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edi tors
Professor of Greek and Latin
Cambridge University
Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, So Paulo
Cambridge University Press
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ISBN-13 978-0-511-26468-9
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Preface page vii
i ntroducti on 1
I Theophrastus and his times 1
II The nature and purpose of the Characters 4
i Title 4
ii Antecedents and relations 5
iii Later Peripatetics 9
iv Other developments 11
v The purpose of the Characters 12
vi Authenticity and integrity 16
vii Integrity and style 19
viii Literary inuence 25
III Date 27
IV Transmission 37
i Preliminaries 37
ii The tradition in a nutshell 41
iii The manuscripts 43
V Some texts and commentaries 52
text and trans lati on 59
commentary 161
abbrevi ati ons and bi bli ography
I Select abbreviations 523
II Select bibliography 524
i Editions 524
ii Other works 525
i ndexes
I Index uerborum 533
II Passages 557
III Subjects 567
IV Greek 587
I owe an especial debt to three scholars. Jeffrey Fish transcribed
for me in the most minute detail the section of P. Herc. 1457 con-
taining sketch no. V. I am deeply grateful to him for selessly
undertaking and so meticulously executing this long and de-
manding task. Howmuch it has beneted me will be apparent to
readers of the commentary. Ioannis Stefanis generously supplied
information about the readings of the later manuscripts, loaned
me his photographs of A and B, and sent me a copy of an un-
published text and apparatus criticus of his own. I found that in
a few places he and I had independently hit upon the same con-
jecture. I should have assigned sole credit to Professor Stefanis,
had he not requested that I publish these conjectures under our
joint names. Paul Millett, from whom (as the commentary at-
tests) I had already learned so much, read the whole typescript,
saved me from several slips, and at other points sharpened my
I am grateful to Martin Ruehl for procuring photocopies of
more than a score of older books and pamphlets from libraries
in Germany; and, for a similar service in Greece, to Dimitrios
Beroutsos, Georgios Christodoulou, Daniel Jakob, and Antonios
Rengakos. Nigel Wilsonkindly lent me his photographs of Vand
sent me some comments on its script. Geoffrey Arnott answered
questions on pheasants and monkeys, Sir James Beament on
botany and entomology, and Paul Cartledge on historical prob-
lems. I am also indebted, for advice or help of various kinds, to
John Dillery, Bruce Fraser, Nikolaos Gonis, Ioannis Konstanta-
kos, Luigi Lehnus, Marianne McDonald, Stephen Oakley, Dirk
Obbink, Michael Reeve, Jeffrey Rusten, and Anne Thompson;
to Muriel Hall, copy-editor, for her care and vigilance; and for
generously undertaking to read the proofs, to Stephen Oakley
and Frederick Williams.
Two matters of numeration. First, fr. 100 Fortenbaugh is
shorthand for fr. 100 in W. W. Fortenbaugh, P. M. Huby, R. W.
Sharples, D. Gutas (edd.), Theophrastus of Eresus: Sources for his Life,
Writings, Thought and Inuence (Leiden etc. 1992). Second, I have
numberedthe sections of the Greek text afresh. Section-numbers
were rst added by the Leipzig editors (1897), and these were
modied by Diels (1909). My numbering reects what I take to
be the main divisions within the text.
September 2003
The sources for the life of Theophrastus are collected in W. W.
Fortenbaugh, P. M. Huby, R. W. Sharples, D. Gutas, Theophras-
tus of Eresus: Sources for his Life, Writings, Thought and Inuence
(Leiden 1992) frs. 136. The primary source is D.L. 5.3657
(fr. 1). Some modern discussions: O. Regenbogen, Theophras-
tos, RE Suppl. vii (1940) 135561 (ii.1 Vita. Lebensumst ande),
M. G. Sollenberger, The Lives of the Peripatetics: An analy-
sis of the contents and structure of Diogenes Laertius Vitae
Philosophorum Book 5, ANRW ii.36.6 (1992) 37933879,
J. Mejer, A Life in fragments: the Vita Theophrasti, in J. M. van
Ophuijsen and M. van Raalte (edd.), Theophrastus: Reappraising
the Sources (New Brunswick and London 1998) 128.
Theophrastus was born at Eresos on Lesbos (D.L. 5.36 = fr.
1.2) in 372/1 or 371/0.
His name, originally Tp:cuc, was
changed by Aristotle to Otcgpc:c, in recognition (so later
writers believed) of his divine eloquence (D.L. 5.38 = fr. 1.301
oic :c :n gptc ttticv, Suda O 199 = fr. 2.4 oic :c
tic gptiv).
His association with Aristotle will have begin at
Athens, if we accept that he studied with Plato (D.L. 5.36 = fr.
Regenbogen 1357, Sollenberger 3843.
Cf. Str. 13.2.4 = fr. 5A.3 :cv :n gptc co:c0 ncv ttinucivcutvc,
setting his seal of approval onhis style of speech (LSJ nc iii.2; ttinucivc
iv.3, as in Char. II.4), not signifying the fervour of his speech (H. L. Jones,
Loeb ed. 1929) nor signifying his keenness for speech (Fortenbaugh et al.),
Cic. Orat. 62 =fr. 5b.2 <a>diuinitate loquendi nomen inuenit, Plin. Nat. praef. 29
hominem in eloquentia tantum ut nomen diuinum inde inuenerit, Quint. Inst. 10.1.83
in Theophrasto tam est loquendi nitor ille diuinus ut ex eo nomen quoque traxisse dicatur.
Anecdotal tradition (Cic. Brut. 172, Quint. Inst. 8.1.2 = fr. 7ab; cf. Mejer
1516) suggests that he was proud of his command of Attic but that others
regarded it as over-correct. The name Otcgpc:c is common in Attica
(LGPN 2.223) and is attested elsewhere (LGPN 1.219, 3a.2067). Cf. Regen-
bogen 1357, J. H. M. A. Indemans, Studien over Theophrastus (Nijmegen 1953)
36, Sollenberger 38335.
1.4; cf. D.L. 3.46).
Otherwise it will have begun at Assos (on
the coast of Asia Minor opposite Lesbos), where Hermias, ruler
of Atarneus, former fellow-student of Aristotle in the Academy,
gathered together a group of philosophers after the death of
Plato in 348/7. The association continued in Macedonia, where
Aristotle was invited by Philip II in 343/2,
and in Athens, when
Aristotle returned there in 335/4 and founded the Lyceum.
The vicissitudes of the period which follows, and some of its
leading gures, are reected in the Characters.
Lycurgus, during
whose period of political inuence Athens had retained a demo-
cratic constitution and a measure of independence from Mace-
don, died c. 325/4. Alexander (XXIII.3) died in 323. During the
uprising against Macedon which followed, Aristotle left Athens
for Euboea, where he died in 322/1, and Theophrastus became
head of the Lyceum (D.L. 5.36 =fr. 1.57). Antipater (XXIII.4),
regent of Macedonia, defeated the Athenians and their allies in
322, placed Athens under the control of Phocion, and imposed
an oligarchic constitution and a Macedonian garrison. He des-
ignated Polyperchon (VIII.6), general of Alexander, to succeed
him in preference to his own son Cassander (VIII.6, 9), with
whom Theophrastus was on friendly terms (D.L. 5.37 = fr. 1.13,
Suda O199 =fr. 2.89). Antipater died in 319. Astruggle ensued
between Polyperchon and Cassander. Polyperchon offered the
Greek cities autonomy in return for their support. Athens rallied
to him and executed Phocion. Cassander defeated Polyperchon
and captured Athens in 317 and placed it under the control
of Demetrius of Phaleron, pupil of Theophrastus (D.L. 5.75).
Through his inuence Theophrastus, though a metic (like Aris-
totle), was allowed to own land (D.L. 5.39 = fr. 1.3840), and so
Regenbogen 13578, W. K. C. Guthrie, A History of Greek Philosophy 6
(Cambridge 1981) 345, K. Gaiser, Theophrast in Assos: zur Entwicklung
der Naturwissenschaft zwischen Akademie und Peripatos (Heidelberg 1985) 247,
Sollenberger 38067, Mejer 1719.
Cf. Ael. VH 4.19 = fr. 28.
For fuller discussion of historical allusions see the section on Date (pp. 2737).
W. W. Fortenbaugh and E. Sch utrumpf (edd.), Demetrius of Phalerum: Text,
Translation and Discussion (New Brunswick and London 2000) 39 (no. 8).
to establish the Lyceum in buildings of its own.
Demetrius was
expelled in 307. The restored democracy passed a law requir-
ing heads of philosophical schools to obtain a licence from the
state, and Theophrastus (along with other philosophers) briey
withdrew from Athens (D.L. 5.38 = fr. 1.229).
On his return
(the law was soon repealed) he remained head of the Lyceum
until his death at the age of 85 (D.L. 5.40 = fr. 1.46) in 288/7 or
He is reputed to have had some 2,000 students (D.L. 5.37 =
fr. 1.16, Suda O 199 = fr. 2.7).
He bequeathed his books to his
pupil Neleus of Scepsis (D.L. 5.52 = fr. 1.31011). The narra-
tive of their subsequent history should be treated with reserve:
together with the books of Aristotle, which Theophrastus had
inherited, they were stored underground, suffered damage, and
were sold to Apellicon of Teos, who issued unreliable copies; the
library of Apelliconwas carriedoff toRome whenSulla captured
Athens, and acquired by Tyrannion the grammarian, who, with
Andronicus of Rhodes, put further unsatisfactory copies into
circulation (Str. 13.1.54, Plu. Sull. 26.13 = fr. 378).
J. P. Lynch, Aristotles School (Berkeley etc. 1972) 97105, Guthrie 3940,
Sollenberger 38223, C. Habicht, Hellenistic Athens and her philoso-
phers, inAthen in Hellenistischer Zeit: Gesammelte Aufs atze (Munich1994) 23147
(at 236), Mejer 20, L. OSullivan, The law of Sophocles and the beginning
of permanent philosophical schools in Athens, RhM 145 (2002) 25162.
Lynch 1034, Sollenberger 38212, Habicht 2367, W. G. Arnott, Alexis:
The Fragments (Cambridge 1996) Appendix ii, H. B. Gottschalk in J. M. van
Ophuijsen and M. van Raalte (edd.), Theophrastus: Reappraising the Sources
(New Brunswick and London 1998) 2823, OSullivan (n. 7 above).
Probably during his whole career (Regenbogen 1358, Habicht 2334, Mejer
21, Gottschalk 283) rather than at any one time (advocates of this view are
listed by Sollenberger 3828; add Lane Fox 134 and n. 69, misrepresenting
Guthrie 5965 is less sceptical of this story than H. B. Gottschalk, Hermes
100 (1972) 33542. For its possible relevance to the early distribution of the
philosophical works of Aristotle and Theophrastus see Regenbogen 13759,
Mejer 257. It is unwise to found on it any theory concerning the early
history of the text of the Characters (as does Navarre (1931) 224; contra,
Ussher (1960) 1415, Rusten 33). See p. 38 below.
(i) Title
ABV entitle the work Xcpcs:npt. Diogenes Laertius, in his
catalogue of Theophrastus writings,
lists it twice, rst as
Hisci ycpcs:npt c, second as Xcpcs:npt nisci (5.478
= fr. 1.201, 241 = fr. 436.4a).
The history of the noun ycpcs:np is discussed by A. K orte,
Hermes 64 (1929) 6986 and B. A. van Groningen, Mnemosyne
58 (1930) 4553. It describes the stamp or imprint on a coin,
a distinguishing mark of type or value (Arist. Pol. 1257
41 c
,cp ycpcs:np t:tn :c0 tcc0 nutcv; cf. E. El. 5589 :i
u totocpstv cttp p,pcu sctcv | cutpcv ycpcs:np ;
n tpctisti ut :ci;).
It is also used guratively, to describe
the stamp of facial or bodily features, by which kinship or race
are distinguished (Hdt. 1.116.1 :c0:c t,cv:c :c0 tcioc :cv
A:u,tc tnit v,vci co:c0 sci c c . . . ycpcs:np :c0
tpcctcu tpcgtptci tocstt t tcu:cv, Hyp. fr. 196 Jensen
ycpcs:np cooti ttt:iv tti :c0 tpcctcu :n oicvcic :c
vpctci; cf. A. Su. 282, E. Med. 51619, Hec. 379, El. 572),
and the stamp of speech, as marked by local dialect (ycpcs:np
,cn Hdt. 1.57.3, 1.142.4; cf. S. fr. 176) or by a style of speech
(Ar. Pax 220 c ,c0v ycpcs:np nutoctc :cv pnu:cv) or
(in later literary criticism) by a style of writing (LSJ ii.5, K orte
7983). Into this pattern ts Men. fr. 72 vopc ycpcs:np ts
On the nature and sources of this catalogue see H. Usener, Analecta
Theophrastea (Leipzig 1858), Regenbogen 136370, Sollenberger 38545,
Mejer 224.
Two late manuscripts which have the title Xcpcs:npt nisci are copied
from printed editions (Torraca (1994a) xii n. 8). For the suggestion (unac-
ceptable) that the repeated title refers to a second book of Characters see
p. 18.
R. Seaford, JHS 118 (1998) 1379; also F. Will, The concept of ycpcs:np
in Euripides, Glotta 39 (1960) 2338.
Similarly Shakespeare, The Winters Tale II.3.989 although the print be
little, the whole matter / and copy of the father.
c,cu ,vcpit:ci, the stamp of a man is recognised from his
speech: speech typies him, makes him a distinct and recognis-
able individual.
A work entitled Xcpcs:npt advertises nothing more specic
than types, marks, distinctive features, or styles. This is not
an adequate advertisement of Theophrastus work. Denition is
needed, and is provided by nisci, which the manuscripts have
lost, but Diogenes Laertius has preserved. The title Characters,
hallowed by usage, is both misleading and incomplete. The true
title means something like Behavioural Types or Distinctive Marks of
We hear of a few other works which may have been enti-
tled, in whole or part, Xcpcs:npt: (i) ltpi ttc n ttpi
ycpcs:npcv by Antisthenes (D.L. 6.15);
(ii) Xcpcs:npt c
by Heraclides Ponticus (D.L. 5.88 = fr. 165 Wehrli), perhaps on
(iii) Xcpcs:npt n 1icscucioci by an unknown tragic
poet Dionysiades of Mallos (TrGF 105), tv ci :cu ycpcs:npc
(styles?) tc,,tti :cv tcin:cv (Suda A1169);
(iv) :upc
tv :c ttpi ycpcs:npcv (Ath. 168C = FHG 3.164 fr. 20), dis-
cussed below (p. 11).
(ii) Antecedents and relations
The Characters, in conception and design, is a novel work: noth-
ing like it, so far as we know, had been attempted before. But
antecedents and relations can be recognised.
Descriptions of character-types had appeared sporadically in
other genres. Homer describes the otic and the csiuc in
Addition of nisci is commended by K orte 77 n. 3, P. Steinmetz, AUS 8
(1959) 2246 = Kleine Schriften (Stuttgart 2000) 1302 (and his commentary,
2 (1962) 78), W. W. Fortenbaugh, RhM 118 (1975) 812, id. Quellen zur Ethik
Theophrasts (Amsterdam 1984) 934. Contra van Groningen 523.
The nature of the work and the authenticity of the title are disputed: G.
Giannantoni, Socratis et Socraticorum Reliquiae 4 (Naples 1990) 2401.
F. Wehrli, Die Schule des Aristoteles, vii: Herakleides Pontikos (Basel
1969) 119.
R. Pfeiffer, History of Classical Scholarship, from the Beginnings to the Hellenistic Age
(Oxford 1968) 160.
ambush, the former pale and dgety, his heart thumping and his
teeth chattering, the latter never blanching, eager for the ght
to start (Il. 13.27886). Eustathius recognised in this a foreshad-
owing of Theophrastus: oicstucv:c :c0 tcin:c0 pyt-
:utisc c tv :tci ycpcs:npc, ctcicu on :ivc 0:tpcv
sci Otcgpc:c tt:utcc:c, cc utv c csiuc tv scipci
cycu, cc ot c otic (931.223 = 3.469.35 van der Valk).
Semonides describes ten types of women (fr. 7).
(throughthe mouthof a Persian) describes the ucvcpyc (3.80.3
6), and Plato describes the :iucspc:isc (R. 548d550b), the
ci,cpyisc (553a555a), the onucspc:isc (558c562a), and
the :upcvvisc (571a576b). Aristotle in the Rhetoric describes at
lengththe characters (nn) of vtci, tpt:tpci, andsucv:t
13), and more briey of to,tvt, tcici, and
ouvutvci (1390
In the Nicomachean Ethics Aristotle distinguishes and analyses
moral virtues and vices, nisci (as opposed to c,isci) pt:ci
and scsici. Virtue is a mean between two opposing vices, one of
deciency, the other of excess, in emotions and actions (1106
18). First he lists 13 pairs of vices, with their mean (1107
Theophrastus has 9 (here asterisked) of the 26 vices.
Deciency Mean Excess

otiic voptic pc

vcinic cgpcvn sccic

vttutpic ttutpic:n c:ic

tipcvtic ntic


,pcisic to:pcttic cuccyic

For a modern misunderstanding which has been built on the passage see
p. 19.
H. Lloyd-Jones, Females of the Species: Semonides on Women (London 1975) 29
(he may be considered an ancestor of Theophrastus), 323.
Cf. EE 1220
3 (a rather different list), W. F. R. Hardie, Aristotles
Ethical Theory (Oxford
1980) 12951, R. Bosley, R. A. Shiner, J. D. Sisson
(edd.), Aristotle, Virtue and the Mean (Edmonton 1995).
outpi:ic giic

ouscic giic


vciyuv:ic cionucvn sc:tni

Aristotle develops the analysis of individual virtues and vices
later (1115
Although he personalises their bear-
ers (exemplifying the otic and the voptc, and so on, just
as in the Rhetoric he exemplies vtci and tpt:tpci), his per-
sons exist, for the most part, out of time and space, moral
paradigms, not esh and blood. And so it is with the ucvcpyc
of Herodotus and the political characters drawn by Plato.
But Aristotle provides the seed from which Theophrastuss
descriptions grow. He often indicates, in abstract and gen-
eral terms, the circumstances or behaviour which are asso-
ciated with each virtue and vice. For example, Rh. 1379
19 :c ttiycipcui :c :uyici sci cc touucuutvci tv
:c co:cv :uyici n ,cp typc0 n ci,cpc0v:c nutcv
(taking pleasure in the discomforts of others is the nutcv,
i.e. ycpcs:np, of a hostile or scornful man), 1383
1920 ccv
:c tcctv tioc n gu,tv tc otiic ,p. sci :c
tc:tpnci tcpcsc:cnsnv tc oisic ,p, 1383
:c stpocivtiv tc uispcv n ciypcv n tc ouv:cv . . . tc
ciypcstpotic ,cp sci vttutpic.
Instead of an abstract circumstance Theophrastus gives us a
real occasion, and instead of an anonymous agent, a real individ-
ual. So, while Aristotle says that :c ttpi co:c0 tv:c t,tiv sci
ttc,,ttci is typical of ccvtic (1384
46), Theophras-
tus lets us hear an Accv making just such grand claims for
himself before visitors in the Piraeus (XXIII). The voptc,
according to Aristotle, will best display his fearlessness at sea or
in war (EN 1115
1). Theophrastus shows us the Atic on a
ship and on the battleeld (XXV). Aristotle is even capable of
anticipating Theophrastuss technique. The vcuc (Vulgar
Man) makes a tasteless display of his wealth on unimportant
Cf. EE 1228
13, MM 1190
occasions, for example by entertaining his dining club on the
scale of a wedding banquet or, when acting as choregus for
a comedy, bringing on the chorus in purple (EN 1123
ccv tpcvi:c ,cuisc t:icv sci scucioc ycpn,cv tv :ni
tcpcoci tcpgpcv tigtpcv). Witha minimumof change (cc
tpcvi:c ,cuisc t:icv sci . . . tigtptiv) this becomes indis-
tinguishable from Theophrastus in content and style.
Like Homer, in his description of the otic and the csiuc,
Theophrastus locates his characters in a specic time and place.
The time is the late fourth century. The place is Athens. And
it is an Athens whose daily life he recreates for us in dozens of
dramatic pictures and incidents. If we look elsewhere for such
scenes and such people, we shall not nd them (until we come
to the Mimes of Herodas)
except on the comic stage. Plurima
inuenias in his breuibus reliquiis, observed Casaubon, quae
ueluti tabulae e naufragio superstites utcunque remanserunt,
ex quibus huius operis cum poetis, scenicis maxime et comi-
cis, quos esse optimos exprimendorum morum artices scimus,
afnitas percipi queat.
Comedy furnishes much the same cast
of players. Five characters of Theophrastus give their names
to plays: the A,pcisc (Antiphanes, Menander, Philemon and
others), Ati:c (Menander), Atiiociucv (Menander), Kcc
(Menander and others), Mtuiucipc (Antidotus). Another, the
Accv, appears regularly on stage.
Alate and dubious source
(Pamphile, FHG3.522 fr. 10 ap. D.L. 5.36 =T. fr. 1.1112 =Men.
Test. 8) claims Menander as a pupil of Theophrastus.
Cf. L. A. Llera Fueyo, Teofrasto y Herodas, Minerva 12 (1998) 91102, and
n. 77 below.
3rd edn. (1612) 88.
See the Introductory Note to XXIII.
For suggested afnities with Old Comedy see R. G. Ussher, G&R 24 (1977)
759; with later Comedy and Menander, J. van Ijzeren, Theophrastus en
de nieuwe comedie, NPh 8 (1923) 20820, P. Steinmetz, Menander und
Theophrast: Folgerungen aus dem Dyskolos, RhM 103 (1960) 18591 =
Kleine Schriften (Stuttgart 2000) 1528, A. Barigazzi, La Formazione spirituale
di Menandro (Turin 1965) 6986. The subject is handled judiciously by K.
Gaiser, Menander und der Peripatos, AA 13 (1967) 840 (esp. 15 n. 36),
R. L. Hunter, The New Comedy of Greece and Rome (Cambridge 1985) 1489,
And so a new type of work came into existence, owing some-
thing to the ethical theorising of the Lyceum and something to
the comic stage.
(iii) Later Peripatetics
Later Peripatetics attempted character-drawing of this kind, but
to what extent and for what purpose is unclear. Lycon, who suc-
ceeded Theophrastuss successor Straton as head of the Lyceum
c. 269 bc, wrote a description of a drunkard, preserved in the
Latin translation of Rutilius Lupus (Lycon fr. 26 Wehrli ap. Rut.
Lup. 2.7, 1st cent. ad). Rutilius adduces it as an example of char-
acterismos, the schema by which an orator depicts virtues and vices,
and he compares it to a painters use of colours. The opening
(Quid in hoc arbitrer bonae spei reliquumresidere, qui omne uitae tempus una
ac despicatissima consuetudine producit?) betrays a moralising purpose.
The sketch is composed not of illustrations loosely linked but as
a coherent narrative, which follows the drunkard through the
day, a technique used only once by Theophrastus (the exploits
of the Atic in XXV). In style, it is far from Theophrastus:
colours garish, rhetoric over-dressed, cleverness unremitting.
A papyrus of Philodemus preserves parts of a series of
character-sketches, perhaps from a work ltpi :c0 scugitiv
ottpngcvic, OnRelief fromArrogance,
by Aristonof Keos,
who was probably Lycons successor (c. 225 bc). The characters
depicted in the parts we have (they represent aspects of ottpn-
gcvic) are the Aoon, Aotsc:c, lcv:tionucv, and Lpcv,
of whom the rst and fourth are also depicted by Theophras-
tus; and perhaps also the tuvcsctc, Lo:ti:n, and
H.-G. Nesselrath, Die attische mittlere Kom odie (Berlin 1990) esp. 1501, Lane
Fox 13940. See also W. W. Fortenbaugh, Theophrast uber den komischen
Charakter, RhM 124 (1981) 24560. For suggested afnities with mime see
H. Reich, Der Mimus (Berlin 1903) 30720.
There is a good appreciation of the piece by G. Pasquali, RLC 1 (1918)
1434 = Scritti Filologici (Florence 1986) 568.
For this translation of the title see M. Gigante, CErc 26 (1966) 132 n. 16
(cf. 27 (1997) 1534).
Although the form of the original sketches
has been obscured by introductory matter, commentary, and
paraphrase from Philodemus, it is clear that Ariston follows
Theophrastus closely in style, technique, and content. He uses
the introductory formula :cic0:c . . . cc or something like it,
builds his sentences around innitives constructed with that for-
mula, makes much use of participles, and normally links clauses
and sentences with a simple sci. And he uses the same kind of
illustrative vignettes fromeveryday life: a manasks for hot or cold
water without consulting his fellow-bather (fr. 14, i p. 36.1719
tv :ni uspci tpu[c]v [n u]ypcv ci:tv u[n t]pccvcsp

:cv uutnsc: (u<vt>u- Kassel and Austin on Eup. 490)

