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Term Chi Squared

General Understanding H0 .vs. H1 Goodness of fit test How close to expected data? Used for categorical Data (as cannot average categories)

Equation

WHAT TO DO 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Draw C ontincency Table (see below) Calculate Expected = Eij = RiCj / N Generate Null Add together all the 0-E^2/E (see below) Work of DF: (2-1)*(2-1) = 1 Use df to find Critical Value Compare CV with OV Significant? For Chi Squared OV needs to be higher than CV

Chi Squared Contingency Table

To Calculate Expected Needed generate a Null Hypothesis

Eij = RiCj / N

Statistics

Degrees of Freedom

A single sample: There are n observations. There's one parameter (the mean) that needs to be estimated. That leaves n-1 degrees of freedom for estimating variability. Two samples: There are n1+n2 observations. There are two means to be estimated. That leaves n1+n2-2 degrees of freedom for estimating variability.

Yates Additional Test

Used if expected is very small Used for 2x2 Tables Makes Data fit Chi Squared Used if expected is less than 5 (as this violates chi squared assumptions Can Be directional

NB: Sometimes overcorrects (Type II Error)

Fisher Exact Test

Useful as a check if expected frequency low

Chi Squared for Larger Tables

Usually 2x2 but can be more Can tell us WHERE the difference lies

Use usual Chi Squared Formula for A v B; A v C; and B v C

Important to remember the siginificance level should drop 0.05/3 AKA bonferonni effect Perform a Chi Squared on the data Calculate the df Ignore non-changers (like sign) Reorganise those that changed Gives Chi Sqaured > Look up in table to see if it is significant

Mc Nemars Test of Change

For a change in a group Used for related (within/dependent) designs

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

One sample Chi Squared Tests for Association Phi

Used when have the whole population Test to see if 2 variables are independent Chi Squared does not tell us degree of relationship-Association Tests do this 2x2 Tables 0-1 (0 No association- 1 High Association) For larger tables Memorise this

Tests for Association Cramers-Phi

N== Sample Size k- Smaller of R and C

Summary Chi Squared is considered a useful goodness of fit test Can be used to compare 1) Small Groups 2) Large Groups 3)Single Sample against population Limitations: To Contra: o Tests for Related Samples (McNemar o Tests for exact Statistics (Fisher Exact) o Tests that use small frequency (Fisher) o Tests that help determine degrees of association Phi Cramers Phi