53)

See t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f e a c h of t h e s e s u f f i x e s i n 1 1 - B .

111-B.

Adjectives

A d j e c t i v e s i n Cherokee g e n e r a l l y p r e c e d e t h e nouns t h e y modify. T h i s f a c t has p r o vided a c r i t e r i o n f o r i d e n t i f y i n g a d j e c t i v e s . I n (1) t h e a d j e c t i v e precedes t h e noun; i n ( 2 ) two nouns form a compound noun c o n s t r u c t i o n .

(1)
-

u2w02du4hi ji3sgwa pretty bird

ga2n02hi231i. i s flying

ltA

pretty bird i s flying."

(2)

j i 2 t a 2 3 g a +2chv2ya a y h 3 g a . "A r o o s t e r i s crowing." chicken male i s crowing

A semantic c r i t e r i o n has a l s o been used t o c l a s s i f y words a s a d j e c t i v e s : t h o s e forms which a r e understood t o impute a q u a l i t y t o a p e r s o n o r o b j e c t a r e c l a s s i f i e d a s a d j e c t i v e s , even though t h e noun r e f e r r i n g t o t h a t e n t i t y may n o t always appear i n t h e s e n t e n c e . An example i s ( 4 ) , t h e r e s p o n s e t o ( 3 ) .

(3)
-

a 2 s g a 2 y a s 3 hiZgowh1ti3ha? "Do you s e e a man?"

(4) v , llYes, a b i g one." Note a l s o t h a t a d j e c t i v e s can f u n c t i o n a s adverbs modifying v e r b s . This f a c t p r o v i d e s a second c r i t e r i o n f o r i d e n t i f y i n g a d j e c t i v e s . For example, u2%a2na can s e r v e a s an adverb, a s i n (5,.
(5)

u 2 3 t a 2 n a g+2w03ni2ha.

"He's t a l k i n g b i g . "

A d j e c t i v e s d i f f e r from v e r b s w i t h r e s p e c t t o a f f i x a t i o n . The i n i t i a l p r e f i x e s and t h e s u f f i x e s which o c c u r w i t h v e r b s i n Cherokee do n o t o c c u r w i t h a d j e c t i v e s . Compare ( 6 - 7 ) ; i n ( 6 ) , t h e p a s t t e n s e s u f f i x - v ? i i s a t t a c h e d d i r e c t l y t o t h e v e r b form while it cannot be a t t a c h e d t o t h e a d j e c t i v e i n ( 7 ) . I n s t e a d , - v ? i i s a t t a c h e d t o t h e p a s t t e n s e form o f t h e v e r b " t o be" i n ( 7 ) . (6) (7) ga2w03ni2sgv23?i. "He was s p e a k i n g . " u Z 3 t a 2 n a g e 1 s v 2 3 ? i . "He was b i g . "

A d j e c t i v e s a r e i n f l e c t e d f o r p e r s o n and number by t h e u s e of t h e s u b j e c t pronoun p r e f i x e s d e s c r i b e d i n S e c t i o n I-B. Paradigm One i l l u s t r a t e s t h e u s e o f t h e S e t A p r e f i x e s w i t h a d j e c t i v e stems b e g i n n i n g w i t h a c o n s o n a n t . Paradigm One:


1.

"red"
I 1 I

ji2gi23g+3ge4?i

- red"

2.

h i 2 g i 2 3 g + 3 g e 4 ? i llyou - red" ? 2 g i 2 3 g a 3 g e 4 ? i "he gi23ga3ge4?i


! l i t

3. 4.

red"

- red"
"you and I - r e d " l1he and I

i lni2gi23 g a 3 g e 4 ? i

i 1 d i 2 g i 2 3 g + 3 g e 4 ? i llyou ( p l ) and I - r e d "

red"

0 2 j i 2 g i 2 3 g + 3 g e 4 ? i "they and I - r e d " ~ d i ' g i ~ ~ g ? ~ g'lyou? ( d l ) - r e d w e~ i

i l j i 2 g i 2 3 g a 3 g e 4 ? i "you ( p l ) - red" 2n . 2gi 2 3g a 3 g e 4 ? i " t h e y (an) - r e d " l .


"they ( i n a n )

d i 2 g i 23g?3ge4?i

red"

Note t h a t t h e p l u r a l o b j e c t p r e f i x i s u s e d t o form t h e p l u r a l o f inanimates, a s ( 1 2 ) ; t h i s p r e f i x t a k e s t h e form d i - i n a d j e c t i v e s , j u s t a s i t d o e s i n n o u n s .

in

Paradigm Two i l l u s t r a t e s t h e u s e o f t h e S e t A p r e f i x e s w i t h a n a d j e c t i v e stem b e ginning with a vowel. Paradigm Two: ,go3'sda ho4sda 04sda
"1
-

good" good"

"you

"he, i t - good" "you and I

i1n04sda i1d04sda 02sdo4sda 02j04sda sdo4sda i1j04sda a2n04sda jo4sda

goodt'

"you ( p l ) a n d I " t h e y and I

good"

"he and I - good"

good"

"you ( d l ) - good" "you ( p l ) "they (an)

good" good"

"they (in)

good"

Note t h a t a d j e c t i v e s l i k e " r e d , " which b e g i n w i t h c o n s o n a n t s , show a c o n t r a s t b e tween t h i r d p e r s o n s i n g u l a r i n a n i m a t e and t h i r d p e r s o n s i n g u l a r a n i m a t e f o r m s . T h i s c o n t r a s t i s n o t p r e s e n t i n t h e c a s e o f "good" a n d o t h e r a d j e c t i v e s t e m s l i k e i t which b e g i n w i t h s t e m i n i t i a l v o w e l s . Paradigm T h r e e d i s p l a y s a n a d j e c t i v e s t e m b e g i n n i n g w i t h a c o n s o n a n t which r e q u i r e s t h e S e t B p r e f i x e s . Paradigm T h r e e : "crazy"
-

a 2 g i 2 1 u 2 1 0 1 j v 4 ? i "I ja21u210 l j v 4 ? i u21u2101j v 4 ? i "you

crazy" crazy"

"he - c r a z y "

g i 2 n i 2 1 u 2 1 0 1 j v 4 ? i 'lyou and I - c r a z y f f i 1 g i 2 1 u 2 1 0 1 j v 4 7 i Ityou ( p l ) and I - c r a z y " 0 2 g i 2 n i 2 1 u 2 1 l JV 4 7 i 0 ' sdi21u2101jv4?i "he and I - c r a z y t t crazy" ~ ~ ~ i ~ l u ~ l " t h~ yj and I - c r a z y " o e v ~ ? i lryou ( d l )
-

i 1 j i 2 l u 2 l o 1 j v 4 ? i "YOU ( p l ) - c r a z y " . u 2 n i 2 1 u 2 1 01J.V 4 ?1 " t h e y - c r a z y " The a d j e c t i v e s i n P a r a d i g m s Four and F i v e h a v e s t e m s b e g i n n i n g w i t h v o w e l s a n d r e q u i r e t h e S e t B p r e f i x e s ; n o t e t h a t t h e i n i t i a l - a - o f t h e stem i s d r o p p e d i n t h i r d p e r s o n forms i n Paradigm F i v e . Note t h e i n s e r t i o n o f -w- b e t w e e n . t h e t h i r d p e r s o n p r e f i x u- and t h e i n i t i a l stem vowel - 0 - i n Paradigm Four. Paradigm F o u r : "pretty"
111

g2gwo2du4hi jo2du4hi

- prettyu

llyou - p r e t t y "

d i 2 g i 2 n 0 2 d u 4 h i "you and I - p r e t t y " di'go2du4hi f f y ( ~ l )~ and I p

pretty"

jo2gi2n02du4hi "he and I - p r e t t y ' ! jo2g02du4hi "they and I - p r e t t y " d i 2 s d o 2 d u 4 h i "you ( d l ) - p r e t t y " d i 1 j 0 2 d u 4 h i lryou ( p l ) - p r e t t y " ju2n02du4hi "they (an)

pretty"

jV2wo2du4hi "they ( i n ) - p r e t t y "

Paradigm Five :

"bigf1

g3gwa2ta2na "I - b i g " j a 3 t a 2 n a "you - big" u Z 3 t a 2 n a "he, i t d i 2 g i 3na 2t ?2na di1g?3ta2na

big"

"you'and I - b i g "

llyou ( p l ) and I

big"

j o Z 3 g i 2 n a 2 t a 2 n a "he and I - big" jo23ga2t?2na "they and I - b i g "


-'

d i 2 s d a 3 t a 2 n a "you ( d l ) big" d i 1 j a 3 t a 2 n a ltyou ( p l ) - big" j u 2 3 n ? 2 t a 2 n a "they (an) - b i g "


2 j u 2 3t + na

"they ( i n )

big"

Third person p l u r a l a d j e c t i v e forms. T h i r d person p l u r a l inanimate a d j e c t i v e forms a r e marked f o r p l u r a l i t y by t h e a d d i t i o n o f t h e p l u r a l p r e f i x , a s noted above; t h i s p r e f i x t a k e s t h e - f o r m d i - b e f o r e a f o l l o w i n g consonant, and j - b e f o r e a f o l lowing vowel. Third person p l u r a l animate forms of v e r b s which t a k e t h e S e t B p r e f i x e s r e q u i r e a double marking; t h e j - p r e f i x followed by -u- followed by - n - . C a t e g o r i z a t i o n of f r u i t s f o r purposes o f a d j e c t i v e i n f l e c t i o n . Terms f u r f r u i t s i n Cherokee r e q u i r e t h e same form of a modifying a d j e c t i v e a s animate nouns do. Note (8-10). (8) ju2n02du4hi ? 2 n i 2 g e 2 h y u 4 j a g a 2 j i2gowh 1t;. 3 ha. "I s e e p r e t t y g i r l s . "
(9)

ju2w02du4hi

d i 2 g G 2 n e 1 s ? 3 3 i d e 2 3 ji3gowh1ti3ha.

"I s e e p r e t t y boxes ."

(10)

a2n04sda d i 2 g a 2 d v 3 d i d e 2 3 ji3gowh1ti3ha.

"I s e e good p e a r s

."

L i s t of f i r s t person s i n g u l a r a d j e c t i v e forms. S i n c e f i r s t person s i n g u l a r forms of a d j e c t i v e s a r e n o t i n c l u d e d i n t h e d i c t i o n a r y e n t r y f o r each a d j e c t i v e . t h e following l i s t g i v e s t h e f i r s t person s i n g u l a r form o f g d j e c t i v e s i n c l u d e d i n t h e d i c t i o n a r y which do n o t follow t h e p a t t e r n o f Paradigm One. I t i s understood t h a t any a d j e c t i v e n o t i n c l u d e d i n t h e l i s t t a k e s t h e same p r e f i x e s shown i n Paradigm One. Demonstrative a d j e c t i v e s and numerals a r e n o t i n c l u d e d i n t h e l i s t ; t h e y are commented on below.