ti ssti[vci uvcptsti) and does not reciprocate a rub with
oil (fr. 14, ii p. 36.212 :cv uvcticv:c un v:iuvctigtiv)
or is decient in epistolary courtesies (fr. 14, ii p. 36.256
,p[g]cv tti:cnv :c yciptiv un tpc,pci (Diggle: tpc-
l) uno tppcci :ttu:ccv)
or postures Socratically (fr. 14,
vii p. 39.1314 L,c,cp coc:i t[nv ,t] :c:cu, c:i [co]otv
coc;). In style and wit there is nothing to distinguish these from
Text in F. Wehrli, Die Schule des Aristoteles, vi: Lykon und Ariston von Keos (Basel
1968) frs. 1416, also in Rusten 18295. Wehrlis view that the character-
sketches belong to a separate work, not the work onottpngcvic, is contested
by M. Gigante, Kepos e Peripatos (Naples 1999) 12333. See also W. Kn ogel, Der
Peripatetiker Ariston von Keos bei Philodem (Leipzig 1933), Regenbogen 15089.
Further bibliography in E. Kondo, CErc 1 (1971) 87 n. 9.
See the commentary on I.2.
Cf. Pl. Bac. 1000 non priu salutem scripsit?, Plu. 1035 b-c (Chrysipp. SVF 2 fr. 30)
ti un, scttp c :c ngiuc:c :c tctiv tigtpcv:t tpc,pgcuiv
A,cnv Tynv, c0:csci co:c tpc,ptit :cv Aics:., Luc. Laps. 5 c0:t
:c yciptiv c0:t :c to tp::tiv tpc,pcgtv. The prex tpc- is (i) apt with
:cyciptiv, (ii) neededtoprovide a temporal contrast with:ttu:ccv. There
is a mild zeugma: with uno tppcci :ttu:ccv understand otc,pci
(Luc. Laps. 10 tti :tti . . . v:i :c0 tppcci otc,pc :c yciptiv). See
also XXIV.13.
A good appreciation of his style by Pasquali, RLC 1 (1918) 1447 = Scritti
Filologici (1986) 5962.
A single sentence is preserved from a work, possibly but not
certainly entitled ltpi ycpcs:npcv,
by Satyrus (Ath. 168c =
FHG 3.164 fr. 20), presumably the Peripatetic biographer
(3rd/2nd cent.).
It describes the behaviour of cc:ci, in
a series of asyndetic participial clauses: tctuici :n coic
otpycv:t, c :upc tv :c ttpi ycpcs:npcv tpnstv,
sc:c:ptycv:t :cv c,pcv, oicptcv:t :nv cisicv, cupc-
tcc0v:t :c otpycv:c, sctc0v:t co :i otoctvn:ci
c:i octcvnnt:ci, coot :i ttpit:ci c:i cottpit:ci,
tv :ni vtc:n:i :c :c0 ,npc tgcoic tpcsc:cvciscv:t,
ycipcv:t :ni t:cipci, co :c t:cipci, sci :ci cvci, co :c
uutc:ci. The style, all rhetorical balance and antithesis, is
unlike Theophrastus, but is not unlike some of the spurious
accretions (VI.7, VIII.11, X.14).
(iv) Other developments
The Stoic Posidonius (fr. 176 Edelstein-Kidd ap. Sen. Ep. 95.65
7) proclaims the utility of ncc,ic, his termfor ycpcs:npiuc:
to display a model of virtue is to invite its imitation. We have
already seen Lycon, with his model of vice, serving the same
moral purpose (p. 9).
In the Roman period character-drawing becomes rmly
associated with rhetoric. The author (1st cent. bc) of Rhetor-
ica ad Herennium illustrates the technique of what he calls nota-
tio (i.e. ycpcs:npiuc) with a richly textured sketch (4.634),
for delivery in court, of The Man Who Shows Off Pretended
Wealth (ostentatorem pecuniae gloriosum),
at rst in the manner
See p. 5.
Gudeman, Satyros (16 and 17), RE ii.1A (1921) 22835.
Cf. Pasquali (1918) 144 = (1986) 589.
I adopt pecuni<ae glori>osum (Kayser) for pecuniosi (u.l. -sum), since the con-
struction ostentatorem pecuniosi (endorsed by TLL and OLD) is unbelievable.
Cf. 4.65 huiusmodi notationes . . . totam . . . naturam cuiuspiam ponunt ante oculos,
aut gloriosi, ut nos exempli causa coeperamus, aut inuidi etc., Cic. Flac. 52 gloriosa
ostentatio ciuitatis.
of Theophrastus, but soon developing into anecdotal narrative
more inthe manner of Lycon(p. 9).
Cicerouses the termdescrip-
tio (Top. 83 descriptio, quam ycpcs:npc Graeci uocant . . . qualis sit
auarus, qualis adsentator ceteraque eiusdem generis, in quibus et natura
et uita describitur). Such character-drawing was practised in the
schools of rhetoric (Quint. Inst. 6.2.17 illa in scholis nn . . . quibus
plerumque rusticos superstitiosos auaros timidos secundumcondicionemposi-
tionum efngimus).
And character-types are sketched by the satirists: the bore
(Hor. S. 1.9), the bellus homo (Mart. 3.63), the miser (Juv. 14.109
(v) The purpose of the Characters
The work has been tailored, by more than one hand, to serve an
ethical purpose. The prooemium introduces it as a work of moral
guidance for the young. The epilogues advise or moralise. The
denitions have links with ethical theorising.
When we are rid
of these accretions, the work lacks all ethical dimension. Nothing
is analysed, no moral is drawn, no motive is sought.
If the
work has a purpose, that purpose must be sought elsewhere. But
purpose cannot be separated from form. And we do not know
whether what remains, after the ethical accretions are removed,
has the form which Theophrastus gave it.
It has been suggested that the Characters are a collection of
extracts fromone or more works of Theophrastus. But the coher-
ence and stylistic unity of the collection prove that its parts are
not derived from unconnected works. And, if they are derived
He is comparable to Theophrastuss Accv (XXIII). There is another
shared motif at XXI.4.
See p. 17.
For these as features which fundamentally distinguish the work from Aristo-
tles ethical writings see D. J. Furley, The purpose of Theophrastus Charac-
ters, SO30 (1953) 5660, W. W. Fortenbaugh, Die Charaktere Theophrasts:
Verhaltensregelm aigkeiten und aristotelische Laster, RhM 118 (1975)
from a single work, it still remains to explain what the purpose
of that other work might have been.
It has been suggested that the Characters were conceived with
a rhetorical purpose.
They are models for orators, a paintbox
out of which an orator may draw the shades to suit him.
Or that they have connections with the theoretical writings
of Theophrastus and others on comedy, such as Theophrastuss
ltpi ,tcicu and ltpi scucioic (D.L. 5.46, 47 = fr. 1.184,
208 = fr. 666 nos. 23 and 22), or the Tractactus Coislinianus,
which has Peripatetic associations and has even been taken to
Extracts from a variety of works were rst suggested by K. G. Sonntag, In
prooemium Characterum Theophrasti (Leipzig 1787); extracts from a work on
ethics by Schneider (1799) xxv, H. Sauppe, Philodemi de Vitiis Liber Dec-
imus (Leipzig 1853) 89, Petersen (1859) 56118, R. Schreiner, De genuina
Characterum Theophrasteorum Forma Commentatio (Znaim 1879). Jebb (1870)
2137 = (1909) 916 argues effectively against Petersen; with equal effect,
against the whole theory of extracts, T. Gomperz, Ueber die Charaktere
Theophrasts, SAWW117 (1889) x. Abh., 19. See also Gomperz, Griechische
Denker 3 (Leipzig 1909) 37583 = Greek Thinkers 4 (London 1912) 4809. But
the theory has recently been revived: a Hellenistic compilation in which
Theophrastean material was redistributed under single headings (M. L.
West, HSPh 73 (1969) 121 n. 29).
O. Immisch, Ueber Theophrasts Charaktere, Philologus 57 (1898) 193212.
Others who see a rhetorical purpose are Furley (n. 39 above), S. Trenkner,
The Greek Novella in the Classical Period (Cambridge 1958) 14754 (her claim
that T.s source was not real life so much as an existing tradition of narrative
ncc,ic, i.e. character-anecdotes, is not established by the detection of
parallel motifs in later Greek and Latin humorists), B. Stevanovi c, Contri-
bution au probl` eme des mod` eles de quelques caract` eres de Th eophraste (IX
et XXX), ZAnt 10 (1960) 7580, V. V. Valchenko, To what literary family do
the Characters of Theophrastus belong?, VDI 177 (1986) 162 (summary;
article in Russian 15662), Fortenbaugh, Theophrastus, the Characters and
Rhetoric, in W. W. Fortenbaugh and D. C. Mirhady (edd.), Peripatetic Rhetoric
after Aristotle (New Brunswick and London 1994) 1535. Further documen-
tation in E. Matelli, S&C 13 (1989) 32935, 37786. Pertinent criticism
by Lane Fox 139; more ponderously (against Immisch) C. Hoffmann, Das
Zweckproblem von Theophrasts Charakteren (Breslau 1920) 928.
eine Motivsammlung, . . . ein Farbenkasten (Immisch 207). This argu-
ment owes too much to their later history. They survive because, in the
Byzantine period, they were incorporated with the treatises of Hermogenes
and Apthonius, whose discussions of nc and nctciic they were taken to
illustrate. See below, p. 38.
derive from Aristotles lost work on comedy.
They are a mere
appendix at the end of a work on the theory of drama, an
aid for the playwrights of contemporary drama, a handbook of
characterization for Menander . . . and his fellows.
Or the work is an otcuvnuc, wie das Skizzenbuch eines
Malers zu seinen ausgef uhrten Gem alden, like a painters
sketchbook to his nished paintings a preparatory sketch for
the His or ltpi ncv, to which it bears the same relation-
ship as the various Aristotelian Constitutions to the Politics and the
Homeric Problems to the Poetics.
Any attempt to interpret the work as a serious treatise comes
upagainst anobjectionneatly formulatedby Jebb. The difculty
is, not that the descriptions are amusing, but that they are written
as if their principal aim was to amuse.
Jebbs answer is that Theophrastus wrote the Characters for his
own amusement and that of his friends, who put them together
after his death and issued them in collections of various sizes
A. Rostagni, Sui Caratteri di Teofrasto, RFIC 48 (1920) 41743 = Scritti
Minori (Turin 1955) 32755, followed by P. van de Woestyne, Notes sur la
nature des Caract` eres de Th eophraste, RBPh 8 (1929) 10991107, Ussher
(1960) 56, 23, id. Old Comedy and Character, G&R 24 (1977) 719,
A. Dosi, Sulle tracce della Poetica di Teofrasto, RIL 94 (1960) 599672
(esp. 6356). For the Tractatus Coislinianus see R. Janko, Aristotle on Comedy
(London 1984), Nessselrath (n. 26 above) 10262.
Ussher (1960) 23, (1977) 75. Much the same words in van de Woestyne 1107,
Dosi 6356. Pertinent comment in Lane Fox 13940.
Gomperz, SAWW 117 (1889) x. Abh., 1013. The argument that the work
is an empirische Materialsammlung zu seinem ethologischen Hauptwerke
ltpi ncv (Hoffmann (n. 41 above) 32) is founded on the false assump-
tion that the ethical dimension which the work now has was given to it by
Theophrastus (see p. 12 above). I say nothing of the curious argument of
P. Steinmetz, Der Zweck der Charaktere Theophrasts, AUS 8 (1959) 209
46 = Kleine Schriften (Stuttgart 2000) 11552, that T. is cocking a snook at
Dicaearchus, Zeno, and Epicurus.
Jebb (1870) 29 = (1909) 13. Comparable, in this respect, is the extract
from T.s essay on Marriage, translated or paraphrased by Jerome (fr. 486
Fortenbaugh; also Fortenbaugh, Quellen l 46, with commentary 20712).
Casaubons often cited description of the Characters as aureolus libellus is
an echo of Jeromes aureolus Theophrasti liber De Nuptiis.
and shapes.
In evidence of this he adduces their lack of sym-
metry, the capriciousness of their order, and the multiformity
of the manuscript tradition. The manuscript tradition licenses
no such inference.
With regard to symmetry, some sketches
are incomplete, and others may be.
As for order, accidents
of transmission may have disturbed a less capricious design; or
what seems caprice may be designed to avoid the appearance of
a textbook.
There is another possibility, which meets Jebbs objection, and
gives at least as plausible an account of the origins of the sketches.
Pasquali suggested that they were conceived as illustrative show-
pieces for a course of lectures on ethics, a few moments light
entertainment amid more serious matter, and for that reason
composed in a simple style which suits oral delivery, and not
designed for publication by Theophrastus himself.
According to a reputable source, Theophrastus was a lively
Lpuittc ot gni Otcgpc:cv tcpc,ivtci ti :cv ttpitc:cv
sc cpcv cutpcv sci tnsnutvcv, t:c scicv:c oic:itci :cv
c,cv cootuic ttycutvcv sivntc coot ynuc:c tvc. sci tc:t
ccgc,cv uiucutvcv ttipcv:c :nv ,ccv ttpitiytiv :c ytin
(Ath. 21B = Hermipp. fr. 51 Wehrli = T. fr. 12).
Hermippus [3rd cent. bc] says that Theophrastus would arrive at the
Peripatos punctually, smart and well dressed, then sit down and deliver
his lecture, in the course of which he would use all kinds of movements
and gestures. Once, when he was imitating a gourmet, he stuck out his
tongue and licked his lips.
Jebb 1821, 3740 = 89, 1617. Lane Fox 141 detects much the same
purpose (see below, p. 37).
See the section on Transmission (pp. 3751).
V and XIX each consist of two parts, which come from separate sketches;
in V both parts, in XIX one or both, are incomplete.
elaborazione dei punti salienti di un corso di lezioni di fenomenologia de
costumi (RLC 1 (1918) 77 =Scritti Filologici (1986) 53), parte . . . di un corso
di etica descrittiva (ed. 1919, vi = 1956, x). See also (from his later review
of Navarre) Gnomon 2 (1926) 868 = Scritti Filologici 8447.
I can believe it. And I can picture him picking a speck of straw
from anothers beard (II.3), stufng his cloak into his mouth to
stop himself from laughing (II.4), ofciously arranging cushions
(II.11), grabbing a dogs snout (IV.9), staggering forwardas if bur-
dened by a jar, his hands plucking at documents which threaten
to elude his grasp (VI.8), dousing himself with a ladleful of water
(IX.8), rummaging through the rubbish for a lost coin (X.6),
wiping his nose on his hand while pretending to eat and scratch-
ing himself while purporting to sacrice (XIX.5), sponging a
wound and swatting ies (XXV.5), and twisting his buttocks for
a wrestling throw (XXVII.14), while reciting his sketches in the
lecture hall.
There was a famous Professor in Oxford who would introduce
into his seminars, as if on impulse, carefully designed sketches
of past scholars, one for each occasion. I heard him once: he
sketched Pasquali.
(vi) Authenticity and integrity
Doubts have arisen from time to time that Theophrastus is the
author of the Characters. Doubters include Victorius,
and Haupt.
The prooemium used to be a stumbling-block: its author is
ninety-nine years old, and Theophrastus, according to Diogenes
Laertius, died at eighty-ve. Casaubon emended one or other
number. But now we know better. The prooemium is spurious, a
very late addition.
When we have deleted the prooemium, what remains is not,
as it stands, the work of Theophrastus. Several sketches (I, II,
Variae Lectiones 1 (Lyon1554) 302, 326, 2 (Florence 1569) 210 =ed. 2 (Florence
1582) 196, 211, 434.
On Theoc. 15.33 (Leiden 1773, 333).
Putabat scilicet, nisi me uehementer fallit memoria, falso tribui
Theophrasto Characteras, antiquos tamen esse concedens, Dobree on Ar.
Pl. 1021 (in P. P. Dobree (ed.), Ricardi Porsoni Notae ad Aristophanem, Cambridge
Opuscula 3 (Leipzig 1876) 434, 498, 592.
III, VI, VIII, X, XXVI, XXVII, XXIX) have epilogues, which
betray themselves as later (perhaps much later) additions by their
language, style, and moralising tone.
And there are the introductory denitions. Some reect the
pseudo-Platonic Denitions,
others the phraseology of Aristotle
or pseudo-Aristotle; some describe a form of behaviour which
has little or nothing to do with the behaviour described in the
sketch itself; even those which are unobjectionable are no better
than banal. They were added before the time of Philodemus,
who quotes def. II. They rst came under suspicion early in
the nineteenth century.
Nearly everyone continued to defend
That they are spurious and must be deleted en bloc has
been established beyond all doubt by Markus Stein.
It may be
objected that Stein has proved only that some, not all, denitions
are spurious; and that there are some whose spuriousness cannot
be proved, nor does Stein claim to have proved it. In that spirit,
a recent editor has deleted some but not all of them. This is
wrong. We cannot pick and choose. The denitions have the
same stamp. They come from the same workshop. They stand
and fall together.
When we have stripped the work of its prooemium, its epilogues,
and its denitions, we still have not unwrapped the genuine arti-
cle. Numerous further additions are embedded in the sketches,
ranging inextent fromsingle words tobrief phrases (IV.4, VIII.7,
XVIII.6, XIX.4, XX.9, XXI.11, XXII.7, XXX.10), whole
For which see H. G. Ingenkamp, Untersuchungen zu den pseudoplatonischen De-
nitionen (Wiesbaden 1967); also Stein (n. 58 below) esp. 2835.
Priority is usually assigned to F. Hanow, De Theophrasti Characterum Libello
(Leipzig 1858). He was anticipated by Bloch (1814), who stigmatised some
or most (quaedam xii, xiii, 85, pleraeque 79) but explicitly con-
demned only XIII and XXVIII, and by Darvaris (1815), who condemned
them all.
Exceptions are Petersen (1859), Ussing (1868), and Gomperz (SAWW 117
(1889) x. Abh., 24 , ibid. 139 (1898) i. Abh., 1113).
Denition und Schilderung in Theophrasts Charakteren (Stuttgart 1992). See below,
p. 57. H. Escola, Le statut des d enitions dans les Caract`eres: de Th eophraste
` a La Bruy` ere, Lalies 17 (1997) 17586, contributes nothing pertinent.
sentences (II.9, VI.2, VII.5, VIII.5, XVI.13) and even a sen-
tence of paragraph length (VI.7).
Here is a simple proof that interpolation is a real phe-
nomenon, not a ction designed to save Theophrastuss credit.
In V.10 a show-off hires out his little wrestling-school to :c
giccgci :c cgi:c :c ctcuyci :c cpucvisc,
for them to perform in. This quartet of philosophers, sophists,
drill-sergeants, and music lecturers, listed in asyndeton, ought
to worry us. Theophrastus has several trios of nouns or verbs
in asyndeton, but no quartets. Furthermore, philosophers and
sophists are too much alike, when compared with the pair which
follows, drill-sergeants and music lecturers. If we are to reduce
the list to three, by getting rid of either the sophists or the philoso-
phers, we must get rid of the philosophers, because sophists are
more likely than philosophers to wish to hire a place for public
displays. And the Herculaneumpapyrus omits the philosophers.
There is an important lesson here. Anything that is anomalous
should be regarded with suspicion. Nothing is genuine merely
because it is in the manuscripts and cannot be proved to be
Much, then, has been added; and probably much has been
It has evenbeenarguedthat a whole secondbook, describ-
ing virtuous characters, once existed.
This rests on three sup-
positions, all false: (i) That the author of the prooemium, when
he says that he will describe :cu ,cc as well as :cu
gccu, knew of a book of ,cci. The author makes sev-
eral statements which show him to be a bungler and a fraud.
(ii) That Diogenes Laertius, when he lists Xcpcs:npt twice,
refers to two separate books. His catalogue is made up of four
or ve different lists,
so that several titles appear more than
There are many lacunae. And there were once more than thirty sketches
(n. 49 above).
For example, Rostagni (1920) 43940 = (1955) 3501, Edmonds (1929) 78,
Ussher (1960) xi, 34, (1993) 3012, Torraca (1994a) xxxxxxii.
See p. 4.
See n. 11 above.
(iii) That Eustathius, when he says (in the passage
quoted above, p. 6) that Homer created archetypal characters,
as Theophrastus was later to do, cc utv c csiuc tv scipci
cycu, cc ot c otic, ascribes to Theophrastus a description
of the csiuc as well as the otic. The words tv scipci cycu
show that Eustathius is citing these characters from Homer, not
from Theophrastus.
(vii) Integrity and style
Antiquity believed that Theophrastus was aptly named, because
his speech was divine.
Quintilian praised its brightness (Inst.
10.1.83 loquendi nitor ille diuinus), Cicero its sweetness (Ac. 1.33
oratione suauis, Brut. 121 quis . . . Theophrasto dulcior?),
and he was
accustomed to call Theophrastus his ioic :pugn, own special
delight (Plu. Cic. 24.6).
Some modern judges have looked in vain for sweetness and
brightness in the Characters. The Greek is not Greek at its most
sometimes obscure or inelegant . . . unvaried and
abrupt, notes for lectures . . . they can hardly have been written
for separate publication as a literary work.
Let us take another lesson from the Herculaneum papyrus.
The Greek for that little wrestling-school is, according to the
manuscripts, coioicv tcci:piccv. The noun coioicv is
attested once, as diminutive of coc, in the sense small tube.
LSJ invents a sense for it to have here, place of athletic exer-
cises, ring. The adjective tcci:picc is attested only here.
ltpi oiccn c (fr. 1.189, 252, 275), ltpi :cv tpcnu:cv guiscv c
(fr. 1.227, 266), lpc:ptt:isc c (fr. 1.262, 284). Several other titles appear
to be variants of each other.
For a further awed attempt to nd traces of a lost sketch in Eustathius see
the Introductory Note to II.
See p. 1.
For suauis and dulcis as terms of stylistic criticism see D. C. Innes in W. W.
Fortenbaugh, P. M. Huby, A. A. Long (edd.), Theophrastus of Eresus: On his Life
and Work (New Brunswick and Oxford 1985) 251.
R. G. Ussher (1960) 3.
P. Vellacott (1967) 8.
LSJ takes it to mean suited for a tcci:pc. Cobet replaced
coioicv tcci:piccv with tcci:pioicv. The papyrus con-
rms his conjecture. But, if the papyrus did not exist, editors
would be as blind to its merits as LSJ. The lesson is the same as
before. Anomalies ought to provoke suspicion. Nothing is right
merely because it is in the manuscripts and cannot be proved to
be wrong.
And the application of that lesson is this: we must not call
Theophrastus obscure and inelegant and not limpid, simply
because much of what we read in our printed texts is obscure and
inelegant andunlimpid. Our printedtexts are nothing more than
the best that editors have been able to make of what is probably
the corruptest manuscript tradition in all of Greek literature.
Let us now see that Theophrastus can, and often does, write
Greek that is the reverse of obscure and inelegant and unlimpid.
The A,pcisc is a countryman who comes to town and shows
his country manners. Here is the rst sentence of the sketch:
c ot c,pcisc :cic0:c :i cc sustcvc ticv ti tssnicv
tcpttci, sci :c upcv gstiv cootv :c0 ucu noicv ctiv, sci
utic :c0 tcoc :c otconuc:c gcptv, sci ut,ni :ni gcvni
The Country Bumpkin is the sort of man who drinks a bowl of gruel
before going to the Assembly and claims that garlic smells as sweetly
as perfume, wears shoes too large for his feet and talks at the top of his
voice (IV.2).
What could be more limpid than that? The Greek is simpli-
city itself, and conveys, in a very few words, a range of telling
impressions, which develop logically the one from the other.
First, he drinks for breakfast a sustcv, highly avoured broth or
gruel. His breath will now be pungent. He goes to the Assem-
bly, where he will meet townsmen, on whom he will pungently
breathe. And he says that garlic smells as sweetly as perfume.
There was (we infer) garlic in his gruel, and so there is garlic on
his breath. In the town they smell not of garlic but of perfume.
But perfume and garlic are all one to him. And he clomps his
way to town in boots too big for him, and talks too loud. Sound,
sight, smell: a slovenly carefree inconsiderate yokel. All that in
twenty-six words. Lecture notes, never intended for publication?
Or loquendi nitor ille diuinus?
Another illustration from the same sketch:
:ni pci (:nv pcv AB) otcsc0ci co:c, sci :cv svc
tpcsctutvc sci tticcutvc :c0 p,ycu tittv Oo:c
gu::ti :c ycpicv sci :nv cisicv.
He answers the door himself, calls his dog, grabs it by the snout, and
says This guards my estate and home (IV.9).
First, he answers the door himself. Why? Normally, you would
have a slave to answer the door for you. Is he too poor to keep a
slave for that purpose? On the contrary, he has an ample house-
hold, as we learn elsewhere in the sketch. What follows suggests
a different answer. A knock at the door alarms him, and so he
investigates for himself who his visitor is. Perhaps he does not
have many visitors, and anyone who knocks at his door is an
object of suspicion. Next, he muzzles the dog by taking hold
of its snout. Again, why? Again, Theophrastus has prompted a
question, and again we have to supply the answer. By muzzling
the dog he shows his visitor that it can bark and bite, and will
do so if he lets go of its snout. If the visitor intends harm, he
will take the mans action to mean Beware of the dog. If he
intends no harm, he may suppose that the dog has been muz-
zled as a courtesy to him. Then the A,pcisc grandly describes
the dog as guardian of his estate and home. If the visitor is inno-
cent, this is an expression of pride in the animal. Otherwise, it
means This dog has got the measure of you. The words ycpicv
and cisic, simple and prosaic on their own, when paired sound
pompous and affected. There is something very similar in Petro-
nius. Trimalchio summons his dog Scylax into the dining room
and calls him, with affectation and pomposity, praesidium domus
familiaeque (64.7), the protection of my house and household.
The lesson is this. By the simplicity and economy of his language
Theophrastus can prompt us to think, to ask questions, to ll in
the details for ourselves and supply the thoughts at which he
only hints.
Next, see how much he can hint at in the careful placing of
a single word. The Oiucn, The Late Learner, is a man who
pursues activities for which he is too old:
tpcv t:cipc sci spic (-cu V) tpccv :c pci tn,c
tingc ot v:tpc:c0 oistci.
He falls for a courtesan and rams her door, and when her other lover
beats him up he goes to court (XXVII.9).
This is a masterly sentence, short and simple, with the most
telling detail reserved for the nal word.
A man past his prime
has fallen for a hetaira. He behaves like the typical infatuated
young lover from comedy, elegy, and mime: he tries to batter
her door down. Along comes her other lover, a young man we
assume, to claim not only the girl but also the role (as batterer)
which the old man has usurped from him. So battery (but of
a different kind) follows: he beats the old man up. And now
comes the real punch. Because we have not yet had an innitive,
we know that the story is not over. What conclusion might we
expect? Any sensible man will now retire chastened, to lick his
wounds in silence and hush up his humiliation. But not our Late
Learner. He takes the young man to court on a charge of assault
and battery. He steps out of comedy, elegy, and mime, and steps
back into real life, to become an ordinary litigious Athenian. But
at the same time he remains the man he was, insensitive to his
own absurdity, impervious to the ridicule of others: ridiculous
then as the elderly lover, now to be ridiculous again when his
past behaviour is exposed in court. What an ancient biographer
said of Sophocles could equally be said of Theophrastus, that
I leave for the commentary discussion of the conjecture spic, which adds
yet more vigour to the picture.
he can create a whole personality out of half a line or a single
Now look at a couple of nouns. The Atcvtvcnutvc, The
Man Who Has Lost All Sense, comes into court
tycv tyvcv tv :ci tpcsctici sci cpuccu ,pcuuc:tioicv tv :c
with a boxful of evidence in his coat pocket and strings of little docu-
ments in his hands (VI.8).
This translation does not get the full avour of the nouns. The
tyvc is a sealed jar in which a plaintiff or defendant places all
the evidence relating to an impending court case. The tpcsc-
ticv is a sort of pouch, such as kangaroos have. You make this
pouch by pulling your yi:cv up through your belt and letting
it hang out in a capacious fold. Why he needs to carry the jar
in this pouch is shown by the next phrase. His hands are full of
cpuccu ,pcuuc:tioicv, strings or chains of little documents.
Some take this in a literal sense, to mean that the documents are
tied together in a bundle. But a word exists for a bundle of doc-
uments tied together. That word is not cpucc but otun. The
strings or chains are probably metaphorical. And so the man,
as he enters the courtroom, cuts a ridiculous and ungainly gure
by carrying a bulky jar in the front fold of his cloak, while his
hands are full of an endless chain of little documents. This is
the kind of picture that Dickens loves to draw, where farce and
exaggeration teeter on the borders of the credible.
Now see how a style of speech can characterise a man. The
Mispcgic:iuc, The Man of Petty Ambition, while serving
as a member of the Council, secures for himself the task of
announcing in the Assembly the outcome of ofcial sacrices
performed by himself and his colleagues at the festival called
TrGF 4 Test. a 1.901 ts uispc0 nui:iyicu n ttc uic ccv nctcitv
tpcctcv. The same was said of Homer: 2d Il. 8.85 otivc t:iv Ounpc
sci oic uic ttc ccv :cv cvopc nucivtiv.
tcptstucutvc cutpcv u:icv sci t:tgcvcutvc tcptcv
tittv 0 cvopt Anvcci, tcutv c tpu:vti [:c tpc] :ni
Mn:pi :cv tcv :c Icic (,cp cic V), sci :c tpc sc, sci
out otytt :c ,c.
He steps forward wearing a smart white cloak, with a crown on his
head, and says Men of Athens, my colleagues and I celebrated the
Milk-Feast with sacrices to the Mother of the Gods. The sacrices
were propitious. We beg you to accept your blessings (XXI.11).
He asks for this task because it gives himhis brief moment of lime-
light, a solo performance, garlanded and brightly robed, with a
solemn and impressive script. It was not a demanding speech to
make, since it was composed entirely of traditional phrases, as
we can see from a similar announcement in Demosthenes:
0 cvopt Anvcci . . . tcutv :ci Aii :ci c:npi sci :ni Anvci
sci :ni Nisni, sci ,t,cvtv scc sci c:npic :c0 ouv :c tp.
tcutv ot sci :ni ltic sci :ni Mn:pi :cv tcv sci :ci Atccvi,
sci tscitpc0utv sci :c0:c. nv o ouv sci :c :c cci tc
:utv tp gcn sci tcic sci scc sci c:npic. otyt cov
tcpc :cv tcv oiocv:cv :,c.
Men of Athens . . . we sacriced to Zeus the Saviour and Athena and
Victory, and these sacrices were propitious and salvatory for you. And
we sacriced to Persuasion and the Mother of the Gods and Apollo,
and we had propitious sacrices here too. And the sacrices made to
the other gods were safe and secure and propitious and salvatory for
you. Therefore we beg you to accept the blessings which the gods give
(Prooem. 54).
For all the community of phrases, the speeches are different in
style. The speaker in Demosthenes has sacriced to a multitude
of gods: to so many that he divides his list into three parts, whose
language and structure he varies. The Mispcgic:iuc has only
a single sacrice to report, and his report is accordingly barer.
This sacrice was held for the Galaxia, which seems to have
been a tranquil and somewhat unimportant affair.
We may
R. Parker, Athenian Religion: A History (Oxford 1996) 192.
suspect that the occasion which he chooses to report is not the
one which would best have served his wish to be impressive,
and that the mention of the Galaxia, which takes its name from
a noun meaning a barley porridge cooked in milk, deates the
solemnity of the traditional phrases. The man himself, however,
is satised with his performance. For the sketch has a wonderful
last sentence:
sci :c0:c tc,,tic ttcv (ticv V) cisot oin,ncci (o-
ci- V) :ni tcu:c0 ,uvcisi c sc ottpcnv nonutpti (tonutptv V).
After making this report he goes home and tells his wife that he had
an extremely successful day (XXI.11).
This brings to mind the deluded Harpagus in Herodotus: He
went home . . . in his delight he told his wife what had happened
(1.119.12). It was a stroke of genius on the part of each author
to bring in the wife to listen to her husbands naivet e.
Here is the essence of the problem. We often nd that our
text of Theophrastus exhibits qualities of language and style
very different from those which he is capable of achieving, that
it really is obscure and inelegant, that it is not Greek at its most
limpid. Let us concede that a writer may be inelegant at one
moment, elegant at another, at one moment obscure, at another
limpid. But I should not expect that a writer who is capable
of writing with consummate elegance and limpidity will readily
be satised with inelegance and obscurity. And so, when our
text exhibits these faults, we have a right to be dissatised and
(viii) Literary inuence
The Characters were imitated by Ariston of Keos in the late third
century bc.
In the rst century bc Philodemus quotes V and
def. II, and a papyrus attests parts of VII and VIII.
until they reappear in the medieval manuscripts, the only trace
See pp. 910.
See pp. 378, 50, and on def. II.
of them is a papyrus of the third century ad, which attests an
abbreviated version of parts of XXV and XXVI.
It has been
claimed that they are imitated by Petronius
and Lucian.
These claims cannot be substantiated.
And when Diogenes
Laertius lists themin the third century, he is merely reproducing
an entry from a much earlier catalogue.
They are next men-
tioned by Eustathius
and Tzetzes (Chil. 9.9345) in the twelfth
century, after the date of our earliest manuscripts.
It is not until the seventeenth century, in England and France,
that the name of Theophrastus becomes inseparable from the
genre of character writing. Some account of the impulse which
he gave to the genre may be found in Jebb (Introduction ii),
R. G. Ussher, Some Characters of Athens, Rome, and England,
G&R 13 (1966) 6478, W. Anderson, Theophrastus, The Character
Sketches, translated, with Notes and Introductory Essays (Kent State
1970) xxixxxii, 13353, Rusten 3441. For further study the
following are especially valuable: G. S. Gordon, Theophrastus
and his imitators, in Gordon (ed.), English Literature and the Classics
(Oxford 1912) 4986, R. Aldington, A Book of Characters, from
Theophrastus; Joseph Hall, Sir Thomas Overbury, Nicolas Breton, John
Earle, Thomas Fuller, and other English Authors; Jean de La Bruy`ere,
Vauvenargues, and other French Authors (London 1924), B. Boyce, The
See p. 50.
M. Rosenbl uth, Beitr age zur Quellenkunde von Petrons Satiren (Berlin 1909) 56
62, O. Raith, Petronius ein Epikureer (Nuremberg 1963) 207, P. G. Walsh, The
Roman Novel (Cambridge 1970) 1334, D. F. Le ao, Trimalqui ao ` a luz dos
Caracteres de Teofrasto, Humanitas 49 (1997) 14767. But J. P. Sullivan, The
Satyricon of Petronius: A Literary Study (London 1968) 1389, is suitably sceptical.
M. D. Macleod, Lucians knowledge of Theophrastus, Mnemosyne 27 (1974)
756, B. Baldwin, Lucian and Theophrastus, Mnemosyne 30 (1977) 1746.
See on III.3, IV.9, VII.3, def. XXVII. Llera Fueyo (n. 23 above) prudently
stops short of concluding that Herodas was acquainted with them. F. Titch-
ener, Plutarch, Aristotle and the Characters of Theophrastus, in A. P erez
Jim enez et al. (edd.), Plutarco, Plat on y Arist oteles (Madrid 1999) 67582, fails
to establish that Plutarch was acquainted with them.
See n. 11 above.
See pp. 6, 19.
Lane Fox 1278, in claiming that they were read by St. John Climacus
(6th7th cent.), misunderstands (and misdates) Immisch (1923) 2.
Theophrastan Character in England to 1642 (Harvard 1947), J. W.
Smeed, The Theophrastan Character: The History of a Literary Genre
(Oxford 1985).
The main contributions: C. Cichorius in Bechert et al. (1897)
lviilxii; F. R uhl, Die Abfassungszeit von Theophrasts Charak-
teren, RhM 53 (1898) 3247; A. L. Boegehold, The date of
Theophrastus Characters, TAPhA 90 (1959) 1519; Stein 2145;
R. J. Lane Fox, PCPhS 42 (1996) 1349. Three dates are in ques-
tion: dramatic date, date of composition, date of publication.
I begin with two sketches, VIII and XXIII, which allude to
historical persons and events.
In XXIII the Accv claims that he campaigned with
Alexander (3), that he has received three invitations from
Antipater to visit him in Macedonia, and that he has declined
the offer of permission to export Macedonian timber duty-free
through fear of attack by sycophants (4). He also claims that
he made voluntary contributions to needy citizens in the grain-
shortage (5).
Antipater was appointed by Alexander as his military deputy
in Macedonia in 334, and his appointment was conrmed after
Alexanders death ( June 323). His victory over the Greek states
in the Lamian war (autumn 323 to autumn 322) left him master
of Athens, on which he imposed Phocion, an oligarchic consti-
tution, and a Macedonian garrison. He died in early autumn
Serious shortages of grain are attested in 330/29, 328/7,
323/2, and there may have been others in the decade 33020.
The shortage in 328/7 appears to have been particularly seri-
The dramatic date therefore falls between 330 and 319.
Cichorius asserted without argument that Alexander is dead.
He then argued that the only occasion when Antipater stayed
For the date see R. M. Errington, Hermes 105 (1977) 488, A. B. Bosworth,
Chiron 22 (1992) 59.
See the commentary for fuller discussion.
long enough in Macedonia to be imagined as issuing three invi-
tations was between early 320, when he returned from Asia
(where the dynastic intrigues of Perdiccas had called him), and
his death in 319.
The Accv does not explicitly say that Alexander is dead.
And Stein argued that, even while Alexander was alive, Antipa-
ter, as his deputy in Europe, was a gure of such standing that
an invitation from him makes a suitable object of boasting.
Stein suggested three possible dramatic dates: (i) between the
end of the grain-shortage (he dated this 326) and the beginning
of the Lamian war (autumn 323); (ii) between the end of the
Lamian war (autumn 322) and the beginning of the Aetolian war
(he dated this summer 321)
; (iii) between his return from Asia
(he dated this early 319)
and his death (early autumn 319).
Lane Fox argued for a dramatic date in Alexanders lifetime,
because friends of Macedon were politically safe from 322 to
320, whereas, before that time, acceptance of them [sc. letters
of invitation from Antipater] risked attack by sycophants. This
is mistaken. The Accv fears attack not for accepting letters
of invitation to visit Macedonia but for accepting a more com-
promising invitation, to export Macedonian timber duty-free.
The importation of goods from an enemy state was an offence
inviting prosecution.
If Macedonia were the enemy, the issue
would be clear-cut: he would be a legitimate object of attack.
In 322319, when Macedonia is not an enemy but an ally, he
would be free to accept the invitation. He declines it ctc uno
Stein 37, following R. M. Errington, JHS 90 (1970) 76; similarly J. D.
Grainger, The League of the Aitolians (Leiden etc. 1999) 625. The conventional
date is late 322: Hammond in N. G. L. Hammond and F. W. Walbank, A
History of Macedonia 3 (Oxford 1988) 115, 120 n. 1, A. B. Bosworth, CQ 43
(1993) 426 n. 34.
Stein 379, following B. Gullath and L. Schober in H. Kalcyk, B. Gullath
and A. Graeber (edd.), Studien zur Alten Geschichte, Siegfried Lauffer zum 70.
Geburtstag . . . dargebracht 1 (Rome 1986) 336. Alternative dates: autumn 320
(Errington (1977) 487), spring 320 (Hammond 1289, 618, Bosworth (1992)
5960, (1993) 255).
See the commentary on XXIII.4.
og tvc uscgcv:nni, so that not even one person can bring
a trumped up charge against him. It suits him to suppose that
there is still the risk of a prosecution prompted by malice and
jealousy. He is living in a fantasy world, and he has to nd some
reason for declining an offer that was never made.
Onthe most natural reading, Alexander is deadandAntipater
is the most important man in the world. And this is what Antipa-
ter was to become, when, with Perdiccas dead, he returned from
Asia in 320 or 319. Adramatic date of 319 is therefore more likely
than any other. And since familiarity with Antipater ceases to be
a topical subject for boasting as soon as he is dead (early autumn
319), the date of composition is unlikely to be much later than
In VIII the Ac,ctcic claims that Polyperchon and the king
have recently defeated Cassander, who has been captured.
Antipater designated Polyperchon, a general of Alexander, to
succeed him as military commander in Greece, in preference to
his own son Cassander. The ensuing struggle between Polyper-
chon and Cassander continued until 309. Polyperchon offered
the Greek cities autonomy in return for their support. The Athe-
nians executed Phocion and briey returned to democracy in
318. Cassander captured Athens and placed it under the control
of Demetrius of Phaleron in 317. He invaded Macedonia, per-
haps in 316, and defeated Polyperchon. Polyperchon invaded
Macedonia in 309, but made peace with Cassander.
There are three candidates for the title of king during this
period (319309):
(i) Philip III Arrhidaeus,
mentally impaired half-brother of
Alexander, proclaimed Alexanders successor by the army at
Babylon, a cipher in the hands successively of Perdiccas, Antipa-
ter and Polyperchon, by whom he was murdered in 317.
H. Berve, Das Alexanderreich auf prosopographischer Grundlage 2 (Munich 1926)
no. 781.
(ii) Alexander IV,
posthumous son of Alexander and
Roxane, elevated by Perdiccas to be joint ruler with Philip III,
captured by Cassander in 317/16 or 316/15
and murdered by
him in 310 or 309.
(iii) Heracles,
bastard son of Alexander and Barsine, pro-
claimed king by Polyperchon in 310 but murdered by him at the
prompting of Cassander in 309.
The purported defeat of Cassander distresses the ruling party
at Athens (8). Therefore the ruling party are pro-Macedonian:
the oligarchs either under Phocion or under Demetrius of
Phaleron. The outer chronological limits are therefore: (i)
autumn/winter 319/18 (when Polyperchon opened hostilities
with Cassander, by offering autonomy to the Greek cities)
spring 318 (fall of Phocion);
(ii) early 317/summer 317 (begin-
ning of the oligarchy of Demetrius of Phaleron)
to 309. The
place of the battle is not specied. Since the news was brought
to the ruling party four days ago, but is not yet generally known
(8), it must have taken place a good distance away; since the
messenger came from Macedonia, it must have taken place in
or near Macedonia.
If the battle took place during the oligarchy of Phocion, the
king may be either Philip (favoured by Cichorius) or Alexander.
Both kings were in the charge of Polyperchon (D.S. 18.48.4, 49.4,
55.1). Alexander, a mere infant, is less likely than Philip to be
described as sharing a military victory with him. But it may
be doubted whether Philip, any more than Alexander, would be
Kaerst, Alexandros (11), RE i.1 (1893) 14345.
See n. 99.
For 309, Hammond 1657; for 310 (the traditional date), Stein, Prometheus
19 (1993) 1503, Bosworth in A. B. Bosworth and E. J. Baynham (edd.),
Alexander the Great in Fact and Fiction (Oxford 2000) 214 n. 32.
Berve no. 353.
Stein (1993) 1503.
J. M. Williams, Hermes 112 (1984) 303, Gullath and Schober 33847,
Bosworth (1992) 67.
Williams 3005, Gullath and Schober 33847, Bosworth (1992) 6870; not
summer/autumn 318 (Errington (1977) 48992).
Errington (1977) 494 (July/August), Gullath and Schober 376 (August),
Bosworth (1992) 71 (early months of 317).
designated as the king, at a time whenhe is only one king of two.
The duality of the kings is widely and consistently recognised in
both inscriptions and literary texts.
Stein claimed that it was
in the name of Philip alone that Polyperchon offered autonomy
to the Greek cities, on the evidence of D.S. 18.56.2 1iittc c
nut:tpc tc:np, 7 1iittc . . . c tc:np, i.e. Philip II. This is
mistaken. The offer was made in the name of both kings (18.55.4
:cv citcv, 56.2 :n citic ti nuc scnscn). The
designation 1iittc c tc:np embraces not only the father
of the one but also the grandfather of the other.
Lane Fox, as
well as emphasising the duality of the kings, questioned whether
Cassander could have fought a battle in Macedonia during this
period. Soon after the death of Antipater (early autumn 319)
Cassander left for the Hellespont, and people in Athens would
know that Cassander was no longer in Macedonia. If we need
to circumvent this argument, we can simply locate the battle in
If the battle took place during the oligarchy of Demetrius of
Phaleron, there are three options:
(i) It is possible (but it has been disputed) that Cassander
invaded Macedonia in 317.
If he did, and the battle took place
during this invasion, we have the same difculty over the king,
at least in the earlier part of the year. Philip was murdered by
Polyperchon in autumn 317,
after his wife Eurydice, usurping
his authority, aligned herself with Cassander. After his death,
Alexander remains the sole candidate for king.
C. Habicht, Literarische und epigraphische

