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1 (role stressor)
2 (burnout)
3 (organizational commitment)

4 ~

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-I-

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-II-

2-1 ....................................................................... 29
2-2 ........................................................ 42
2-3 ................................................ 44
2-4 .................................... 45
2-5 ............................................ 48
2-6 ............................................................ 49
3-1 ................................................................... 70
3-2 ....................................................................... 73
4-1 ........................................................................... 76
4-2 ........................................................................... 77
4-3 ........................................................................... 77
4-4 ................................. 79
4-5 ................................. 80
4-6 ........................................ 81
4-7 ........................................................ 82
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4-9 ............. 84
4-10 .......................................... 87
4-11 ........... 90
4-12 ............... 91
4-13 ... 91
4-14 ........... 91
4-15 92
-III-

4-16 ....... 92
4-17 ........... 92
4-18 93
4-19 ....... 93
4-20 ....................... 93
4-21 93
4-22 ....................... 94
4-23 ............................... 94
4-24 ...................................... 95
4-25 ............................... 95
4-26 () ........................ 95
4-27 .................................. 97
4-28 .................................................. 97
4-29 ............................... 97
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4-32 ... 99
4-33 ..................... 100
4-34 ..................... 100
4-35 ................. 101
4-36 . 102
4-37 . 103

-IV-

1-1 ..................................................................... 7
2-1 ................................................................. 13
2-2 ................................................................ 14
2-3 ....................................................................... 23
2-4 ................................................................ 39
2-5 ................................................................... 40
3-1 ............................................................................... 52
3-2 ............................. 65
3-3 ..................... 66
3-4 ............................. 66
3-5 ............. 67
3-6 ............................. 68
3-7 ......................... 68
3-8 ................. 69
3-9 ....................................................................... 70
4-1 ........................................ 89
4-2 ....................... 100
4-3 ....................... 101
4-4 ................... 101
4-5 ... 102
4-6 ... 103

-V-



(Drucker, 1993)

MicrosoftSAPOracle

-1-

(Couger, 1986)

1979

( 89)

-2-

(Shenkar &
Glinow, 1994)

(Kumar et al.,1998)

-3-

(Couger, 1986)

-4-

1.

2.

3.


1.

2.

3.

-5-


1.

2.

3.

4.

5.


1.

2.

3.

4.

-6-

1-1

1-1

-7-

-8-

(Keen, 1991)(Hammer & Champy, 1993)

(enterprise resource planning,


ERP) (electronic commerce, EC)

(Schneider, 1999)

-9-


(information professionals) (
82)
IBM


Couger 1986,
1989, 1992Couger

Baroudi (1985)
(boundary spanning)
King et al. (1997)
Igbaria & Siegel (1992) Gupta (1992)

( 82)
( 82)
( 86) ( 87)

-10-

ERP

ERP ERP

(Bingi, et al., 1993)


(role stressors)

(job stress)

(Kahn et al.,
1964)

-11-

(role perception)
( 84)

(Rizzo et al., 1970)

Kahn et al. (1964)


(role of episode model)
(role sender) (focal
person)

(pressure)

2-1

-12-

()
()

2-1
Kahn, Wolf, Quinn, Snoke & Rosenthal (1964)

-13-

(1) (expected role)


(2) (perceived role)(3)
(enacted role) 2-2

2-2
( 75)

1.
(role ambiguity)

Kahn et al. (1964)


(1)(2)
(3) 2-2

Jackson & Schuler (1985)

-14-

(1)
(2)(3)
(4) (House et al., 1983)
(1)(2)
(3)
(1)(2)(3)
(Kahn et al., 1964)

2.
(role conflict)
( 75)

Rizzo et al. (1970)

(1)(2)
(3)
(4)
(Kahn et al, 1964)

II

(inter-sender role conflict)


-15-

III

(intra-sender role conflict)

IV (inter-role conflict)

(person-role conflict)

3.
(role overload)

(Kahn et al., 1964)

-16-


Goldstein et al. (1984)
118

Baroudi (1985)

229

Igbaria et al.
(1992)

464
MIS (1992)

(1993)

(1994)

(1999) 225
(telecommuter)(non-telecommuter)

-17-

King & Sethi (1997)


312
Sethi & Barrier & King
(1999)

Um & Harrison (1998)

(stress-strain-outcome) ()
()


(burnout) (professional
burnout) (job burnout)

(Maslach, 1982)

-18-


Freudenberger (1974) Maslach (1976)
(people work)

Maslach

Maslach et al. (1982, 1996)


MBI (Maslach Burnout Inventory)


(conservation of resource theory, CRT)