. ? 2g? 2g? 2na4sdi "sweet" ?2gi2ga23na2\,ra "warm, Democrat"

a2gwo2de23hwi4da "damp" a2gwo2du4hi a2gwoh14di a2gwu23ya2ti a2gwvn2sv47i "cooked, ripe" a2ki 'p4dla . "cold, Republican" a2ki2yv2sde4da "drunk'+ a2ksa2n041i "slow" "crisp" "interesting" a2ksda2g?2yv23hi2da a3ksgwa2ni2kdi "pretty" "funnyff

5 g? gvZ3ha2hli "part"
3g? 2hyy2sdi .

2 .2

"strong"

a2gwo23ti2da "swollen"

2g; 2 2hyo4da "dry" . ka a3gi2k~1hi2sdi llcute" 2g; 211 2 . . hwo1jv47i "dead"

a2g;. 2ne4ga

"white"

. . .

a2gi2ne3gih12di "ugly" a2gi2ye21v2ha47i "naked"

. .

a2g;. 2 yo2hu2sv47i

ltdead''

a2gi2y04?i "badu ?2gwa2da23ja2tdi "reckless" a2gwa2da21v4kwdi "snobbish" a2gwa2danh4ti "friendly" a2gwa2danh2ti2sa2hnv47i fltamedfl a2gwa2da2nv2ga21v4da "clean" a2gwa2de2h023sa2ti "bashful" a2gwa2hli2ni23gj2da "powerfult1 a2gwa21e2s04da "skinny" a3gwa?21i2sdi "weak"
.2 a3gwa12sgwa21; da

di2gi2ksv4sdi l1smoky" di2gi21i2"e4na "deaf" di2gi210h14di "striped" di2gwa21i2chv2 3ya1sdi "brave" di2ji ~ ~ g e ~ tlblindfl wi di2ji721e23nv3hi4da "long-eared" di2ki2na2j04sdi vlsourtl ge32gwa 81hugell ge32yah2ta2hi "wild" go 32sda1yi "sharp" go1sdilyu4hli gv lno4da "dull" gv 32na2ga12sdi "active" "alive" ''whole'' gv lwa2no4sda

. .

. .

"broken"

a3gwa12sih2gi "dark" a2gwa2sdi47i "smalltf a3gwa2ta2na "big" a2gwe23hna27i "wealthyll ,2gwe4ti "old"

na2gwa3danh2tv4na "insane" v2kwsu2ye4da "chosen"

The demonstrative adjectives. The demonstrative hi27a means "this, these." modifies both animate and inanimate nouns; note (11-13). "This man is big." (11) hi2"a ?2sga2~a this man big (12) hiZ7a k? 2ne1sa37i algwa2du21i3ha. this box' i want
I I I

want this box." you see these men?"

r
r

(13)

ga2hi2gowh1ti2has you see them (ques.)

hi27a these

a2ni2sga2ya? ' men

vlsgi2na or its variant forms vlsgi and sgi2na "that, those," is used to refer to an object ' PerSon some distance from the speaker, as in (14-15). 0

(14)
(15)

v 1 s g i 2 n a g i 2 h l i da1sy2hwi3sga. that dog i s barking

'

!!That dog i s b a r k i n g ."

v 1 s g i 2 n a a 2 n i 2 s g a 2 y a a l n i 2 w 0 3 n i 2 h a . "Those men a r e speaking those men a r e speaking

."

v 1 s g i 2 n a i s used t o modify nouns r e f e r r i n g t o o b j e c t s which a r e o u t of r e a c h of t h e speaker b u t a r e v i s i b l e , a s i n ( 1 6 ) . (16) v1sgi2na a 2 s g a 2 y a ga2w03ni2ha. "That man i s s p e a k i n g . " n a l s g i seems t o f u n c t i o n

n a l s g i i s used more o r l e s s i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y w i t h v l s g i . a s a marker o f formal o r b i b l i c a l s t y l e .

The demonstrative a d j e c t i v e s a l s o f u n c t i o n a s pronouns, a s noted i n S e c t i o n 111-B. na i s a noun m o d i f i e r which f u n c t i o n s much l i k e t h e d e f i n i t e a r t i c l e "the" i n Engl i s h ; n o t e (17-18).
(17)

a. b.

a2sg?2ya na3

ga2w03ni2ha.

"A man i s s p e a k i n g . "

?2sg?2ya

g?2w03ni2ha.

"The man i s s p e a k i n g . "

(18)

na3 the

a2sg?2ya man

j i 2 g a 2 w 0 3 n i 2 s g v 4 ? i 0 2 g i 2 n a 2 1 i 4 ? i . "The man who was who was speaking m friend y speaking i s m f r i e n d . " y

C a r d i n a l numbers. The terms f o r t h e c a r d i n a l numbers a r e a d j e c t i v e s which may s t a n d a l o n e when t h e modified noun i s understood r a t h e r t h a n expressed o v e r t l y ; n o t e (19-20). (19) a. b. (20) a. b. a 2 n i 2 3 t a ? 3 1 i a2ni2sga2ya men two
tav31i two

a l ~ ~ i ~ w o ~ n ?"Twoa men a r e speaking." ~h . a r e speaking "Two a r e s p e a k i n g . " 111 want two boxes
.I1

a 2 n i 2 3 t a ? 3 1 i a1ni2w03n?2ha. di2g?2ne l s a 3 ? i boxes

da1gwa2du21i 3ha. I want


"I want two."

ta?31i da1gwa2du21i3ha. two I want

The c a r d i n a l number terms f o r "two" and " t h r e e " o p t i o n a l l y t a k e t h e animate p l u r a l p r e f i x a n i - ( s e e S e c t i o n I-B) when t h e y modify animate nouns; n o t e (21). (21) a. b. 1 2
3

taq31i

a 2 n i 2 s g ? 2 y a a 1 n i 2 w 0 3 n i 2 h a . "Two men a r e speaking . I 1 "Two men a r e speaking."

a 2 n i 2 3 t a ? 3 1 i a 2 n i 2 s g a 2 y a a1ni2w03ni2ha. salgwu
tap31i

L i s t o f terms f o r c a r d i n a l numbers
10 12 sgo23hi
t??13du

11 s?v3du

jo2?i

The terms f o r t h e o r d i n a l numbers. The terms f o r t h e o r d i n a l numbers a r e formed by t h e a d d i t i o n o f t h e o r d i n a l s u f f i x t o t h e terms f o r t h e c a r d i n a l numb e r s . This o r d i n a l s u f f i x a p p e a r s a s - i n e when preceded by f i n a l vowels -a and -i a s i n 2-10, 22-30, 32-40, e t c . ( t h e f i n a l vowel sound i s d e l e t e d b e f o r e - i n e ) ; a s - s i n e when t h e c a r d i n a l number term ends i n -u a s i n 11-19, and a s - h i n e i n t h e terms f o r 2 1 , 31, 41, 51, e t c . The t e r m f o r " f i r s t , " i 2 g v 2 y i 4 , i s i r r e g u l a r . Ordinal terms may s e r v e a s t h e s u b j e c t o r o b j e c t o f s e n t e n c e s when t h e modified noun i s d e l e t e d , provided t h a t t h e a u x i l i a r y " t c be" i s employed w i t h t h e r e l a t i v e p r e f i x j-; note (22). (22) a. b. t a 7 2 1 i 2 n e j i 2 j i 4 y a k a 2 n e 1 s a 3 ? i a1gwa2du21i3ha. second which l i e s box I want
"I want t h e second box. "

ta?'1i2ne j i g a l g ~ ? ~ d u ~ l i ~ "1a want t h e second one." h . second which i s I want ~ ? ? ~ 1d .lu n e s 2 t a ? l 3du1si2ne j~?~g??~dulsi~ne n i Z g a ?3 d u 1 s i 2 n e ~gi~g??~dulsi~ne da21a2du1si2ne gah12gwa3du1si2ne ne231a3du1si2ne ~ ~ ~ h n e ~ ~ l a ~ d u ~ s i ta?13sgo2hi2ne

List of o r d i n a l terms
first second third fourth fifth sixth seventh eighth ninth tenth i2gv2yi ta?21i2ne j 02?i2ne nvh2gi2ne hi2sgi2ne su2da21i2ne gah12gwo2gi2ne ch? 2 ne 2 1 . 2ne 1 so3hne21i2ne sgo2hi2ne eleventh twelfth thirteenth fourteenth fifteenth sixteenth seventeenth eighteenth nineteenth twentieth

336 . ne twenty-first ta713sgo23 salgwu2hl 2 thirtieth fortieth jo?2sgo2hi2ne nv2ksgo2hi2ne

fiftieth hi2ksgo2hi2ne sixtieth ~ u ~ ~ d a l ~ s g o ~ h i ~ n e seventieth gah12gwa3sgo2hi2ne eightieth ne123sgo2hi2ne ninetieth hundredth ~ ~ ~ h n e l ~ ~ s ~ o ~ h i ~ n e ~go~~hi~tsgwi~ne sgo2 3hj3 t ~ g ~ a sa1gwu2hi2ne 3 ta721i32tsgwi2ne salgwu i2ya3ga2yv21i2ne

hundred and first two hundredth one thousandth

Quantifying adjectives. Quantifying adjectives are words like "all," "a few," and "many." Note the following examples. (23) ni2ga4da a1 1 ?2ni2sga2ya men a1ni2w03ni2ha. "All the men are speaking." are speaking

(24'1 galyo4hli d?2ga2ne1sa37i da1gwa2du21i3ha. "I want a few boxes ." few boxes I want (25) tsgwi4sdi a2ni2chu4ja many boys ga2ji2gowh1ti3ha. "I see many boys." I see

The quantifiers illustrated above can stand alone, as in (26-28). (26)


(27)

ni2ga4da da1gwa2du21i3ha. "I want all of them." I waAt them all galyo4hli few deZ3ji3gowh1ti3ha. "I see a few." I see them

tsgwi4sdi a1ni2w03ni2ha. "Many are speaking." many are speaking Adjective suffixes. Several of the suffixes which have been discussed above in sections dealing with the verb and the noun may also be attached to adjectives. These include -gwu, -sgo, -ju, -ke, and -dv. Examples follow. (29) (30) (31) (32) (33) y2sdi4g~~ "just little" uZ3ta2nas3? llIs it big?" oz3sdazju? "Well, is it good?" "IS it big or little?" !!Yes, it's big." uz3ta2nas3, u2sdi4ke? v2, uZ3tazna2dv.

(28)

These suffixes are described in Section I-C and in Section 11-B. Some additional suffixes occur only with adjectives, and several of these will be discussed briefly. Some adjectives take the suffix -jv, "very"; note (34). (34) juZno2dU1jv4 a2nizjiz1v4sgi d,1tv2hi2sdiz3sg~37i. very beautiful flowers he grows

. .