Uberlieferung zur Geschichte
Alexanders und seiner ersten Nachfolger, in Akten des VI. Internationalen Kon-
gresses f ur Griechische und Lateinische Epigraphik, M unchen 1972 (Vestigia 17, Munich
1973) 36777, Hammond 138 n. 2, Bosworth (1993) 4207, Lane Fox 137.
For a more sophisticated explanation see Habicht 3757.
In favour, Errington (1977) 483, 494 (late autumn 317), Hammond 1378,
Bosworth (1992) 64, 713, (2000) 210 n. 12 (early 317); against, Gullath
and Schober 35976; sceptical, Stein 2330. A dramatic date during this
invasion is contemplated by Hammond 138 n. 1, Bosworth (1992) 72 n. 84.
Errington (1977) 402, Gullath and Schober 3368, Hammond 140,
Bosworth (1992) 56.
(ii) Cassander invadedMacedonia, defeatedPolyperchon, and
captured the remaining king, Alexander IV, in either 317/16 or
During the one or other period, a victory by Polyper-
chon and the king would be a plausible ction. The objection
of Cichorius that the king is too young, at the age of six or seven,
to be linked with Polyperchon as winner of a military victory is
very weak. It is uncertain how strong is the objection that a boy
of that age would not be referred to baldly as the king.
(iii) In 310/9 Polyperchon summoned the seventeen-year
old Heracles from Pergamum and proclaimed him king (D.S.
20.20.12). He confronted Cassander in Macedonia, came to
terms withhim, andmurderedHeracles (D.S. 20.28.13). Cicho-
rius objected that in an Athens governed by Cassanders ally
Demetrius of Phaleron the pretender would not be referred to
as the king. But Cassander himself refers to him as the king
(D.S. 20.28.2).
Of these options the third, advocated by Lane Fox, is the most
But I do not rule out the second (317/16 or 316/15).
Date of composition would be soon after the dramatic date, since
interest would fade as topicality faded. Against the earliest date,
in the oligarchy of Phocion, the anomaly of a reference to the
king, when there were two joint kings, is a serious obstacle.
By contrast with VIII, the dramatic date of XXVI (the
Oi,cpyisc) falls in a period of democracy. The theoretical
For 317/16, Hammond 1412, Bosworth(1992) 612; for 316/15, Errington
(1977) 488, 495, Gullath and Schober 377, Stein 314.
See Stein 21.
Cf. R uhl 325, Stein 21.
The argument which he builds on 9 (In 319 his era of strength was still in
the future, By 310/9, Cassander had indeed grown strong) is precarious,
since the text is incurably corrupt at the vital point. See also Stein 22 n. 4.
The false report (D.S. 19.23) of the death of Cassander and the triumph of
Polyperchon issued by Eumenes, Cassanders adversary in Asia Minor, in
317 or 316 (Errington (1977) 483, Hammond 141, Bosworth (1992) 624,
(2000) 210, Stein (1993) 14650, Lane Fox 136), comparable though it is,
has no bearing on the date of VIII.
possibilities are: (i) before 322 (advent of Phocion); (ii) 318/17
(between Phocion and Demetrius of Phaleron); (iii) after 307
(fall of Demetrius). The last of these is excluded by the mention
of liturgies in 5. These were abolished by Demetrius and never
In 2 the people are debating :ivc :ci cpycv:i tpcci-
pncv:ci (tpc- V) :n tcutn :cu uvttiutncutvcu,
whom they will appoint in addition to help the archon with
the procession. The eponymous archon organised the annual
processionat the Great Dionysia withthe helpof tenttiutn:ci.
According to [Arist.] Ath. 56.4 these were originally elected by a
show of hands in the Assembly and contributed to the expenses
of the procession from their own pockets, but afterwards were
chosen by lot, one from each tribe, and received an allowance.
The change from election to lot occurred after 349/8, the date
of D. 21.15 sttcv tcu:cv ti Aicvic ytipc:cvtv ttiut-
Rhodes has suggested that the change was a part of
the reorganisation of Athens festivals in the Lycurgan period
and will have been very recent indeed when A.P. was written;
W. S. Ferguson, Hellenistic Athens (London 1911) 558, 99, Pickard-
Cambridge, DFA 913, Stein 40 n. 2, P. Wilson, The Athenian Institution
of the Khoregia (Cambridge 2000) 2702, S. V. Tracy in Fortenbaugh and
Sch utrumpf (n. 6 above) 342, H. B. Gottschalk, ibid. 371. See the commen-
tary on XXIII.6.
MacDowell ad loc. suggests that the change occurred before 328/7, on
the evidence of IG ii
354.1516 c cycv:t ttiutn:[c]i :n toscuic
:n ttp[i] :c tc:pcv. That these overseers of good order in the theatre
are identical with the ofcials who are responsible for the procession (an
assumption shared by Wilson 24, but not by Pickard-Cambridge, DFA 70)
is unlikely. Perhaps the overseers of good order are the ttiutcutvci of
the Dionysia mentioned by D. 4.35 (351 bc). These, who are described as
appointed by lot, cannot be the ttiutn:ci of the procession, who were still
being elected at this time. We even hear of elected ttiutn:ci who were
responsible for keeping dramatic choruses in order (Suda L 2466, DFA 91).
Wilson 15960, again failing to distinguish these from the others, is wrong
to accuse D. 21.17 of misrepresentation.
P. J. Rhodes, A Commentary on the Aristotelian Athenaion Politeia (Oxford
1993) 628.
that it occurred perhaps in the mid 330s.
The date of Ath.
56.4 is uncertain. Rhodes has suggested that an original version
of Ath. was composed in the late 330s, and that additions were
incorporated in the mid 320s (with 322 as the latest possible
There is nothing to indicate that Ath. 56.4 was among
the later additions.
Since Theophrastus species election, either (i) he refers to
a time before the procedure changed, or (ii) he refers to a time
when there had been a change back to the original procedure,
or (iii) he ignores the change.
Of these alternatives, (i) implies a date not later than c. 335,
if Ath. 56.4 is dated in the late 330s; if Ath. 56.4 was added
in the mid 320s, and the change occurred in the early 320s,
a date c. 330 becomes possible. For (ii), there is inscriptional
evidence that a change back to election did occur: certainly by
186/5 bc (IG ii
896.345), possibly by 282/1 bc (IG ii
388.1315, 23).
Boegehold suggested that it occurred
during the oligarchy of 322318: lot is democratic, and oligarchs
prefer election.
If this were right, the dramatic date would be
318/17. Stein favoured (iii): Theophrastus ignores the change
through oversight (historical accuracy was not crucial in a matter
of this kind). In this case, the dramatic date might fall either
before 322 or in 318/17.
The treatment of Ath. 56.4 by Lane Fox is unconvincing. He
argues: (i) That the procession to which Theophrastus refers
need not be the Dionysiac procession. This requires us to believe
that there was another procession, againorganisedby the archon
with ten ttiutn:ci, about which Ath. is silent. This is improb-
able, since Ath. goes on to mention two further processions
for which he was responsible, and appears to be giving us
a complete list. (ii) That tpccipncv:ci means choose not
Rhodes 52.
Rhodes 518.
Rhodes 52, 628.
As Dittenberger observes (621 n. 3), not one per tribe, so possibly elected.
Cf. Stein 41 n. 3.
elect, and the question is how many will be chosen, with-
out specication of method, election or lot. This is impossi-
ble, since :ivc indicates identity not quantity. (iii) That there
is no evidence that the procedure changed back. One, at
least, of the inscriptions cited above provides that evidence. (iv)
That ten ttiutn:ci, the right number for the overseers of the
Dionysiac procession, reinforce respect for his eye for Athe-
nian detail. This is a strange argument to use in support of the
argument that Theophrastus is not referring to the Dionysiac
Lane Fox argues more persuasively that the manner in which
the Oi,cpyisc is depicted does not suit the two later periods.
He is given no Macedonian connections and no words about
recent political upheavals. In 318/17 and after 307 oligarchs
had just had power, could look back to Macedoniansupport and
would grumble at the harsh reprisals of a period when demo-
cratic fervour ran extremely high. In any case, we may add,
the period after 307 is ruled out by the reference to liturgies.
The manner of his depiction, Lane Fox observes, suits the ear-
lier period. Our Oligarchic Man belongs in a stabler world, in
a democracy against which the grumbles are those which might
have been heard way back in the age of Alcibiades.
A dramatic date before 322 is very plausible. Date of com-
position is indeterminable. Lane Fox places date of composi-
tion, no less than dramatic date, before 322. If Theophrastus
wrote him up any later, he would have been characterizing his
man against a setting which had passed. Perhaps this is to take
the Oi,cpyisc too seriously. His vices are conventional and
his targets traditional. Even in the 320s he cuts a comic g-
ure. Men such as he, upper-crust out-of-touch reactionaries, are
material for caricature, whatever the current political climate.
Like Stein, I do not exclude the possibility of a later date of
See p. 33.
For further comment on his type see the Introductory Note to XXVI.
composition, even during a period of oligarchy. I do not even
exclude composition in the 330s, for a reason which I shall give
at the conclusion to this section.
A date before 322 has been suggested for other sketches
too. Boegehold observed that Theophrastus regularly refers to
judicial activity as an ordinary feature of everyday life (I.2,
VI.8, VII.8, XI.7, XII.4, 5, XIII.11, XIV.3, XVII.8, XXVI.4,
XXVII.9, XXIX.2, 5, 6). During the oligarchy of Phocion the
qualication for citizenship (and so for attendance at the Assem-
bly and service on juries) was 2,000 drachmas, under Demetrius
1,000. Boegehold inferred that these sketches were written dur-
ing a period of stable democracy. By the same token one might
infer that those sketches which casually refer to meetings of
the Assembly (IV.2, VII.7, XIII.2, XXI.11, XXII.3, XXIV.5,
XXVI.2, 4, XXIX.5) were also written before 322.
But cau-
tion is needed. There were some 21,000 qualied citizens under
Demetrius of Phaleron,
and the courts and the Assembly con-
tinued to function.
We cannot say that the dramatic date of
any of these sketches is incompatible with this period. Much
less can we say that they could not have been written during it.
Again, the allusions to liturgies (XXII.2, 5, XXIII.6, XXVI.5)
set the dramatic date before their abolition by Demetrius.
they say nothing about date of composition.
My conclusions are these. (i) There is no consistent dramatic
date. One sketch (VIII) is set during a period of oligarchy; many
of the others are set during a period of democracy. (ii) It is
Other passages which imply a democratic setting are XXVIII.6
(onucspc:ic as a soubriquet for slander) and XXIX.5 (watchdog of the
onuc), as R uhl observed.
Hammond 137.
A. L. Boegehold, The Athenian Agora, xxviii: The Lawcourts at Athens (Princeton
1995) 41, S. V. Tracy in Fortenbaugh and Sch utrumpf (n. 6 above) 3389.
M. Gagarin, ibid. 35961, arguing that there was a signicant decline in
the use of the courts under Demetrius, relies heavily on the unargued
assumption that Theophrastuss courts belong to the 320s.
See p. 33.
See Stein 423.
impossible to assign a single date of composition to the whole
collection. (iii) Date of publication is indeterminable.
The question when Theophrastus wrote the sketches and
the question when (if ever) he published them are inseparable
from the question why he wrote them. If (as suggested above,
pp. 1516) he wrote them as incidental material to illustrate his
lectures, he may have written them over a long period, poten-
tially throughout the whole of his career as teacher. Their unifor-
mity of style and structure suggests that he may have reworked
them for publication. Lane Fox (141) puts it well: Written for
like-minded readers, the sketches were meant to amuse, not
teach. If they were rst shared with friends and pupils, they could
easily grow up piecemeal, being increased as the years passed.
We do not know what publication meant, but survival from
a personal collection after Theophrastus death is an obvious
(i) Preliminaries
Theophrastus composed the sketches in the later part of the
fourth century. In what form and at what date they were pub-
lished we do not know.
A century later they were imitated by
Ariston of Keos.
They were quoted by Philodemus in the rst
century bc.
Before the time of Philodemus they had already
suffered interpolation: the denitions at least had been added.
They had also suffered serious corruption. For Theophrastus
cannot have designed V.610 to follow V.15. Yet the papyrus
Others who have contemplated an extended period of composition are
R uhl 327, H. Reich, Der Mimus (Berlin 1903) 309 n. 1, Regenbogen 151011,
M. Brozek, De Theophrasti Characterum ueritate ac de obseruatiuncula,
in K. F. Kumaniecki (ed.), Charisteria Thaddaeo Sinko . . . oblata (Warsaw 1951)
See the section on Date (pp. 2737, esp. 367).
See pp. 910.
See p. 50.
See p. 17.
of Philodemus (l
), like the medieval manuscripts, presents
V.110 as a continuous text.
The general fabric of the text transmitted by the papyrus of
Philodemus, and of the shorter portions of VII and VIII trans-
mitted by another papyrus of the rst century bc (l
), is not
essentially different from that of the medieval manuscripts. The
prooemium and the epilogues appended to nine sketches were
added much later. But, those additions (and other interpola-
tions) apart, our collection as its stands reects a version of the
text which had come into existence by the rst century bc.
is no longer possible to argue, as was argued before the papyri
were known, that it owes its form to large-scale editorial activity
in the imperial or Byzantine period.
The archetype of the medieval manuscripts, containing 30
sketches, was divided for copying, by chance or design, at a
date unknown (not later than the eleventh century), into two
halves. One half (containing IXV) is represented by our oldest
manuscripts, AB (tenth or eleventh century); the other (XVI
XXX), by V (thirteenth century). These manuscripts are cor-
pora of rhetorical treatises. The text of Theophrastus will have
been added to the prototype of the corpus in the early Byzan-
tine period.
It may have become divided because an ancestor
of AB lacked space for the whole, or because a half was felt
sufcient; or through accident.
For a misguided attempt to link the early history of the text to the alleged
fate of the lost philosophical works of Theophrastus and Aristotle see
n. 10 above.
So Diels, Theophrastea (1883) and his edition (1909) vviii.
Immisch (1897) xxviiixxxvi, id. Philologus 57 (1898) 2046, H. Rabe,
Rhetoren-Corpora, RhM 67 (1912) 32157, E. Matelli, Libro e testo nella
tradizione dei Caratteri di Teofrasto, S&C 13 (1989) 32986, Fortenbaugh
in W. W. Fortenbaugh and D. C. Mirhady (edd.), Peripatetic Rhetoric after
Aristotle (New Brunswick and London 1994) 18. See n. 42 above.
Another rhetorical corpus, Par. gr. 1741 (10th cent.), is said by its index (14th
cent.) to have once had the Characters, on pages now missing. How many
it had and when they were lost are questions which cannot be answered.
In addition to these three, 68 later manuscripts are
The majority contain IXV; a few contain either
Immisch (1897) classied these (or
such as were known to him) into three groups, according to
numerical content: C = manuscripts with IXXVIII, D I
Whether CDE preserve any trace of a tradition independent
of ABV has long been debated. Cobet pronounced an uncom-
promising verdict: omnem crisin Characterum Theophrasti
tribus tantum Codicibus niti: omne enim emendandi praesid-
ium et fundamentum in capitibus XV prioribus esse in duobus
vetustissimis Codicibus Parisinis [AB], in posterioribus capitibus
XV crisin pendere totam a Codice Palatino-Vaticano [V]:
reliquos autem libros ad unum omnes occi non esse facien-
dos et criticam rem impedire tantum et quisquiliis nil profuturis
Diels argued vigorously in his support: true or plau-
sible readings were lucky slips or medieval conjectures.
have remained unconvinced.
What scribe, protested Pasquali,
For a conspectus of views on the former question see Matelli 367 n. 110,
who suggests that it had room for all 30. The lost text has been claimed
as a possible source of E (P. Wendland, Philologus 57 (1898) 1045), of CD
(Immisch, ibid. 205 n. 26), of Marc. gr. 513 (no. 64 Wilson) (Matelli 364
n. 101), and of V (Matelli 378). Appropriate caution is expressed by C.
Landi, SIFC 8 (1900) 978, and Diels (1909) xxv (Sed ecce terret nos in
ABVsolis consos ex inferis citata umbra codicis celeberrimi et vetustissimi
Parisini, with splendid facetiousness).
N. G. Wilson, The Manuscripts of Theophrastus, Scriptorium 16 (1962)
For brevity, here and in what follows, I stands for I plus prooemium.
Mnemosyne 8 (1859) 311. Similarly, Mnemosyne 2 (1874) 34.
Diels (1883) 1115, (1909) ixxiv. Similarly Wendland (1898) 10312.
For example, Immisch (1897) xlxlvii, (1923) iiiiv; Pasquali (1919) 1617 =
(1986) 901, (1926) 912 = (1986) 8502, id. Storia della Tradizione e Crit-
ica del Testo (Florence
1952) 2930; Edmonds (1929) 1130; Navarre
(1931) 79, 301 (contra (1920) 12, (1924) xxxvxli); De Falco (1956)
xviixxii; Steinmetz (1960) 2338 (arguing only for the independence of
CD from V in XVIXXVIII); Torraca (1974) 71, (1990) 202, (1994b)
would have the wit to replace :iuit with the slave-name Tiit
at IX.3, or an unexceptionable gcivtci with the more subtly
suggestive otcgcivtci at IV.4?
In 1992 Markus Stein sketched a plausible picture of the
medieval tradition, using only the piecemeal evidence already
Two years later I. E. Stefanis published his inves-
tigation of the later manuscripts, which he had collated almost
in their entirety.
His investigation conrms that the picture
sketched by Stein is in all essentials right. Now that we can see
the relationships of the later manuscripts to each other and to
ABV, and the precise distribution of variants, we can establish
(what Cobet and Diels inferred but could not prove) that no
later manuscript or group of manuscripts had access to a tradi-
tion independent of ABV.
The medieval tradition provides plentiful evidence of scribal
interference. For example, the version of XVIXXVIII in Cand
of XVIXXIII in D is an abridged version of what is in V, and
the abridgement did not happen by accident.
A reading like
otcgcivtci, if it is not an idle blunder, is an idle embellish-
Areading like Tiit is evidence that scribes existed who
thought about what they wrote and remembered what they had
Stein (1992) 320. The lengthy survey by Steinmetz (1960) 159 marked
no advance.
Oi recentiores :cv Xcpcs:npcv :cu Otcgp:cu, EEThess 4 (1994)
For the abbreviators method see Ilberg (1897) xlviili, Stein 1011.
Cf., above all, XI.2 otci :c cioccv] otcotisvtiv :c ciocc M. Other
intruded compounds: VII.10 <tpc>ni two descendants of A (Tor-
raca (1974) 90); XVI.11 <tpc>tytci CD; XVIII.2 <tti>ttut- M;
XX.1 <ttpi>ctv CD; XX.2 <u>cni M; XXI.3 <t>c,c,cv
CD; XXII.8 <ts>t0vci V; XXV.5 <tc>ctv some members
of C (Torraca (1994b) 611); XXVII.10 <sc:>cycutvc V; XXX.19
<tpc>ttuni V.
See Diels (1883) 1819, (1909) xxii, Stein 89. For a list of true or plausible
readings in CDE in IXV see Stefanis 11819.
(ii) The tradition in a nutshell
(See the stemma, p. 51)
When the archetype () became divided (by way of c) into
two halves, the half which contained IXV generated two lines,
issuing in A and B,
which generated (by way of a and b) a few
descendants of their own; the half which contained XVIXXX
issued in V.
A and B have, in addition to IXV, an abridged version
of XXX. 516 (10, 14, 15 are lacking) appended to XI.
may surmise that a detached page from an abridged version
of IXXX (t) was incorporated among the pages of the ances-
tor () of AB, whether by accident or by design.
That the
work was prone to abridgement, even in antiquity, is shown
by l
B, by way of b, generated a further line, issuing in o, the
source of CDE(whichhenceforthI shall re-designate as cde)
When A and B disagree, B is far more often right than wrong. Most of Bs
errors (against A) are triing: I.5 tpcv- A: tpcv- B; II.10 oiciupitiv A:
i- B; III.3 ouittc A: -itc B; IV.11 :n A: :c0 B; VI.3 scuiscA: scu-
B; VI.5 tcpvccsnci A: -t0ci B; VI.8 :c A: :c B; VI.9 opcyun A:
opc,- B; VI.9 tutcnuc:c A: -tc- B; VIII.4 tcpc,t,cvc A: -c B;
X.3 sisc A: sci- B; XI.2 vcuputvc A: -cutvc B; XI.8 ccvnutvc
A: c- B; XIV.12 c:pcv A: c:pcc B; XV.6 scuic A: ts- B; XV.8
otivc A: -cv B; XV.9 -utvci A: -unvci B; XXX.16 sc:ctitcutvc A:
-it- B. But some are more serious: IV.11 ti om. B; VII.7 ttc A: tttv
B; IX.5 c om. B; X.8 sntcu A (unless sctcu: Stefanis 66 n. 3): sctc0
B; XIII.9 uccsicutvci A: sccti- B. These last prove that A is not a
copy of B.
The papyri show that in IXV (where V is absent) the text of AB is not
Stein 1618 (accident), Stefanis 105 n. 80 (design). AB and V often disagree
in XXX. 516. Diels (1909) xixxx and Stein 16, 263 claim that AB are
generally superior to V. I nd them more evenly balanced in good and
E is not a homogeneous group, since it includes the direct descendants of A
and B; e designates a group which is homogeneous. I use cde indifferently to
indicate the groups or their archetypes, avoiding unnecessary duplication
of symbols (Stefanis uses CDe for the groups, sn for their archetypes).
c also acquired XVIXXVIII froma slightly abridged
version () of V.
d acquired IXV from e
from c.
One manuscript is unique in content and derivation. M (the
Munich Epitome), a radically abridged version of IXXI, is
That o is derived from the same source as the direct descendants of
B is proved by III.4, where cde, like b, omit ttcv. The scribe of B
wrote ttcv in the margin after the last word of the page, having omit-
ted to write it as he turned the page. b, like at least one future colla-
tor (Cobet (1874) 36), failed to notice it. See Diels (1883) 14, (1909) xv,
Stein 8. A few readings of A also found their way into o or e: X.8 sntcu
Ade (see n. 138): sctc0 Bc; XIII.9 uccsicutvci Acde: sccti- Be;
XIV.10 sctcu tutiv Ade: sctcv tuctv Bc (Stein 910, Stefanis
106, 108).
Stein1015, Stefanis 11115. Stein(17 n. 4) rightly denies, against M. Sicherl,
Gnomon 36 (1964) 201, that has any connection with the abridgement t. It
has been suggested that the abridgement , and even the e-tradition, should
be credited to Planudes, who reworked the rhetorical corpus (p. 38 above),
with which Theophrastus continued to be transmitted (Immisch (1897)
xxxiiiii, Rabe 3327, Steinmetz (1960) 3841, Matelli 3578; cf. N. G.
Wilson, Scholars of Byzantium (London 1983) 235). That Planudes had any
hand in the shaping of the tradition is unproven. I treat with even greater
scepticism the claim (Steinmetz 41, Wilson (1962) 99, Scholars of Byzan-
tium 235) that Planudes wrote a commentary on the Characters. This is
based on C. Gesner, Bibliotheca Vniuersalis (Zurich 1545) 508 verso (s.u.
Maximus Planudes): Scripsit (sc. Planudes) commentarios in rhetoricam Her-
mogenis. In Theophrasti characteres, & scholia in Diophanti Arithmeticam. Quae
omnia seruantur in Italia. But in the preface to his Ioannis Stobaei Senten-
tiae (Basel
1549) Gesner makes clear that he had not actually seen
such a commentary: Audio et alios autores Graecos in Bibliothecis quibusdam,
praesertim apud Italos, reperiri, as an example of which he cites Maximi
Planudis in Theophrasti characteres expositio. What Gesner may have heard
of is nothing more remarkable than a manuscript (like those listed by
Matelli 357) which contained the Characters alongside the commentary on
Stefanis 11213. This is preferable to derivation of d directly from o (Stein
1215). d is particularly close to Vat. gr. 102 (60 Wilson), a typical represen-
tative of e.
d cannot be derived from c in IXV (Stein 1214, Stefanis 107), but is so
close to c in XVIXXIII that it is derived either from c (Stefanis 11115) or
from , the source of c (Stein 12, 15). The distinction is merely theoretical:
in XVIXXVIII, c is in effect identical with .
derived from an ancestor (u) which acquired IXV from a
descendant of B and XVIXXI from a descendant of V.
has some links with c.
(iii) The manuscripts
(i) ABV
The three manuscripts fromwhich all later manuscripts descend
AB Paris, Biblioth` eque Nationale, gr. 2977 (no. 44 Wilson) and
gr. 1983 (no. 40 Wilson). Probably 11th rather than 10th
They contain IXV, XXX.516. W. Studemund,
JClPh 31 (1885) 75772, Rabe 32332, Matelli 33948. New
Diels (1883) 1619, (1909) xxixxv, Stein 1820, Stefanis 10911. M has the
scholia in B (see immediately below, under AB). That it has uccsicutvci
(A) at XIII.9 is unsurprising. This reading was widely disseminated: it was
acquired by o (see n. 142), and will have been acquired by an ancestor of
u. To mark a link between A and u on the stemma (Stefanis 117) is super-
uous. Ineffectual claims continue to be made that M had access to an
independent tradition (K. Latte, Glotta 34 (1955) 2002 = Kleine Schriften
(Munich 1968) 6989, on VI.6). It almost passes belief that it could
ever have been suggested that M has the authentic text, of which the
other manuscripts have a later enlargement (C. Wurm and F. Thiersch,
Theophrasti Characteres . . . nunc primum genuina forma publicati, e
Codice quondamAugustano, Acta Philologorum Monacensium3.3 (1822) 363
88, demolished by Foss 1834).
I.1 <:c>ytpcv Mc; V.8 co:cv utv] utv co:cv Mc; V.8 <ttuttiv>ante
ti Kiscv M, post ti K- c; IX. 3 :iuit Bde, Marc. 513 (64 Wilson), Rehd.
22 (71 Wilson): :iuic:c:t A: Tiit M et schol. M, Pal. 149 (57 Wilson)
(,p. :iuit marg.), :iuit Tiit Mut. (26 Wilson); X.1 uispcc,ic ABde,
Rehd., Marc.
, Mut.
: ucspc- M, Marc., <Mut.>, Pal.; XIII.6 :nv cocv
sc:citcv:cpost n,tci M: <sc:cittv>post tcptt:ci add. Marc.,
Mut., Pal. (om. ABde, Rehd.). See Stein 1920, Stefanis 10910.
I do not repeat the bibliographical references in Wilson (1962), but I add
some which are new. By Arist. Gr. I refer to Aristoteles Graecus. Die griechischen
Manuskripte des Aristoteles, untersucht und beschrieben von P. Moraux, D. Harlnger,
D. Reinsch, J. Wiesner. i: Alexandrien-London (Berlin and New York 1976).
Wilson ap. Stein 3 n. 4.
collation in Torraca (1974). A feature unique to B and some
of its descendants is a set of four scholia, all on the same
page: V.9 on :i:upcv and Ocupics, VI.3 on scpocsc,
VI.8 on tyvcv.
Both collated from photographs.
V Vatican, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, Vat. gr. 110 (no. 61
Wilson). Late 13th cent. (N. G. Wilson, in La Paleographie
grecque et byzantine (Colloqu. Internat. du C.N.R.S., no 559,
Paris 1977) 264). Contains XVIXXX. Matelli 34859.
Collated from photographs.
(ii) a (descendants of A)
Ahas several direct descendants, derivedfroma commonsource,
a, whichhas two branches, a
and a
. Fromhere onwards I prex
Wilsons numbers.
21 Milan, Biblioteca Ambrosiana, E 119 sup. (= gr. 319). 15th
cent. D. Bassi, RFIC 26 (1898) 4938, Stefanis 836.
46 Paris, Bibl. Nat., supp. gr. 450. 15th cent. Stefanis 836.
Collation in Torraca (1974).
10 Florence, Bibl. Laur., plut. 86.3. 14th cent. Landi (1900),
Arist. Gr. 2826, Stefanis 826. Collation in Torraca (1974).
7 Florence, Bibl. Laur., plut. 60.18. Dated 1427. XIXV
are derived from 10 (IX from a manuscript of group e).
Landi (1900), Arist. Gr. 21920, Stefanis 1024. Collation in
Torraca (1974).
They are reproduced by Diels (1909). For the decipherment of the two
former see Torraca (1990) 3141.
V did not come to light until 1743. Its text of XXIXXXX (which it alone
preserves) was not published until 1786, of XVIXXVIII not until 1798
(see p. 55). These earliest collations were grossly inaccurate. A collation by
Badham is reported by Sheppard (1852), Foss (1858), and Petersen (1859).
There is an elaborate collation by Cobet (Mnemosyne 8 (1859) 31038).
has also picked up some readings of e (Stefanis 86 n. 37).
19Madrid, Biblioteca Nacional, N.58 (=4687). c. 1462.
IXare derived from7 (XIXVfroma different manuscript
of group e). G. de Andr es, Cat alogo de los C odices Griegos de la
Biblioteca Nacional (Madrid 1987) 244, Stefanis 1024.
50 Rome, Biblioteca Angelica, gr. 2 (C.4.23). 1450
1500. IX. Derived from 19. Stefanis 96, 1024.
Also derived from A, but preserving only I, is:
11 Florence, Bibl. Laur., plut. 87.14. Late 13th cent. Landi
(1900), Arist. Gr. 30710, Stefanis 83 n. 33. Collation in Tor-
raca (1974).
(iii) b (descendants of B)
Bhas several direct descendants, derivedfroma commonsource,
b, which has two branches, b
and b
35 Oxford, Bodleian Library, Auct. T.V.6. Early 14th cent.
Torraca (1990), Stefanis 8693.
32 Naples, Biblioteca Nazionale, II.E.5 (=gr. 140). Early(?) 14th
cent. Stefanis 8693. Collation in Torraca (1974).
42 Paris, Bibl. Nat., gr. 2916. 13th cent. Stefanis 8693. Colla-
tion in Torraca (1974). Shares a common source (b
) with
32. Derived from 42 is:
33 Oxford, Bodleian Library, Baroccianus 194. 15th cent.
Stefanis 8793. Collation in Torraca (1974).
55 Vatican, Pal. gr. 23. 12501300. Stefanis 8693, 11011.
Derived from 55 is:
23 Milan, Bibl. Ambros., P 34 sup. (= gr. 617). c. 1497. D.
Bassi, RFIC 26 (1898) 4938, Stefanis 87.
(iv) c (IXXVIII)
c has two branches, c
and c
71 Wroclaw, Rehdiger
22. 14501500. Stein 6, Stefanis 748.
Collation in Diels (1883). From 71 is derived:
54 Vatican, Barberinianus gr. 97. 15th (not 14th) cent.
Wendland 1059, Stein 56, 12 n. 4, Stefanis 756. From 54
are derived:
27 Montpellier, Bibl. de la Facult e de M edecine, 127.
Dated 1540. It has picked up some readings from e. Stein 6,
Stefanis 767.
18Leiden, B.P.G. 67B(=107). 15001550. IXXIV(not
IXIV). K. A. De Meyier andE. Hulshoff Pol, Bibliotheca Uni-
versitatis Leidensis, Codices manuscripti. VIII: Codices Bibliothecae
publicae Graeci (Leiden 1965) 1069, Stein 6, Stefanis 756.
26 Modena, Bibl. Estense, c.U.9.10 (=III.B.7, or gr. 59). c. 1420.
Stein 6, Stefanis 723.
64 Venice, Bibl. Marciana, gr. 513. 15th cent. E. Mioni, Codices
Graeci manuscripti Bibliothecae divi Marci Venetiarum ii (Rome
1985) 3756, Matelli 3634, Stein 6, Stefanis 712. Col-
lation in Diels (1883).
57 Vatican, Pal. gr. 149. Late 15th cent. Used by Casaubon
for XXIVXXVIII. Immisch (1897) ixxi, Stein 6, Stefanis
(v) d (IXXIII)
29 Munich, gr. 327. Early 14th cent. Diels (1909) ix n. 1, Rabe
3435, Stein 67, Stefanis 7982, 11115. From 29 are
derived, wholly or in part:
Collation of XXIVXXVIII in Torraca (1994b).
Not (as nearly everyone spells it) Rhediger.
4 Cambridge, Trinity College, R.9.1819 (Cichorius,
Wilson, and Stein wrongly give R.14.1). Late 15th or early
16th cent. Stein 7, 14, Stefanis 7982. Collated from the
70Wolfenb uttel, Gudianus gr. 26. 15thcent. XVIXXIII
are derived from29, IXVfrom22. Stein 7, Stefanis 7982.
Used by Camotius (Torraca (1994a) xxxvii).
13 Florence, Bibl. Riccardiana, gr. 41. 16th cent. Landi
(1900), Stein 7, 14, Stefanis 7982. As 70, XVIXXIII are
derived from 29, IXV from 22.
(vi) e (IXV)
I list these in roughly chronological order, with descendants sub-
joined to their probable sources.
43 Paris, Bibl Nat., gr. 2918. Early 14th cent. Stefanis 95,
5 Darmstadt, 2773. 14th cent. Arist. Gr. 1224, Stefanis 94,
63 Vatican, Vat. gr. 1500. 14th cent. Stefanis 96, 98101.
1 Bologna, Bibl. Universitaria, 3561. 14th rather than 15th
cent.? Stefanis 94, 978.
66 Venice, Bibl. Marciana, App. gr. cl. xi.2. 14th (not
15th) cent. E. Mioni, Codices Graeci manuscripti Bibliothecae
divi Marci Venetiarum iii (Rome 1972) 7880, Stefanis 978.
Collated by Diels (1883). Derived from 1 (Stefanis)?
67 Vienna, phil. gr. 238. 14501500. Stefanis 97, with
n. 71.
8 Florence, Bibl. Laur., plut. 60.25. 14th cent. Landi (1900),
Stefanis 94, 98101.
58 Vatican, Pal. gr. 254. 15th cent. Stefanis 97, 99.
39 Paris, Bibl. Nat., gr. 1744. 14501500. Stefanis 95, 99.
16 Leiden, Vossianus gr. Q.55. 15th16th cent. Stefanis
94, 99.
2 Bucarest, gr. 602. 15001550. Arist. Gr. 907, Stefanis
94, 99. Collation in T. Costa, LF 90 (1967) 18.
59 Vatican, Urbinas gr. 119. 14th cent. Stefanis 97, 98101.
45 Paris, Bibl. Nat., gr. 2986. 14th cent. Only IXI. Stefanis 95,
22 Milan, Bibl. Ambros., O 52 sup. (=gr. 589). 15th cent.
D. Bassi, RFIC 26 (1898) 4938, Stefanis 94, 101.
51 Rome, Bibl. Casanatense, 6. 15th16th cent. Stefa-
nis 96, 101.
60 Vatican, Vat. gr. 102. 14th cent. Stefanis 96, 98101, 11213.
20 Milan, Bibl. Ambros., C 82 sup. (= gr. 186). Dated 1426. D.
Bassi, RFIC 27 (1899) 28023, Stefanis 93, 100.
30 Munich, gr. 490. 15th cent. Stefanis 95, 100.
62 Vatican, Vat. gr. 1327. 15th cent. Stefanis 96, 99.
68 Vienna, supp. gr. 32. 15th cent. Stefanis 97, 101.
12 Florence, Bibl. Laur., Conv. Soppr. 110. 15th cent.
Landi (1900), Stefanis 94, 101.
14 Athens, Lvisn Biicnsn (Istanbul, Mt:cyicv :c0
lcvc,icu Tgcu, 431). 15th cent. Stefanis 94, 101.
25 Milan, Bibl. Ambros., I 111 inf. (= gr. 1060). 16th
cent. D. Bassi, RFIC 26 (1898) 4938, Stefanis 94, 101. Also
indebted to an early printed edition?
49 Paris, Bibl. Mazarine, 1231 (= gr. 8). 15th cent. Stefanis 96,
34 Oxford, Bodleian Library, Rawlinson Auct. G.120. 15th
cent. Stefanis 95, 101.
17 Leiden, B.P.G. 59. 15001550. De Meyier andHulshoff
Pol (see on 18 above) 812, Stefanis 94, 101. The so-called
Vulcanianus of Casaubon (
Stefanis calls this simply Atheniensis. For an explanation see Arist.
Gr. 1213.
Torraca (1994a) xxxviiiix. Stefanis 101 n. 74 reports that many variants or
conjectures are accompanied by p, and speculates that this may stand for
Palatinus. This use of p calls to mind the practice of Livineius (H. Lloyd-
Jones and N. G. Wilson, Sophoclea (Oxford 1990) 26975, who speculate on
what it may stand for). L. Battezzato, Livineius unpublished Euripidean
6 Escorial .IV.1. 15th cent. G. de Andr es, Cat alogo de los
C odices Griegos de la Real Biblioteca de El Escorial 3 (Madrid 1967)
no. 475, Stefanis 96, 101. Related to 53.
38 Paris, Bibl. Nat., gr. 1639. Dated 1475. Stefanis 95, 100.
9 Florence, Bibl. Laur., plut. 80.23. 15th16th cent. Landi
(1900), Stefanis 94, 100.
48 Paris, Bibl. Nat., Coislin 377. 14501500. Stefanis 96, 100.
36 Paris, Bibl. Nat., gr. 1045. Dated 1501. Stefanis 95, 101.
56 Vatican, Pal. gr. 126. Early 16th cent. It does not lack IV,
VI, XIV. Stefanis 96, 100.
41 Paris, Bibl. Nat., gr. 2830. Dated 15345. Stefanis 95, 100.
53 Vatican, Barberinianus gr. 76. 15001550. T. Hadot, RHT 8
(1978) 1034, Stefanis 96, 101. Related to 6.
24 Milan, Bibl. Ambros., C 6 inf. (= gr. 843). Late 16th cent.
Stefanis 94, 100.
37 Paris, Bibl. Nat., gr. 1389. Late 16th cent. Stefanis 95, 100.
(vii) The Epitome Monacensis
M Munich, gr. 505 (no. 31 Wilson). Late 14th cent. Rabe
34557, Stein 1820, Stefanis 10910. An epitome of IXXI.
Text in Diels (1883 and 1909).
Marginalia, RHT 30 (2000) 32348, shows that Livineius used p for p(uto),
to commend a reading or conjecture.
See also 7, 19, 50, under (ii) above (descendants of A). I ignore the following:
3 Bucarest, gr. 645. Dated 1771. IXXVIII. Costa, LF 90 (1967) 18, Stein
3 n. 6. 15 Jerusalem, Stavrou 64. Dated 1862. IXV. 28 Munich, gr.
8. 15th16th cent. IXV(?). Stefanis 70 n. 11. 47 Paris, Bibl. Nat., supp.
gr. 457. 18th cent. XXIXXXX. Copy of Amadutius (Torraca (1990) 25
n. 21). 52 Rome, Bibl. Casanatense, 420. 16th cent. IXXIII. From a
printed edition. Wendland (1898) 1069, 192, Stein 7, 14 n. 3, Stefanis 79,
Torraca (1994a) xii n. 8, 94. 65 Venice, Bibl. Marciana, App. gr. cl. iv.43
(= Nanianus 266). 16th cent. IXXIII. Mioni (see on 64 and 66 above)
i.ii (1972) 2312, Stein 8, 14, Stefanis 79. From a printed edition (Morel,
according to Torraca (1994a) xii n. 8, 94). 69 Wolfenb uttel, Gudianus gr.
21. 13th cent.(?). IXV. Lost. (Stefanis 70 n. 11 gives this as Gud. gr. 26
(70 Wilson), by oversight.)
(viii) Papyri
P. Herc. 1457. 1st cent. bc. Part of V. From Philodemus, ltpi
scsicv, probably Book 7 ltpi sccstic (T. Dorandi, ANRW
ii 36.4 (1990) 23458). Main contributions: W. Cr onert,
Kolotes und Menedemos (Leipzig 1906) 182, D. Bassi, Il testo pi ` u
antico dell Aptstic di Teofrasto in un papiro ercolanese,
RFIC 37 (1909) 397405, J. M. Edmonds, CQ 4 (1910) 134
5, D. Bassi, Herculanensium Voluminum quae supersunt Collec-
tio Tertia i (Milan 1914) 1315, E. Kondo, I Caratteri
di Teofrasto nei papiri ercolanesi, CErc 1 (1971) 7387,
T. Dorandi and M. Stein, Der alteste Textzeuge f ur den
cptsc des Theophrast, ZPE100 (1994) 116, I. E. Stefanis,
O Aptsc :cu Otcgp:cu, EEThess 4 (1994) 12336.
Extensive bibliographies in Kondo and in M. Gigante, Cat-
alogo dei Papiri Ercolanesi (Naples 1979) 3324. The papyrus
has progressively deteriorated; not everything reported by
Bassi or Kondo is now visible. Examined for me by Jeffrey
Fish (see p. vii).
P. Hamb. 143 (Pack
2816). 1st cent. bc. Parts of VIIVIII.
M. Gronewald, ZPE 35 (1979) 212.
P. Oxy. 699 (Pack
1500; Trinity College, Dublin, Pap. F
3rd cent. ad. Epitome of parts of XXVXXVI. F.
Blass, APF 3 (1906) 4967, J. M. Edmonds, CQ 4 (1910)
1334. Collated from the original. [Addendum:
are re-edited by A. Guida in Corpus dei Papiri Filosoci Greci e
Latini (CPF) I.1