(Hobfoll & Freedy, 1993)(1)


(2)(3)

-19-

1. (primacy of resource loss)

2. (secondary importance of resource gain )

3. (investing resources to prevent loss)

4. (loss/gain spiral)

(loss spiral)
(gain spiral)

-20-

(1)(2)(3)


MBI (Maslach Burnout Inventory)
Maslach et al. (1996)

( 89 )

1. (emotional exhaustion)

2. (depersonalization or dehumanization)
()

3. (diminished personal accomplishment)

-21-


Cordes & Dougherty (1993)
(1) ()(2) (
)(3) (
)(1)(2)(3)
(4)
Kahill (1988)

Lee & Ashforth (1996) (meta-analysis) 1982 1994


MBI 61

(demands)
(resources)

1.

(workload) (stressful
events)

(community bond) (supervisor support)


(social support)

2.

-22-

(community bond) (team cohesion)


(family support)

3.

(work friend) (skill utilization)


Maslach, et al. (1996) (structural model of burnout)

2-3
() (
)

2-3
Maslach, Jackson & Leiter (1996)
Maslach et al. (1996)
(1) (work overload)(2) (lack of control)(3)
(insufficient reward)(4) (breakdown of community)
(5) (absence of fairness)(6) (conflicting values)
-23-

(Lee & Ashforth, 1996; 1993;


Maslach et al., 1996)


Cordes & Dougherty (1993)

King & Sethi (1997) Sethi


& Barrier & King (1999)

Babakus et al. (1999)

-24-

Colembiewski et al. (1995)

( 86 89)


(organizational commitment, OC)

Morrow (1983)

-25-

Buchanan (1974)
(1) (identity)(2)
(involvement)(3) (loyalty)
Morrow
(1983) 1969 1980
(1) (value focus)(2)
(career focus)(3) (job focus)
(4) (organizational focus)(5)
(union focus)(6) (combined dimensions of
commitment) Becker (1960)

Mowday et al. (1979) (1)


(2)
(3)

Buchanan (1974)

-26-


1. Steers
Steers (1977) (
) () (
)

2. Staw
Staw (1981)

(self justification)

3. Mowday et al.
Mowday & Porter & Steers (1982) Steers (1977)
(
) ()
()
()

-27-

4. Stevens
Stevens & Beyer & Trice (1978)

()
() (
)

(multi-dimensional)
2-1

-28-

2-1

Becker (1960) (exchange approach commitment)

()

Kanter (1968) (continuance commitment)

(cohesion commitment)

(control commitment)

Stevens, Beyer (normative commitment)


& Trice (1978)

(exchange commitment)

(attitudinal commitment)
Staw (1981)

(behavioral commitment)

(side-bets)
Reichers
(1985)

(attributions)

(individual/organizational goal congruence)

Meyer & Allen (affective commitment)


(1991)

(continuance commitment)

(normative commitment)

( 86)
Meyer &
Allen (1993)

-29-

1.

(affective or attitudinal organizational

commitment, AOC)

(Kanter, 1968)Mowday et al. (1979)

(Meyer et al., 1993)

2.
(continuance organizational commitment, COC) Becker
(1960)
(behavior or calculated organizational commitment) (perceived cost)

(exchange theory) Becker (1960)


(side-bet theory)
(sunk cost)

(Meyer et al., 1993)


Becker

-30-

3.
(normative organizational commitment, NOC)
(moral commitment)

(Meyer et al., 1993)

Steers (1977)Mowday & Porter & Steers


(1982) Stevens & Beyer & Trice (1978)
Mathieu & Zajac (1990) 48
26 8 14

II

III

IV

-31-

II

III

IV
V

II

Baroudi et al. (1985)

Mowday et al. (1979)


229

-32-

Igbaria et al. OCQ


MIS
(1992)

(1999) 225

King & Sethi (1997)


312
Allen & Meyer (1990) (ACS)
(CCS)
Sethi & Barrier & King (1999)

-33-

Tan & Akhtar (1998)


147

( 86)
(AOC, COC, NOC)

King & Sethi (1997)


Sethi & Barrier & King (1999)

Tan & Akhtar (1998)

-34-


(comparative management)
(Nath, 1988)

(Redding, 1994)

(Chen, 1995)
() (
)

1950 1960
1960
1980

(Redding, 1995)

-35-

(Redding, 1994; Shenkar & von Glinow,


1994)
(Warner, 1997)

(Hofstede, 1980; Shenkar & von Glinow, 1994)

(Chen,
1995)


1950 1960

Chen (1995)

1. (economic development model)


1950

(macro)