"He grows very beautiful flowers .I '

The s u f f i x -i can b e added t o c e r t a i n a d j e c t i v e s t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e q u a l i t y exp r e s s e d by t h e a d j e c t i v e i s p r e s e n t e x c e s s i v e l y , a s i n ( 3 5 ) . (35) a. b. u Z 3 t a 2 n a !!big" u2ta2ni4 "too big" note (36).

The s u f f i x - i g e ? i may b e t r a n s l a t e d by t h e E n g l i s h s u f f i x 'I-er"; (36) a. b. uZ3ta2na "big" u2ta2ni23di3ge47i "bigger"

- i g e ? i c a u s e s a p r e c e d i n g a t o d e l e t e . When added t o a n a d j e c t i v e e n d i n g i n - i , t h e form o f t h e p r e f i x i s - g e 7 i ; n o t e ( 3 7 ) . (37) a. b. ga2ja2nu41i "fast" "faster"


"I want t h e b i g g e r one."

g a 2 j a 2 n u 2 3 1 i3 g e 4 7 i

The f u n c t i o n o f - i g e ? i i s i l l u s t r a t e d by ( 3 8 ) . (38) u 2 t a 2 n i 2 3 d i 3 g e 4 ? i j i 4 g i a 1 g w a 2 d u 2 1 i 3 h a . 1'want ' bigger which i s

Some a d j e c t i v e s form t h e c o m p a r a t i v e b y a d d i n g t h e s u f f i x - y a . t i v e s form t h e s u p e r l a t i v e by a d d i n g - y v ? i ; n o t e ( 3 9 ) . (39)

T h e s e same a d j e c -

a.
b. c.

a2sa2ma4di

"smart" "smarter"

a 1 s a 2 m a 2 d i 23ya

wa2~a3ma2di2yv4?i "smartest"

The p r e f i x w- i s used t o g e t h e r w i t h - y v 7 i t o form t h e s u p e r l a t i v e . Another group o f a d j e c t i v e s form t h e c o m p a r a t i v e by a d d i n g - k a and t h e s u p e r l a t i v e by a d d i n g - k v ? i and t h e s u p e r l a t i v e p r e f i x w - ; n o t e ( 4 0 ) . (40) a. b. ?'sdi4 u1sdi3ka llsmalltl "smaller"

c.

~ u ' ~ s d i ~ ~ k l ~~ m ai l l e s t ' ' v s 7

A d j e c t i v e s i n t h e Comparative a r e p r e c e d e d by t h e a d v e r b u 1 g 0 3 2 d i i n s e n t e n c e s l i k e (41). (41) wiZ31i Bill


"Bill

u1g032di more

smarter

~ i ~ ~ hd a Z 3 m i g e 1 s v 4 7 i . n v than Tom is

i s s m a r t e r t h a n Tom."

Note t h e c o m p a r a t i v e and s u p e r l a t i v e forms o f "big" i n ( 4 2 ) . (42)

a.
b.
C.

u Z 3 t a 2 n a llbiglt u'ta2na
W

"bigger" "~b i g g e s t " ~


~

U 3 nv 4~ . 71

Forms e x h i b i t i n g t h e s u f f i x - i d i g e c a n n o t o c c u r i n c o m p a r a t i v e s e n t e n c e s ; e . g . 3 u 2 t a 2 n i Z 3 d i g e can b e u s e d i n s e n t e n c e s l i k e (38) a b o v e b u t n o t i n c o m p a r a t i v e sentences l i k e (43). (43) j a Z 3 1 i u ' g ~ ~ ~ ud tia 2 n a 1 Charles big more ~ i ~ ~ h?2y, v g e 1 s v 4 7 i . n is I than "Charles is bigger t h a n I am."

Note t h e c o m p a r a t i v e and s u p e r l a t i v e forms o f " p r e t t y . " (44) a. b. c. v2w02du4hi u1w02dv3ha "pretty" I'prettier"

~ ~ ~ w o ~ d u ~ prettiesi " " s v ~ ? t

A d j e c t i v e s l i k e " p r e t t y " e x h i b i t a change i n t h e f i n a l c o n s o n a n t o f t h e stem from -h- t o -s- b e f o r e t h e s u p e r l a t i v e s u f f i x - v v i . The f i n a l s u f f i x o f " p r e t t y " may be dropped; n o t e a l s o t h a t t h e f i n a l - v ? i s u f f i x o f s u p e r l a t i v e a d j e c t i v e forms may a l s o be d r o p p e d .
111-C.

Adverbs

I n t h i s s e c t i o n t h e f u n c t i o n o f a d v e r b s i n Cherokee i s i l l u s t r a t e d . Adverbs may modify v e r b s , a d j e c t i v e s , o r o t h e r a d v e r b s , a s i n (1-3) r e s p e c t i v e l y . (1) a2sda4ya hard realiy (3) ~ ~ d really d ~ l l v ~ ~ 3sda1n$2ha. h w i h e ' s working " H e ' s working h a r d

." ."

(2)

~ ~ ~ t a a 3 n 2 sag a 2 y a . n ~ a bi'g that man

"That man i s r e a l l y b i g . "

o a~ s d h 4 y i ~ ~ ~ 2 a a ga2w03n+2ha. " H e r s r e a l l y s p e a k i n g l o u d loud h e ' s speaking yi2ge3se3?i. it w a s n ' t


" I t wasn' t good . I '

The n e g a t i v e word h l a "not" f u l f i l l s a n i m p o r t a n t a d v e r b i a l f u n c t i o n ; n o t e ( 4 - 6 ) . (4) hla3 not hla3 not hla3 not 04sda good

(5)
(6)

yi2ga2w032ni2ha. i s n ' t speaking a2sda4ya hard

"He i s n ' t s p e a k i n g ."

y~2du231v3hwi2sda1ne2ha. "He i s n l t working h a r d


i s n ' t wocking
'

."

The a d v e r b i a l e l e m e n t s v ( o r t h e e m p h a t i c v a r i a n t v ? v ) and h l a may b e u s e d t o a f f i r m o r n e g a t e s e n t e n c e s , as i n ( 7 - 8 ) . . (7) v , ga2wo 3n +2h a . "Yes, h e ' s s p e a k i n g . " (8) hla, hla3 no n o t y;2ga2w032ni2ha. h e ' s speaking "No, h e ' s n o t s p e a k i n g

."

The Cherokee t i m e a d v e r b s a r e i l l u s t r a t e d by ( 9 - 1 1 ) . (9) (10) (11) (12) (13) sy2na31e4vi da2ye3si. tomorrow he w i l l go " H e ' l l go tomorrow.''

n ~ ~ ~ g ga2w03ni2ha. ItHe's s p e a k i n g now." w u now h e ' s speaking yu 3d a 2 h a g a 2 w 0 3 n i 2 s g o 3 ? i . "He s p e a k s sometimes. sometimes he speaks

'I

h l a 3 i21v23hi3yu yi2du231~3hwi2sda1ne2h03?i."He n e v e r works.'' not ever h e doe;n4t work ga 3y u 2 l a ga2wo 3n;. 2h a . "He's a l r e a d y s p e a k i n g . " already h e ' s speaking

The c o m p a r a t i v e ulgo3'di i n (14).

i s u s e d t o form c o m p a r i s o n s by m o d i f y i n g a d j e c t i v e s , as

339

(14)

~ i ~ u l 1 ~i ~ ~ 1 t a 3 n a s i Z 3 h n v daZ3mi g e 1 s v 4 ? i . ~ g ud i B i 11 more big than Tom is " B i l l i s b i g g e r t h a n Tom." w i Z 3 1 i d a 1 j e 2 3 h l a ga2w03ni2sgo s i Z 3 h n v daZ3mi g e 1 s v 4 ? i . Bill better he speaks than Tom does " B i l l speaks b e t t e r t h a n Tom."
"A man i s s t a n d i n g h e r e . "

Note a l s o t h e comparative d a 1 j e Z 3 h l a i n ( 1 5 ) . (15)

Adverbs of p l a c e a r e i l l u s t r a t e d by (16-18). (16) (17) a 3 h a 2 n i ga2d032ga a 2 s g a 2 y a . here i s standing man

a 3 g e 4 w a 3 ? i . "He's walking over t h e r e . " he ' s over walking there n i 2 k v 4 ? i j ? ' g ~ w h l t / ~ h a . "I s e e it everywhere." I see everywhere

(18)

Adverbs of p l a c e may be formed by t h e a d d i t i o n of t h e l o c a t i v e s u f f i x t o nouns, a s i n ( 1 9 ) ; f o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h i s s u f f i x , s e e S e c t i o n 11-B. (19) a. b. g i 1 t a 2 3 y a "cherry" o r " c h e r r y t r e e " g i 1 t a Z y o 4 ? i "Cherry Tree" ( l i t . " c h e r r y p l a c e " o r " c h e r r y t r e e place")

P r e p o s i t i o n a l p h r a s e s o f l o c a t i o n a l s o f u n c t i o n a s adverbs o f p l a c e ; n o t e (20-22), and s e e S e c t i o n 111-D. (20) g a h 1 2 j 0 2 3 d e na2?v ga2d032ga. house next t o he's standing "He's s t a n d i n g n e x t t o t h e house

."

(21)

a 1 d a 2 n e Z 3 l v 4 i 2 g v 2 3 y i 3 d i 3 d l a ga2d032ga. building in front he's standing g a 2 1 0 2 h i 2 s d i u 2 d l i 3 d i 3 d l a ga2d032ga. door behind he's standing

"He's s t a n d i n g i n f r o n t o f the building "

(22)

"He's s t a n d i n g behind t h e door."

Adverbs o f motion a r e i l l u s t r a t e d by (22-23).

(23) g e 2 ? i ~ u ' l o ~ s v ~ ~"Hei .went downstream." ? downstream he went


(24) ga21v31a2di w ~ ~ ~ d e ~ ~ Is a . "He g throwing it upward." upward h e ' s throwing gahl2joZ3de d i 3 d l a house toward wa3?i. he's walking "He's walking toward t h e house

p r e p o s i t i o n a l p h r a s e s a l s o s e r v e a s adverbs o f motion, a s i n ( 2 5 ) . (25)

."

Temporal sequence adverbs a r e i l l u s t r a t e d by (26-27). (26) i 2 g v 2 3 y i di2ga23du3hv4 ~ i ~ d a ~ ~ e ~ "I o ~going t o town f i r s t d 'm l i . first town I i l l go
.I'

(27)

a 1 3 s d a y h 1 d i u 1 h w a 2 s v 3 ? i noZ3gwu3hnv3 v 3 h n i 2 g i 3 2 s v 2 3 ? i . food h e bought and t h e n he returned "He bought f o o d and t h e n h e r e t u r n e d . "

Adverbs may e x p r e s s d o u b t , a s i n ( 2 8 ) . (28) (29) (30) (31) a2?'se 04sda ga2w03ni2ha. ga2w03ni2ha. "Maybe h e ' s s p e a k i n g . " "He i s s p e a k i n g w e l l . I t "He's running f a s t . " "He's working h a r d .