(Florence 1999) no. 103.12; see also CPF

IV.2 (2002) gs. 81, 134.]
The accompanying stemma follows inits mainlines, but not inall
details, that of Stefanis 117. I have added the manuscripts of the
e class: such relationships among them as are shown (very tenta-
tively) follow indications offered by Stefanis, who includes only
a few from this class in his own stemma. Individual manuscripts
are designated with Wilsons numbers and may be identied by
reference to the preceding list.
Not (as given by Pack) F 11, which is Pack

2 6



Characters IXV were published at Nuremberg in 1527, with a
Latin translation, by Bilibaldus Pirckeymherus (Willibald Pirck-
heimer), froma transcription of a manuscript (not identiable) of
class e which had been presented to him by Giovanni Francesco
Pico della Mirandola. The book, which shows little evidence
of editorial activity, is dedicated not inaptly to Albrecht D urer
(quoniam pingendi arte praecellis, ut cerneres etiam, quam affabre senex ille
et sapiens Theophrastus humanas affectiones depingere nouisset).
The editio princeps was soon followed by two editions, differing
from it little, published in Basel, without name of editor, under
the imprints of A. Cratander (1531) and J. Oporinus (1541). The
former is accompanied by a Latin translation made a century
earlier (froma source unknown) by Lapus Castelliunculus (Lapo
da Castiglionchio),
not (as was once believed) by Politian. C.
Gesner printed IXV in his portmanteau volume Ioannis Sto-
baei Sententiae ex Thesauris Graecorum Delectae etc., thrice published
between 1543 and 1559.
J. B. Camotius (Camozzi) printed the surviving works of
Theophrastus in the sixth volume of his edition of Aristotle
For Pirckheimer (there are many spellings of his name, in both German
and Latin) see F. A. Eckstein, Nomenclator Philologorum (Leipzig 1871) 439,
W. P okel, Philologisches Schriftsteller-Lexicon (Leipzig 1882) 20910, C. Bur-
sian, Geschichte der classischen Philologie in Deutschland 1 (Munich and Leipzig
1883) 1604, J. E. Sandys, AHistory of Classical Scholarship 2 (Cambridge 1908)
25960, R. Pfeiffer, History of Classical Scholarship from 1300 to 1850 (Oxford
1976) 62, W. P. Eckert and C. von Imhoff, Willibald Pirckheimer, D urers Fr-
eund (Cologne 1971), C. B. Schmitt in P. O. Kristeller, Catalogus Translationum
et Commentariorum: Mediaeval and Renaissance Latin Translations and Commen-
taries 2 (Washington 1971) 2556. The translation and dedicatory letter are
reprinted in his Opera (Frankfurt 1610) 21218. For Pico see Eckstein 377,
P okel 1778, Sandys 2.113.
Eckstein 319, F. P. Luiso, SIFC 7 (1899) 2858, K. M ullner, WS 24 (1902)
21630, N. G. Wilson, Scriptorium 16 (1962) 99, Schmitt 2535.
Eckstein 1901, P okel 93, Sandys 2.26970. Beware of confusing him with
J. M. Gesner (Eckstein 191, P okel 934, Sandys 3 (1908) 59), who published
IV, VIIX, XII, XIV, XVIXVIII, XXI, XXVin his Chrestomathia Graeca
(Leipzig 1734).
in 1552, and added XVIXXIII from a manuscript of class
No fewer than seven editions of IXXIII followed in the
next half-century. H. Stephanus (1557), the rst editor equipped
with an adequate knowledge of Greek, effected many improve-
ments. Whether he really took XVIXXIII ex antiquo libro,
as he claimed, is uncertain.
L. Lycius (1561),
C. Auberius
and F. Sylburg (1584),
who achieved much less, all
show a high order of critical acumen. F. Morel (1583)
tributes little or nothing. D. Furlanus (1605)
deserves credit
(which he has not yet received) for calling into doubt the authen-
ticity of the prooemium.
And then there is Isaac Casaubon, iicnsn :i tuuyc
sci ttpitc:c0v ucutcv,
who tops them all, both those
before and those to come. His rst edition, containing IXXIII,
with his own translation, was published in 1592 at Lyon.
In the
second and third editions (1599, 1612) he added XXIVXXVIII,
from a manuscript of class c in the Palatine Library at Heidel-
berg. Of the wonders worked by his rst-hand learning take this
See p. 47 (on 70).
Qui liber antiquus est editio Camotiana J. F. Fischer (1763) Praef. [14]
(pages unnumbered). He was often accused of such deceptions (Sandys
2.1767). The argument of Immisch (1897) lii, endorsed by Torraca (1994a)
101, that he would not have attempted to deceive Victorius, to whom he
dedicated the edition, is naive (cf. A. Grafton, Joseph Scaliger 1 (Oxford 1983)
Leonhard Wolf (obiit 1570) (Eckstein 624, Schmitt 2567, 2634).
Claude Aubery or Auberi (c. 15451596) (Schmitt 2589), not (as editors
call him) Auber.
Eckstein 557, P okel 270, Sandys 2.2701, Pfeiffer 141.
P okel 180, Sandys 2.207, Schmitt 25960.
Acvin c 1cupcvc, Cretan (obiit c. 1600) (Schmitt 263, 265).
Eun. VS 4.1.3 (456B). Observe Casaubons own account of how he com-
posed the commentary: ista recensemus non per otiumin museo, sed coc0
tptp,cv tv tconuici, omnibus studiorum praesidiis destituti (note on
the prooemium); quem locum ne pluribus nunc exponam non solum libro-
rum, sed et otii inopia facit. raptim enim ista, et in itinere scribebamus (on
XXX (his XI)).
Not Leiden (Immisch (1897) liii, Navarre (1924) xvi, O. Regenbogen, RE
Suppl. vii (1940) 1501), which is to confuse Lugdunum with Lugdunum
Batauorum. Cf. Schmitt 2602, 2645.
in illustration: at XXIII.2, oti,uc:i (the market in the Piraeus)
for oict,uc:i, prompted by a scholium to Aristophanes. The
modied rapture of Mark Pattison (It is not till we reach the
Theophrastus, 1592, that we meet with Casaubons characteris-
tic merit that we have an interpreter speaking from the fulness
of knowledge) falls far short of justice.
For an appropriate
transport of delirium turn to Scaliger: Quum primum mihi sal-
iuam mouissent Theophrastei Characteres tui, dicam serio, de
potestate mea exiui.
We must wait nearly two centuries for XXIXXXX. Mean-
while AB, the twin sources (as we now know) of IXV, were
found in Paris, and used for the rst time by Peter Needham
(1712), who reprints Casaubons commentary, and throws in
for bad measure an interminable commentary on IIV, VI,
IXXVI, which Bentley had identied as the lectures of James
Duport, delivered at Cambridge in the mid-17th century.
text saw gradual improvement during this period: less from its
editors, T. Gale (16701, 1688),
J. C. de Pauw (1737),
Isaac Casaubon 15591614 (Oxford
1892) 433.
Ep. xxxv (Epistolae (Leiden 1627) 145). The Bodleian Library has
Casaubons working notes (Casaubon ms. 7). Elsewhere among his papers
(Casaubon ms. 11) I have found the notes of a scholar whom he cites at
II.10 (t:ici, quod inuenimus e docti cuiusdam coniectura adnotatum)
and def. VI (ottpcn, ut uir doctus coniiciebat, cuius nomen ignoro).
Here is a puzzle: this same scholar proposed a conjecture at XIII.9 (lego
meo periculo scuuc:icutvci) which Casaubon does not ascribe to him
but cites instead from the margin unius e Palatinis codicibus. In fact it
appears in the margin of Leiden, B. P. G. 59 (17 Wilson). Casaubons con-
fusion over the identity of the ms. is plausibly explained by Torraca (1994a)
xxxviiiix; but I do not know why he fails to mention the anonymous
scholar. The British Library has copies of the 1592 and 1599 editions with
copious annotations and unpublished conjectures added by Casaubon in
the margins. I report some conjectures from the 1599 edition (the most
notable is at XIV.12).
There is an excellent treatment of them by G. V. M. Heap, James Duports
Cambridge lectures on Theophrastus, in H. W. Stubbs (ed.), Pegasus: Critical
Essays from the University of Exeter (Exeter 1981) 8497.
Sandys 2.3545, C. O. Brink, English Classical Scholarship (Cambridge 1986)
P okel 203, E. Fraenkel, Aeschylus, Agamemnon 1 (Oxford 1950) 44.
J. C. Schwartz (1739),
than from the notes of J. J. Reiske and
J. S. Bernhard.
The edition by J. F. Fischer (1763) exhaustively
assembles earlier scholarship.
In 1743 Prospero Petroni announced the discovery in the
Vatican Library of V (which has XVIXXX), and promised,
but failed, to publish its text.
J. C. Amadutius
XXIX and XXX (carelessly) in a sumptuous volume in 1786.
J. P. Siebenkees
then copied (no less carelessly) all of XVI
XXX from V, for inclusion in his Anecdota Graeca, which were
published after his death by J. A. Goez in 1798.
It emerged
that V has a fuller text of XVIXXVIII than the manuscripts
hitherto reported, and that XXX is a fuller version of what is
appended to XI in AB and their descendants. The authenticity
of these additamenta Vaticana was to be debated for the next
fty years.
Second to Casaubon, the two scholars who have contributed
most to the amendment and elucidation of the text are Coray
and J. G. Schneider, whose editions both appeared in 1799.
P okel 253. On the title-page he calls himself Schwartz, not (as editors call
him) Schwarz.
Johann Stephan Bernhard (171893), a doctor in Amsterdam, friend and
correspondent of Reiske (Reiske, Lebensbeschreibung (Leipzig 1783) 11213,
E. Mehler, Mnemosyne 1 (1852) 5068, 33054, Eckstein 42, P okel 21, Sandys
2.451). Nearly everyone calls him Bernard.
Eckstein 159, P okel 79, Sandys 3.14.
See Amadutius (1786) 14.
Giovanni Cristoforo Amaduzzi (Eckstein 9, P okel 5, Sandys 2.384,
Dizionario Biograco degli Italiani 2 (Rome 1960) 61215).
Eckstein 534, P okel 257.
Goez (Eckstein 200, P okel 97) published his own edition of IXXX in the
same year. His allegation (ap. Siebenkees 1078, his own edition xixiii,
endorsed by Schneider (1799) xxiv) that Amadutius had not seen V, but
had passed off Petronis transcription as his own, appears to be founded on
nothing but malice.
Adamantios Corais (Kcpcn). For the alternative spellings of his name see
Sandys 3.364 n. 1. Coray (without initial) is what he called himself in France.
I. di Salvo, Kora`s e i Caratteri di Teofrasto (Palermo 1986), is useful.
Corays came rst, since Schneider refers to it in his addenda (di Salvo
51 n. 37 is muddled). Coray published further conjectures in 1819, in a
They were friends, but over V they were divided, for Coray
hastily damned the additamenta, while Schneider defended
them at length. Schneider re-edited the text, with brief notes, in
his complete edition of Theophrastus (181821). D. N. Darvaris
(Apcpi), who published a brief commentary in Greek (1815),
deserves credit for condemning the denitions as spurious.
The commentary of F. Ast (1816),
who sides with Coray
against V, contains much of value. The case for V was effec-
tively settled by H. E. Foss
in three pamphlets published in
18346 (an edition followed in 1858) and by E. Petersen (1859).
The polished commentary of R. C. Jebb (1870, revised by
J. E. Sandys in 1909) can still be read with pleasure. To see
its merits, compare it with its immediate English predecessor,
that of J. G. Sheppard (1852), which is pedestrian and prolix.
In 1897 a consortium of eight scholars at Leipzig published an
edition far more elaborate and professional than Jebbs, based
on a wide survey of manuscripts. It remains indispensable.
H. Diels (who had published a notable pamphlet on the
manuscript tradition in 1883) edited an Oxford Text in 1909,
worthy for its time. His lengthy Preface is distinguished by good
sense and good Latin. His apparatus criticus presents the evi-
dence solely of the primary witnessses ABV, uncluttered by the
recentiores. The Herculaneumpapyrus, published in 1909, con-
taining parts of the fth sketch, was a notable accession, for this
reason not least: Der Papyrus kann uns wohl Vertrauen zur
review in a Viennese newspaper of vols iiv (1818) of Schneiders complete
Theophrastus (di Salvo 10 and n. 38). Schneider reports them in vol. v
(1821) 17780.
See n. 56 above.
Eckstein 1718, P okel 89, Sandys 3.11213.
Eckstein 1645, P okel 81.
Eckstein 433, P okel 206.
They issued separately a text of XXXI (the 1icc,c), from a papyrus
in the Egyptian museum at Plagwitz. It is a gem. It is reprinted in ZAnt 24
(1974) 132, and by K. Bartels, Klassische Parodien (Zurich 1968) 269 (with
German translation) and W. W. Fortenbaugh, CW 71 (1978) 3339 (with
English translation and commentary). A modern exercise on this theme by
M. Marcovich, The genuine text of Theophrastus thirty-rst Character.
Papyrus Lychnopolitana: editio princeps, ZAnt 26 (1976) 512, falls at.
Kraft der Konjekturalkritik geben.
The conjectures ltpc
tvugcutvnv (Herwerden) for tycucv ltpc tvugcutvcu
and tcci:pioicv (Cobet) for coioicv tcci:piccv at V.9
are bold and brilliant. But, without the papyrus, who would have
had the courage to accept them?
O. Navarre (Bud e edition 1920, 1931, commentary 1924) and
J. M. Edmonds (Loeb edition 1929, 1946) merit a passing but
muted mention. And so do two scholars better known for other
things: Wilamowitz, who included II, III, XIV, XVII, XXI,
XXIII, XXV, and XXX, with brief notes, in his Griechisches
Lesebuch (1902), and G. Pasquali, author of a stimulating pair
of articles (191819) and of an elegant but lightweight edition
(1919, revised by V. De Falco in 1979). The Teubner text of
O. Immisch (1923), who had contributed so much of value to the
Leipzig edition of 1897, disappoints. The edition of P. Steinmetz
(19602) is very dull. That of R. G. Ussher (1960, 1993) assembles
much useful information. The Loeb edition of J. Rusten (1993,
2002) offers the best text and translation currently available.
The most noteworthy contribution since the Leipzig edition
is a book by Markus Stein, Denition und Schilderung in Theophrasts
Charakteren (1992). Steins aim is to demonstrate that the de-
nitions are spurious, and he achieves this aim with complete
success. He offers a commentary on substantial sections of the
text. It is commentary of high quality. I often disagree with him,
and where I do so I have generally registered my disagreement,
in token less of criticism than of respect.
M. Sicherl, Gnomon 36 (1964) 22, perhaps echoing Pasquali (1919) 16 =
(1986) 90 (Io non esito a giudicar questa una piena riabilitazione della
critica congetturale, se pure questa di riabilitazioni aveva bisogno).
See pp. 1920.
A Par. gr. 2977 (IXV, XXX.516) saec. xi
B Par. gr. 1983 (IXV, XXX.516) saec. xi
V Vat. gr. 110 (XVIXXX) saec. xiii
his siglis nominantur codd. unus uel plures:
a (a
, a
) ab A deriuati
b a B deriuati
c (c
, c
) a B (IXV) et V (XVIXXVIII) deriuati
d a B (IXV) et V (XVIXXIII) deriuati
e a b deriuati
c fons codd. cde (IXV)
M Monac. gr. 505 (IXXI) saec. xiv
tipcvtic c otiiociucvic i,
sccstic utuiucipic i
octyic , ti:ic in
,pcisic o ouytptic i
5 ptstic t noic s
tcvcic , uispcgic:iuic sc
cic vttutpic s
c,ctciic n ccvtic s,
vciyuv:ic ottpngcvic so
10 uispcc,ic i otiic st
otupic ic ci,cpyic s,
scipic i ciucic s
ttpitp,ic i, scscc,ic sn
vcinic io gictcvnpic s
15 cocotic it ciypcstpotic
Tit. ycpcs:npt nisci D.L. 5.48, n- y- 5.47: tcgp:cu y- AB, tc :cv
:c0 tcgp:cu ycpcs:npcv V ad XVI
Indicem IXXX M et post prooemium cd: IXV AB: om. V genetiuos
(tipcvtic s:.) ABcd: nom. (tipcvtic s:.) M 10 ucspc- A 11
ot- A
[ Hon utv sci tpc:tpcv tcsi tti:nc :nv oivcicv 1
tcucc, c ot coot tccuci cuucv