-36-

2. (environment model)
1965

3. (behavioral model)
1960
(micro)
(1)
(2)(3)

4. (open systems model)


1970

(contingency model)

X Y Chen (1994)
(adapted comparative model) Prasad (1995)
Hofstede (1980a)

-37-

(positivism)

(ethno-science)

(middle-range theory) (grand


theory) (Redding, 1994)

(OB) (HRM) (OD)

(OT)
Redding (1994) 1970 1990

2-4

//////

-38-

()

(/)

(
)

()

()

(/)

/
()

()

2-4
Child (1981)Redding (1994)

2-5

-39-

2-5
Adler (1991)Chen (1995)

260

Hofstede 1980a,
1980b, 1988, 1993, 1997 (dimensions of
national culture)

(value
survey module, VSM)
SSCI Hofstede
(1980a) 1,656

-40-

Hofstede (1980b)
(collective programming of the mind)

(Hofstede, 1997) (human


nature)

(Hofstede, 1997)
Hofstede (1980b)

vs. collectivism versus individualismpower


distance uncertainty avoidance vs.
femininity versus masculinity
Hofstede & Bond (1988)
long-term orientation versus short-term
orientation in life

1.

(Hofstede, 1997) Mauk Mulder

-41-

2-2
2-2

F
F

F
F

F F
F F
F

Hofstede(1997)
Hofstede (1997)
(power distance index, PDI)

-42-

Hofstede 38

2.

(Hofstede, 1997) James


G. March

(risk avoidance)

2-3

-43-

2-3

F F

F
F

F
F

F F

F F

F F

F
F

F
F

F F

F F
Hofstede (1997)
Hofstede (1997)
(uncertainty avoidance index, UAI)

-44-

3.

2-4
2-4

F F

F
F

F
F

F F

F F

F
F

F
F
Hofstede(1997)

-45-

Hofstede (1997)
(individualism index, IDV)

Hofstede (1980a)

1970 53

4.

-46-

(genders) (gender roles)


(male) (female)
(masculine) (feminine)

2-5
Hofstede (1997)
(masculinity index, MAS)

Hofstede (1980a)

-47-

2-5

F F
F
F

F
F

F F

F
F

F
F

F
F

F
F

Hofstede(1997)

5.

-48-

Hofstede and Bond1988 (Chinese


value survey, CVS) 80

Confucian dynamism

2-6 Hofstede (long term


orientation, LTO)

2-6

F
F

F
F

F
Hofstede(1997)

6.
Hofstede (1980b) (Sondergaard, 1994)
I

II IBM
III

(Shenkar & Glinow, 1994)

-49-


Couger 1986, 1989,
1992Couger

Couger
(Ferratt & Short,
1986) Couger MIS

Hofstede 1,656

Peterson et al. (1995) 21

Tan & Akhtar (1998)

Robert & Bennett (1999)

-50-

Kuchinke (1999)

Steenkamp & Hofstede & Wedel (1999)

Hofstede (1999)

Huo & Randall (1991) Hofstede

Farh et al. (1997)

( 83)
( 84)

( 89)
( 86)

Hofstede (1980b)

-51-

3-1

Koeske & Koeske (1993) Um & Harrison (1998)


(stressstrainoutcome, SSO)

Kahn et al. (1964) (role of episode model)


Hobfoll & Freedy (1993)
-52-

(conservation of resource theory, CRT)


Becker (1960) (side-bet theory)

Redding (1994)
Hofstede (1980a)
(dimensions of national culture)

(constructs)

3-1

-53-

(Hofstede, 1980a)

(Hofstede, 1997)

(Chen, 1995)

-54-

Huo & Randall (1991)


Hofstede (1993)

Ralston
et al. (1995)

Couger (1986)

1a
1a

-55-

Huo & Randall (1991)

1b
1b

-56-

Huo & Randall (1991)

1c
1c

Huo & Randall (1991)


1d
1d

Hofstede (1997)

( 89)

-57-

(Rizzo et al., 1970)

(Maslach et al., 1996)

(CRT)(Hobfoll & Freedy, 1993)

(Lee & Ashforth, 1996)

(Maslach, et al., 1996)

(Cordes & Dougherty, 1993)Igbaria et al. (1992) 464


King & Sethi (1997)
Sethi & Barrier & King (1999) 312

-58-

2
2

Um & Harrison (1998) (SSO)

Kahill (1988)
Cordes & Dougherty (1993)
(1)(2)(3)(4)
Maslach, et al. (1996)

-59-

King & Sethi (1997)


Sethi & Barrier &
King (1999)
(Tan & Akhtar, 1998)
()

3b
3a

-60-

Tan & Akhtar (1998)