Adverbs o f manner a r e i l l u s t r a t e d by ( 2 9 - 3 1 ) . ga2ja2nu41i a l t l i . a2sda4ya

du11v2 3hwi3sda1n5,2ha.

"

Adverbs may a l s o r e f e r t o t h e e x t e n t t o which t h e a c t i o n o f t h e v e r b i s c a r r i e d o u t , as i n (32). (32) (33) (34) (35) tsgwi4sdi ga2w03nt2ha. "He s s p e a k i n g a l o t . "He w i l l s p e a k w e l l a g a i n tomorrow." "He w o n ' t s p e a k h e r e tomorrow. " "Maybe h e w o n ' t speak h e r e tomorrow. S e v e r a l a d v e r b s may o c c u r t o g e t h e r i n a s i n g l e s e n t e n c e , a s i n (33-35) c ; ~ : ~ n a ~ lsiZ3gwu 04sda e tomarrow again w e l l w i l l speak a g a i n hla3 ?3h?2ni not here hla3 a 2 3 s e n o t maybe

yi2d?2ga3wo 3 n i 2 s i s u ' n a 3 1 e 4 ? i . he won't speak tomorrow a3ha2ni here

y i 2 d a 2 g a 3 w 0 3 n i 2 s i sL!n a 3 1 e 4 ? i . ' he w o n ' t s p e a k tomorrow

The above s e n t e n c e s i l l u s t r a t e t h e r e l a t i v e o r d e r i n which s e v e r a l a d v e r b s o c c u r t o g e t h e r i n a s i n g l e s e n t e n c e . Note t h a t s e n t e n c e a d v e r b s , which i n c l u d e i n t h e i r domain t h e e n t i r e s e n t e n c e , c a n o c c u r i n more p o s i t i o n s t h a n a d v e r b s which s e r v e t o modify t h e v e r b a l o n e . F o r example, a d v e r b s l i k e "tomorrow" a r e s e n t e n c e a d v e r b s because t h e y e s t a b l i s h t h e t i m e r e f e r e n c e f o r t h e e n t i r e s e n t e n c e , a s i n (36), while a d v e r b s l i k e "hard" r e f e r s p e c i f i c a l l y t o t h e a c t i o n o f t h e v e r b i n s e n t e n c e s l i k e (37).
(36)

sV2na31e4?i da23 m i tomorrow Tom daZ3mi a 2 s d a 4 y a Tom hard

dv23g03hi willsee

~ i ~ ~"Tomorrow B i l l w i l l s e e Tom." l i . Bill

(37)

d a 2 g v 2 3 h n i 3 1 i ~ i ~ ~" B i lil . w.i l l h i t Tom h a r d . " l will hit Bill

S e n t e n c e a d v e r b s l i k e "tomorrow" a n d "always" c a n o c c u r a t t h e b e g i n n i n g and end o f s e n t e n c e s , and a f t e r t h e s u b j e c t o f t h e s e n t e n c e p r e c e d i n g t h e d i r e c t o b j e c t ; s e e (38). (38)

a.
b.

n i Z g o z 3 h i3 1 v 4 ? i d a Z 3 m i g v 2 h n i 3 h 0 3 ? i w i 2 3 1 i . always Tom hits' B i 11 W i 2 3 1 i n i 2 g 0 2 3 h i3 1 v 4 ? i d a Z 3 m i g v 2 h n i 3 h 0 3 ? i . Bill always Tom hits

" B i l l always h i t s Tom.

" B i l l always h i t s Tom. "

A d j e c t i v e s s e r v i n g a s a d v e r b s . Most a d j e c t i v e s i n Cherokee c a n a l s o s e r v e a s a d v e r b s . Note, f o r example, t h a t 0 4 s d a f u n c t i o n s a s a n a d j e c t i v e i n (39) and a s an adverb i n ( 4 0 ) . (39) na3 the 04sda good ?2sga2ya man 02gi2na21i4?i. friend "The good man i s my f r i e n d . "

(40)

04sda

g a 2 w 0 3 n i 2 s g o 3 ? i . "He speaks w e l l . I '

In t h e d i c t i o n a r y , a number of a d j e c t i v e s which f r e q u e n t l y s e r v e a s adverbs a r e designated a s b o t h a d j e c t i v e and a d v e r b . Words which a r e l a b e l e d o n l y a s a d j e c t i v e s may g e n e r a l l y a l s o f u n c t i o n a s a d v e r b s . For example, t h e a d j e c t i v e g i 2 3 g a 3 g e 4 ? i 'lredt' may modify v e r b s l i k e " p a i n t , " a s i n ( 4 1 ) . (41) gi23ga2ge'+?i a l ~ u ~ ~ h w i ~ s ~ a p a i n t i n g i t r e d . " "Hels . red he's painting

Note t h a t t h e numeral a d j e c t i v e s , i n c l u d i n g t h e terms f o r t h e o r d i n a l numbers, do not f u n c t i o n a s a d v e r b s . S i m i l a r l y , t h e d e m o n s t r a t i v e a d j e c t i v e s cannot f u n c t i o n can a s adverbs. Some o f t h e q u a n t i f y i n g a d j e c t i v e s , i n c l u d i n g "many" and T1few,'f f u n c t i o n a d v e r b i a l l y , a s i n (42-43) ; o t h e r s , l i k e " a l l , I ' c a n n o t . (42) (43) t s g w i 4 s d i ga2w03ni2ha. h e ' s speaking a lot !'He i s speaking a l o t . "

g a 1 y 0 4 h l i g a 2 w 0 3 n i 2 s g o 3 ? i . "He speaks a l i t t l e . " a little he speaks Prepositions

111-D.

There a r e r e l a t i v e l y few words i n Cherokee which f u n c t i o n l i k e p r e p o s i t i o n s i n English. Those which do f u n c t i o n l i k e t h e E n g l i s h p r e p o s i t i o n s a r e , s t r i c t l y speaking, p o s t p o s i t i o n s r a t h e r than p r e p o s i t i o n s , s i n c e t h e y f o l l o w t h e nouns which s e r v e a s t h e i r o b j e c t s . The t r a d i t i o n a l E n g l i s h term p r e p o s i t i o n i s r e t a i n e d h e r e , however, i n o r d e r n o t t o confuse t h e r e a d e r u n f a m i l i a r w i t h l i n g u i s t i c t e r m i nology. The p r e p o s i t i o n g v h 4 d i "with" o c c u r s v e r y f r e q u e n t l y i n Cherokee. i l l u s t r a t e d by ( 1 - 2 ) . (1)
(2)

I t s use is

ga2nv2gwa2104sdi gvh4di g v 2 h n i 3 h a . h d e r with h e ' s h i t t i n g yo3ne2ga g v h 4 d i ga2w03ni2ha. English with h e i s speaking

"He's h i t t i n g i t w i t h a hammer."

"He's speaking i n E n g l i s h . "

Note t h a t t h e o b j e c t s o f p r e p o s i t i o n a l p h r a s e s w i t h gvh4di r e f e r t o an i n s t r u m e n t , a s i n ( I ) , o r t o something by means o f which t h e a c t i o n o f t h e v e r b i s c a r r i e d o u t . In ( 2 ) , f o r example, t h e s u b j e c t o f t h e s e n t e n c e i s s a i d t o speak by means o f English. The p r e p o s i t i o n d i 3 d l a "toward" i s used w i t h motion v e r b s , a s i n (3-4) (3) g a h l ' j ~ ~ ~ dde 3 d l a i house toward wa3?i. he's walking e3ga. he's going "He
I s

walking toward t h e house."

(4)

d i 2 g a 23 d u 3 h ~ 4 d i 3 d l a town toward

"He's going toward town . I 1

Note a l s o t h e p r e p o s i t i o n s i n ( 5 - 1 0 ) . (5) a2ma23yi h a 2 w i 4 n i a1da2w03?a. "He's swimming under t h e w a t e r . " water under h e ' s swimming g a h ~ ~ j o ~ g~ 2 1 e 2 3 1 a 3 d i 2 d l a g ? 2 n 0 2 h i 2 3 1 i 3 d oh a . ad v l house abdve i t ' s fly in^ around ' I I t ' s f l y i n g around above t h e house."

(6)

(7)

g a h 1 2 j 0 2 3 d e ha2wi 3 n i 3 d i 3 d l a a l h a . house under;leath it's lying gahl 2 j 023de y 2 d l i 3 2 d i3 d l a house

" I t ' s l y i n g underneath t h e house ."

(8)

g?2d032ga. he's standing

"He's s t a n d i n g on t h e o t h e r s i d e of t h e house." "He's s t a n d i n g i n f r o n t o f t h e house. "

(9)

gah12j023de i 2 g v 2 3 y i 3 d i 3 d l a ga2d032ga. house i n front he's standing gah12j023de na2?v house near ga2d032ga. he's standing

(10)

"He's s t a n d i n g n e a r t h e house

."

The p r e p o s i t i o n s i n (6-9) a r e formed with d i 3 d l a , but f u n c t i o n a s s i n g l e l e x i c a l it ems. I t should be noted t h a t a number o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s e x p r e s s e d i n E n g l i s h and o t h e r languages by p r e p o s i t i o n s a r e e x p r e s s e d by d i f f e r e n t means i n Cherokee. There i s no p r e p o s i t i o n i n Cherokee, f o r example, e q u i v a l e n t t o t h e E n g l i s h p r e p o s i t i o n " a t . " In ~ h e r o k e et h e l o c a t i v e noun s u f f i x f u l f i l l s t h e same f u n c t i o n . A second example i s t h e d a t i v e - b e n e f a c t i v e s u f f i x , which i s t h e e q u i v a l e n t o f t h e English prepos i t i o n " f o r . " A d d i t i o n a l examples c o u l d e a s i l y be found. P r e p o s i t i o n s i n Cherokee a r e r e l a t i v e l y few i n number, a p p a r e n t l y , because t h e r i c h v a r i e t y o f p r e f i x e s and s u f f i x e s employed i n t h i s language f u l f i l l s many of t h e f u n c t i o n s o f p r e p o s i t i o n s i n o t h e r languages. 111-E. Interjections Those Cherokee vocabulary i t e m s which can occur a l o n e a s exclamatory u t t e r a n c e s 1 i o h a r e c l a s s i f i e d a s i n t e r j e c t i o n s . The g r e e t i n g 0 ~ ~ o r s~2 y~ "0 e l l o " i s perhaps t h e most important i n t e r j e c t i o n i n Cherokee. Note t h a t t h e terms f o r l e a v e - t a k i n g i n Cherokee a r e delayed i m p e r a t i v e v e r b forms; e . g . ( 1 ) .
(1)

d ~ ~ n ? ~ d a ~ ~ o ~ h v u s ? (you and I ) s e e each o t h e r a g a i n l a t e r . " "Let ~ i . i 2 3 g v 3 g 0 2 ? ~ 2 ? i ."Let me s e e you a g a i n l a t e r . " ayo! yo! ha! ni! na! "Ouch! " "Gosh!" "Gosh!" "Look!" o r "Listen!" "Here!" "Wait!" "Now! " "Hurry!"