:i ,cp ontc:t,
:n Loc otc :cv co:cv tpc stiutvn sci tv:cv
:cv Lnvcv cucic tciotucutvcv, uutnstv nuv co :nv
co:nv :iv :cv :pctcv tytiv; t,c ,p, c lcsti, 2 5
uvtcpnc ts tcc0 ypcvcu :nv vpctivnv giv sci
ticsc t:n tvtvnscv:c tvvtc, t:i ot cuinsc tcc
:t sci tcv:coctc gti sci tcpc:ttcutvc t spitic
tcn :c :t ,ccu :cv vpctcv sci :cu gccu
ottccv otv u,,pci ts:tpci co:cv tti:notcuiv tv 10
:ci ici. tsnc ot ci sc:c ,tvc cc :t :u,yvti ,tvn 3
:pctcv :c:ci tpcstiutvc sci cv :pctcv :ni ciscvcuici
ypcv:ci. ottccv ,p, c lcsti, :cu ut nucv
t:icu ttci sc:ctigtv:cv co:c otcuvnu:cv
:cic:cv c tcpcoti,uci ypcutvci cpncv:ci :c toy- 15
nucvt::ci uvtvci :t sci cuitv, ctc un sc:cott-
:tpci civ co:cv. :ptcuci ot non tti :cv c,cv

cv ot 4
tcpcsccunci :t cpc sci tionci ti cpc t,c.
tpc:cv utv cov


:cv :nv tipcvticv tncsc:cv,

gti :c tpcciuitci sci tcc ttpc :c0 tp,uc:c 20
t,tiv. sci cpcuci tpc:cv tc :n tipcvtic sci cpic0uci 5
co:nv, t c0:c :cv tpcvc oittiui tcc :i t:i sci ti
:ivc :pctcv sc:tvnvts:ci. sci :c cc on :cv tcnu:cv
cttp otttunv ttipcuci sc:c ,tvc gcvtpc sci:vci.]
Prooemium a Theophrasto abiudicauit Furlanus Tit. tpcciuicv a (tpc-
tcpic e): om. AB 4 :cv om. A 12 tpcstiutvc ae, Stephanus:
tpcs- AB 20 ttpc Needham: ttpi AB 21 sci (ante cp-) om. A
24 sci:vci a (-c-), Fischer: -t:vci AB (-c- A)
[I have often in the past applied my thoughts to a puzzling
question one which I think will never cease to puzzle me. Why,
whenGreece lies under the same sky and all Greeks are educated
in the same way, do we not have a uniform system of manners? I
have long been a student of human nature, Polycles, and during
my ninety-nine years I have met all varieties of character and
I have subjected good people and bad to minute observation
and comparison. And so I thought that I ought to write a book
describing how both sorts of person behave in their daily lives. I
shall set out for you, type by type, the different kinds of character
which relate to them and how they manage. For I think that our
sons will be better, Polycles, if we bequeath them such records
as these, which will, if they use them as examples, prompt them
to converse and associate with the most decent sort of people,
in the hope that they may not fall short of them. And now I
shall turn to my narrative. You must follow it correctly and see
if what I say is correct. First then I shall

people who have
affected dissembling, dispensing with preamble and superuous
talk. I shall begin with dissembling and I shall dene it, and then
I shall proceed without more ado to describe what sort of person
the dissembler is and to what behaviour he is inclined. And then
I shall attempt to clarify the other emotions, type by type, as I
[ H utv cov tipcvtic octitv cv tvci, c :tci ctv, 1
tpctcini tti ytpcv tptcv sci c,cv.]
c ot tpcv :cic0:c :i cc tpctcv :c typc tttiv 2

co uitv

sci ttcivtv tcpcv:c c tttt:c pci

sci :c:ci uuttci n::nutvci

sci u,,vcunv ot tytiv 5

:c co:cv scsc t,cui sci tti :c sc tcu:c0 t,cutvci
<,tcv>. sci

tpc :cu oiscuutvcu sci ,cvcs:c0v:c

tpc oict,tci. sci :c tv:u,yvtiv sc:c tcuonv 4
cucutvci tpc:ci ttcvttv, sci unotv cv tp::ti
cucc,nci c gnci cuttci sci tpctcincci 10
cp:i tcpc,t,cvtvci sci ct ,i,vtci [co:cv] sci uccsi-
nvci. sci tpc :cu ocvticutvcu sci tpcvicv:c < > 5
c co tct sci un tccv gnci tctv. sci scc :i un
tpctcitci sci iocv gnci un tcpcstvci sci cucc,nc
un utuvnci

sci :c utv sttci gstiv, :c ot cos tiotvci, 15

:c ot cuutiv, :c o non tc:t sci co:c c0:c oicc,i-
cci. sci :c ccv otivc :ci :cic:ci :pctci :c0 c,cu 6

Oo ti:tc, Ooy otccuvc, Lstn::cuci,


t,ti tcu:cv t:tpcv ,t,cvtvci

, Kci unv co :c0:c

tpc tut oitniti, lcpoccv uci :c tpc,uc, Aci 20
:ivi t,t, Otc:tpcv ot ci ti:nc n tstivcu sc:c,vc
tcpc0uci, A cpc un u c::cv ti:tti.
Tit. tipcvtic c B, tip- tpc:c A 12 del. Darvaris 1 c B: tv
A 3 :i B: t:iv A cc B: ccv A (tt)ti ut uid. A
ctv B: ctv A 5 n::nutvci Schwartz: n::cu- AB 6 co:cv
Diels: co- AB 7 <,tcv> Darvaris 11 ,i,vtci Diggle: ,tvtci
AB co:cv del. Hottinger 12 tpcvicv:c B lac. indic. Salmasius
13 gnci Schneider siue Bloch: gnti AB 14 gnci c: gnti AB tcp-
Herwerden: tcp- AB 15 sttci Casaubon: -cci AB 16 c0:cde:
-c AB 21 Otc:tpcv Cobet: ctc AB 22 ti:tti B: -n A
[Dissembling, to dene it in outline, would seemto be a pretence
for the worse in action and speech.]
The Dissembler is the sort of man who is ready to accost
his enemies and chat with them

. When he has attacked
people behind their back he praises them to their face, and
he commiserates with them when they have lost a lawsuit. He
forgives those who speak abusively about him and <laughs at>
their abuse. He talks mildly to

. When people want
an urgent meeting he tells them to call back later and never
admits what he is doing but says that he has the matter under
consideration and pretends that he has just arrived home or
that it is too late or that he fell ill. To applicants for a loan or a
contribution < >that he has nothing for sale, and when
he has nothing for sale he says that he has. He pretends not to
have heard, claims not to have seen, and says that he does not
remember agreeing. Sometimes he says that he will think about
it, at other times that he has no idea, or that he is surprised, or
that he once had the same thought himself. In general he is a
great one for using expressions like I dont believe it, I cant
imagine it, I amamazed, and

, But that was not the
account he gave me, It beggars belief , Tell that to someone
else, I dont know whether I should disbelieve you or condemn
him, Are you sure you are not being too credulous?
[:cic:c gcvc sci tcsc sci tcic,ic toptv t:i 7
:c0 tpcvc. :c on :cv ncv un ctc tticuc gu:-
:tci uccv ot n :cu tyti.] 25
235 del. Bloch 23 tci- ao: tci- AB 234 t:i :c0 tpcvc
Ussing: t:iv co ytpcv cv AB 24 c AB 25 :cu B
: cu B (incer-
tum quo accentu et spiritu): co A
[Such are the remarks, tricks and repetitions which the Dis-
sembler will invent. One should be more wary of disingenuous
and designing characters than of vipers.]
[Tnv ot sccsticv otcci cv :i cuiicv ciypcv tvci, 1
uugtpcucv ot :ci sccstcv:i.]
c ot scc :cic0:c :i cc cuc tcptucutvci tittv 2
Lvuuni c tcttcui tpc t c cvpctci; :c0:c
ot cotvi :cv tv :ni tcti ,i,vt:ci tnv n ci, <sci> 5
Hoocsiuti yt tv :ni :cci

tticvcv ,cp n :piscv:c

vpctcv scnutvcv sci tuttcv:c c,cu :i tn t:i:c
g co:c0 pcutvcu tv:c tti :c cvcuc co:c0 sc:tvt-
ynvci. sci cuc :cic0:c t,cv tc :c0 uc:icu gttv 3
spcsoc, sci tv :i tpc :c :piycuc :n stgcn otc tvtuc- 10
:c tpctvtyni cyupcv scpgcc,nci, sci tti,tc ot
tittv Opci; c:i oucv ci nutpcv cos tv:t:ynsc tcicv
tynsc :cv tc,cvc ut:cv, scittp t :i sci cc tycv
tpc :c t:n utcivcv :nv :piyc. sci t,cv:c ot co:c0 :i 4
:cu ccu ictcv stt0ci sci ttcivtci ot sccv:c sci 15
ttinunvcci ot, ttcv tcn:ci, Opc, sci sccv:i
uypc tti,tci :c :t u:icv cci ti :c :cuc c on
co ouvutvc sc:cytv :cv ,tc:c. sci :cu tcv:cv:c 5
tti:nvci stt0ci tc cv co:c tcptni. sci :c tcioici 6
unc sci ticu tpiutvc titvt,sc oc0vci cpcv:c co:c0, 20
Tit. sccstic 12 del. Darvaris 3 c ot scc :cic0:c :i cc
Darvaris: :cv ot sccsc :cic0:cv :ivc c:t AB tcptucutvci Diggle:
-cutvcv AB 5 ot B
: om. AB cotvi B: coo- A ,ivt:ci AB n
om. B <sci> Herwerden 6 -snuti A
7 tuttcv:c c,cu B:
-ttcv c,c A 8g co:c0Ribbeck: t co- AB 9 cucSchneider:
cc AB t,cv c, Lycius: -tiv AB 10 otc Auberius: tc AB 11
tpctvtyn e: -nvtyn AB 12 outv A 13 tyt A tycv Par. 2986
s.l., Herwerden: tyti AB 14 tpc :c t:n hoc loco B: post cc A
utcivc A 15 sccv:c a
, Casaubon: -:c AB 16 ttinunivcci A
ttcv tcn:ci Foss: ti tct:ci AB sccv:i ed. Basil.
: scc :i AB
(-c- A) 17 ct A on o: ot B: un A 19 ttoici A
[Toadying may be interpreted as a degrading association, but
one which is advantageous to the toadier.]
The Toady is the sort of man who says to a person walking
with him Are you aware of the admiring looks you are getting?
This doesnt happen to anyone else in the city except you, and
The esteemin which you are held was publicly acknowledged in
the stoa yesterday thirty or more people were sitting there and
the question cropped up who was the best man in the city, and his
was the name they all arrived at, starting with the Toady. While
he is going on like this he removes a ock of wool fromthe mans
cloak, or picks from his hair a bit of straw blown there by the
wind, adding with a laugh See? Because I havent run into you
for two days youve got a beard full of grey hairs, though nobody
has darker hair for his years than you. When the man is speaking
he tells the company to be quiet and praises him so that he can
hear and at every pause adds anapproving Well said, and bursts
out laughing at a feeble joke and stuffs his cloak into his mouth
as if he cant control his laughter. He tells any who come their
way to stop until the great man has gone past. He buys apples
and pears and brings themto his house and presents themto the
children while their father is watching and gives them a kiss and
sci ginc ot tittv Xpn:c0 tc:pc vtc::ic. sci uvc- 7
vcutvc lgispc:ioc :cv tcoc gnci tvci topuuc:tpcv
:c0 otconuc:c. sci tcptucutvcu tpc :ivc :cv gicv 8
tpcopcucv tittv c:i lpc t tpyt:ci, sci vc:ptc
c:i lpcn,,ts t. [utti ot sci :c ts ,uvcistic ,cpc 9 25
oicscvnci ouvc:c tvtu:i.] sci :cv t:icutvcv tpc:c 10
ttcivtci :cv cvcv sci tcpcstiutvci tittv 0 uccsc
t:ici, sci cpc :i :cv tc :n :pcttn gnci Tcu:i cpc
c ypn:cv t:i. sci tpc:nci un pi,c sci ti ttictci
ct:ci sci t:i :c0:c t,cv ttpi:tci co:cv

sci cuc 30
tpc :c co tpcst:cv oiciupitiv

sci ti tstvcv tc-

ttcv :c cci ctv. sci :c0 tcioc tv :ci t:pci 11
gtcutvc :c tpcstgcic co:c otc:pcci. sci :nv 12
cisicv gnci to npyi:ts:cvnci sci :cv ,pcv to ttgu:t0-
ci sci :nv tiscvc cucicv tvci. 35
[sci :c stgcicv :cv sccsc t:i tcci tv:c sci 13
t,cv:c sci tp::cv:c ci ycpitci otccuvti.]
21 ot B
: sci B: om. A vtc::ic B 22 lgispc:ioc M.
Schmidt: ttispntoc A: tti sp- B 22 tvci gnci A 24
tpcopcucv A 25 lpc- Auberius: tpc- AB -n,,ts t tamquam
u.l. falso referunt: -n,,tsc AB 256 del. Diels 25 ot om.
A 27 tcpcstiutvci (-cv c) Gronouius: tcpcutvcv AB 28 t:ici
nescioquis ap. Casaubon: titi AB
, ci- B 29 ttictci de:
-- AB 30 t:i B
:c0:c t,cv hoc loco Schneider: ante tpc
:c (31) AB (t,cv et -tiv duplici compendio A) ttpi:tci c
de: -:tin
AB 30 cuc Diels: un AB 31 tpcst:cv Valckenaer: tpctit:cv
B, oict- A oiciupitiv A: i- B ti B: c A 34 -nci
: -tci AB 367 del. Bloch
calls themChicks of a noble sire. Whenhe joins himinshopping
for Iphicratids he says that his foot is shapelier than the shoe.
When the man is on the way to a friend he runs ahead and says
He is coming to visit you, and then goes back and says I have
warned him of your arrival. [He is certainly capable of doing
errands in the womens market without stopping for breath.] At
dinner he is rst to praise the wine, and he says to his host, next
to whom he is sitting, How luxuriously you entertain, and then
he takes something fromthe table and says Howexquisite. And
he asks him if he is chilly and wants to put something on, and
before the words are out of his mouth he wraps him up. And he
leans forward and whispers in his ear; and while conversing with
the other guests he keeps looking at him. In the theatre he takes
the cushions from the slave and spreads them on the seat with
his own hands. He says that his house is a masterly example of
architecture, his farm is planted superbly, and his portrait hits
him off perfectly.
[In short, you can see the Toady saying and doing everything
he can think of to curry favour.]
[ H ot octyic t:i utv oin,ni c,cv ucspcv sci tpc- 1
c ot octyn :cic0:c :i cc, cv un ,i,vcsti, :c:ci 2
tcpcsctcutvc tnicv tpc:cv utv :n co:c0 ,uvcisc
tittv t,scuicv

t:c, c :n vus:c totv tvtvicv, :c0:c 5


t cv tytv tti :ci otitvci :c sc tsc:c

oitttv. t:c on tpcycpc0v:c :c0 tp,uc:c t,tiv c 3
tcu tcvnpc:tpci tiiv c v0v cvpctci :cv pycicv, sci c
cici ,t,cvciv c tupci tv :ni ,cpci, sci c tcci tti-
onuc0i tvci, sci :nv c::cv ts Aicvuicv tciucv 10
tvci, sci ti tcintitv c Ztu 0ocp ttcv :c tv :ni ,ni t:ic
ttci, sci cv ,pcv ti vtc:c ,tcp,nti, sci c ycttcv
t:i :c nv, sci c Auittc uu:npici ut,i:nv ocioc
t:ntv, sci tcci tii sicvt :c0 0ioticu, sci Xt nutc,
sci :i t:iv nutpc :nutpcv, sci c Bcnopcuicvc utv t:i :c 15
uu:npic, lucvcicvc ot <:c> Atc:cpic, lciotcvc ot
<:c> sc: ,pcu Aicvic

scv otcutvni :i co:cv, un

[tcpcticv:c on ot :cu :cic:cu :cv vpctcv 4
<gt,tiv> sci <:c s:ticv> o putvcv tc::tci, 20
c:i tpt:c ct:ci tvci

tp,cv ,cp uvcptstci :c

un:t ycnv un:t tcuonv oic,ivcscuoiv.]
Tit. octyic , 12 del. Darvaris 3 :i Hanow: t:iv AB cv
o: cv A: cv B
,iv- AB 4 co:c0 Pauw (tcu:c0 de): co- AB 5
t,scuticv A 6 :c ottvcv A 7 on AB
: ot B 10 ccv A
tciucv a
de: tc- AB
, tvc- B 12 cv ,pcv Diels: c ,pc AB
t A 13 ouitc B ut,i:nv B: -ci AB
(del. B
) 15 t:iv A
n A :nutpcv e, Herwerden: n- AB 1517 sci c . . . Aicvic hoc
loco Hottinger, praemonente Pauw: post gi:cci (18) AB 16 lucvc-
icvc Bechert: -vt- AB <:c> M, Darvaris lciotcvc Bechert:
tctio- AB 17 <:c>Casaubon 1922 del. Bloch 20 <gt,tiv>
Casaubon <:c s:ticv> o putvcv Jackson: oicputvc AB (-cv o)
tc- A 21 tpt:c ed. pr.: -tu:c AB, -ts:c de uvcptstci
Duport: uvcpstci AB 22 ycnv . . . tcuonv B: tcuonv . . . ycnv
[Chatter is the narration of long and ill-considered speeches.]
The Chatterbox is the sort of person who sits next to a com-
plete stranger and rst sings his own wifes praises, then recounts
the dream he had last night, then describes in every detail what
he had for dinner. Then, as things are going well, he continues
with talk like this: people nowadays are far less well-behaved
than in the old days; wheat is selling in the market at a bargain
price; the city is full of foreigners; the festival of Dionysus heralds
the start of the sailing season; more rain would be good for the
crops; what land he will cultivate next year; life is hard; Damip-
pos set up a very large torch at the mysteries; how many pillars
there are in the Odeion; I threw up yesterday; what day of the
month it is; the Mysteries are in September, the Apatouria in
October, the Rural Dionysia in December. If you let him go on
he will never stop.
[Show a clean pair of heels, full steam ahead, avoid such
people like the plague. It is hard to be happy with people who
dont care whether you are free or busy.]
[ H ot ,pcisic octitv cv tvci ucic ynucv.] 1
c ot c,pcisc :cic0:c :i cc sustcvc ticv ti tssnicv 2
tcpttci, sci :c upcv gstiv cootv :c0 ucu noicv ctiv,
sci utic :c0 tcoc :c otconuc:c gcptv, sci ut,ni :ni
gcvni ctv. sci :c utv gici sci cistici ti:tv, tpc ot 3 5
:cu co:c0 cist:c vcscivc0ci ttpi :cv ut,i:cv, sci
:c tcp co:ci tp,ccutvci uic:c tv ,pci tv:c :c
tc :n tssnic oin,tci. sci vctnutvc cvc :c0 4
,cvc:c scivtiv [c:t :c ,uuvc co:c0 gcivtci]. sci 5
tt cci utv unotvi <un:t togpcivtci> un:t tstn:- 10
:tci tv :c coc, c:cv ot oni c0v n cvcv n :p,cv
t:nsc tcptv. sci tpccipcv ot :i ts :c0 :cuiticu otivc 6
gc,tv, sci cpc:tpcv titv. sci :nv i:ctcicv ttipcv 7
ctv, sci: tc ut: co:n <ut:pnci> :c tvocv tci
sci co:ci :c tti:notic. sci pi:cv ot cuc :c otcu,ici 8 15
tuctv <:cv ycp:cv. sci> :ni pci otcsc0ci co:c, sci 9
:cv svc tpcsctutvc sci tticcutvc :c0 p,ycu
tittv Oo:c gu::ti :c ycpicv sci :nv cisicv. sci 10
[:c] p,picv ot tcp :cu ccv tcocsiutiv, icv
<,cp> ucupcv tvci, sci t:tpcv v:c::tci. sci tv 11 20
:ci cpc:pcv ypnni n scgivcv n opttcvcv n cscv,
Tit. ,pcisic o 1 del. Darvaris 2 ,pcsc A :i om. A
ccv A 3 uuc0 A 6 co:c0 Stephanus: co- AB 7 co:ci
Schwartz: co- AB 9 del. Darvaris 10 utv om. A suppl. Kassel
11 tv :c coc B: tv (postea deletum) A on B
, ti- B 12 tpccipcv
Sylburg: tpccipcv AB :cuiticu e, Meineke: :cuticu AB otivc
14 suppl. (post Casaubon) Diggle 15 co:ci Needham: co:c
B, -c A 16 tuctv AB
: -cv uel -cv B suppl. ed. pr. :ni pci
Diggle: :nv pcv AB otcsc0ci Casaubon: tt- AB 19 del. ed. pr.
:cu B: :c:cu A 20 <,cp>Eberhard ucupcv Diels: utv utpcv
AB v:c::tci Nauck: cuc - AB 201 tv . . . ypnni Foss:
ti (om. B) . . . typntv AB 21 :ci Needham: :c AB
[Country-bumpkin Behaviour would seem to be ignorance of
good form.]
The Country Bumpkin is the sort of man who drinks a bowl
of gruel before going to the Assembly and claims that garlic
smells as sweetly as perfume, wears shoes too large for his feet
and talks at the top of his voice. He distrusts friends and family,
preferring to discuss important business with his slaves, and he
reports the proceedings of the Assembly to the hired labourers
working on his farm. He sits with his cloak hitched up above his
knees [thereby revealing his nakedness]. In the street the only
sight in which he takes any <pleasure> or interest is an ox or a
donkey or a goat, at which he will stop and stare. He is apt to raid
the larder and drink his wine neat. He makes secret advances to
the girl who does the baking, then helps her to grind the corn
<before measuring out>the daily ration for the household and
himself. He gives the plough-animals <their fodder> while
eating his breakfast. He answers the door himself, calls his dog,
grabs it by the snout, and says This guards my estate and home.
He rejects a silver coin that he is offered, because it looks too
leaden, and demands a replacement. If he is lying awake in the
middle of the night and remembers lending someone a plough,
:c0:c :n vus:c sc:c ,putvicv vcuiuvnscutvc
< >. sci tv ccvtici ot cici, sci ti :c otconuc:c ot 12
ncu t,spc0ci. sci ti c:u sc:ccivcv tpc:nci :cv 13
tcv:cv:c tccu ncv c oigtpci sci :c :piyc sci ti 25
:nutpcv c cpycv vcuunvicv c,ti, sci tittv c:i ct:ci
tou sc:cc tcstipcci sci :n co:n coc0 ttpicv
scuicci tcp Apyicu :c0 :cpiycu.
22 :n A: :c0 B 234 sci . . . t,spc0ci hoc loco Diggle: post
otcstipcci (27) AB 26 :nutpcv Herwerden: n- AB cpycv Reiske:
,cv AB 267 c:i - tou Casaubon: tou c:i - AB 27
tcstipcci o: otc- AB ttpicv Diggle: tcp- AB 28 :c0 Sylburg:
:cu AB
basket, sickle or sack, he < >. He sings at the baths and
hammers nails into his shoes. On his way to town he asks a man
he meets what the price of hides and kippers was and whether
it is ofcially the rst of the month, and says that as soon as he
gets to town he means to have a haircut and, while he is about
it, go round the shops and pick up some kippers from Archiass.
[ H ot ptsti t:i utv, c cpci ttpictv, tv:tui cos tti 1
:ci t:i:ci nocvn tcpcstuc:isn.]
c ot cptsc [utti] :cic0:c :i cc tcppctv tpcc- 2
,cpt0ci sci cvopc sp:i:cv ttc sci cuuc scvc
ugc:tpci :c ytpi ttpiccv un gitvci sci uispcv 5
tpcttuc sci tpc:nc tc:t co:cv ct:ci ttcivcv
tc::tci. sci tcpcsnti ot tpc oici:cv un ucvcv 3
ci tpt:i ctci ptstiv c sci :ci v:ioisci, vc
scivc :i tvci ocsni. sci <tpc> :cu tvcu ot tittv c 4
oiscic:tpc t,cui :cv tci:cv. sci stsnutvc ot tti 5 10
ottvcv stt0ci sctci :c tcioic :cv t:icv:c, sci tiicv:c
gnci scu cucic:tpc tvci :ci tc:pi, sci tpcc,c,cutvc
ginci sci tcp co:cv scicci, sci :c utv uutcitiv
co:c t,cv Asc, tttsu, :c ot tti :n ,c:pc tcv
sctotiv cuc icutvc. 15
<. . . . .> sci tti:si ot tcstipcci sci :cu cocv:c 6
tuscu tytiv sci :c u:ic ot ypn:c ut:ctci sci
Tit. ptstic t (t om. A) 12 del. Darvaris (incertum an habuerit l)
2 tcpcstun A 3 ] cpts[c |
. . .
. .
[ xixiii ] | tc[ppctv l
utti del. Diggle :i B: t:iv A 3 tpcc,- B: tpcc,- A: [l] 4 ]tuci
l: -tc AB t
tc[] l: titcv AB cu[u]c

t[ l 5 ytp

l t
[cv] l, coni. Herwerden: om. AB 6 [c]t
in l suppl. Stein ttcivcv l, coni. Needham: t:i civcv AB 78
oici:c[v un ucvcv :cu:ci ci] in l suppl. Schmidt 8 tcpt:iv
olim l (nunc tcpt:[) 9 :i olim l (nunc :
[ ), coni. Pauw:
t AB <tpc> Casaubon ot AB: o l 10 stsnutvc B:
-ci A: [l] ot AB: o l 11 sttuci l, -t0ci o: -tti
AB t


[cv]:c l 12 tpc[c,c,c]u
[vc l, ce: tpcc,cutvc
AB 13 co:cv e: cu[:]c[v] l: co- AB sci|c]ci l, coni. Cobet:
sci:cci AB 15 cuc om. ut uid. l 16 sqq. (quae nullo post
15 interuallo continuant lAB) ad caput alienum rettulit Casaubon 16
tti:cu olim l (nunc tti:c[ )
[Obsequiousness, to encapsulate it in a denition, is contact
which aims at giving pleasure, but not for the best motive.]
The Obsequious Man is [decidedly] the sort who greets you
from a distance, calls you My dear Sir, and when he has suf-
ciently expressed his admiration embraces you with both arms
and wont let you go, then comes a little way with you and
asks when he will see you again, before taking his leave with
a compliment on his lips. When called in to an arbitration he
wants to gratify not only the man whose side he is on but also
his opponent, so that he may be thought impartial. He assures
foreigners that they have a better case than his fellow-citizens.
When invited to dinner he asks his host to call in his children,
and as they enter he declares that they are as like their father as
two gs. Then he draws them to him and kisses them and sits
them down beside him. He plays with some of them, joining in
the cry of Wineskin and Axe; and he lets others fall asleep on
his stomach even though they are crushing him.
(from a different sketch)
. . . He has frequent haircuts, keeps his teeth white, persis-
tently changes his clothes, and anoints himself with unguents.
ypiuc:i tigtci. sci :n utv ,cpc tpc :c :pcttc 7
tpcgci:cv, :cv ot ,uuvcicv tv :c:ci oic:pitiv co cv c
tgnci ,uuvcv:ci, :c0 ot t:pcu scnci, c:cv ni tc, 20
tnicv :cv :pc:n,cv. sci ,cptiv co:ci utv unotv, 8
tvci ot ti Buv:icv


sci Acscvisc svc

ti Kiscv sci uti Yun::icv ti Pcocv, sci :c0:c tcicv
:c tv :ni tcti oin,tci. utti ot sci tinscv ptci 9
otivc sci :i:upcv s:ncci sci istisc ttpi:tpc sci 25
ocpscoticu :pc,cu sci Ocupicsc :cv :pc,,cv
nscu sci cs:npic :cv scicv ts Acstociucvc sci
cocicv ltpc tvugcutvnv sci tcci:pioicv scvi:pcv
tycv sci gcipi:npicv. sci :c0:c ttpicv ypnvvvci :c 10
cgi:c, :c ctcuyci, :c cpucvisc tvttiotisvuci

sci co:c tv :c ttiotitiv 0:tpcv tttiitvci tttiocv non
u,sccv:ci, v c t:tpc ttni :cv tcutvcv tpc :cv t:tpcv
c:i Tc:cu t:iv n tcci:pc.
18 y]pi|uc:i olim l (nunc ]uc:i), coni. Herwerden: ypiuc:i AB 19
[ci l ci olim l (nunc deest): om. AB 20 ,uuvcv:ci
: -cv:ci AB ni c: n AB: [l] 21 co:ci post Stephanum (co-)
Sylburg: co:cv AB: [l] 223 tv
[ c. xviii ]csc[visc l (quae usque ad
24 :n]i
deest) 24 ptci o: op- AB: [l] 28 cocicv AB:
l 28 ltpc tvugcutvnv Herwerden: t
tpc tv
u l:
tycucv t- tvugcutvcu AB tcci:
[v l, coni. Cobet: coioicv
tcci:piccv AB scvi:pcv Diggle: scviv (l)AB 29 ypnv]v
l, coni. Foss: ypn v0v ti AB [:]ci c[gi:c]i l: :c giccgci
:c cg- AB 30 t]v[ttiotisv]u
[i l, coni. Cobet: ttio- AB 31
ttiotitiv o: tco- AB: [l] 312 0:tpcv tttiitvci tttiocv non
u,sccv:ci v c t:tpc ttni :cv tcutvcv tpc :cv t:tpcv post com-
plures Diggle: ti