3b
3b


Becker (1960) (side-bet
theory)

(CRT)(Hobfoll & Freedy, 1993)


(
) ()
(loss spiral)

-61-

Sethi et al. (1999) King et al. (1997)

3c
3c


(SSO)(Um & Harrison ,1998)

Baroudi et al. (1985) 229


Igbaria et al. (1992)
Sethi et al. (1999) King et al. (1997)

4a
4a

-62-

(Um
& Harrison ,1998)

4a
4b

-63-

Kahn, Wolf, Quinn, Snoke & Rosenthal (1964)


(role of episode model) ()

( 75)
() (
)

Sethi et al. (1999) King et al. (1997)

3c
4c


(Chen, 1995)
(Hofstede ,1980)

Hofstede

5
5

-64-


1.

(Lee & Ashforth ,1996)

5
3-2

3-2
6

2.
(SSO)(Um & Harrison ,1998)

7a 3-3

-65-

3-3
7a

3.
(SSO)(Um & Harrison ,1998)

7b
3-4

3-4
7b

-66-

4.

7c 3-5

3-5
7c

5.

8a 3-6

-67-

3-6
8a

6.
(SSO)(Um & Harrison ,1998)

8b 3-7

3-7
8b

-68-

7.

(Hobfoll & Freedy, 1993)

(Lee & Ashforth ,1996)

8c 3-8

3-8
8c

3-10 3-1

-69-

H4b

H4c

H2

H4a

H3a

H3b

H3c

H1,H5
H8a,H8b
H7c
H6,H7a,H8c H7b

3-9
3-1
1a
1b
1c
1d
2
3a
3b
3c
4a
4b
4c
5
6
7a
7b
7c
8a
8b
8c

-70-

(Copper & Schindler, 1998)


Rizzo et al. (1970)
( 84) Kelloway et al. (1990)
Cronbach 0.75 Kelloway et
al. (1990)
( 74) Ivancevich &
Matteson (1980) (stress diagnosis survey)
() () 22

-71-


Maslach et al.(1996)
MBI (Maslach Burnout Inventory) Pines & Aronson (1988) BM (burnout
measure) BM
MBI Maslach MBI

(1999)
Cronbachs 0.78 22


Mowday & Steers & Porter (1979)
Organizational Commitment Questionnaire (OCQ)

(multi-dimensional)

Allen & Meyer (1990)

Meyer, Allen and Smith (1993)


Cronbachs 0.820.760.80 ( 86)
Cronbachs 0.830.630.68
18


Hofstede (1980a, 1997)
(value survey module, VSM)
Hofstede
VSM
19
-72-

(Cordes & Dougherty, 1993)

3-2
3-2

Rizzo et al. (1970)


1-8

Rizzo et al. (1970)


7-14

Ivancevich
18-22
& Matteson (1980)
Maslach et al. (1996) 1-9

Maslach et al. (1996) 10-14

Maslach et al. (1996) 15-22

Meyer, Allen & Smith


1-6

(1993)

Meyer, Allen & Smith

7-12
(1993)

Meyer, Allen & Smith


13-18
(1993)
Hofstede (1980, 1997) 1,2,5 *
Hofstede (1980, 1997) 3,4,6 *

1-3
Hofstede (1980, 1997)

11-13
Hofstede (1980, 1997) 2,4-10

-73-

(face validity)
(content validity) (construct validity)


( 82)

255 219
190 85.88% 74.51%
-74-

474 397
325 83.8% 68.6%


(structural equation
model) (measurement model)
Cronbachs

(multiple regression) (ANOVA)


(discriminant analysis) EQS for
Windows 5.3 (Bentler, 1995) SPSS for Windows 7.5

-75-

10
6 3 1 10
1 4-1 4-2
4-3
4-1
20 255 219 190

A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R

10
8
12
4
7
12
11
20
11
4
10
15
9
10
47
40
15
10

8
8
12
4
8
12
11
20
11
4
10
11
9
7
43
21
11
9

5
7
9
4
5
11
10
15
8
4
9
10
8
6
41
19
11
8

2000.3
2000.2
2000.2
2000.3
2000.3
2000.1
2000.3
2000.1
2000.1
2000.2
2000.3
2000.3
2000.1
2000.3
2000.1
2000.4
2000.4
2000.4