(2)

Note t h e a d d i t i o n a l i n t e r j e c t i o n s i n (3-10).
(3)

(4)
(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)
(9)

si!
kam!

(10) 111-F.

nu41a!

Conjunctions

Conjunctions j o i n words and c l a u s e s t o g e t h e r . T h i s s e c t i o n i n c l u d e s examples o f s e v e r a l of t h e more important c o n j u n c t i o n s i n Cherokee.

ale

"and"

T h i s c o n j u n c t i o n i s u s e d i n r e l a t i v e l y f o r m a l s p e e c h s t y l e s i n Cherokee and i n w r i t t e n s t y l e . I t i s i l l u s t r a t e d by ( 1 - 3 ) . (1)


(2)
(3)

a2sga2ya a21e a 2 g e 2 3 h y a
man a2sga2ya man and woman ga2w03ni2ha a21e is s p e a k i n g and

a'ni2w03ni2ha. a r e speacing

"A man and a woman a r e

speaking."

d e 2 3 k p 3 n 0 2 g i 3 ? a . "A man i s s p e a k i n g and is s i n g i n g s i n g i n g . I' a2ge23hya de23ka3n02gi3?a.

a 2 c h u 4 j a ga2w03n/2ha

a21e

"A boy i s s p e a k i n g and a woman i s s i n g i n g . "


A s t h e above examples show, a 2 1 e c a n b e used t o c o n n e c t nouns and v e r b s ; i t c a n

a l s o j o i n s e n t e n c e s . I n most spoken s t y l e s , a 2 1 e i s n o t u s e d , however; t h e c a s u a l e q u i v a l e n t s o f (1-3) a r e ( 4 - 6 ) . I ( 4 ) a 2 s g a 2 y a a 2 g e 2 3 h y a 3 h n o a 1n. 4 wo 3n. 2 h a . "A man and a woman a r e man woman and a r e speaking speaking. "
(5)

a2sga2ya g a 2 w 0 3 n i 2 h a d e 2 3 k a 3 n 0 2 g i 3 ? a 3 h n o . "A man i s s p e a k i n g and


man
i; s p e a k i n g

s i n g i n g and

singing. "

(6)

a 2 c h u 4 j a ga2w03ni2ha a 2 g e 2 3 h y a 3 h n o d e 2 3 k ? 3 n 0 2 g i 3 ? a . is speaking woman and i s singing boy "A boy i s s p e a k i n g and a woman i s s i n g i n g . "

Note t h a t t h e s u f f i x -hno i s a t t a c h e d t o t h e f i r s t word o f t h e s e c o n d c l a u s e i n

(6)
-1e y i g i "or" The s u f f i x -1e i s used t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e n e g a t i v e form o f " t o b e , " y i 4 g it,o e x p r e s s t h e meaning "or"; n o t e ( 7 ) . (7) vsgwu h l a

a2sg?2ya ga2w03ni2ha a 2 g e 2 3 h y a 3 1 e 3 y i 4 g i .
"neither, i s n ' t either"

"A man o r a woman; i s speaking .I1

The a d v e r b vlsgwu " a l s o " i s u s e d w i t h t h e c o n j u n c t i v e s u f f i x -hno and t h e n e g a t i v e word h l a t o e x p r e s s t h e meaning " n e i t h e r " o r " i s n ' t e i t h e r " ; n o t e ( 8 ) . (8) a 2 s g a 2 y a h l a 3 y i 2 g ? 2 w 0 3 2 n i 2 h a , a 2 g e 2 3 h y a 3 h n o v'sgwu3 man not i s not speaking woman and also "The man i s n o t s p e a k i n g , and n e i t h e r i s t h e woman." or "The man i s n ' t s p e a k i n g , and t h e woman i s n ' t e i t h e r . " "like" da23mi Tom "but" ga2wo 3 n i 2 s g v 4 u 2 h l o 4 y i h i s speaking same ga2w03ni2sgo w i Z 3 1 i . he s p e a k s Bill
" B i l l speaks

hla2. not

uhlovi (9) asesgini

The f u n c t i o n o f u 2 h l o 4 y i i s i l l u s t r a t e d by ( 9 ) . l i k e Tom."

This conjunction i s used i n s e n t e n c e s such a s ( 1 0 ) . , (10) n a 3 a2sga2ya h 1 a 3 y i 2 g a 2 w 0 3 2 n ~ 2 h a a 2 3 s e 3 s g i 3 n i d e 2 3 k , 3 n 0 2 g i 3 7 a . is singing but i s not speaking not man the

!!The man isn't speaking, but he is singing." The related -sgi3ni is used in sentences like (11). (11) a2sga2ya hla3 yi2ga2w032n~2ha, ?2ge23hya3sgi3ni. man not is not speaking woman but "The man isn't speaking, but the woman is." "therefore, so"

. .

vsgihnv iyusdi

v1sgi3hnv i2yu4sdi or its short form, ~ g i n h ~ ~ u s d used in sentences like (12). is ~ ~ , sginh3yusdZ3 du11vz3hwi3sda1ne2ha. (12) a2deZ31a money he needs therefore he's ;orking "He needs money, so he's working." nelagihnv "even though" This conjunction is used in sentences like (13). (13) hla3 neZ3la2gi3hnv j ~ l h n i ~ ~ g v l g a . doesn't want it even "He rhough he needs it." iyusdi "because1'
4 .

i2yu4sdi can fulfill an adverbial function; it can also function as a conjunction, as in (14). dul1vZ3hwi3sda1ne2hv4 iZyu4sdi. (14) wiZ31i Bill is tired he's dorking because "Bill is tired because he is working." Note that the suffix -heZ3hno, or its short form -hno, also means "because," as in (15). (15) d~'y?~we~gad ~ ~ l v ~ ~ h w i ~ s d a ~ n e ~ h ~ ~ h e ~ ~ h n o . he is tired he is Lorking because "He's tired because he's working." It is clear that i2yu4sdi is not a suffix because the preceding verb can be questioned, as in (16). i2yu4sdi du1ya2we3ga? "Is he tired because (16) d ~ ~ l v ~ ~ h w i ~ s d a ~ n e ~ h v ~ 7 i s ~ s he I working? Similar questions cannot be formed with -heZ3hno, which seems to function as a suffix. See IV-C for further discussion of conjunction in Cherokee. Section IV. Some Notes on Cherokee Syntax The purpose of this section is to provide some information on Cherokee syntax. Various grammatical processes are discussed briefly and a number of sentence types are commented on in the sections which follow. IV-A. Negative sentences Declarative sentences such as (la) can be made negative by the use of hla and'the negative verb prefix (see Section I-A). (1) a. daZ3mi p2hni3ha wiZ31i. "Bill is hitting Tom." Tom is hitting Bill

b.

hla3 not

daZ3mi y i Z g v z 3 h n i 3 h a w i Z 3 1 i . Tom i s not hit'ting Bill

" B i l l i s n ' t h i t t i n g Tom."

S e n t e n c e s w i t h a d j e c t i v e s as p r e d i c a t e s i n Cherokee may be n e g a t e d by t h e u s e o f . h l a t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e n e g a t i v e forms o f " t o b e , " y i 2g l I. n t h e p r e s e n t t e n s e and . 2 ge 3 se 3 7 1 i n t h e p a s t t e n s e ; n o t e ( 2 - 3 ) . . Y; (2) a.


Bill

uZ3ta2na. big h1a3 not

''Bill is big." yiZgi. is not " B i l l i s n ' t big."

b.
(3)

wi231i Bill
04sda good hla3 not

uZ3t9'na big
"It

a.
b.

ge1sv237i. it was 04sda good

was good."

y i Z g e 3 s e 3 7 i . " I t w a s n ' t good." it was n o t

S e n t e n c e s which c o n s i s t o f two noun p h r a s e s i n j u x t a p o s i t i o n may b e n e g a t e d as i n (4). (4)

a.
b.

wiZ31i
Bill

?2sg?2ya. " B i l l i s a man."


man "Mary i s n ' t a man."

meZ31i h l a 3 a2sgg2ya y i 2 g i . Mary not man is not

I n d i v i d u a l e l e m e n t s o f s e n t e n c e s o t h e r t h a n t h e v e r b may b e n e g a t e d . I n (5-7) t h e s u b j e c t o f t h e s e n t e n c e i s n e g a t e d w h i l e t h e r e s t o f t h e s e n t e n c e i s assumed t o b e true. (5) h l a 3 w i Z 3 1 i y i 2 g i j i 2 g? 2 wo 3n. l 4 h a . " I t i s n ' t B i l l who i s s p e a k i n g . " not
Bill

is not

whb

is speaking

(6)
(7)

hla3 not hla3 not h1a3 not hla3 not

w i Z 3 11 y i 2 g i u Z 3 t a 2 n a j i 4 g i . . Bill is not big who i s


wiZ31i Bill

" I t i s n ' t B i l l who i s b i g . ' ! I r I t i s n ' t B i l l who i s a man."

yi2gi is not

a2sga2ya j i b g i . man who i s

D i r e c t o b j e c t s o f s e n t e n c e s may b e n e g a t e d a s i n ( 8 - 9 ) .
(8)

daZ3mi y l 2 g i w i Z 3 1 i j i 2 g v Z 3 h n i 2 h a . Tom isnot Bill who i s h i t ' t i n g gi2hli yiZgi is not dog hla3 not hla3 not ja'gowh2ti4ha. t h a t he sees

" I t i s n ' t Tom who B i l l i s hitting."

(9)

" I t ' s n o t a dog h e s e e s . "

A d v e r b i a l e l e m e n t s which m o d i f y t h e v e r b may b e n e g a t e d , a s i n ( 1 0 - 1 1 ) . (10) (11)

wiZ31i Bill
wiZ31i Bill

s d a 4 y a ~ i ~ g v ~ ~ h n i ~ h a " B i l l i s n ' t h i t t i n g Tom daZ3mi. hard i s not hit'ting Tom h a r d . 'I u2d02hi2yu very u Z 3 t a 2 n a yi2gi." B i l l i s n ' t v e r y b i g . " big is not

A d v e r b i a l e l e m e n t s which m o d i f y t h e e n t i r e s e n t e n c e may b e n e g a t e d , a s i n ( 1 2 ) . (12) ~ 3 h l a 3 s v 2 h i y 1 2 g e 3 s e daZ3mi j ~ ' w a ~ h n ~ w ilZv 1 i . n o t y e s t e r d a y i t was Tom that hit Bill not " I t w a s n ' t y e s t e r d a y t h a t B i l l h i t Tom."