[itvci] t
[ocv no]n
[:ci i]v[c :i ti]t
[ni] :cv

[t]c[u]tvc[v in l fere suppl. Dorandi et Stein: 0:tpcv tttiiv (tttiitvci
Foss) tti (v ttni :i Madvig) :cv tcutvcv tpc :cv t:tpcv AB
He haunts the banks in the market-place, dallies in the gymnasia
in which the ephebes are exercising, and sits near the generals
when there is a showat the theatre. He buys nothing for himself,
but for foreign friends

to Byzantium, Spartan dogs to Cyz-
icus, and Hymettian honey to Rhodes, and he tells everybody
in the city what he is doing. He is prone to keep a pet ape, and
to acquire an oriental pheasant, Sicilian pigeons, gazelle-horn
knucklebones, Thurian oil-asks of the spherical sort, twisted
walking-sticks from Sparta, a tapestry embroidered with Per-
sians, and a little palaestra with a sanded area for wrestling and
a roomfor boxing practice. He goes around offering this arena to
sophists, drill-sergeants and music lecturers for them to perform
in. And he arrives at these performances after the spectators are
already seated, so that they will say to each other This is the
owner of the palaestra.
[H ot tcvci t:iv otcucvn ciypcv tp,cv sci c,cv.] 1
c ot tcvtvcnutvc :cic0:c :i cc [cucci :cy, scsc 2
sc0ci, ciocpnnvci ouvcutvci, :ci nti ,cpcc :i sci
vctuputvc sci tcv:ctcic. utti ouvc:c sci] cpytci 3
vngcv :cv scpocsc

sci tpccttcv tycv tv scuisci ycpci

. 5
sci tv cuci ot :cu ycsc0 tst,tiv sc tsc:cv ttpicv 4
sci uytci :c:cv :c :c uccv gtpcui sci tpcsc
tcptv ic0i. otivc ot sci tcvocst0ci sci tcpvccsnci 5
sci :tcvnci sci unotuicv ciypcv tp,cicv tcocsiuci,
c snp::tiv, uc,tipttiv, suttiv. <sci> :nv un:tpc un 6 10
:ptgtiv, t,tci sctn, :c otuc:npicv ttic ypcvcv
cistv n :nv co:c0 cisicv. [sci co:c o cv tvci octitv :cv 7
ttpii:cutvcv :cu cycu sci tpcsccv:cv, ut,ni :ni
gcvni sci tcptppc,uici ciocpcuutvcv sci oict,cutvcv
tpc co:c, sci ut:cu c utv tpciciv, c ot ticiv 15
tpiv sc0ci co:c0, c :c utv pynv, :c ot <coot>
ucnv, :c ot utpc :c0 tp,uc:c t,ti, cos cc
tcptci icv :nv tcvcicv co:c0 n c:cv ni tcvn,upi.]
scvc ot sci oisc :c utv gt,tiv, :c ot oicstiv, :c ot 8
tcuvuci, :c ot tcptvci tycv tyvcv tv :ci tpcsctici 20
Tit. tcvcic , (, om. A) 1 del. Darvaris sci c,cv a
, ed.
: oiscicc,cv AB 2 :i B: t:iv A 24 del. Diels 3
ouvcutvci Foss: ouvutvc AB 5 scuisc B (y)c(pci) A
6 ycscu AB ttpicv post Needham (ttpiicv) Navarre: tcp- AB
7 :c:cv Petersen: :c:ci AB 8 tcpvccst0ci B 9 sci (prius)
B: n A
tp,cicv ciypcv A 10 <sci> Herwerden 12 co:c0
d, Stephanus: co- AB 1218 praeeunte Meister del. Diels 12 co:c
C. Gesner: :c0:c AB 16 :nv pynv A <coot> Diggle 17 t,ti
e: -tiv AB co scc A 18 co:c0 Stephanus: co- AB 1920 :c ot
t- B
[Loss of Sense is a tolerance of disgraceful action and speech.]
The Man Who Has Lost All Sense is the sort who [swears
an oath pat, gets a bad reputation, slanders men of inuence, is
vulgar in character, deant of decency, and ready for anything
and everything. And he is just the sort who] dances the cordax
while sober and

. He will go round the audience at
fairs and ask everyone for their entrance fee and argue with
ticket-holders who claim there is nothing to pay. He is apt
to keep an inn or a brothel or be a tax collector; he regards
no occupation as beneath his dignity, but is ready to work
as an auctioneer, hired cook, or gambler. He lets his mother
starve, gets arrested for theft, and spends more time in gaol
than at home. [He would seem to be one of those who call on
crowds to gather round, then rail at them and hold forth in
a loud cracked voice. Meanwhile some come along to hear,
and others go away before they can hear him; so that some
get the beginning, others <not> a syllable, others a section of
his message. He is only satised when showing off his loss of
sense to a public meeting.] In court he can play the plaintiff
as well as the defendant; and sometimes he will swear that
he deserves to be excused attendance, or arrive with a box-
ful of evidence inhis coat pocket andstrings of little documents in
sci cpuccu ,pcuuc:tioicv tv :c ytpiv. <sci> cos 9
tcocsiutiv ot coo cuc tccv ,cpcicv :pc:n,tv
sci tou :c:ci ocvtitiv sci :n opcyun :cscv :pic nuic-
tic :n nutpc tp::tci, sci tgcottiv :c uc,tiptc,
:c iyuctcic, :c :cpiyctcic, sci :cu :cscu tc :c0 25
tutcnuc:c ti :nv ,vcv tst,tiv.
[tp,coti ot tiiv c <:cic0:ci>, :c :cuc t0u:cv tycv:t 10
tpc ciocpicv sci gt,,cutvci ut,ni :ni gcvni, c
uvnytv co:c :nv ,cpcv sci :c tp,c:npic.]
21 ,pcuuc:tioicv Herwerden: -ioicv AB <sci> Meier 22 tc-
ocsiutiv Meier: -cv AB 23 opc,un B nuic- B: nui- A 24 -tic
Diels: -cic AB tp::tci ac
de: t- AB 25 :c ot iy- A 26
tutc- B 279 del. Bloch 27 tp,cot B, -ti B
Diggle 28 tpc B: ti A
his hands. He does not think it beneath him, either, to manage
a mass of market-traders and lend them money on the spot and
charge a daily interest of one and a half obols to the drachma,
and do the rounds of the butchers, the shmongers, and the
kipper-sellers, and pop the interest from their takings straight
into his mouth.
[They are tiresome, these foul-tongued loud-mouthed people,
who make the marketplace and the shops echo with their noise.]
[ H ot ci, t :i co:nv cpitci cci:c, tvci cv octitv 1
spcic :c0 c,cu.]
c ot c :cic0:c :i cc :ci tv:u,yvcv:i tittv, cv 2
c:ic0v tpc co:cv gt,n:ci, c:i cotv t,ti sci c:i co:c
tv:c cot sci, cv scni co:c0, ucnt:ci. sci ut:cu ot 3 5
tcspivcutvci ttictv ttc u un ttini c utti
t,tiv sci Lo ,t c:i ut ottuvnc sci Tc ctv c yp-
niucv tcu sci O tcptitcv sci Tcy ,t uvnsc :c
tpc,uc sci lci t tcpt:npcuv, ti tti :c co:c tuci
sc:tvtynni, sci t:tpc :cpcyc :cic:c tcpicci, 10
c:t unot vctvt0ci :cv tv:u,yvcv:c. sci c:cv ,t :cu 4
sc tvc tc,uicni, otivc sci tti :cu cpccu [sci]
uvt:nsc:c tcptunvci sci gu,tv tcinci ut:cu ypnuc-
:icv:c. sci ti :c oiocsctc ot sci ti :c tcci:pc 5
tiicv sctiv :cu tcoc tpcucvvtiv. [:cc0:c sci 15
tpcct :c tcioc:pici sci oiocsci.] sci :cu 6
titvci gscv:c otivc tpcttuci sci tcsc:c:nci
ti :c cisic. sci tucutvci <:c tc> :n tssnic 7
tc,,ttiv, tpcoin,ncci ot sci :nv tt Apio:cgcv-
:c tc:t ,tvcutvnv :c0 pn:cpc uynv sci :nv <tv> Acst- 20
ociucvici tti Auvopcu sci c0 tc:t c,cu co:c
ttc noocsiuntv tv :ci onuci, sci sc:c :cv tncv
Tit. cic 12 del. Darvaris 3 :i B: t:i :i A 4 cootv A
5 cotv AB co:c0 Edmonds: co- AB 6 tcspivcutvci o: -vcutvc(i)
AB ttictv a: -tiv AB ttc e: ttc AB 9 tuci om. A
10 :cpcyc Diels: pyc AB 12 tc,uicni Pauw: -,uuvcn(i) AB
sci del. Meineke 15 tiicv B 1516 del. Diels 16 tpcct
Sheppard: -ctv AB 18 ti :c cisic Ribbeck (ti :nv cisicv cd): ts :n
cisic AB tucutvci Foss: tucutvc AB <:c tc> :n Dobree:
:c AB 19 tpcoin,ncci de: tpco- AB 20 tc:t de: :c:t AB
<tv> Weil 21 tti de: otc AB 22 ttc Needham: ttc A: tttv B
no- Needham: to- AB -ocsiuntv c: -ocsiuncv AB
[Talkativeness, if one wishedto dene it, wouldseemto be failure
to keep speech under control.]
The Talker is the sort who says to a person he meets, no
matter what that person tells him, that he is speaking nonsense
and that he knows the whole truth and if he listens to him he will
learn it. In the middle of the others reply he throws in Dont
forget what you are leading up to, Thanks for reminding me,
I think its useful to talk, Yes, I left that out, Youre quick
to grasp the point, and I was waiting all along to see if you
would reach the same conclusion as me. He has such a variety
of disruptive tactics in his repertoire that his victim cannot even
get a breather before the next assault. When he has worn down
a few lone stragglers he will march against whole bodies of men
and put them to rout with their business unnished. He enters
schools and palaestras and stops the childrens lessons. [He talks
somuchtothe trainers andteachers.] Whenpeople say they must
go, he keeps them company and delivers them home. When
asked for the latest news from the assembly he gives a report
of it, then adds an account of the ght which once occurred
in the time of the orator Aristophon and the one among the
Lacedaimonians in Lysanders time, and the public speeches for
which he himself received acclaim in the past, and interjects
,t cuc oin,cutvc sc:n,cpicv tcptuctv, c:t :cu
sccv:c n:ci ttictci n vu:ci n ut:cu sc:cti-
tcv:c tc::tci. sci uvoiscv ot sc0ci spvci 8 25
sci uvtcpcv tcci sci uvotitvcv gc,tv. sci t,tiv 9
c:i Xcttcv uci t:i ictcv sci c tv o,pci t:iv n
,c::c sci c:i cos cv ictntitv coo ti :cv ytiocvcv
octitv tvci ci:tpc. sci sct:cutvc otcutvci sci otc 10
:cv co:c0 tcioicv, c:cv co:cv non sctotiv cucutvcv 30
scni t,cv:c lttc, ti :i nuv, ctc cv nuc 0tvc
24 ttictci Casaubon: -ctci AB: ]ci l vu:cci l: -ci
AB sc:ctitcv:c Stein: -itcv:c lAB 26 sci t],tiv l (suppl.
Gronewald): t,cv AB 27 yct[tcv uci t:]iv l (suppl. Kassel): y- :c(i)
c(i) t:i AB 29 octitv cv A 30 co:c0 e: co- AB 30 cuc-
utvcv a
(d): -utvc AB 31 scni Hartung: sttn(i) AB lttc
Sylburg: :c0:c AB ti Auberius: ctv AB ouc A
into his narrative abuse of the masses, until his listeners either
cut him short or doze off or desert him in mid speech and drift
away. On a jury he prevents others from reaching a verdict, at
the theatre from watching the play, at dinner from getting on
with their meal. He says Its hard for me to keep quiet; that
he has a well-oiled tongue; and that, even if he might appear to
twitter more than a swallow, he will still not shut up. He does
not even mind being the butt of his childrens jokes. They will
not let him go to bed when he wants to. Talk to us, daddy, they
say, and send us to sleep.
[H ot c,ctciic t:i vti tuocv c,cv sci tptcv, 1
cv < > ct:ci c c,ctcicv.]
c ot c,ctcic :cic0:c :i cc tou tcv:nc :ci 2

sc:cccv :c nc

sci utioic tpc:nci lctv

; sci At,ti :i; sci lc tyti;, tpc :c0 ot tittv tstvcv 5
Kcc ttictv Lpc:ci un t,t:ci :i scivc:tpcv; sci
unv ,c ,t t:i :c t,cutvc. sci cos tc tcspivcci 3
tittv Ti t,ti; cotv snscc; ocsc uci t tocyntiv scivcv
c,cv. sci t:iv co:ci n :pc:ic:n n tc A:ticu :c0 4
con:c0 n Ascv c tp,cc tcpc,t,cvc t co:n :n 10
uyn, co gniv snsctvci [c utv cov vcgcpci :cv c,cv 5
:cic0:ci tiiv co:c0, cv coti cv tyci ttictci. oin,t- 6
:ci ot :c:cu gscv t,tiv] c lcuttpycv sci c
citu uyni vtvisnst sci Kcvopc tc,pn:ci. sci cv 7
ttni :i co:ci u ot :c0:c ti:tti;, gnci

[:c tpc,uc] 15
ccci ,cp tv :ni tcti sci :cv c,cv tttv:tivtiv sci tv:c
uugcvtv [:co:c ,cp t,tiv ttpi :n uyn]

sci tcuv :cv

cucv ,t,cvtvci. tvci o tcu:ci sci nutcv :c tpcctc :cv 8
tv :c tp,uciv

cpcv ,cp co:c tv:cv ut:ctnsc:c.

<sci>t,tiv o c sci tcpcsnsct tcpc:c:ci sput:cutvcv 20
Tit. c,ctciic n 12 del. Darvaris 2 lac. indic. Cichorius 3
tou hoc loco l: ante sc:cccv AB 56 tpc :c[u o(t) tittiv tstivcv]
scc l (suppl. Gronewald): ttpi :c0ot tittv scivcv sci c AB 6
ttictv Diggle, Stefanis: -cv AB: [l] Lpc:ci Kassel: -:cv AB: [l]
t,[t:ci :i scivcv sci] l
(suppl. Gronewald) 8 cut[v l (sicut AB)
tocynci A 10 tcpc,t,cvc B 11 co o: c0 AB 1113 praeeunte
Diels del. Diggle 12 ttictci Casaubon: -c- AB 13 ot om. A
tcuttpycv A 14 uynv A vtvisnstv AB scvopc, Furlanus:
sc- AB (item 23) 15 gnci Diggle: gnti AB :c tpc,uc del. Dig-
gle 16 tttv:tivtiv B: -ti AB
tv:c Casaubon: tv:c AB 17
del. Hottinger :co:c a
, ed. pr.: :c0:c AB 18 o tcu:ci Edmonds:
ot co:c(i) AB 19 co:c Wilamowitz (noluit Foss): -:cv B: -:cv A 20
<sci> Diggle t,tiv Blaydes: -ti AB
[Rumour-mongering is the framing of false reports and events,
which the rumour-monger wishes < >.]
The Rumour-Monger is the sort of person who, immedi-
ately on encountering his friend,

and asks with a smile
Where have you come from? and Anything to tell me? and
How are you?, and before he can say Very well, thank you
adds You ask whether there is any news? Yes, there is, and ne
news it is too. Then giving him no chance to respond he says
You really mean to say you have heard nothing? I think I have
a treat in store for you. He has a man just back from the actual
battle a soldier, or a slave of the piper Asteios, or the contractor
Lycon from whom he claims to have heard [He refers back his
reports to sources such as nobody could challenge. He describes,
as he claims these men are saying] how Polyperchon and the
King have won a military victory and Cassander has been taken
prisoner. And if anyone says to him Do you believe this?, he
says he does, because it is the talk of the city, discussion [of the
matter] is intensifying, all are of one voice [and are giving the
same version of the battle]. And, he says, there was a great blood-
bath, and the faces of the political leaders support his story
he has seen for himself how changed they all are. And he claims
to have overheard that they have got someone hidden in a house,
:ivc tv cisici, non ttut:nv nutpcv nscv:c ts Mcstocvic,
c tv:c :c0:c cot. sci :c0:c oiticv tc ctt ticvc 9
yt:itiv t,cv Au:uyn Kcvopc

c :ccitcpc

tvuuni :c :n :yn;

cov iyupc ,tvcutvc

. sci At 10
o co:cv t ucvcv tiotvci. [tci ot :c tv :ni tcti tpcot- 25
opunst t,cv.]
[:cv :cic:cv vpctcv :tcucsc :i tc:t ccv:ci 11

co ,cp ucvcv tocv:ci c sci ui:tc

tc::cui. tcsi ,cp co:cv c utv tv :c cc-
vtici ttpi:ti tcicutvci :c u:ic tctnsciv, c 30
o tv :ni :cci ttcucyici sci vcuucyici viscv:t tpnucu
oisc cgnsciv

tii o c sci tcti :ci c,ci sc:c sp:c

cpc0v:t tcptotitvnncv. tvu on :ccitcpcv co:cv t:i
:c tti:notuuc

tcici ,cp tv :cci, tcici ot tp,c:npici,

tcici ot utpti :n ,cpc co oinutptcuiv tcuocv 35
tcic0v:t :cu sccv:c; c0:c sci sc:ctcvc0i :c
22 :c0:c (alterum) Casaubon: :c0:c tv:c A: tv:c B ctt de: -ci
AB ticvc om. A 25 o B: : A t o: ,t AB 256 del. Diels
tpcotopunst B: -opcunstvci A 2737 del. Bloch 27 tc:t om. A
28 ,cp B: ,cp sci A ui:tc de: u- AB 29 tc::cui A
31 o tv de: ot AB 32 tcti :ci Needham (tcti iam Casaubon):
tt:ci A, -ti- B 34 tcic AB tv Ast: co AB :cc B (utroque
accentu): - A tcici . . . tp,c:npici C. Gesner: tccv . . . tp,c:npicv
who arrived fromMacedonia four days ago and knows the whole
story. As he tells his tale he puts on ever such a convincing show
of pathetic indignation: Unlucky Cassander! Oh you poor man!
Do you see howcapricious fortune can be?

. And he
adds This is for your ears only. [But he has run up to everybody
in the city with the story.]
[I wonder what such people mean by their rumour-
mongering. Besides telling lies they end up out of pocket. It often
happens that they lose their cloaks when they have got a crowd
round them at the baths, or let a lawsuit go by default while
winning a land or sea battle in the stoa, or miss dinner while
purporting to take a city by assault. What a wearisome activity
theirs is. There is no stoa, no shop, no corner of the market-
place which they do not haunt the whole day long, making their
listeners faint from exhaustion, so tiring are their ctions.]
[ H ot vciyuv:ic t:i utv, c cpci ctv, sc:cgpcvni 1
ocn ciypc tvtsc stpocu.]
c ot vciyuv:c :cic0:c <:i> cc tpc:cv utv cv 2
tc:tpt tpc :c0:cv ttcvtcv ocvtitci, t:c <
. sci> c :c tc co:c utv otitvtv 3 5
tcp t:tpci, :c ot sptc tc:itvci ci tc, sci tpcsc-
tutvc :cv sccucv oc0vci cp:cv sci sptc tc :n
:pcttn cpc sci tittv scucv:cv tv:cv Locyc0,
Titit. sci ccvcv ot otcuiuvnstiv :cv sptctcnv t :i 4
ypniuc co:ci ,t,cvt, sci t:nsc tpc :ci :cuci ui- 10
:c utv sptc, ti ot un c:c0v ti :cv cucv tuctv, sci
tcv utv ni, to tyti, ti ot un, cptc tc :n :pcttn
ycisicv cuc ,tcv tc::tci. sci tvci ot co:c0 tcv 5
,cpci un ocu :c utpc <uv>tcptv, c,tiv ot sci :cu
ocu ti :nv o:tpcicv sci :cv tcioc,c,cv. sci cctcvnutvc 6 15
ci :i gtpti ut:coc0vci stt0ci sci co:ci. sci tti :nv 7
c:picv cisicv tcv ocvtitci spi, tc:t <ot>
cyupc, sci :c0:c <:cu> ypncv:c vc,sci tcgtptiv
tpc co:cv. otivc ot sci tpc :c ycsic :c tv :ci ccvtici 8
tpcttv sci c p:civcv ccv:c :c0 ccvtc 20
co:c co:c0 sc:cytcci sci tittv c:i tcu:ci


Oootuic ci ypi.
Tit. vciyuv:ic B, ttpi v- A 12 del. Darvaris 2 ciypc
: -c0 AB stpocu tvtsc A 3 <:i> Cobet cc o: -cv AB
4 tc:tpt:ci A ttcvtcv Gr ubler: ttcv AB ocvtitci o:
-t:ci AB lac. indic. Holland 5 sci>Petersen 78cp:cv sci sptc
tc :n :pcttn cpc Diggle: tc :n :p- cp:cv sci sptc cpc A: tc
:n :p- cpc sptc sci cp:cv B 9 Titit Diels (:iit Mc
, Salmasius):
:iuit B: :iuic:c:t A sptc- Porson: sptc- AB 13 co:c0 Stephanus:
co- AB 14 ,cpci Diggle: -c AB <uv> Cobet 15 ocu
Edmonds (iamucu Casaubon, ut cd): c A: om. B 16 co:ci Auberius:
co- AB 17 <ot>o 18 <:cu>Reiske (:cu ypcv:c M) gtptiv
A 19 co:cv Needham: co- AB ycsic Meineke: ycstc AB 20
tpcttv A: -cv B 21 co:c0 Stephanus: co- AB tu:ci A 22
scst B coot uic AB
[Shamelessness may be dened as disregard for a bad reputation
for the sake of gain.]
The Shameless Man is the kind who rst of all goes back to
a creditor whose money he is withholding and asks for a loan,
then < . And> when he
has held a sacrice to the gods he salts the meat and stores it
away and dines out at anothers, and then calls his slave and gives
him bread and meat which he has taken from the table and says
in everyones hearing Enjoy your meal, Tibeios. When he goes
shopping he reminds the butcher of any favours he has done
him, then stands by the scales and throws in some meat, if he
can, otherwise a bone for his soup; and if he is allowed to have it,
well and good; if not, he snatches up some guts fromthe counter
and makes off with themlaughing. When his guests fromabroad
have bought theatre seats he joins them at the performance but
does not pay his part of the cost, and next day he even brings
his sons and the slave who looks after them. If he nds someone
taking home goods which he has bought at a bargain price he
asks for a share. He goes to a neighbours house and borrows
barley or straw and makes the lender deliver it to his doorstep.
He is also apt to go up to the hot-water tanks in the baths and,
despite the protests of the bath attendant, dip his ladle in and
give himself a shower and then say that he has had his bath

No thanks to you.
[ L:i ot n uispcc,ic gtiocic :c0 oicgcpcu ottp :cv 1
c ot uispcc,c :cic0:c :i cc tv :ci unvi nuicticv 2

tti :nv cisicv

. sci [c] ui:cv piutv :c si- 3

sc tcc tsc:c tttcst, sci tpytci tyi:cv :ni 5
Ap:tuioi :cv uvotitvcv:cv

sci cc uispc0 :i tpiutvc 4

c,it:ci tv:c < > gscv tvci. sci cist:cu 5
y:pcv [tvci] n ctoc sc:cv:c titpcci tc :cv
tti:noticv. sci :n ,uvcisc tsccn :piycscv [cc] 6
ut:cgtptiv :c stn sci :c sivc sci :c sic:cu sci 10
oigcv :c scuc:c. sci tv :i tcni :cc:cu tcocci 7
c:t un ui:ttv :ci tpicutvci. sci cos cv tcci c0:t 8
usc:pc,nci ts :c0 co:c0 sntcu c0:t oic :c0 co:c0
,pc0 tcptunvci c0:t tcicv n gcivisc :cv ycuci ttt:-
csc:cv vttci. sci :cu cpcu o ttiscttci cnutpci 9 15
ti oicutvcuiv c co:ci. otivc ot sci ottpnutpicv tpcci 10
sci :cscv :cscu. sci t:icv onuc:c uispc :c sptc scc 11
tcpctvci. sci ccvcv untv tpiutvc tittv. sci tc- 12/13
,cpt0ci :ni ,uvcisi un:t cc ypnvvtiv un:t tyvicv
un:t suivcv un:t cpi,cvcv un:t cc un:t :tuuc:c un:t 20
unuc:c, c t,tiv c:i :c uispc :c0:c tc t:i
:c0 tvicu:c0.
Tit. uispcc,ic i 12 del. Darvaris 3 -ticv Diels: -cicv AB
4 c om. o :c ac: :t A, :t B sciisc B 7 lac. indic. Herwerden
8 tvci om. ao 9 cc del. Blaydes 10 :cu si- A 11 scuc:c
: scuuc:cAB :cc:cu o: :cc:c AB 12 tcci e: tc AB
13 co:c0 (prius) Stephanus: co- AB sntcu (nisi sctcu) A: sctc0 B
co:c0 Stephanus: co- AB 14 ttt:csc:cv B: stiutvcv A 15 ot A
17 t:icv:c A 18 unotv A 19 ypnvvtiv Foss: ypcvv- AB 20
cc M: coc AB 21 unuc:c b: un- AB
[Penny-pinching is a sparing of expense beyond reasonable
The Penny-pincher is the kind of man who asks for repayment
of twopence before the month is out. At a communal dinner he
counts how many cups each guest has drunk, and makes the
smallest preliminary offering to Artemis of any of the diners;
and when asked to settle his account he claims that every item,
however little was paid for it, was <too expensive>. When a
slave breaks a pot or a dish he deducts the cost from his rations.
When his wife drops a penny he shifts the kitchenware and the
couches and the chests and rummages through the rubbish. If
he has something for sale he puts such a high price on it that
the buyer loses by the transaction. He wont let you eat the gs
from his garden or walk over his land or pick up a fallen olive
or date. He inspects his boundaries every day to see if they have
been altered. He is also liable to pursue overdue debtors and
charge compound interest. When he entertains demesmen he
gives them small cuts of meat. When he goes shopping for food
he returns home without buying anything. He forbids his wife
to lend salt or a lamp-wick or cummin or marjoram or barley
meal or llets or sacricial grain, because he claims that little
items like these add up to a tidy sum in the course of a year.
[sci :c ccv ot :cv uispcc,cv sci :c p,upcnsc 14
t:iv iotv topc:icc sci :c st icuutvc sci co:cu ot
gcpc0v:c t::c :cv unpcv :c u:ic sci ts nsuicv 25
uispcv tvu tigcutvcu sci tv ypci stipcutvcu sci :c
utcv :n nutpc otcucutvcu sci tpc :cu ,vcgt
oic:tivcutvcu ctc :c u:icv co:c tti tcnv ,nv, vc
un putcivn:ci :cy.]
239 del. Edmonds 24 icuutvc Blaydes: icu- AB 25 unpcv
Stephanus: uispcv AB 27 otcucutvcu o: -ocuu- A
B: -ocu- A 29
putcivn:t A
[In general, you can see the penny-pinchers money-boxes
mouldering and their keys growing rusty, and you can see them
wearing cloaks that dont cover their thighs, rubbing themselves
down with oil from tiny jars, with their heads shaved, barefoot
in the middle of the day, and insisting to the fullers that their
cloaks should have plenty of earth, so that they dont get dirty
too soon.]
[Oo ycttcv ot t:i :nv otupicv oicpicci t:i ,cp 1
tcioic ttigcvn sci ttcvtioi:c.]
c ot otupc :cic0:c <:i> cc tcv:nc ,uvciiv 2
ttutpci vcuputvc otci :c cioccv. sci tv t:pci 3
spc:tv c:cv c cci tccv:ci sci upi::tiv c0 notc 5
tcpc0iv c tcci