-76-

CIM

EC

B2B
CASE

CASE

4-2
8 364 309 245

A
B
C

3
40
30

3
34
24

2
25
22

2000.1
2000.1
2000.1

90

81

61

2000.1

71

71

54

2000.1

60

51

43

2000.1

50

25

21

2000.1

20

20

17

2000.1

ERP

CASE &&&

X
Windows

2 60 47 42
A

40

29

26

2000.2

20

18

16

2000.2

CASE

1 50 41 38
A

50

41

38

2000.2

4-3

19~25

26~30
31~35
36

0~1
1~5
5~10
10

151
205
67
41
51
324
168
23
165
269
43
14
24
309
100
78
28
388
81
18
28

30
92
42
21
5
148
38
4
65
100
16
7
2
131
39
18
2
154
29
4
3

-77-

121
113
25
23
51
176
130
24
100
169
27
7
27
178
61
61
30
234
52
14
30

29.3%
39.8%
13.0%
8.0%
10.0%
63.0%
32.6%
4.5%
32.0%
52.2%
8.3%
2.7%
4.7%
60.0%
19.4%
15.1%
5.4%
75.3%
15.7%
3.5%
5.4%

15.8%
48.2%
22.1%
11.1%
2.6%
77.9%
20%
2.1%
34.2%
52.6%
8.4%
3.7%
1.1%
69%
20.5%
9.5%
1.1%
81.1%
15.3%
2.1%
1.6%

37.2%
34.8%
7.7%
7.1%
15.7%
54.2%
40%
7.4%
30.8%
52%
8.3%
2.2%
8.3%
54.8%
18.8%
18.8%
9.2%
72%
16%
4.3%
9.2%



EQS for Windows 5.3 (Bentler,
1995) (confirmatory factor analysis, CFA)
(maximum likelihood, ML)

(1) z
0.05 (2)
(measures of absolute) (incremental fit
measures)
2 z<0.05
2
(static power) EQS
(comparative fit index, CFI)
(Bentler, 1995) CFI 0.9
2/df
2 (average absolute standard residuals, AASR) 0.1
(normed fit index, NFI) 0.9
(nonnormed fit index, NNFI) 0.9

4-34-4 4-5

-78-

1.
4-4 CFA

z (p<0.05) 2 p
0.05 CFI 0.923 0.9NFI 0.901 0.9NNFI 0.904
0.9AASR 0.0362 0.1

4-4

A1
A2
A3
A4
A5
B2
B3
B4
B6
C1
C2
C3
C5

1.202
.949
1.294
.967
1.022
.583
.526
1.284
1.270
.949
1.068
1.201
1.019

.057
.062
.054
.055
.059
.073
.077
.074
.073
.074
.068
.072
.065

21.215***
15.352***
24.027***
17.484***
17.454***
7.970***
6.830***
17.244***
17.516***
12.909***
15.655***
16.593***
15.643***

2= 246.47, df=20, NFI= 0.901, NNFI= 0.904, CFI= 0.923, AASR= 0.0362
*** p<0.01** p<0.05* p<0.1

2.
4-5 CFA
()()
z (p<0.05) 2 p
0.05 CFI 0.941 0.9NFI 0.903 0.9NNFI
0.929 0.9AASR 0.0424 0.1

-79-

4-5

()
()

D2
D3
D4
D5
D7
E2
E3
E4
E5
E6
F1
F2
F3
G2
G3
G4
G5

.455
.690
.640
.520
.365
.453
.658
.594
.466
.615
.607
.792
.784
.591
.735
.663
.531

.036
.033
.037
.042
.042
.047
.055
.044
.041
.043
.044
.039
.039
.034
.041
.035
.036

12.753***
21.091***
17.400***
12.415***
8.733***
9.641***
11.887***
13.619***
11.460***
14.332***
13.719***
20.224***
20.020***
17.397***
17.758***
18.726***
14.610***

=269.147df=113NFI=0.903NNFI=0.929CFI=0.941AASR=0.0424
*** p<0.01** p<0.05* p<0.1

3.
4-6 CFA
z
(p<0.05)2 p 0.05 CFI 0.930
0.9NFI 0.904 0.9NNFI 0.915 0.9AASR 0.0455
0.1

-80-

4-6

H1

.918

.078

11.713***

H3

1.333

.073

18.297***

H4

1.128

.071

15.799***

H5

1.273

.067

19.030***

H6

1.048

.062

16.930***

I1

1.138

.053

21.307***

I2

1.246

.055

22.542***

I3

1.173

.059

19.940***

I4

1.046

.059

17.697***

J1

.919

.083

11.053***

J3

1.057

.082

12.896***

J4

.806

.069

11.751***

J6

1.398

.072

19.383***

J7

1.355

.067

20.298***

J8

1.089

.067

16.244***

=297.295df=87NFI=0.904NNFI=0.915CFI=0.930AASR= 0.0455
*** p<0.01** p<0.05* p<0.1

4-44-5 4-6

CFA

(p<0.01)
(convergent validity)