Tag q u e s t i o n s f o r which an a f f i r m a t i v e answer i s expected a r e formed by t h e u s e of t h e t a g do4ka, a s i n ( 1 3 ) . (13) (14)


wiZ31i Bill

ga2w03ni2ha, do4ka? i s speaking tag

"Bill

i s speaking, i s n ' t he?"


" B i l l l e f t , d i d n ' t he?"

~ l h n e ' l a ? ~ d e ~ dw i ~ 3 1 i , do4ka? vZ le'ft Bill tag

.-

The s u f f i x -dv, which i s d e s c r i b e d i n 111-C, i s f r e q u e n t l y employed i n s e n t e n c e s l i k e (13-14). Questions f o r which a n e g a t i v e answer i s expected a r e formed by n e g a t i n g t h e s e n t e n c e i t s e l f and adding t h e t a g h l a 4 k a , a s i n ( 1 5 ) . y a 2 3 h n e 3 1 ? 2 d ~ 2 ? aw i Z 3 1 i , h l a 4 k a ? " B i l l h a s n ' t l e f t y e t , not l e f t Bill tag has he?'' Sentences l i k e (16-17) a r e a l s o formed w i t h t h e t a g h l a 2 k e 3 . (15) hla3 not (16) da2ye3sis3, hla2ke3? he w i l l go fag (ques.
I 1 W i l l he go o r not?"

si3

uZ3ta2nas3, hla2ke3? " I s he b i g o r not?" b i g (ques.) fag " Compound s e n t e n c e s i n which t h e s u b j e c t s o f both c l a u s e s a r e s a i d not t o perform t h e a c t i o n of t h e verb a r e negated a s i n ( 1 8 ) . (18) j a 2 3 n i h l a 3 yu2we3nv1se3?i, da2,3mi3hnv3 v1sgwu3 John not d i d n ' t go Tom and also "John d i d n ' t go and n e i t h e r d i d Tom." hla2. not

(17)

Note ( 1 9 ) , i n which t h e v e r b o f t h e main c l a u s e i s n e g a t e d , while t h e d i r e c t o b j e c t o f t h e main c l a u s e i s a l s o t h e s u b j e c t o f a r e l a t i v e c l a u s e .


~d

(19)

h l a 3 y i 2 j i 2 3 y a 3 2 y v h 2 t e 3 s e g i 2 h l i na3 a2sga2ya ju1sgah12jv4?i. not I d i d n ' t kick dog the man bit "I d i d n ' t kick t h e dog t h a t b i t t h e man."

--

Sentences (20-25) provide examples o f n e g a t i v e s e n t e n c e s i n c l u d i n g n e g a t i v e i n d e f i n i t e pronouns. (20) a. b. n;2ga4da a1 1 hla3 not ~ l n i ~ ~ o ~ h v ~ ~ ? i .saw i t ." "Everyone saw "Not everyone saw it . I t n o t t h e y saw

ni2ga4da all

(21)

a. b.

go2hu4sdi 0 4 s d a ~ l t v ~ ~ a ~ ~ '71e heard .something good." n e ~ ? i something good he heard hla3 not g o 2 h u 4 s d i 04sda something good y ~ ~ ~ t v ~ g a ' n e"He? heard nothing good . ' I ~ i. n o t he heard "John l i k e s something . I t

--

(22)

a. b.

go2hu4sdi ~ ' l v ~ ~ k w jd Z 3 n i . ai something he l i k e s John hla3 not go 2hu 4 s d i something

~ u ~ ~ l v ~ k j w 2 ~i n i . "John d o e s n t t l i k e a n y t h i n g . " a d not l i k e s John said t o ki210. someone "Someone s a i d something t o someone. I t

(23)

a.

ki2104 someone

go2hu4sdi something

347

b. (24) a. b. (25) a. b.

h l a 3 ki2104 n o t someone

go2hu4sdi something

yU2w032se231e k i 2 1 0 4 . n o t s a i d t o someone

"NO

one s a i d anyt h i n g t o anyone."

ki210 go2hu4sdi someone something hla3 not go2hu4sdi something

u1g02he3?i. saw

"Someone saw something . I t f f S ~ m e o nd i d n ' t s e e a n y t h i n g . " e

yu23g03he3?i ki2104. n o t saw someone

ga3g02 who

g o 2 h u 4 s d i u 1 g 0 2 h e 3 ? i ? llWho saw something?" something saw go2hu4sdi something y u 2 3go 3 h e 3 ? i ? n o t saw ltWho d i d n l t s e e anything?"

ga3g02 h1a3 who not

In some i n s t a n c e s , E n g l i s h i n d e f i n i t e n e g a t i v e s a r e q u i t e d i f f e r e n t i n s t r u c t u r e from t h e i r Cherokee e q u i v a l e n t s . Note (26-27), f o r example. (26) a. b. ~ l g e ~ n v ~ s v ~ ~ ? i and I went." "They . hla3 not y o 2 3 g e 3 n v 1 s e 3 ? i . "They and I d i d n ' t go." not t h e y and I went. If) went ( i . e . , "None o f us

(27)

ni2ga23da2gwu ~ ~ ~ u h l as3 d y u 2 3 n i 3 g 0 2 h e 3 ? i . " J u s t a b o u t everyone ~ i a i1 just almost not n o t saw d i d n ' t s e e it . I 1 ( i . e . , "Almost no one saw it."

For f u r t h e r examples o f n e g a t i v e s e n t e n c e s i n Cherokee, s e e t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e n e g a t i v e p r e f i x e s y- and n- i n S e c t i o n I-A. IV-B. Questions be answered a p p r o p r i a t e l y w i t h yes o r no may be formed i n o f t h e q u e s t i o n s u f f i x e s -sgo and - j u ; s e e I-D f o r examples. such a s " I s i t a man o r a woman?" may be formed w i t h t h e s u f s e e I-D f o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f - k e . . , Q u e s t i o n s which can Cherokee by t h e u s e Questions with " o r , " f i x e s -sgo and -ke;

Questions which r e q u e s t i n f o r m a t i o n may be formed by t h e u s e o f t h e i n t e r r o g a t i v e pronouns and o t h e r q u e s t i o n words. The i n t e r r o g a t i v e pronouns a r e d i s c u s s e d i n 111-A. Other q u e s t i o n words n o t d i s c u s s e d above a r e i l l u s t r a t e d by ( 1 - 3 ) .
(1) ha2dlv

where (2) (3)

he3ga? you're going

"Where a r e you going?"

ga2d01hv4 do23ja3ya2we3ga? "Why a r e you t i r e d ? " why you a r e t i r e d (ques . ) ga2d01 gv3nf!'ha? what h e ' s doing t o it "How i s h e doing i t ? "

The s u f f i x -na "what a b o u t f ' i s a l s o used t o form q u e s t i o n s . See I - D and 1 1 - B f o r examples. Q u e s t i o n s can a l s o be marked i n Cherokee by i n t o n a t i o n changes, when surprise i s indicated, a s i n (4).

Note a l s o t h e f o l l o w i n g i n d i r e c t q u e s t i o n s .

(5)

da23mi ~ l t v ~ ~ d v ~ h n v ~ i 2 y u 3 h n v 3 meZ31i Tom he asked Bill if Mary

gu2so s h e wantsMuskogee

412we2nv1sdi. " B i l l a s k e d Tom i f Mary wanted t o g o t o Muskogee." t o go

(6)

da23mi ~ ' t v ~ ~ d v ~ h n v ~ v g 2 n a Bill who Tom he asked " B i l l a s k e d Tom who s p o k e y e s t e r d a y . "
wiZ31i Bill

u1w03ni2v sv2hi. he spoke y e s t e r d a y

(7)

~ l t v ~ 3hnv v i 2 y u 3 h n v 3 u 2 g v 2 w i 2 y u 2 h i gv2wa2w01ni23hi2sdi ~ d he asked if chief h e c o u l d speak


" B i l l a s k e d i f t h e c h i e f c o u l d s p e a k tomorrow."

yi4gi s i 2 n a 3 1 e 4 ? i . would tomorrow

IV-C.

Coordination

When s e n t e n c e s which c a n s t a n d a l o n e a r e j o i n e d t o g e t h e r , t h e y a r e s a i d t o b e coordinate. This section i s a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e process of coordination i n Cherokee. S e n t e n c e s may be c o n n e c t e d by t h e c o n j u n c t i o n a 2 1 e ( s e e 111-F) which o c c u r s i n Cherokee p r i m a r i l y i n f o r m a l s p e e c h s t y l e s ; n o t e ( 1 ) . (1) a 2 s g a 2 y a ga2w03ni2ha a 2 1 e g 2 g e Z 3 h y a d e 2 3ka 3 n 0 2 g i3 7 a . man s p e a k i n g 'and woman i s ;inging "A man i s s p e a k i n g a n d a woman i s s i n g i n g . "

is

The s u f f i x -hno i s u s e d much more o f t e n t h a n a 2 1 e ; t h i s s u f f i x i s a t t a c h e d t o t h e f i r s t word o f a l l s e n t e n c e s c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n compound s e n t e n c e , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e f i r s t ; note (2-3).

(2)

a 2 s g a 2 y a gg2w03ni2ha, a2ge23hya 3hno d e 2 3 k a 3 n 0 2 g i37a. man i s speaking woman and i s singing "A man i s s p e a k i n g a n d a woman i s s i n g i n g . " a2sga2ya man ga2w03ni2ha, a Z g e z 3 h y a 3 h n o d e 2 3 k ? 3 n 0 2 g i 3 7 a , a 2 n i 2 c h u 2 3 j a 2 h n o boys and i s speaking woman and is singing
"A man i s s p e a k i n g , a woman i s s i n g i n g , and boys a r e

(3)

a1na2hli2n02he3ha. a r e conversing ?'1e

conversing. "

and -hno may a l s o b e u s e d t o c o n j o i n words a n d p h r a s e s ; n o t e ( 4 - 6 ) .

(4)
(5)

a2sga2ya a 2 1 e
man and

?2ge2hyu4ja girl

a1na2hli2n02he3ha. a r e conversing

"A man a n d a g i r l a r e conversing.


"A man a n d a g i r l a r e

a2sga2ya a 2 g e 2 h y u 2 3 j a 2 h n o a1n?'hli2n02he3ha. a r e conversing man girl and


wiZ31i Bill

conversing

"

(6)

u2sdi Small

a2ya2nu231i2hno. fast and

" B i l l i s s m a l l and f a s t . "

When t h r e e o r more words a r e j o i n e d t o g e t h e r i n a s i n g l e compound p h r a s e , -hno may be s u f f i x e d t o t h e l a s t i t e m i n t h e s e r i e s , a s i n ( 7 ) . (7) w i Z 3 1 i , d a 2 3 m i , s a Z 3 m i 3 h n o d ~ ~ n i ~ h n o ~ g i ~! B i vl ,~ Tom, i a . d Sam ' s l ~ ~ n Bill Tom Sam and t h e y sang sang. "

C o o r d i n a t e s e n t e n c e s w i t h "or" a r e formed by t h e s u f f i x -1e t o g e t h e r w i t h y i 4 g i , a s i n (8-9).