sci c:cv ictnni :c tc:pcv vc-

sc tpu,tv, vc :cu scnutvcu tcinni ut:c:pcgnvci.
sci tncn :n ,cpc tpctcv tpc :c spuc n :c 4
up:c n :c spcopuc t:nsc :pc,nuc:itci, cuc :ci
tcc0v:i tpcccv. sci sctci ot :cv tcpicv:cv 5 10
cvcuc:i :ivc ci un uvnn t:i. sci ttocv:c ot tci 6
cpcv < >. sci n::nutvci ot ut,nv oisnv 7
ticv:i tc :c0 oisc:npicu tpcttv sci uvnnvci.
sci ccvtv tcu:ci sci con:pioc uic0ci sci otisvtiv 8
ot :c tcv:ci :c ccvnutvc sci tcpcsctv tti :c0:c. 15
sci oin,tci tpc:c, tpc scuptcv n uupctcicv c:i 9
utstci utti.
Tit. otupic ic 12 del. Darvaris 3 <:i>Herwerden 4 vc-
upcutvc B 5 tccv:ci A 6 tcci B: citci AB
7 ut:c-
:pcgnvci tcinni A 8 n B: sci A 10 tcpicv:cv de: tcpcv-
:cv AB 11 tci Casaubon: tcu AB 12 lac. indic. o n::nutvci
Schneider: n::cu- AB 14 tcu:ci Casaubon: -:cv AB 15 c- B
16 tpc:c Schneider: tpc:c AB 17 post utti habent XXX.516
[It is not difcult to dene Repulsiveness. It is conspicuous and
reprehensible tomfoolery.]
The Repulsive Man is the kind who lifts up his clothes and
exposes himself in front of ladies. At the theatre he applauds
when no one else is applauding and hisses actors whose perfor-
mance the audience is enjoying, and when silence has fallen he
raises his head and burps to make spectators turn round. When
the market is at its busiest he goes to the shops which sell nuts,
myrtleberries or fruit, and stands munching away while chatting
idly to the shopkeeper. He will call out the name of a passer-by
who is a complete stranger to him. And when he sees people
hurrying somewhere on urgent business < >. He will go
up to a man who is leaving court after losing an important case
and offer his congratulations. He buys a meal for himself and
hires music-girls, then shows his shopping to people he meets
and invites them to join him. And he stops in front of the hair-
dressers or the perfumers and explains that he intends to get
[ H utv cov scipic t:iv tti:tui <ypcvcu> utc0c :cu 1
c ot cscipc :cic0:c :i cc yccuutvci tpctcv 2
vcscivc0ci. sci tpc :nv co:c0 tpcutvnv scutiv 3
tupt::cucv. sci oisnv cgnsc:c t,,n tpctcv 4 5
stt0ci co:cv vcotcci. sci ucp:upncv tcptvci :c0 5
tp,uc:c non stspiutvcu. sci stsnutvc ti ,ucu :c0 6
,uvcisticu ,tvcu sc:n,cptv. sci ts ucspc coc0 nscv:c 7
cp:i tcpcsctv ti ttpitc:cv. otivc ot sci tpc,tiv 8
cvn:nv ttic oiocv:c non tttpcsc:i. sci snscc:c sci 9 10
utucnsc:c vi:cci t pyn oiocv. sci tpcuc ot 10
ttiutnnvci un ct:ci :i ,tvtci ciyvt:ci ot
ttitcci. sci cv:c sci vciscv:c nstiv :cscv 11
tci:ncv. sci uc:i,cuutvcu cist:cu tcpt:c oin,tci 12
c:i sci co:c0 tc:t tc c0:c tn,c ccv tn,c:c. 15
sci tcpcv oici:ni u,spctiv ugc:tpcv cucutvcv oic- 13
tci. sci cpyncutvc ccci t:tpcu unottc utcv:c. 14
Tit. scipic i ( A) 12 del. Darvaris 1 <ypcvcu> Ruge,
Holland 4 co:c0 Needham: co- AB 6 co:cv Casaubon: co- AB
11 post utucnsc:c primitus add. tum del. sci vciscv:c (e 13) A
oiocv Coray: oioscv AB tpcuc Blaydes: tpcuuc AB 13
nstiv Auberius: nscv AB 15 co:c0 Needham: co- AB c0:c ed. pr.:
-c AB 17 cpyncutvc Lycius: -utvc AB
[Tactlessness is choosing a time which annoys the people one
The Tactless Man is the kind who comes for a discussion when
you are busy. He serenades his girlfriend when she is feverish.
He approaches a man who has just forfeited a security deposit
and asks him to stand bail. He arrives to give evidence after a
case is closed. As a guest at a wedding he delivers a tirade against
the female sex. When you have just returned home after a long
journey he invites you to go for a walk. He is liable to bring
along a higher bidder when you have already completed a sale.
When the audience has taken the point he gets up to explain
it all over again. He will enthusiastically try to secure what you
dont want but havent the heart to refuse. When people are
engaged in a sacrice and incurring heavy expense he arrives
with a request for payment of interest. He stands watching while
a slave is being whipped and announces that a boy of his own
once hanged himself after such a beating. When he assists at an
arbitration he puts the parties at loggerheads, though they are
both eager for a reconciliation. When he wants to dance he takes
hold of a partner who is still sober.
[ Autti <n> ttpitp,ic octi<tv cv> tvci tpctcini :i 1
c,cv sci tptcv ut: tovcic.]
c ot ttpitp,c :cic0:c :i <cc> ttc,,ttci vc- 2
:c un ouvnt:ci. sci cucc,cuutvcu :c0 tp,uc:c 3
oiscicu tvci tv:tivc tt,ynvci. sci ttic ot ttcvc,sci 4 5
:cv tcoc stpci n cc ovcv:ci c tcpcv:t tstitv. sci 5
oitip,tiv :cu ucycutvcu sci c0 co ,i,vcsti. sci :pctcv 6
n,ncci, t:c un ovcci toptv c tcptt:ci. sci :cv 7
:pc:n,cv tpctcv tpc:nci tc:t utti tcpc:::tci
sci :i ut:c :nv c0picv tcpc,,tt. sci tpctcv :ci 8 10
tc:pi tittv c:i n un:np non sctoti tv :ci ocuc:ici. sci 9
tc,cptcv:c :c0 ic:pc0 ctc un octi cvcv :ci ucc-
sicutvci gnc ctci oittipcv cuvtiv to tc:ici
:cv scsc tycv:c. sci ,uvcisc ot :ttu:nn tti,pci 10
tti :c uvnuc :c0 :t vopc co:n sci :c0 tc:pc sci :n 15
un:pc sci co:n <:n> ,uvcisc :c0vcuc sci tcoctn
t:i sci tpctti,pci c:i tv:t co:ci ypn:ci ncv. sci 11
cuvvci utcv tittv tpc :cu ttpit:nsc:c c:i Kci
tpc:tpcv tcsi cucucsc.
Tit. ttpitp,ic i, 12 del. Bloch 1 <n> a, B ucheler octitv
cv c
: octi AB 2 ut: bc
: ut:c AB 3 <cc> e 5 tv:tivc
Immisch: tv :ivi :c AB 7 ,i,vcsti Schneider: ,iv- AB
:pctcv Diggle: -c0 AB 8 c Casaubon: co AB 10 tcpc,,tt
tamquam u.l. Lycius (-tti c
e): -tti AB 12 uccsicutvci A: scc-
ticutvc B 13 to tc:ici Foss: to:pttici AB 16 co:n <:n> o:
co :n AB tcoctn Fischer: tc:ctn AB 18 ttpi- B: tcp- A
[Overzealousness, you can be sure, would seem to be a well-
meaning appropriation of words and actions.]
The Overzealous Man is the kind who stands up and promises
more than he can deliver. When it is agreed that his case is a fair
one he presses on and loses it. He insists on his slave mixing more
wine thanthe company candrink. He steps betweencombatants,
even though they are strangers to him. He leads people on a
short cut, then cannot discover where he is heading. He goes to
the commander-in-chief and asks him when he intends to take
the eld and what will be his orders for the day after next. He
goes and tells his father that his mother is already asleep in their
bedroom. When the doctor orders him not to give wine to the
invalid he says he wants to do an experiment and gives the poor
man a good drink. He inscribes on a dead womans tombstone
the names of her husband, her father, her mother, her own name
and where she comes from, and adds They were estimable, one
and all. When he is about to swear an oath he tells the spectators
I am an old hand at oath-taking.
[L:i ot n vcinic, c cpci tittv, pcou:n uyn tv 1
c,ci sci tptiv.]
c ot vcin:c :cic0:c :i cc c,iutvc :c 2
ngci sci stgcicv tcinc tpc:cv :cv tcpcscnutvcv
Ti ,i,vt:ci;. sci oisnv gt,cv sci :c:nv tiitvci utcv 3 5
tticcutvc ti ,pcv tcpttci. sci tcpcv tv :ci t- 4
:pci ucvc sc:ctittci sctocv. sci tcc gc,cv :n 5
vus:c [sci] tti cscv vi:utvc otc :n :c0 ,ti:cvc
suvc onynvci. sci ccv <:i> sci tcti co:c :c0:c 6
n:tv sci un ovcci toptv. sci tc,,ttv:c co:ci c:i 7 10
:t:tt:nst :i co:c0 :cv gicv, vc tcpc,tvn:ci, supc-
tc sci ocspc tittv A,cni :yni. otivc ot sci tc- 8
cuvcv p,picv cgticutvcv up:upc tcpcctv.
sci ytiucvc cv:c uytci :ci tcioi c:i iscu cos n,c- 9
pctv. sci :c tcioic tcu:ci tccitiv vc,scv sci 10 15
:pcytiv [sci] ti sctcv tuctv. sci tv ,pci


gcsnv tcv oi cc ti :nv y:pcv tuccv cpc:cv
tcinci. sci 0cv:c :c0 Aic tittv Ho ,t :cv c:pcv 12
cti, c:t on sci c cci t,cui :n ,n. sci t,cv:c 13
:ivc lccu cti sc:c :c Hpic tc ttvnvtyci vts- 20
pc; tpc :c0:cv tittv Oci tuci sci ci ,tvciv:c.
Tit. vcinic io 12 del. Darvaris 1 ot c: ot sci A: sci B
2 c,ci A 3 ccv A :c B: :i :c A 5 ,iv- AB 8 sci
del. Casaubon cscv Schneider (scv e, Casaubon): scu AB
vi:utvc om. A :n :c0 ,- suvc Diggle: suvc :n :c0 ,- AB
9 <:i> e, J. M. Gesner 10 tc,,ttv:c Cobet: tc,,tcv:c
AB 15 tcu:ci Foss: -:c0 AB 16 sci om. c, del. Casaubon sctcu
tutiv A 18 nou (no in ras.) A c:pcc B 19 cti Casaubon,
Coray: vcuiti AB c:t Coray: c:i AB sci om. A :n ,n Schnei-
der: tin AB 20 Hpic Meursius: tpc AB ttvtynvci A
[Obtuseness may be dened as slowness of mind in speech and
The Obtuse Man is the kind who does a calculation with his
counters and after computing the total asks the person sitting
next to him What does it come to? When he has a lawsuit
to defend and should be going to court he forgets about it and
goes into the country. At the theatre he is found asleep in his seat
when the audience has left. After a large supper he is bitten by his
neighbours dog when he gets up and goes to the lavatory during
the night. He searches for some item which he has acquired and
he is unable to nd it, even though he stored it away himself.
When a message arrives notifying him of the death of a friend
and inviting him to the funeral, his face darkens and he bursts
into tears and says And the best of luck to him! He is also apt
to get witnesses to support him when he is taking repayment of
money which is owed him. He is annoyed with his slave for not
buying cucumbers during the winter. He tires out his children by
forcing them to wrestle and run races with him. In the country

when he is boiling lentil soup he puts salt into the pan twice
and makes it inedible. If it is raining he says How sweetly the
stars smell, when everyone else says the earth. When someone
remarks You cant imagine how many bodies have been taken
out to the cemetery through the Erian Gates, he answers I wish
you and I could have such a windfall.
[ H ot cooti t:iv tnvtic cuiic tv c,ci.] 1
c ot coon :cic0:c :i cc tpc:nti O otvc tc0 2
t:iv; tittv lp,uc: uci un tptyt. sci tpcc,cptuti 3
un v:itpctittv. <sci> tccv :i un t,tiv :c cvcuut- 4
vci tccu cv tcoc:c tpc:cv :i topisti. sci

:c 5 5
:iuci sci ttutcuiv ti :c tcp:c tittv c:i cos cv ,tvci:c

. sci cos tytiv u,,vcunv c0:t :ci


co:cv scuic c0:t :ci ccv:i c0:t :ci tuv:i. sci gici 7
ot tpcvcv sttcv:i titvt,stv ttc c:i cos cv ocin 0:tpcv
nstiv gtpcv sci t,tiv c:i tcui sci :c0:c :c p,picv. 10
sci tpct:cic tv :ni coci otivc sc:cpcci :ci ici. 8
sci [vcutvci] cos cv otcutvci tcuv ypcvcv cotvc. sci 9/10
c0:t cici c0:t pniv tittv c0:t cpyncci cv ttnci.
otivc ot sci :c tc un tttytci. 11
Tit. cocotic it 1 del. Darvaris 3 un om. A tcptyt A
4 <sci> o 7 tytiv Lycius: tycv AB 8 co:cv Diggle: co- AB
tscuic B 9 ttc Diggle: titcv AB 11 otivcv B 12 vcutvci
(-unvci B) del. Reiske 13 cci bce: cci B: tci A ttnci ed. pr.
(tnci o): ntnt B, -tv A
[Self-centredness is implacability in social relations displayed in
The Self-centred Man is the kind who, when asked Where
is so-and-so?, replies Dont bother me. He will not return a
greeting. When he has something for sale he will not tell cus-
tomers how much he would sell it for but asks what it will fetch.
When people

for the festivals, he says that

He will not forgive anyone who accidentally

or jostles him
or treads on his toes. If a friend asks for a contribution to a loan
he at rst refuses, then comes along with it and says that this is
more money wasted. When he stubs his toe in the street he is
apt to curse the offending stone. He wont wait long for anyone.
He refuses to sing or recite or dance. And he is apt to withhold
credit from the gods.
[ Autti n otiiociucvic octitv <cv> tvci otiic tpc :c 1
c ot otiiociucv :cic0:c :i cc tc <:picv> spnvcv 2
tcviutvc :c ytpc sci ttpippcvutvc tc tpc0 og-
vnv ti :c :cuc ccv c0:c :nv nutpcv ttpitc:tv. sci :nv 3 5
cocv, tcv tcpcopuni ,cn, un tpc:tpcv tcptunvci tc
<cv> oittni :i n icu :pt ottp :n coc0 oicni.
sci ttcv oni cgiv tv :ni cisici, tcv tcpticv cicv sc- 4
tv, tcv ot tpcv tv:c0c npcicv tou opcci. sci :cv 5
itcpcv icv :cv tv :c :picoci tcpicv ts :n nscu 10
tcicv sc:cytv sci tti ,cvc:c ttcv sci tpcsuvnc tc-
::tci. sci tcv u0 cscv gi:cv oic:p,ni tpc :cv 6
tn,n:nv tcv tpc:cv :i ypn tcitv

sci tcv tcspivn:ci

co:ci tsoc0vci :ci sucotni ttippci, un tpctytiv :c-
:ci tc:pctcici tscci. sci tusvc ot :nv cisicv 7 15
sccpci otivc, Ls:n gscv ttc,c,nv ,t,cvtvci. scv 8
,c0st coicv:c co:c0 < >, :cp::tci sci ttc
Anvc spti::cv tcpttv c0:c. sci c0:t ttinvci uvn- 9
uc:i c0: tti vtspcv c0: tti tyc ttv ttnci c :c un
uicivtci uugtpcv co:ci gnci tvci. sci :c :t:pi ot sci 10 20
:c tocuci tpc:c cvcv ttiv :c tvocv, ttcv
Tit. tc :cv :c0 Otcgp:cu ycpcs:npcv, i, ycpcs:np otiiociucvic V
12 del. Darvaris 1 <cv> Schneider 3 tc <:picv> spnvcv
Diggle: ttiypcvnv V 4 :c0 tpc0 ut uid. V
6 tcpcopun c
Sylburg: ttpi- V 7 <cv> Fischer oicni Sylburg: -n V
8 ttcv Diggle: tcv V cicv Schneider: -oicv V 9 npcicv D ubner:
tpccv V
, tp- V 12 gi:cv cd: -:nv V oic:p,ni Hirschig:
-g,n V 14 suc- Blaydes: su:c- V 15 tc:pctcici Wyttenbach:
-:pctti V tscci Bernhard: -- V 16 otivc Coray, Schneider:
otv. c V 17 lac. indic. Schneider :cp::tci Coray, Schneider:
-t:ci V ttcu V
20 uicivtci Siebenkees: uciv- V co:ci Foss
(tcu:- Schneider): co- V gnci Schneider: gnc V 21 tocuci
Unger: -ui V
[Superstition would simply seem to be cowardice with regard to
the divine.]
The Superstitious Man is the kind who washes his hands in
three springs, sprinkles himself with water from a temple font,
puts a laurel leaf in his mouth, and then is ready for the days
perambulations. If a weasel runs across his path he will not pro-
ceed on his journey until someone else has covered the ground
or he has thrown three stones over the road. When he sees a
snake in his house he invokes Sabazios if it is the red-brown one,
and if it is the holy one he sets up a hero-shrine there and then.
Whenever he passes the shiny stones at the crossroads he pours
oil from his ask over them and falls to his knees and kisses
them before leaving. If a mouse nibbles through a bag of barley
he goes to the expounder of sacred law and asks what he should
do; and if the answer is that he should give it to the tanner to
sew up he disregards the advice and performs an apotropaic
sacrice. He is apt to purify his house frequently, claiming that it
is haunted by Hekate. If owls < >while he is walking he
becomes agitated and says Athena is quite a power before going
on. He refuses to step on a tombstone or go near a dead body
or a woman in childbirth, saying that he cannot afford to risk
contamination. On the fourth and the seventh of the month he
orders his household to boil down some wine, then goes out and
,cpci uuppivc, icvc:cv, tctcvc sci titcv tc
:tgcvc0v :cu Lpucgpcoi:cu cnv :nv nutpcv. sci c:cv 11
tvtvicv oni tcpttci tpc :cu cvtipcspi:c, tpc :cu
uv:ti, tpc :cu cpvicsctcu tpc:ncv :ivi tcv n tci 25
t0ytci ot. sci :ttncutvc tpc :cu Opgtc:tt:c 12
sc:c unvc tcpttci ut:c :n ,uvcisc (tcv ot un ycni
n ,uvn, ut:c :n :i:n) sci :cv tcioicv. [sci :cv ttpip- 13
pcivcutvcv tti c::n ttiutc octitv cv tvci.] scv tc:t 14
ttioni scpcoci t:tuutvcv :cv tti :c :picoci < > 30
ttcv sc:c stgcn ccci sci tptic sctc si-
ni n scsi stt0ci co:cv ttpisccpci. <sci> ucivcutvcv 15
ot iocv n ttint:cv gpic ti sctcv t:ci.
22 uuppivc Diels: uup- V icvc:cv Foss: -:cv V tctcvc
Foss: tivcsc V 23 :tgcvc0v Siebenkees: -cv V 28 tcioicv (non
tciocv) uoluit V 289 del. Bloch 30 t:tuutvcv Foss: -cv V lac.
indic. Casaubon 31 ttcv cd: tttcv:cv V, t- V
32 co:cv
Stephanus: co- V <sci> Darvaris 33 ot Blaydes: :t V
buys myrtle-wreaths, frankincense and cakes, and on his return
spends the whole day garlanding the Hermaphrodites. When
he has a dream he visits not only dream-analysts but also seers
and bird-watchers to ask which god or goddess he should pray
to. He makes a monthly visit to the Orphic ritualists to take
the sacrament, accompanied by his wife (or if she is busy, the
nurse) and his children. [He would seem to be one of the people
who scrupulously sprinkle themselves at the seashore.] If ever
he observes a man wreathed with garlic < > the
offerings at the crossroads, he goes away and washes from head
to toe, then calls for priestesses and tells them to purify him
with a squill or a puppy. If he sees a madman or an epileptic he
shudders and spits into his chest.
[ L:iv n utuiucipic tti:iuni tcpc :c tpcnscv :cv 1
c ot utuiucipc :cicot :i cc tc:ticv:c utpioc 2
:c0 gicu tittv tpc :cv gtpcv:c Lgcvnt uci :c0 cuc0
sci :c0 civcpicu cos tti ottvcv sctc. sci otc :n t:ci- 3 5
pc sc:cgicutvc tittv Ocuucti u sci tc :n uyn
cv:c ut git. sci :ci Aii ,cvcs:tv co oic:i 0ti c 4
oic:i 0:tpcv. sci topcv tv :ni coci cv:icv tittv A 5
co ncupcv n0pnsc coottc:t. sci tpiutvc voptcocv 6
cicv sci tcc otnti :c0 tcc0v:c Ocuuc tittv t 10
:i o,it c0:c cicv tcvnuci. sci tpc :cv toc,,ticu- 7
tvcv c:i Yc ci ,t,cvtv tittv c:i Av tpcni Kci :n
coic :c nuiu ctt:iv nn tpt. sci oisnv visnc sci 8
ccv tc :c ngcu t,sctv :ci ,pcv:i :cv c,cv
c tcc tcpctcitc:i :cv oiscicv. sci tpvcu titvt- 9 15
ytv:c tcpc :cv gicv sci gncv:c :ivc lcpc i,
Kci tc tittv c:t ot :p,picv tcoc0vci ts:ci sci
ycpi :c:cv ypiv cgtitiv c notp,t:nutvcv;.
Tit. utuiucipic i 12 del. Darvaris 1 :c tpcnscv (cd) :cv Ast:
:cv tpcn (de litt. suprascriptis non liquet) V 4 tgcvnt Pauw: -c V
6 sc:cgicutvc V
: gi- V 7 cv:c Blaydes: c0:c V 9 n0pnsc
Wilamowitz: t0- V 1011 t :i Auberius: c:i V 11 c0:cV 12 oc
Diggle: uc V ci V
: cu V
13 ctt:iv cd: tt:nv V oisnv
Sylburg: visnv V 14 t,sctv Cantabr.
, Stephanus: -t V 17 c:t
Casaubon: c:i V 18 no- Diggle: to- V
[Ungrateful Grumbling is unsuitable criticism of what you have
been given.]
The Ungrateful Grumbler is the kind of man who says to
someone bringing him a piece of food sent by a friend He did
me out of the soup and wine by not inviting me to dinner.
When the woman he keeps is kissing him he says I wonder if
your affection really comes from the heart. He complains to
Zeus not because it is raining but because it did not rain sooner.
If he nds a purse in the street he says But I have never found
a treasure. When he has bought a slave at a bargain price after
long haggling he says I wonder how healthy it can be if I got
it so cheap. To the person who brings him the good news You
have a son he says If you add And you have lost half your
fortune you will not be far wrong. When he wins a unanimous
verdict in court he nds fault with his speech-writer for leaving
out many of the arguments in his favour. When his friends have
got together a loan and one of them says Cheer up, he answers
How do you mean? When I have to refund every one of you
and on top of that be grateful for the favour?
[ L:iv utti <n> ti:ic otcni :i oisic sc:c 1
c ot cti:c :cic0:c :i cc tc:tic :cv tcoc 2
ccvncv:c t:tpcv tcoc ttuttiv [:cv] ttucutvcv tccu
ttpic:c. sci gtptiv co:c :c p,picv sci sc:c :oicv sci- 3 5
cv piutv tccv t:i. sci :nv ,uvcsc :nv co:c0 tpc:cv 4
sc:cstiutvc ti ststist :nv sic:cv sci ti tnucv:ci :c
suistcv sci ti c ucyc ti :nv pcv :nv coticv tutn-

sci cv tstivn gni, unotv n::cv co:c vc:c ,uuvc ts

:cv :pcu:cv sci vutcon:c :cv yvcv cc :c0:c 10
tv:c ttpiopcucv ttistcci sci c0:c uci 0tvcu :u,-
yvtiv. sci :cu cgticv:c co:ci p,picv ut:c ucp:pcv 5
tci:tv :cu :cscu, ctc un ovcv:ci tcpvci ,tvtci.
sci :c u:icv ot tsoc0vci otivc coy c <cv> t:i:c 6
tp,n:ci co cv ni cic t,,un:n [:c0 svcgtc]. sci 7 15
c:cv nsni :i ci:ncutvc tstcuc:c ui:c utv un oc0vci,
cv o cpc :i cistc ni sci vc,scc ucvcv co tupcc sci
:nc sci ytocv t,,un:nv ccv ypnci. sci :cv tcoc ot 8
sccuc0v:c stttiv co:c0 ctitv un coitiv tu-
tpctv, vc gu::ni co:cv un tv :ni coci tcopci. sci :c 9 20
tingci :i tcp co:c0 sci t,cui lccu; sc:cu

co ,cp
ycc tc tittv Mnotv tpc,uc:tcu

t,c ,p, <tc>

cv u ycni, uvcsccunc.
Tit. in ti:ic 12 del. Darvaris 1 <n> c
, Darvaris 4 c-
cvncv:c c
d: -cv:c V 4 :cv om. cd, del. Camotius 5 gtptiv
Coray: gtpcv V 6 co:c0 Stephanus: co- V 8 suistcv Gale:
suicyicv V 12 co:ci Stephanus: co- V 13 ovcv:ci Cantabr.:
ovciv:c V 14 (tso)c0vci V
: tso0vci V c Salmasius: c V
<cv> Darvaris 15 tp,n:ci V
: -t:ci V
co cv Ast: c:cv V
:c0 svcgtc del. Pauw 18 ypnci Schneider: ypnti V 19 co:c0
Stephanus: co- V 20 gu::ni Hirschig: -n:ci V co:cv Needham:
-:c V tcopci Hirschig: -opn V 21 co:c0 Diels: co- V 22
tittv Madvig: ttuttiv V <tc> Madvig
[Distrust really is a presumption of wrongdoing directed against
The Distrustful Man is the kind who despatches his slave to
do the shopping and then sends another to nd out how much
he paid. He carries his own money with himand sits down every
two hundred yards to count it. While lying in bed he asks his wife
whether she has closed the chest and sealed the sideboard and
whether the front door has been bolted, and if she says yes he
throws off the bedclothes anyway and gets up with nothing on
and lights the lamp and runs around in his bare feet to inspect
everything in person, and so he hardly gets any sleep. When
he asks his debtors for interest payments he has his witnesses
present, so that they cannot deny the debt. When his cloak needs
attention he will not give it to the person who does the best job
but to the one who is suitably insured. When somebody comes
asking for the loan of cups, he would rather say no altogether, but
if he has to oblige a member of the family or a close relative he
will lend them only after he has all but checked the quality and
weight of the metal and practically got someone to guarantee
the cost of replacement. He tells the slave accompanying him to
walk in front and not behind, so that he can watch that he doesnt
run off on the way. When people who have bought something
from him say How much? Put it on account. Im not free just
yet, he replies Dont trouble yourself. Ill keep you company
until you are.
[ L:iv n ouytptic tpcttuic cuc:c tn tcpcstuc- 1
c ot ouytpn :cic0:c :i cc ttpcv tycv sci gcv sci 2
:cu cvuyc utcvc ttpitc:tv sci gnci :c0:c tvci co:ci
u,,tvisc ppc:nuc:c

tytiv ,cp co:c sci :cv tc:tpc sci 5

:cv tttcv sci cos tvci pioicv ocv ti :c ,tvc otc-
tci. utti ot otivc sci tsn tytiv tv :c v:isvnuici sci 3
tpct:ciuc:c tv :c ocs:ci sci un tpctt0ci
tcci npicnvci. sci :c ucyc ot gtipcoti sci octic 4
tytiv cypi tti tcu :cv ttupcv sci :cu cocv:c utcvc 10
sci ticutvcu [c:t outv:tus:c tvci sci non. sci :c
:cic0:c.] <sci> ticv tcu::tci, cv cu occci, 5
tpcccv <iccv> tcppit:tiv tc :c0 :cuc:c, cuc
tivcv tpctpu,,vtiv, vctcvit:c tv :c :pcuci ut:c
:n ,uvcisc co:c0 sciucci, tcici ctpci tv ccvtici 15
ypcutvc ugtc0 ctci. sci yi:cviscv tcyuv sci u:icv 6
gcopc tt:cv sci sniocv ut:cv vcccutvc ti ,cpcv
Tit. i ouytptic 12 del. Darvaris 3 cc cd: ccv V 4 ut-
cvc Herwerden: ut,(cu) V co:ci Stephanus: co- V 5 co:c
Meier: -:cv V 6 ocv Diggle (ucv Diels): co:cv V 9 gtipcoti
Diggle: npicoti V 11 c:t . . . non del. Immisch 1112 sci
:c :cic0:c del. Schneider 12 <sci> Foss cu occci Diels:
cuc o cpcci V 13 <iccv> Diggle 14 tivcv Casaubon: ticv
V vctcvit:c Badham: vctit:cv:c V 15 co:c0 Foss: co- V
16 ugtc0 ctci Diggle: gtci V 17 vcccutvc Stephanus:
-c- V
[Offensiveness is a distressing neglect of the person.]
The Offensive Man is the kind who parades about with scaly
and blanched skin and black nails and claims that these are con-
genital ailments; his father and grandfather had them, and it
makes it difcult to palm off an illegitimate son on the family.
He is quite apt to have sores on his shins and lesions on his toes,
and instead of treating them he lets them fester. His armpits are
infested with lice and their hair extends over much of his sides,
and his teeth are black and rotten [so that he is no pleasure to
meet. And so on.] He wipes his nose while eating, scratches him-
self while sacricing, discharges <spit> from his mouth while
talking, belches at youwhile drinking, does not washbefore going
to bed with his wife, and uses rancid oil at the baths so that he
reeks of the pig-sty. He goes out to the market wearing thick
underwear and a thin cloak full of stains.
<. . . . . .> sci ti cpvicsctcu :n un:pc ttcn c- 7
gnunci. sci toycutvcv sci ttvocv:cv tsctv :c tc:np- 8 20
icv sci ,tci cttp :tcv :i tttcinsc. sci cocutvc 9
ot spc:tv :c ytpi ucvc :cv ccv sci uv:tpt:itiv sci
tti:iucv :ni con:pioi c:i c0:c :cyu ttcc:c. sci tc- 10
t:ci ot cucutvc ottp :n :pcttn tpct:ci :ci
civcycci. 25
1925 ad caput alienum rettulit Pauw 19 ti cd: ti t V 20 tsctv
Casaubon (noluit Sylburg): tu- V 21 cttp :tcv Bernhard: c
:tp:icv V 22 uv:tpt:itiv V
: -:tpuitiv V
23 c:i Coray: :i V
c0:c Coray: co V ttcc:c Kayser: tcci:c V
(from a different sketch)
. . . He blasphemes when his mother has gone out to the augurs.
During a prayer and the pouring of a libation he drops his cup
and laughs as if he had done something clever. When a girl is
playing the pipes he claps and hums in solo accompaniment,
and then he blames her for stopping prematurely. When he is
minded to spit he spits across the table and hits the wine-waiter.
[ L:iv n noic, c cpci ctv, tv:tui tn tcin:isn 1
cvtu n.]
c ot non :cic0:c :i cc t,tiptiv cp:i sctocv:c ti- 2
tcv vc co:ci cni. sci v,tci non utcv:c sctiv. 3
sci tpctcv:cv otci ttiytv tc cv ttpitc:nni. sci 4/5 5
:c tcioicv :n :i:n gtcutvc, uccutvc i:itiv co:c
sci otcscpitci tcttcv sci tctcvcup,icv :c0 tt-
tcu sccv. sci ticv ot cuc oin,tci c ttcpcv ticv 6
cvc sci s:c tscpn sci <:c0> cuc0 :c0 tcpcstiutvcu
tv :c otcycpnuciv co:ci utcv:tpc n ycn. sci tpc:n- 7 10
ci ot otivc tvcv:icv :cv cist:cv Lt, c uuun, c: coivt
sci t:is:t ut, :i


; sci ottp co:n ot t,tiv c no 8

t:i sci < >, ugc:tpc ot cos tycv:c co pioicv cvp-
ctcv ctv. < > sci c:i uypcv 0ocp t:i tcp 9
co:ci cssccv sci [c] sntc ycvc tcc tycv sci 15
ctcc [c:t tvci uypcv] sci u,tipc to :c ccv stu-
cv, sci c:i n cisic co:c0 tcvocstcv t:i

ut:nv ,cp ti

sci :cu gicu co:c0 tvci :cv :t:pnutvcv ticv

to tcicv
,cp co:cu co ovcci tutnci. sci tvicv ot otci 10
:cv tcpi:cv co:c0 tcc :i t:i :ci uvotitvc0v:i

sci 20


ot tti :c0 tc:npicu tittv c:i :c :tpcv :cu

tcpcv:c tcptstc:ci sci c:i :c:nv, tcv sttciv, c
tc ut:tii tcpc :c0 tcpvccsc0 non, ctc tv:t ot
co:n cocutc sci togpcivcutc.
Tit. noic s 12 del. Darvaris 3 cc cd: ccv V 4 non
Schneider: on V 5 tpctcv:cv Immisch, Holland: tpctcv V
7 tctcvcup,icv Diggle: tcvcup,icv V 8 ttcpcv V
: tt- V
9 tscpn Navarre: sccptin V <:c0> Auberius 10 -uci V
co:ci Needham: co- V 11 cist:cv Courier: cisticv V Lt cDiels:
ttcu V, (tt)tp V
13 lac. (ante sci) indic. Hartung 14 lac. indic. Hot-
tinger 15 co:ci Needham: co- V c del. Diggle, Stefanis 16 del.
Bloch 17 co:c0 Cantabr.: co- V ut:nv ,cp ti Foss: ut:n ,p t:i
V 18 co:c0 Foss: co- V 20 co:c0 Casaubon: co- V 22 :c:nv
Diggle: co:nv V 23 ctc Schneider: tc V
[Disagreeableness may be dened as contact which gives pain
without causing harm.]
The Disagreeable Man is the kind who comes in and wakes
you up for a chat when you have just gone to sleep. He detains
people who are ready to set sail. He asks visitors to wait until he
has gone for a stroll. He takes his baby from the nurse and feeds
it food which he has chewed himself, and mouths pop-o-pop-o-
pop to it and calls it Pops bun in the oven. At dinner he tells
howhe was cleaned out top and bottomafter drinking hellebore,
and the bile from his faeces was blacker than the broth on the
table. He is prone to ask in front of the slaves Mummy, tell me,
when you were in labour and bringing me into the world, what