-81-

CFA
1
0 4-7
0 1
(discriminant validity) 0.7

4-7

-0.006
0.525*** 0.137***
-0.133*** 0.078*
-0.240*** 0.271***

-0.033
-0.109**

0.409***

*** p<0.01** p<0.05* p<0.1

Cronbach
4-8 Cronbach 0.7

-82-

4-8

-
-

Cronbach
0.8808
0.7028
0.8270
0.7747
0.7391
0.7908
0.8078
0.7376
0.7841
N/A
N/A
0.8565
0.8544
0.8654

N/A

(independent
sample t-test)
4-9

(Tan & Akhtar, 1998)

-83-

4-9

190
325
190
325
190
325
190
325
190
325

2.2874
2.5378
2.6166
2.0140
3.7195
3.6758
1.9079
2.0900
3.0148
2.8258

0.4702
0.4971
0.8062
0.8232
1.2237
1.0559
1.1442
1.0459
1.2508
1.1288

5.627

378.146 0.000***

5.327

389.023 0.000***

0.427

442.998

0.670

1.841

424.711

0.066*

1.854

428.848

0.064*

(multiple regression)
(ANOVA)

1a

1b

1c

1d

-84-

1.
Hofstede (1980a)
(UAI)
UAI = 300 30*() - () 40*()
UAI 5.97 UAI
12.41 11.92 12.79 15.43
1a
Hofstede (1980b) 1968-1973 IBM UAI 69
UAI

84.5% 77.5% UAI

(Couger, 1986)

2.
Hofstede (1980a) (IDV)
IDV =

50 + 25*[0.86 * () + 0.49*() + 0.46*()


- 0.63*() - 0.69*() - 0.82*()]

-85-

IDV 41.77 IDV


45.53 46.64 49.65 33.84
1b Hofstede
(1980b) 1968-1973 IDV 17

(Hofstede, 1980b)
(Huo & Randall, 1991)

3.
Hofstede (1980a) (PDI)
PDI =13525*()+()-()
PDI 67.72 PDI
72.06 73.52 72.5 63.29
1c Hofstede (1980b)
1968-1973 PDI 58

Huo & Randall (1991)


Warner (1993)

4.
Hofstede (1980a) (MAS)
MAS =

50 + 20*[ 0.54*() + 0.56*() + 0.59*() + 0.7*()


- 0.69*() - 0.69*() - 0.59*() - 0.48*()]

-86-

MAS 52.88 MAS


47.05 46.88 40.64 55.31
1d Hofstede
(1980b) 1968-1973 MAS 45

Hofstede(1980) 4-10
1a, 1b, 1c, 1d 4-1
4-10
/

11/104
67.72
72.06
73.52
72.5
63.29

5.97
12.41
11.92
12.79
15.43
8/112
6/91
41.77
45.53
46.64
49.65
33.84

5/95
52.88
47.05
46.88
40.64
55.31

Hofstede (1980a) IBM


Hofstede (1980a)

(ingroups)

Hofstede (1980a)

-87-

Hofstede 1980 1993


( 4-10)

(Hofstede, 1997) McClelland (1965)


1925~1950
Hofstede (1980b)
4-1

Maslow (1943)

4-

Hofstede(1980a) 1968-1973

( 4-10)

-88-

(2000)
(2000)

56

Hofstede (1980a)

112

50

100

4-1

3a

3b

3c

4a

4b

4c

-89-

4-11 t 2 3c

= + 0.241 + 0.39 +
4-11


0.241
0.029

0.390
0.066

df=514 F 74.169 P<0.01

t
6.166
9.992

R-Square=0.225

P
0.000***
0.000***
Adj. R-Square=0.222

*** p<0.01** p<0.05* p<0.1

4-12~13 Arnold (1982)

Y1 = 1 + 11X

for Group 1,

Y2 = 2 + 21X

for Group 2.