?2~ga2ya ga2wo3nl2ha +2ge23hyp31e3 deZ3ka3no2gi3?a yi4gi. man is speaking woman is singing or "A man is speaking or a woman is singing." (9) wiZ31i da23mi31e3 yi4gi du1hno2gi3se3?i. "Bill or Tom sang." sang Bill Tom or Note that sentences like (lo), with identical intransitive verbs, are ungrammatical in Cherokee; the corresponding sentence (ll), with the first verb deleted, is acceptable. du1hno2gi3sv3 da23mi3hno d ~ l h n o ~ g i ~ s v ~ ~ ? i . sang and Tom "Bill Bill sang Tom and sang sang.'I (11) wi231i da23mi3hno d ~ ~ n i ~ h n o ~ g i ~ s v ~ ~ ? and Tom sang." "Bill i . Bi 11 Tom ' and sang Note that the verb form in (11) is plural. Similarly, sentences like (12), with "or," are ungrammatical; reduced sentences like (13) are required instead. (10) l v~~?i (12) * ~ i ~ ~dl~ i h n o ~ ~ i ~ s da23m?31e yi4gi sang Tom or Bi 11 "Bill or Tom sang." (13) Bill daZ3mi 31e3 yi4gi Tom or d~lhno~gi~sv~~?i. sang

(8)

du1hno2gi3svZ3?i. "Bill or Tom sang." sang

Conjoined sentences with identical direct objects may exhibit deletion of all but the first or last direct object; in a sentence with two coordinate clauses, either the first or last identical direct object can be deleted, as in (14).

(14) a.

gi2hli algowh2t13ha, a2ge23hya3hno a1tv2gi3?a. Bill dog sees woman and hears "Bill sees the dog, and the woman hears it." algowh2ti3ha, a2ge23hya3hno a1tv2gi3?a gi2hli. Bill sees woman and hears dog "Bill sees, and the woman hears, the dog."

b.

Alternate word orders are possible, as in (15). (15) a. gi2hli a1gowh2t?3ha wiZ31i a2ge23hya3hno a1tvZgi3?a. dog sees Bill woman and hears "Bill sees the dog, and the woman hears it." b. gi2hli a1gowh2ti3ha 82ge23hya3hno Bi 11 dog sees woman and "Bill sees, and the woman hears, the dog." a1tv2gi3?a. hears

Note also (16). (16) wah2ga du1hwp3sgo3 wiZ31i daZ3mi3hno de23g.+3n?2de3g03?i. Tom and sells them Bill cows buys them "Bill buys cows and Tom sells them." Note (17), in which an identical subject and direct object are both deleted. (17) wiZ31i da2gwa21e31a du1hwa2sgo3 de23ga3na2de3g037i3hno. Bill car buys 'them sells them and "Bill buys and sells cars."

. .

In sentences with compound subjects and first person dual or plural exclusive verbs,

350

the first person pronoun a2yv may be deleted, as in (18). (18) a. wi231i a2yv3hno ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ n i ~ w o ~"Bill ~ s I spoke." i . n i and v ~ ~ ~ Bill I and he and I spoke b. wi231i ~ ~ g i ~ n i ~ w o ~ n i ~ "Bill ~ ? i I spoke." s v ~ and . Bill he and I spoke
I

Sentences (19-21) provide further examples of coordinate sentences from which identical elements have beemdeleted. (19) (20) ja23ni u 1 d ~ 2 w 0 3 ~ v 1 s~ 3 ~ ~ l i ~ vlsgwu. "John went swimming and vi hnv John he went swimming Bill and also Bill did too.11 wi2311 da23mi3hnv i23ju31a d ~ ~ n i ~ h n o ~ g i ~ s "Bill?and Tom both ' v~~ i. Bill Tom and both they sang sang.

(21) wiZ31i da23mi3hnv i23ju31a d ~ l n i ~ h n o ~ ~ ~ ~ n a l~~ s g i ~ s v ~ ~ 7 i ~ h n o . i~sv Bill Tom and both they sang they danced and "Bill and Tom both sang and danced." In coordinate sentences with identical verbs, the first verb may not be deleted; seftences such as (22a) ar,e thus grammatical, while (22b) is not. (22) a. ga4du u1du21i3ha, da23mi3hno nuZ3na. "Bill wants bread Bill bread wan& Tom and potato and Tom a potato." b. *wiZ31i ga4du, da23mi3hno u1du21j3ha. "Bill wants bread Bill bread Tom and potato wants and Tom a potato."

(22b) cannot be understood as a coordinate sentence which has undergone deletion of an identical verb. Its only possible meaning is "Bill (is) bread, and Tom wants a potato." Sentences exhibiting identical verb deletion may also have the word order of (23). (23) l i , ga4du u1du21i3ha ~ i ~ ~ daZ3mi3hno nuZ3na. Tom and potato wants Bill bread "Bill wants bread and Tom a potato."

IV-D. Subordination Subordinate clauses cannot stand alone; they occur only in compound sentences. A number of types of subordinate clauses, introduced by subordinate conjunctions, are noted in Section 111-F. Some additional types of subordinate clauses are diszussed briefly in this section. "if"-clauses Clauses translated by "if" in English are formed in Cherokee by adding the prefix y- (see Section I-A) to the verb, as in (1).

(1)

no23gwu yi2ga3w032ni4ha, hla3 ya2gwanh3ta. "If he is speaking now, I now if he's speaking not not I know don't know about it .IT

--

Non-present tense "ifT1-clauses require y-, the Set B subject pronoun prefixes, and the non-progressive form of the verb stem followed by the -a suffix (see I-C); note (2-3). (2) hla3 ya3kwtv2ga1ne sv2hi y ~ ~ ~ w o ~ ~ n IlIf he aspoke yesterday, I i ~ s . didn't hear about it." not not I heard yesterday if he speaks (3) yu23w032ni4sa, ya3kwtv2da1sdi. "If he speaks, 1'11 be listening." if he speaks listening

The s u b o r d i n a t e c l a u s e may e i t h e r precede t h e main c l a u s e , a s i n (1) and ( 3 ) , o r , follow i t , a s i n ( 2 ) .


II

when1'-c 1ause s

The verbs of "whenw-clauses r e f e r r i n g t o p a s t a c t i o n t a k e t h e S e t B p r e f i x e s and t h e non-progressive p a s t t e n s e form o f t h e stem followed by - a , a s i n ( 4 ) .


(4)

ga2~03ni2sg~237i u1g04ha. he was speaking when he saw it

"He was s p e a k i n g when he saw i t . "

The v e r b s o f "whentr-clauses r e f e r r i n g t o f u t u r e a c t i o n t a k e t h e S e t A p r e f i x e s and t h e non-progressive stem followed by - v 9 i , a s i n ( 5 ) . When h a b i t u a l a c t i o n i s r e f e r r e d t o , t h e v e r b a p p e a r s i n t h e form d e s c r i b e d above f o r t h e p a s t t e n s e ; note ( 6 ) .
(5)

I w i l l be t h e r e
(6)

g?2w03ni2sv4ai. when h e s p e a k s

"1

I l l

be t h e r e when he speaks."

ga l t v 2 g i 3sgo yu2 3wo 32ni 4 s a I h e a r (hab.) when he speaks

"I h e a r him whenever he s p e a k s . , -

"beforeu-clauses "Beforet'-clauses a r e formed by adding t h e p r e f i x n- t o t h e v e r b and s u f f i x i n g -na followed by -gwu, a s i n ( 7 ) .

(7)

wi2na2gi931uh2jv23na2gwu ~ ~ w o ~ n i ~ s v spoke bie f o r e I g o t t h e r e . "He ~ ~ ~ .


before I a r r i v e d t h e r e he spoke

"afterM-clauses l l A f t e r " - c l a u s e s a r e formed by t h e u s e o f t h e n- p r e f i x and s u f f i x - o ? i , a s i n ( 8 ) . (8) w ~ 2 n a 2 g ~ 9 3 1 u h 2 j 0 4~ i' w o ~ n i ~ s v ~IrHe spoke a f t e r I g o t t h e r e . " ? ~ 7 i . he spoke a f t e r I arrived there

See t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e p r e f i x n- i n I-A and t h e d i s c u s s i o n of t h e s u f f i x - o ? i i n I-D. Verbs such a s "know" and " t h i n k . " complement s e n t e n c e s ; n o t e (9-14). (9) (10) (11) (12) (13) (14) a1gwanh2ta ga2w03ni2sgv47i. I know he i s speaking a1gwanh2ta I know Verbs l i k e tlknowtland "think" occur w i t h "1 know h e i s speaking

."

u1w03ni2sv s v 2 h i . " I know he spoke y e s t e r d a y . I 1 he spoke y e s t e r d a y

a1gwanh2ta d i 2 g a 2 w 0 3 2 n i 2 s i 3 s v 4 7 i . "I know h e w i l l speak." I know i e w i l l speak g?2w03ni2ha g e 2 1 i 3 ? a . h e ' s speaking I th'ink t h i n k he i s s p e a k i n g . "

s v 2 h i u1w03ni2se3 g e 2 1 i 3 ? a . I th'ink y e s t e r d a y he spoke s i 2 n a 3 1 e daZga2wo n l s l tomorrow he w i l l speak


32 . 2 .

"I t h i n k he spoke y e s t e r d a y . "


111

ge21i37a. I think

t h i n k he w i l l speak tomorrow."

Note t h a t t h e form o f t h e v e r b i n t h e complement s e n t e n c e depends upon t h e v e r b which occurs i n t h e main c l a u s e ; compare (9-11) w i t h (12-14).

Note a l s o t h e f o l l o w i n g : (15) h l a 3 ~ a ~ g w a n h ~ it2a u 3 y e h 1 4 d i g e l s v y no I know n o t t h e reason is "I d o n ' t know why he i s s p e a k i n g . " h l a 3 ~ a ~ g w a n h ~u1hna3 ta no I d o n ' t know where ji2ga2w03ni4ha. t h a t he speaks "I d o n ' t know where he i s speaking.

(16) (17)
IV-E.

ga2w03ni2sgv4?i. he i s s p e a k i n g

h l a 3 ~ a ~ g w a n h ~nti a g v 3 n e 2 h v 4 ? i . "I d o n ' t know how he i s doing i t . " 2 no I h o n t t know hdw h e ' s d o i n g it

Possession

I t was noted i n 1 1 - C t h a t t e r m s f o r body p a r t s and k i n s h i p t e r m s o c c u r w i t h pronoun p r e f i x e s , a s i n (1-2).