21 11
t =
SEB21-11

21 11

(SE221 + SE211)1/2

11
21
SEB11 11
SEB21 21
n1
n2
-90-

with n1 + n2 4 df

4-12 t =0.458 , df=511


0.1
4-13 t = 0.847, df=511
0.1

4-12

()
()


0.421
0.041
0.398
0.029

t
6.372
7.794

P
0.000***
0.000***

*** p<0.01** p<0.05* p<0.1

4-13

()
()


0.236
0.057
0.294
0.038

t
3.329
5.535

P
0.001***
0.000***

*** p<0.01** p<0.05* p<0.1

4-14~21 4-11~13
3a3b 4c

4-14

-0.042

0.110

t
-0.894

P
0.372

-0.223

0.066

-4.751

000***

P<0.01

R-Square=0.042

df=514 F 16.113

*** p<0.01** p<0.05* p<0.1

-91-

Adj. R-Square=0.113

4-15 t =0.4 , df=511


0.1
4-16 t = 0.064 , df=511
0.1

4-18 t =0.069 , df=511


0.1
4-19 t = 0.454, df=511
0.1

4-21 t =0.047 , df=511


0.1

4-15

()
()


t
-0.18
0.161
-2.504
-0.096
0.135
-1.741

P
0.013**
0.083*

*** p<0.01** p<0.05* p<0.1

4-16

()
()


-0.235
0.099
-0.243
0.075

t
-3.316
-4.495

P
0.001***
0.000***

*** p<0.01** p<0.05* p<0.1

4-17

0.013

0.118

t
0.280

P
0.799

-0.115

0.070

-2.382

0.018**

df=514

F 3.126

P<0.05

R-Square=0.012

*** p<0.01** p<0.05* p<0.1


-92-

Adj. R-Square=0.008

4-18

()
()


t
-0.041
0.162
-0.559
-0.026
0.145
-0.471

P
0.577
0.638

*** p<0.01** p<0.05* p<0.1

4-19

()
()


-0.144
0.1
-0.085
0.083

t
-1.991
-1.533

P
0.048**
0.126

*** p<0.01** p<0.05* p<0.1

4-20

0.078

df=514

0.02

F 3.120 P<0.1

t
1.766

R-Square=0.006

P
0.078*
Adj. R-Square=0.004

*** p<0.01** p<0.05* p<0.1

4-21

()
()


0.077
0.036
0.079
0.023

t
1.063
1.425

P
0.289
0.155

*** p<0.01** p<0.05* p<0.1

4-14
4a
()() 4-22
()
()
()

-93-

4-22

-0.166

0.084

t
-3.738

P
0.000***

-0.082

0.095

-1.532

0.126

()

0.160

0.076

3.033

0.003***

()

-0.136

0.100

-2.318

0.018**

df=514

F 9.213

P<0.01

R-Square=0.067

Adj. R-Square=0.060

*** p<0.01** p<0.05* p<0.1

4-17
4b
()() 4-23
()
()
()

4-23

()
()
df=514

t
-0.015
0.090
-0.335
-0.038
0.101
-0.693
0.155
0.081
2.859
-0.140
0.106
-2.391

F 2.952

P<0.05

R-Square=0.023

P
0.738
0.489
0.004***
0.017**
Adj. R-Square=0.015

*** p<0.01** p<0.05* p<0.1

4-17
3b
4-24

-94-

4-24

-0.004

0.048

0.082

0.934

-0.005

0.049

0.095

0.924

-0.202

0.044

4.638

0.000***

df=514

F 7.251

P<0.01

R-Square=0.041

Adj. R-Square=0.035

*** p<0.01** p<0.05* p<0.1

4-20
4c
()() 4-254-26

()()

()

4-25


0.31
0.023

df=514

F 54.543 P<0.01

t
7.385

R-Square=0.096

P
0.000***
Adj. R-Square=0.094

*** p<0.01** p<0.05* p<0.1

4-26 ()
()


t
-0.09
0.032
-2.045

df=514

F 4.18

P<0.05

R-Square=0.008

P
0.041**
Adj. R-Square=0.006

*** p<0.01** p<0.05* p<0.1

2, 3a, 3b, 3c 4a, 4b, 4c

-95-

H5-1

H5-2

H5-3

H5-4

H5-5

H5-6

H5-7

H5-8

H5-9

H5-10

H5-11

H5-12

H5-13

H5-14

H5-15

H5-16

H5-17

H5-18

H5-19

H5-20

/
4-27~4-31
-96-

H5-1H5-10H5-16 H5-17

H5-3H5-4 H5-8

5
4-27


-0.169
0.021

t
-3.972

P
0.000***

0.029

0.021

0.691

0.49

0.026

0.020

0.616

0.538

0.236

0.020

5.501

0.000***

F 13.212

P<0.01

R-Square=0.094 Adj. R-Square=0.087

*** p<0.01** p<0.05* p<0.1

4-28


-0.03
0.037

t
-0.694

P
0.488

0.015

0.037

0.351

0.725

-0.042

0.037

-0.948

0.344

0.166

0.037

3.737

0.000***

F 4.383

P<0.01

R-Square=0.033 Adj. R-Square=0.026

*** p<0.01** p<0.05* p<0.1

4-29


-0.075
0.052

t
-1.69

P
0.092*

-0.077

0.052

-1.721

0.086*

0.028

0.052

0.632

0.528

-0.011

0.052

-0.256

0.798

F 1.635

P=0.164

R-Square=0.013 Adj. R-Square=0.005

*** p<0.01** p<0.05* p<0.1

-97-

4-30


-0.076
0.054

t
-1.711

P
0.088*

-0.066

0.054

-1.479

0.14

0.031

0.054

0.71

0.478

0.027

0.054

0.601

0.548

F 0.174

P=0.174

R-Square=0.012 Adj. R-Square=0.005

*** p<0.01** p<0.05* p<0.1

4-31


0.019
0.049

t
0.441

P
0.659

-0.14

0.049

-3.163

0.002***

0.023

0.049

0.517

0.605

-0.042

0.050

-0.93

0.353

F 2.912

P<0.05

R-Square=0.022 Adj. R-Square=0.015

*** p<0.01** p<0.05* p<0.1


6, 7a, 7b, 7c, 8a, 8b, 8c
6

7a

7b

7c

8a

8b

8c

-98-

(2-way ANOVA)
4-32
4-32

*** p<0.01** p<0.05* p<0.1

-99-

F
0.678
0.009
1.205
0.991
0.567
0.107
0.210
1.042
4.455
0.186
0.202
0.398
0.239
0.031
0.096
0.072
0.947
0.559
0.079
5.101
5.909
1.041
0.774
1.041
4.547
0.019
2.707
0.183
0.865

P
0.411
0.922
0.273
0.320
0.452
0.744
0.647
0.308
0.035**
0.666
0.653
0.528
0.625
0.861
0.757
0.788
0.331
0.455
0.779
0.024**
0.015**
0.308
0.309
0.308
0.033**
0.890
0.1*
0.669
0.353

8a 8b
()
4-33 4-2 8b
()

4-34 4-3
4-33
F

5.909

0.015**

3.4979

3.3374

0.29

3.7898
0.035***

4.116
0.000***

0.014***

4.5
4

3.5
3
2.5

4-2
4-34
F
4.547

p
0.033**

2.9288

2.7089

0.154

2.9276
0.993

3.1624
0.002***

0.111

-100-

3.2
3

2.8
2.6
2.4

4-3
4-35 4-4
()

4-35
F
5.101

p
0.024**

3.2453

3.5677

0.034***

4.0119
0.000***

3.8811
0.015***

0.328

4.5
4

3.5
3
2.5

4-4

-101-

4-36 4-5
()

(Kahn
et al., 1964)

4-36
F

4.455
0.035**

3.4174

3.5696

0.287

4.0374
0.000***

3.7561
0.157

0.055*

4.2
4

3.8
3.6
3.4
3.2
3

4-5

-102-

4-37 4-6
()

(Hobfoll & Freedy, 1993)

()
4-37
F

2.707
0.1*

1.915

1.9335

0.52

1.665

1.416

0.258

0.276

0.03**

2
1.8

1.6

1.4

1.2
1

4-6


1a

1b

-103-

1c

1d

3a

3b

3c

4c

8a

8b


4a

4b

7a

7b

7c

-104-

8c

1
2
3
4

5
6~8

-105-

-106-

Hofstede (1980a)

(Couger, 1986)
84.5% 77.5%

-107-

(Hofstede, 1980b)

(SSO)(Um & Harrison, 1998)

-108-

() ()

Kahn et al. (1964) Hobfoll & Freedy (1993)


Becker (1960)
King & Sethi (1997) Sethi & Barrie & King (1999)
Tan(1998)


(Chen, 1995)
(Hofstede ,1997)

-109-

-110-

(Hofstede, 1980a; Hofstede, 1993; Huo & Randall ,1991)

(SSO)(Um & Harrison, 1998)


(Kahn et al., 1964) (Hobfoll &
Freedy ,1993) (Becker ,1960)
()
() ()

(King &
Sethi ,1997; Sethi & Barrie & King ,1999; Tan & Akhtar ,1998)

-111-

Hofstede (1980a)

-112-

()

-113-

Hofstede(1980a)
( 81) (Farh
et al., 1997)

Hofstede
(1997)
ecological fallacy

-114-

84

83

89
75 237

(:) 1 89

86

86
3
82 35

7 276-285

24 4 87
11
J.D. Couger
82 79-88

-115-

---
86

82 121-172
87

84 92-147

81

,,

74

89

-116-

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J.

D.,

Comparison

of

Motivation

Norms

for

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Hobfoll, S. E. and Freedy, J., Conservation of Resources: A General Stress Theory


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