(1)

a. b

a 2 g ~ 0 1 y e 4 n i "my hand" jol ye4ni "your hand" " h i s hand"

. .

c. (2) a. b c.

u2w01ye4ni j?2d02da u2d02da

a2g;2d02da" "my f a t h e r " "your f a t h e r " "his father"

The forms of t h e p o s s e s s i v e pronoun, d i s c u s s e d i n 1 1 1 - A , a r e employed i n p o s s e s s i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n s i n v o l v i n g nouns which r e f e r t o i n a n i m a t e o b j e c t s , a n i m a l s , and d e t a c h e d body p a r t s ; n o t e (3-5). (3) g a 2 n e 1 s ? 3 ? i a2gwa 2 j. e 2 1 i 4 7 i l f m y box" my box
(4)

(5)

g i 2 h l i u 2 j e 2 1 i 4 ? i " h i s dog" dog his ;2w032~a a2gwa 2 j' e 2 1 i 4 7 i rtmy ( d e t a c h e d ) hand" mY hand

Note t h a t t h e p o s s e s s i v e pronoun c a n p r e c e d e o r f o l l o w t h e p o s s e s s e d noun, as i n (6) (6) a. b. u2je21i4?i his d?2gwa21e31a car "his car" "his car"

da2gwa21e31a u 2 j e 2 1 i 4 ? i

When t h e p o s s e s s o r i s o v e r t l y r e f e r r e d t o t h e p o s s e s s i v e pronoun f o l l o w s t h e poss e s s o r noun and p r e c e d e s t h e p o s s e s s e d noun, a s i n ( 7 ) . (7) u 2 j e 2 1 i 4 7 i da2gwa21e31a


" B i l l ' s car"

Kinship t e r m s , even though t h e y a r e marked by pronouns i n d i c a t i n g p o s s e s s i o n , may o c c u r t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e p o s s e s s i v e pronoun, a s i n ( 8 b ) .


(8)

a. b.

a2gwe23ji my son
a 2 g w e 2 3j i

ga2w03ni2ha. i s speaking

"My son i s s p e a k i n g . " "My son i s speaking."


I I

m son y

a2gwa2j e 2 1 i 4 ? i ga2w03ni2ha. i t speaking mY

IV-F.

Notes on word o r d e r i n Cherokee

In simple d e c l a r a t i v e s e n t e n c e s i n Cherokee, t h e s u b j e c t of t h e s e n t e n c e o r d i n a r i l y precedes t h e v e r b w i t h i t s m o d i f i e r s and o b j e c t s . I n a d d i t i o n , o b j e c t s of v e r b s o r d i n a r i l y precede t h e v e r b , r e s u l t i n g i n s u b j e c t - o b j e c t - v e r b word o r d e r i n s e n t e n c e s l i k e ( l a ) ; t h e i n v e r s i o n of t h i s o r d e r i s p o s s i b l e , y i e l d i n g t h e p a t t e r n object-verb-subject, a s i n ( l b ) . (1) a. b. a2sg?2ya man weZ3sa a l g o w h 2 t l 3 h a . cat sees
"A man s e e s a c a t . " "A man s e e s a c a t . "

weZ3sa a l g o w h 2 t i 3 h a a 2 s g a 2 y a .

Other word o r d e r s may o c c u r . Negative s e n t e n c e s , f o r example, e x h i b i t d i f f e r e n t p a t t e r n s t h a n d e c l a r a t i v e s e n t e n c e s ; s e e t h e example s e n t e n c e s i n IV-A. Word o r d e r w i t h i n noun p h r a s e s . Noun p h r a s e s c o n s i s t of a pronoun o r of a noun w i t h o r without m o d i f i e r s ; noun p h r a s e s f u n c t i o n a s s u b j e c t s of s e n t e n c e s and a s o b j e c t s o f v e r b s . They may a l s o have o t h e r f u n c t i o n s . They may s e r v e , f o r example, a s o b j e c t s o f p r e p o s i t i o n s and a s adverbs o f l o c a t i o n . For t h e l a t t e r f u n c t i o n , s e e t h e d i s c u s s i o n of t h e l o c a t i v e s u f f i x i n 1 1 - B . Noun p h r a s e s may c o n s i s t of a noun modified by a n a d j e c t i v e , a s i n ( 2 ) ; n o t e t h a t t h e a d j e c t i v e precedes t h e noun.
(2)

v 2 s d i ~ ~ c h u ~ 1 da o 2 h y i 3 h a . aj l is crying little boy

"A l i t t l e boy i s c r y i n g . "

Demonstratives l i k e " t h i s v 1 and " t h a t " occur a t t h e beginning of noun p h r a s e s ; numeral a d j e c t i v e s f o l l o w t h e d e m o n s t r a t i v e s and precede o t h e r a d j e c t i v e s , a s i n ( 3 ) .
(3)

na3 the

?2ni23ta?31i

twd

2n l 2 sg?2ya .

men

a1ni2w03ni2ha. a r e speaking

'!The two men a r e speaking.

R e l a t i v e c l a u s e s may f o l l o w t h e nouns t h e y modify a s i n ( 4 a ) , o r t h e y may f o l l o w them a s i n (4b). (4) a. hi2?a these ?2ni23t??31i two ?2ni2sga2ya men a 3 h a 2 n i ji2da1ni23d01ga he>e who a r e s t a n d i n g

a1ni2w03ni2ha. a r e speaking b. hi2?a these

"These two men who a r e s t a n d i n g h e r e a r e s p e a k i n g . + '

p3ha2ni j i 2 d a 1 n i 2 3 d 0 1 g a ? 2 n i 2 3 t ? ? 3 1 i ?2ni2sg?2ya men who are s t a n d i n g two here "These two men who a r e s t a n d i n g h e r e a r e s p e a k i n g . "

a1ni2w03ni2ha. a r e speak'ing

Note t h a t t h e o n l y d i f f e r e n c e i n word o r d e r between (4a) and (4b) i s t h a t t h e r e l a t i v e c l a u s e occupies t h e p o s i t i o n immediately f o l l o w i n g t h e d e m o n s t r a t i v e and preceding t h e a d j e c t i v e i n ( 4 b ) ; i n (4a) it o c c u r s i n t h e f i n a l p o s i t i o n w i t h i n t h e noun phrase. Word o r d e r w i t h i n v e r b p h r a s e s . Adverbs p r e c e d e t h e v e r b s t h e y modify, a s i n (5). (5) a2sda4ya ga2wo 3nj, 2 h a . "He's speaking l o u d l y loud h e ' s speaking

."

~n adverb may i t s e l f be modified by a n o t h e r a d v e r b , a s i n ( 6 ) .

35 4

(6)

? 2 d 0 2 h i 2 y ~? 2 s d a 4 y a ga2w03nt2ha. 4 really loud h e ' s speaking

"He's r e a l l y speaking l o u d l y . "

As noted above, noun p h r a s e s which f u n c t i o n a s o b j e c t s of v e r b s precede t h e v e r b ; see (1). Some a d d i t i o n a l comments on Cherokee word o r d e r . S e n t e n c e s i n Cherokee do n o t always e x h i b i t a v e r b . Cherokee s e n t e n c e s may c o n s i s t , f o r example, of two noun p h r a s e s i n j u x t a p o s i t i o n , as i n ( 7 ) , o r o f a noun p h r a s e followed by an adjective, a s in (8). (7) (8) na3 that a2sg?2ya man a2gi2d02da. m father y "That man i s m f a t h e r . " y

a2gi2d02da u Z 3 t a 2 n a . m father y b i'g

" y father i s big." M

See t h e d i s c u s s i o n of " t o be" i n I-F f o r f u r t h e r d e t a i l s r e g a r d i n g s e n t e n c e s w i t h o u t o v e r t verb forms. For f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g word o r d e r i n g e n e r a l i n Cherokee, s e e t h e i l l u s t r a t i v e s e n t e n c e s i n t h e d i c t i o n a r y and t h e example sent e n c e s i n preceding s e c t i o n s of t h e grammar o u t l i n e . IV-G.
A Cherokee t e x t

? 2 n i 2 3 t ? 7 3 1 i a 2 n i 2 s g a 2 y a a 1 n i 2 n 0 2 h a 2 1 i 2 3 d 0 3 2 h e , a2hwi du1ni2hyo2he. sa1gwu4hno two men Leer t h e y Lunting one and were h u n t i n g a2sga2ya ga2101gwe3 ga2ne2he s o 3 ? i 3 h n v 3 h l a 2 . na3hnv3 man gun had o t h e r and not t h e and ~ ~ d l v ~ ~ k we 1 s~ 3~ a 2i1 e g s e , t bragger was and sv4hnv go2hu4sdi i n g and something ki21?2gwu i 2 p 4 d a immediately a t once go2hu4sdi something g?2101gwe3 ga2ne4hi gun haver

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~ ~ ~ s d a ~ ng ~w~ u~ k s e ~ s t a ~i n ~ u 3n d i 2v ~ sa good' and w i t h o i t looking what

~ n v o a 1 u n d a l sda2y02hi2hv4. ~ ~ d o ~ h + ~ y t ~u~ ~h ~ y ~ ~ 2h el e l~ i 2 g 0 2 h e 3 ga2nv3gv4. he was s h o o t i n g s u r e enough he s h o t i t and t h e y saw it f a l l i n g ~na na3hnv3 ga2101gwe3 r ~ i ' g a ~ ~ n e ~ h vlta2hwi e 1 n i 2 y 0 3 7 a ! " u1dv2hne. t h e and gun n o t having deer we s h o t he s a i d u1dv2hne n a 3 said the "j i 2 y 0 3 ? e 3 2 g a ' 1 I - shot it

g?2101gwe3 g a 2 n e 4 h i , a l d l ~ ~ ~ k w s g~v l~ n a ~ n e ~ l u ~ ~ g i ~ ~ s e . gun haver bragging they raced

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Two men were h u n t i n g , l o o k i n g f o r d e e r . one d i d n ' t . bragged a b o u t i t .

One o f t h e men had a gun and t h e o t h e r

The one w i t h t h e gun was a b r a g g a r t and when h e d i d something h e Walking a l o n g , t h e y saw something moving around i n t h e b u s h e s , And s u r e enough h e s h o t it and t h e y saw it f a l l t o "I s h o t it," s a i d t h e -

and t h e man w i t h t h e gun s h o t a t o n c e toward t h e b u s h e s w i t h o u t p a y i n g a t t e n t i o n t o what h e was s h o o t i n g a t . t h e ground. one w i t h t h e gun, b r a g g i n g . t h e y saw a h o r s e l y i n g t h e r e . The one w i t h o u t t h e gun s a i d "we s h o t a d e e r . I '

They r a c e d toward t h e bushes and when t h e y g o t c l o s e r "We k i l l e d someone's h o r s e , " s a i d t h e one who s h o t

it.

"You k i l l e d it,'' h e was t o l d . -