?. And he says of her that it is pleasant < >, and
it is not easy to nd a person who does not have both. <He
says > and that he has cold water in a cistern at home
and a garden with plenty of succulent vegetables and a cook who
prepares a good dish, and that his house is an inn (it is always
full) and his friends are a leaking jar (however many good turns
he does them he cant ll them up). He shows off the qualities
of his parasite to the guest at dinner. And

over the wine
he says that there is something available to amuse the company,
and, if they give the order, the slave will go and fetch her right
away from the brothel-keeper, so that she can play for us and
give us all a good time.
[ H ot uispcgic:iuic octi<tv cv> tvci cpti :iun vtt- 1
c ot uispcgic:iuc :cic0:c :i cc tcuoci tti ot- 2
tvcv snti tcp co:cv :cv sctcv:c sc:cstiutvc otitvn-
ci. sci :cv ocv tcstpci ,c,cv ti Atgc. sci ttiutn- 3/4 5
nvci ot ctc co:ci c sccuc Aiict:ci. sci tcoiocu 5
uvcv p,upicu scivcv


tcoc0vci. sci sccici ot 6

tvocv :ptgcutvci otivc siusicv tpicci sci tioicv
ycsc0v tcinci c tycv tti :c0 siucsicu c sccic tnon-
t:ci. sci c0v c :c tpcut:ctioicv tcv:ispu :n 7 10
ticocu tpctc::ct0ci :tuucoi ut,ci ttpionc,
ctc c tiicv:t ociv c:i c0v tut. sci tcuttc ut:c 8
:cv tttcv :c utv cc tv:c oc0vci :ci tcioi ttvt,stv
cscot, vcccutvc ot ciu:icv tv :c uci sc:c :nv
,cpcv ttpitc:tv. sci suvcpicu ot Mti:cicu :ttu:ncv- 9 15
:c co:ci uvnuc tcinci sci :nioicv :nc tti,pci


Mti:cc. sci vcti os:ucv ycsc0v tv 10

:ci Aosntitici :c0:cv ts:pitiv :tgcvc0v tigtiv cnut-
pci. utti ot sci uvoicisncci ut:c :cv tpu:vtcv ctc 11
tc,,tini :ci onuci :c tp, sci tcptstucutvc cut- 20
pcv u:icv sci t:tgcvcutvc tcptcv tittv 0cvopt
Anvcci, tcutv c tpu:vti [:c tpc] :ni Mn:pi :cv tcv
:c Icic, sci :c tpc sc, sci out otytt :c ,c.
sci :c0:c tc,,tic ttcv cscot oin,ncci :ni
co:c0 ,uvcisi c sc ottpcnv nonutpti. 25
Tit. uispcgic:iuic sc 12 del. Darvaris 1 octitv cv c
: octi V
5 ocv Diggle: ucv V 6 co:ci Needham: co- V 7 uvcv V
: ucv
V p,upicu V
: p,picv V
11 tpctc::ct0ci cd: -cci V
14 vcccutvc Stephanus: -c- V 16 :nc Triller: tcinc V
17 os:ucv Nast, Naber: ocs:icv V 18 :tgcvc0v Meier: -c0v:c
V 19 uvoicisncci cd: -icci V ut:c Diggle, Stefanis: tcpc V
22 :c tpc del. Schneider 23 Icic Wilamowitz: ,cp cic V 24
ttcv Diggle: ticv V cscot oin,- Reiske: oin,- cscot V 25
co:c0 Foss (tcu- cd): co- V nonutpti post Needham (to-) Diggle: tonut-
ptv V
[Petty Ambition would seem to be a mean desire for prestige.]
The Man of Petty Ambition is the kind who, when he gets
an invitation to dinner, is eager to sit next to the host. He takes
his son to Delphi to have his hair cut. He goes to the trouble of
acquiring an Aethiopian attendant. When he pays back a mina of
silver he pays it back in new coin. He is apt to buy a little ladder
for his domestic jackdaw and make a little bronze shield for it to
carry when it hops onto the ladder. When he has sacriced an
ox he nails up the skull opposite the entrance to his house and
fastens long ribbons around it, so that his visitors can see that
he has sacriced an ox. After parading with the cavalry he gives
his slave the rest of his equipment to take home, then throws
back his cloak and strolls through the marketplace in his spurs.
On the death of his Maltese dog he builds a funeral monument
and sets up a little slab with the inscription

from Malta.
He dedicates a bronze nger in the sanctuary of Asclepius and
does not let a day pass without polishing, garlanding, and oiling
it. And you can be sure that he will arrange with the executive
committee of the Council that he should be the one to make
the public report on the conduct of religious business, and will
step forward wearing a smart white cloak, with a crown on his
head, and say Men of Athens, my colleagues and I celebrated
the Milk-Feast with sacrices to the Mother of the Gods. The
sacrices were propitious. We beg you to accept your blessings.
After making this report he goes home and tells his wife that he
had an extremely successful day.
[ H ot vttutpic t:i

ttpicuic :i tc gic:iuic 1
octvnv tycuc

c ot vtttpc :cic0:c :i cc visnc :pc,cioc 2
:civicv uivnv vctvci :ci Aicvci, tti,pc utcvi
co:c0 :c cvcuc. sci ttioctcv ,i,vcutvcv tv :ci onuci 3 5
vc:c ictni ts :c0 utcu tttv. sci tsoiocu co:c0 4
u,c:tpc :c0 utv tpticu tnv :cv tptcvcv :c sptc
tcocci, :cu ot oicscvc0v:c tv :c ,uci cisci:cu
uiccci. sci :pinpcp<ycv :c utv :c0> sutpvn:cu 5
:pcuc:c co:ci tti :c0 sc:c:pcuc:c otc:cpvuci, 10
:c ot co:c0 tc:itvci. sci :c tcioic ot otivc un ttuci 6
ti oiocscu, c:cv ni [:c0 tc:itvci sci :c tcioic]
Mcutc, c gnci scsc tytiv, vc un uucv:ci. sci t 7
,cpc ot ccvnc [:c sptc] co:c gtptiv :c ycvc tv
:ci tpcsctici. sci tvocv utvtiv c:cv tsoci ciu:icv 8 15
t0vci. sci gicu tpcvcv ut,cv:c sci oin,,tutvcu 9
co:ci, tpcicv:c tpcocutvc tcsuc ts :n coc0 :nv
ssci cscot tcptunvci. sci :ni ,uvcisi ot :ni tcu:c0 10
tpcsc titvt,scutvni un tpicci tptcivcv c
uic0ci ti :c tcocu ts :n ,uvcistic tciopicv :c 20
uvcsccuncv. sci :c otconuc:c tciutnti stsc::uutvc 11
Tit. vttutpic s 12 del. Darvaris 3 visnc Lycius: visnci V
:pc,cioc Casaubon: -cocu V 4 tti,pc V
: - V utcvi
Madvig: utv V 5 co:c0 Stephanus: co- V ,iv- V tv :ci onuci
Meier: ts :c0 onucu V 6 ictni Needham: ictcv n V co:c0
Stephanus: co- V 7 tptcvcv Meier: tptcv V 9 lacunae signum
ycv :c :c0 suppl. cd, utv Diels 10 :pcuc:c co:ci Meier:
:pcuc :cu:cv V otc:cpvuci Blaydes: -ptvuci V 11 co:c0
d, Stephanus: co- V 12 del. Meier 13 Mcutc Schneider: -ic
V 14 del. Diels 16 t0vci Hirschig: tst- V oin,,tutvcu Hol-
land: oitit,utvcu V 18 tcu:c0 V
: co- V 19 tptcivcv cd: tp-
citcivc V 20 tciopicv Diggle: tcioicv V 21 uvcsccuncv
fere Siebenkees: -cv V tciutnti Schneider: tiv tnti V
[Illiberality is


The Illiberal Man is one who dedicates a strip of wood to
Dionysus after winning the prize for the best tragic chorus and
inscribes his own name on it in ink. When emergency donations
are being promised in the Assembly he gets up and slips quietly
out. At his daughters wedding he sells the meat fromthe sacrice
(all but the priests share) and tells the hired waiters to bring
their own food. When he is serving as commander of a trireme
he spreads the helmsmans mattress on the deck for himself and
stows his own away. He will not send his children to school when
there is a festival of the Muses, but will claim that they are ill,
so that they do not have to take a contribution. When he has
been shopping in the market he carries the vegetables himself
in his front pocket. He stays in the house when he sends out his
cloak to the laundry. If word has reached him that a friend is
raising a subscription, he cuts down a side-street on seeing him
approach and takes a roundabout way home. Even though his
wife brought hima dowry he will not buy her a maid, but instead
hires a girl from the womens market to keep her company on
her outings. He wears shoes whose soles have been stitched back
gcptv sci t,tiv c:i stpc:c cootv oicgtpti. sci vc:c :nv 12
cisicv sc0vci sci :c sivc tsscpici. sci sctcutvc 13
tcpc:ptci :cv :picvc, cv co:cv gcpt.
23 tsscpici Casaubon: -nci V sctcutvc cd: -cv V 24 co:cv
M unsterberg: -c V
on and claims that they are as strong as horn. When he gets up
in the morning he sweeps the house and debugs the couches.
When he sits down he turns up his tunic, which is all that he is
[ Autti ot n ccvtic octi<tv cv> tvci tpctcini :i 1
,ccv cos cv:cv.]
c ot ccv :cic0:c :i cc tv :ci oti,uc:i t:nsc 2
oin,tci tvci c tcc ypnuc:c co:ci t:iv tv :ni

sci ttpi :n tp,cic :n ocvti:isn oititvci 5

nisn, sci co:c cc tngt sci tcctst

sci cuc :c0:c

ttpicv ttuttiv :c tciopicv ti :nv :pttcv, <unot
uic> opcyun co:ci stiutvn. sci uvcocitcpcu ot tc- 3
c0ci tv :ni coci otivc t,cv c ut: Atvopcu t:-
pc:tc:c sci <cisti>c co:ci tyt sci cc icscn:c 10
tc:npic tscuic:c

sci ttpi :cv :tyvi:cv :cv tv :ni Aici

c:i t:icu tii :cv tv :ni Lopctni ugin:nci

:c0:c gnci coocuc ts :n tctc tcotonunsc. sci 4
,puuc:c ot tittv c tpt:i tcp Av:it:pcu :pi::c on
t,cv:c tcpc,tvtci co:cv ti Mcstocvicv

sci oiocutvn 15
co:ci tc,c,n cv :tc0 c:i tnpvn:ci, ctc
uno og tvc uscgcv:nni

ttpci:tpc giccgtv tpcnst

. sci tv :ni i:cotici ot <tittv> c ttic n ttv:t 5

:cv:c co:ci t,tvt:c :c vccuc:c oiocv:i :c tcpci
:cv tci:cv

vcvttiv ,cp co ovcci. sci ,vc:cv ot 6 20

tcpcscnutvcv stt0ci tvci :c ngcu tvc co:cv sci
Tit. ccvtic s, 12 del. Darvaris 1 octitv cv c
: octi V
tpctcini Auberius: tpcocsicV 3 oti,uc:i Casaubon: oict,uc:i
V 4 oin,tci cd: -t:c V co:ci Morel (co- iam Lycius): co:c V
5 c::ni cd: -- V 78 <unot uic> Diggle 9 ut: Atvopcu
Auberius: ut:c tovopcu V 10 cistic Cobet: c V 11 tscuic:c
Reiske: tscuit V 13 gnci Coray: ngnci V coocuc Cobet: -c0 V
15 tcpc,tvtci cd: -,ivtci V co:cv Gale: co- V ucstocvicv cd:
V 16 co:ci Needham: co- V tnpvn:ci Cobet: ttipn:ci V
18 i:cotici Casaubon: tcoici V <tittv> Diggle ttic cd: -cu
V 19 co:ci Needham: co- V t,tvt:c Hanow: ,tvci:c V
[Boastfulness would really seem to be a pretension to non-
existent advantages.]
The Boastful Man will stand in the market at the Piraeus
and tell foreigners that he has a good deal of money invested
at sea; he will explain how vast is the money-lending business
and how much he has personally gained and lost; and while he
is exaggerating this beyond all proportion he will send his slave
to the bank, although there is <not even a single> drachma in
his account. He is apt to gull the person he is walking with by
telling how he served with Alexander and was on familiar terms
with himand what a number of jewelled cups he brought home;
and he will maintain that the craftsmen in Asia are better than
those in Europe all this even though he has never been any-
where outside the city. He will say that he has had no fewer than
three letters from Antipater telling him to come to Macedonia,
and that he has been offered the right to export timber duty-
free, but has declined, so that not a soul can bring a trumped
up charge against him

. And he will claim that
during the food shortage he spent more than ve talents on
handouts to destitute citizens he just could not say no. When
he nds himself sitting next to complete strangers he will ask one
of them to work the calculator, and then he does an addition,
tccv sc:c yiic sci sc:c uicv sci tpc:iti ticvc
ts:ci :c:cv cvcuc:c tcinci sci otsc :cv:c

:c0:c gnci titvnvtyci ti tpvcu co:ci

sci :c :pi-
npcpyic tittv c:i co :iniv coot :c ti:cup,ic cc 25
tti:cp,nst. sci tpctcv ot :cu ttcu :cu ,ccu 7
:c tcc0i tpctcincci cvn:icv. sci tti :c snvc 8
tcv uc:iucv n:nci ti oc :cv:c sci :ci tcioi
uytci c:i :c ypuicv cos tycv co:ci sccut. sci tv 9
uic:ni cisici ciscv gnci :c:nv tvci :nv tc:pcicv 30
tpc :cv un tioc:c sci c:i utti tctv co:nv oic :c
t::c tvci co:ci tpc :c tvcocsic.
22 tccv Siebenkees: tccv V sc:c yiic Wilamowitz:
sc tcscic V 24 :c0:c Schneider: :c0:c V gnci Lycius:
gnc V co:ci Foss: co:cv V 26 ot Jebb: o ti V 27 snvc
Casaubon: sivc V 29 co:ci Schwartz: co- V 31 c:i Lycius: oic:i
V 32 co:ci Edmonds: co- V tvcocsic Cobet: -yic V
counting from the thousand-drachma to the one-drachma col-
umn, and putting a plausible name to each item, and reaches
as much as ten talents, and says that these are the sums he has
contributed towards loans for friends and he has not included
the trierarchies and all his other compulsory public services. He
will approach people selling horses of quality and pretend that
he is a customer. He will visit the clothes stalls and look for a
wardrobe amounting to two talents, then vent his annoyance on
his slave for coming without the money. Although the house he
lives in is rented he will tell the innocent listener that it belonged
to his father and he proposes to sell it because it is too small for
the scale of his hospitality.
[ L:i ot n ottpngcvic sc:cgpcvni :i tnv co:c0 :cv 1
O ot ottpngcvc :cicot :i cc :ci ttocv:i tc 2
otitvcu tv:ttci gstiv tv :ci ttpitc:tv. sci to tcinc 3
utuvnci gstiv. sci coicv tv :c coc :c oici:c 4 5
spivtiv [tv] :c tti:ptci. sci ytipc:cvcutvc tcuvuci 5
:c py, co gscv yctiv. sci tpcttv tpc:tpc 6
cootvi ttnci. sci :cu tcc0v: :i n uicuutvcu otivc 7
stt0ci nstiv tpc co:cv cu nutpci. sci tv :c coc 8
tcptucutvc un ctv :c tv:u,yvcui s:c stsugc, 10
c:cv ot co:ci ocni cvc tiv. sci t:icv :cu gicu 9
co:c un uvotitvtv c :cv og co:cv :ivi uv:ci
co:cv ttiuttci. sci tpcctc:ttiv ot, ttcv tcptn:ci, 10
:cv tpc0v:c c:i tpctpyt:ci. sci c0:t tt tigcutvcv 11
co:cv c0:t cutvcv c0:t ticv:c tcci cv tittv. utti 12 15
ot sci c,icutvc tpc :ivc :ci tcioi uv:ci :c ngcu
oictvci sci stgcicv tcincv:i ,pci co:ci ti c,cv.
sci tti:tcv un ,pgtiv c:i Xcpicic cv uci c:i 13
Bccuci ,tvtci sci Att:csc tpc t ncutvc
sci Otc cc un t:ci sci Tnv :cyi:nv. 20
Tit. ottpngcvic so 12 del. Darvaris 1 co:c0 Needham:
co- V 5 coicv Schweigh auser: itiv V 6 tv del. Coray,
Schneider ytipc:cvcutvc Coray, Schneider: -utvci V 8
ttnci Diggle (tnci Casaubon): tnc V uicuutvcu Coray:
utuicutvcu V 9 co:cv Pasquali: co- V 12 co:cv Needham: co-
V 14 tpctpyt:ci Schneider: tpc- V 15 co:cv Needham: co- V
cutvcv Meineke: cucu- V tcci Needham: tc V 17 oictvci
Sheppard: oictv V 18 ,pgtiv Schneider: ,ptiv V c:i (alterum)
: c V
[Arrogance is a contempt for everyone other than oneself.]
The Arrogant Man is the sort who tells someone who is in
a hurry that he will meet him after dinner while he is taking
his stroll. He says that he never forgets a good turn that he
has done. When called in to arbitrate he delivers his judgement
while walking down the street. When voted into ofce he protests
that he cannot accept, pleading lack of time. He will never be
the one to make the rst approach. People who wish to sell or
hire something are told to present themselves at his house at
daybreak. As he walks in the street he does not speak to passers-
by but keeps his head down and looks up only when it suits him.
When he gives a dinner for his friends he does not dine with
them but tells one of his employees to look after them. When
he travels he sends someone ahead to say that he is coming. He
refuses vistors while he is putting on oil or bathing or eating. And
you may be sure that when he is reckoning someones account
he instructs his slave to do the calculations, work out a total,
and write him out an invoice for that amount. When he sends a
written request it is not his style to say I should be obliged, but
rather I expressly desire and My agent is on the way and No
alternative and Without delay.
[ Autti ot n otiic octitv <cv> tvci 0ttii :i uyn 1
O ot otic <:cic0:c> :i cc ttcv :c cspc gstiv 2
nuicic tvci

sci socvc ,tvcutvcu tpc:cv t :i un

utun:ci :cv ttcv:cv

sci :c0 sutpvn:cu vcst:cv 5

cuc tuvvtci ti utctcpt sci :i co:ci ocst :c :c0 tc0

sci tpc :cv tcpcscnutvcv t,tiv c:i gct:ci tc tvut-

vicu :ivc

sci tsou oiocvci :ci tcioi :cv yi:cviscv

otci tpc :nv ,nv tpc,tiv co:cv. sci :pc:tucutvc 3
ot <:c0> ttc0 tscnc0v:c


tpcsctv, sttcv 10
tpc co:cv :v:c tpc:cv ttpiiotv, sci t,tiv c tp,cv
oic,vcvci [t:i] tc:tpci tiiv c tctuici. sci sccv spcu- 4
,n sci cpcv tit:cv:c ttc tpc :cu tcpt:nsc:c
c:i :nv tnv ctv otc :n tcuon tttt:c :ptytiv
tti :nv snvnv, :cv tcoc tsttuc sci sttc tpcsc- 15
ttci tc0 tiiv c tctuici tcspci co:nv otc :c
tpcstgcicv, t:c oic:pitiv tcuv ypcvcv c n:cv. sci 5
tv :ni snvni cpcv :pcuuc:icv :ivc tpcgtpcutvcv :cv
gicv tpcopcucv sci cpptv sttc otcccv gtptiv

sci :c0:cv tpctttiv sci ttpitc,,itiv sci tcpcscnutvc 20

tc :c0 tscu :c uuic ctv sci tcv uccv n uyt-
ci :c tctuici. sci :c0 ctis:c0 ot :c tctuiscv 6
nunvcv:c scnutvc tv :ni snvni <tittv> Atc, t

cos tti :cv cvpctcv 0tvcu cytv tusvc

Tit. otiic st 12 del. Darvaris 1 <cv> c
3 <:cic0:c> c
6 cuc Diggle: utv V 9 co:cv Needham: co- V 10 <:c0>
Wilamowitz ttc0 V, n s.l. 11 co:cv Needham: co- V 12 t:i
del. Diggle tc:tpci Schwartz: -cv V 13 ttc Ilberg: ttt V, cu s.l.
16 otc c
, Casaubon: tpc V 17 n:cv Schneider: -tv V 18 :ivc
: om. V 22 ctis:c0 Herwerden: -i:c0 V 23 <tittv> Pauw
24 tti Casaubon: -ti V cytv Abresch, Reiske: ctv V
Cowardice would simply seemto be a terried giving-way of the
The Coward, when he is at sea, claims that promontories are
pirate ships. If a swell gets up, he asks if there is a non-initiate on
board. Looking anxiously up at the sky he wants to know from
the helmsman if he is half-way and howthe heavens look to him.
He tells the man sitting next to him that he is alarmed because
of some dream, takes off his underclothes and gives them to
his slave, and begs to be put ashore. When he is on military
service and the infantry are going into action, he calls to

and tells themto come and stand by himand wait and see before
they commit themselves, claiming that it is difcult to make out
which side are the enemy. Hearing cries and seeing men falling
he says to his neighbours that he was in such a hurry that he
forgot to bring his sword, and he runs to his tent, sends his slave
outside with instructions to see where the enemy are, and hides it
under the pillow, then spends a long time pretending to look for
it. While he is in the tent he sees one of his friends being brought
back wounded, and so he runs up to him and tells him to be
brave and lends a supporting hand. Then he gives him medical
attention and sponges him down and sits beside him and keeps
the ies off the wound anything rather than ght the enemy.
When the trumpeter sounds the attack he says, as he sits there
in the tent, To hell with you! Youll stop the man getting any
nucivcv. sci cuc:c ot vttc tc :c0 c:picu 7 25
:pcuc:c tv:u,yvtiv :c ts :n uyn ttcvic0i sci
oin,tci c sivouvtc Lvc tcsc :cv gicv. sci 8
ti,tiv tpc :cv sc:cstiutvcv stcutvcu :cu onuc:c,
<:cu gp:tpc>, :cu gut:c sci :c:cv cu ts:ci
oin,tci c co:c co:cv :c tcu:c0 ytpiv tti snvnv 30
27 <:cu gp:tpc> Diggle 301 ]
v t[ c. ix c]o:cv c
[ c.
v snv]nv l
sleep with this continual trumpeting. Spattered with blood from
the others wound he meets the troops returning from battle
and announces, with the look of one who has risked his life, I
saved one of our men. Then he invites his fellow demesmen,
<clansmen>and tribesmen to come in and look at the patient,
and as they enter he explains to each one of themhowhe carried
him to the tent with his own bare hands.
[Actitv o cv tvci n ci,cpyic <tpccipti> :i iyc 1
sci stpocu ,iycutvn.]
O ot ci,cpyisc :cic0:c <:i> cc :c0 onucu cu- 2
tucutvcu :ivc :ci cpycv:i tpccipncv:ci :n tcutn
:cu uvttiutncutvcu tcptcv tcgnvcci c ot 5
co:csp:cpc :c:cu tvci, scv cci tpccv:ci otsc
t,tiv c:i lscvc t t:i, :c0:cv ot ot cvopc tvci, sci
:cv Ounpcu ttcv :c0:c tv ucvcv sc:tytiv, c:i Oos ,c-
cv tcuscipcvin

t scipcvc t:c, :cv ot ccv unotv

tti:cci. utti ot otivc :c :cic:ci :cv c,cv ypn- 3 10
cci c:i At co:cu nuc uvtcv:c ttpi :c:cv cu-
tcci sci ts :c0 cycu sci :n ,cpc tcc,nvci
sci tccci pyc tnicv:c sci otc :c:cv c0:c
opicutvcu n :iucutvcu <sci> c:i H :c:cu ot n
nuc cistv :nv tciv. sci :c utcv ot :n nutpc ticv [sci] 4 15
:c u:icv vctnutvc sci utnv scupcv stscputvc sci
spic tcvuyiutvc ctv :cu :cic:cu c,cu :pc-

Aic :cu uscgv:c cos cisn:cv t:iv tv :ni

tcti sci c Lv :c oisc:npici otivc tycutv otc
Tit. ci,cpyic s, 12 del. Darvaris 1 octitv o cv tvci n ci,-
cpyic <tpccipti> :i V (suppl. Diggle): n (ot) c]i
,[cpy]ic t:[i :i

iyuc s
[ci l: iyupc V 2 ,iy- c: yiy-
V: ]iy- l 3 ci,cpyisc Casaubon: ci,cpyc V: ]c l <:i>c
Ast 39 :cic0:c ioic[ c.v ]u
. .
v t,cv cos [,ccv tc]uscipcvin

t:c, [t] ci[t]. sci :c0 onucu yt[ipc:c]v
cu [ c.x ]cv pstt[i(v) l 3 cutucutvcu Casaubon: cucu- V 4
tpccipncv:ci Schneider: tpc- V 5 tcgnvcci Reiske: tcgnvc
tyti V 7 c:i hoc locoSitzler: ante ot V 10 utti . . . ypncci bis scr.
V c,cv Casaubon: ci,cv utrobique V 11 incertum :c:(cv) an
:c:(cu) V 13 c0:c Navarre: co:cu V 14 <sci> Hanow ot
, om. V 15 nuc V
: ou- V sci del. Darvaris 17 :pc,ciocv
Herwerden: :nv :c0 coic V 18 (cisn:)cp V
[Oligarchy would seemto be a <policy>covetous of power and
The Oligarchic Man is the kind who steps forward, when the
people are considering whom they will appoint in addition to
help the archon with the procession, and gives as his opinion that
those appointed should have plenary powers, and says, if others
propose ten, One is enough; but he must be a real man. The
only verse of Homer whichhe knows is Multiple rule is not good:
so let there be one single ruler, and he is completely ignorant of
the rest. He is quite liable to say things like We must meet and
discuss this on our own and be rid of the mob and the market-
place, and we must stop courting ofce, and so remove their
licence to dispense affronts or favours and Its either themor us:
we cant both live in this city. He goes out at midday and struts
about dressed in his cloak, with his hair trimmed and his nails
carefully pared, declaiming melodramatically: The sycophants
make life in the city unbearable and Judicial corruption is a
:cv otsccutvcv sci c Ocuuc :cv tpc :c scivc 20
tpcicv:cv :i ccv:ci sci c Aypi:cv t:i <:c
tnc sci uvnucv> :c0 vtucv:c sci oiocv:c sci c
ciyvt:ci tv :ni tssnici c:cv tcpcscn:ci :i co:ci
tt:c sci coyucv. sci tittv lc:t tcucutc otc :cv 5
ti:cup,icv sci :cv :pinpcpyicv tcutvci; sci c 25
Min:cv :c :cv onuc,c,cv ,tvc, :cv Ontc tpc:cv
gnc :cv scscv :ni tcti ,t,cvtvci c:icv

:c0:cv ,cp ts
ocotsc tctcv ti uicv

sc:c,c,cv:c utic citic

sci oiscic co:cv tctv

tpc:cv ,cp co:cv tctci

ot co:cv. 30
[sci :cic0:c t:tpc tpc :cu tvcu sci :cv tci:cv 6
:cu cuc:pctcu sci :co:c tpccipcuutvcu.]
20 otsccutvcv Meier: ois- V cuuc Coray, Schneider: -cv V
212 :c tnc suppl. Schneider, sci uvnucv Diggle 23 co:ci
Edmonds: co- V 28 ci V, sc. ci(tic) ut uid. 312 del. Bloch
dire afiction and I cannot imagine why people go into politics
and You must not expect thanks fromthe common people: they
soon forget where the handouts come from, and how ashamed
he is when he nds himself sitting in the Assembly next to some
scrawny fellow who has not used any oil. And he says Com-
pulsory public services and trierarchies will be the death of us
will we never be rid of them? and Demagogues are a detestable
breed, claiming that Theseus must bear responsibility for the
damage they have done the city he amalgamated the twelve
towns into one

; and he got what he deserved, because
he was their rst victim.
[And more to the same effect, addressed to foreigners and to
citizens of similar disposition and political persuasion.]
[ H ot ciucic gictcvic octitv cv tvci ottp :nv nisicv.] 1
O ot ciucn :cic0:c :i cc pnti ucvvtiv tnscv- 2
:c t:n ,t,cvc sci :c:c t,cv tcpc tc:cv tticvvt-
ci. sci tcpc :c0 oc0 ucvvtiv :c Lti ocpu sci Lt 3
tioc sci Lt copv. sci ti npcic uutci :c 4 5
utipcsici cutoc :ptycv. utti ot scv tcu snni ti 5
Hpsticv, pic :c u:icv :cv c0v cptci vc :pcyn-
ini. sci tpccvc:pitci tiicv ti :c tcci:pc. sci 6/7
tv :c cuci :pic n :t::cpc tnpcuc:c otcutvtiv :c
ciuc:c tsucvvcv. sci :tcutvc :ci ccici tt0ci 8 10
ctc sci:tni tcpc :ci tpt. sci tpcv t:cipc sci 9
spic tpccv :c <pci> tn,c tingc ot
v:tpc:c0 oistci. sci ti ,pcv tg ttcu c:picu 10
cycutvc cuc utt:cv tttci sci ttcv :nv stgcnv
sc:c,nvci. sci tv otscoi:c uv,tiv :cu ut co:c0 11 15


. sci ucspcv vopiv:c tcitiv tpc :cv 12

tcu:c0 sccucv. sci oic:cttci sci oicscv:itci 13
:ci :cv tcioicv tcioc,c,ci sci cuc <stttiv co:c>
ucvvtiv tcp co:c0 c cv sci tstivcu un tti:cutvcu. sci 14
tccicv o tv :ci ccvtici tusvc topcv :ptgtiv ctc 20
Tit. ciucic s 1 del. Darvaris 2 cc c: ccv V 23 tnscv:c
t:n c: tnscv:ct:n V 3 :c:c c
: :c0:c V 4 oc0 Diggle: uc0
V :c Lti Schneider: tti :c V 45 tti tioc V 5 npcic
Siebenkees: npcc V 6 :ptycv Schneider: -tiv V snn V
: -t V
7 cptci Meier: cptci V 8 tiicv Ast: titcv V 11 t:cipc cen-
sor Ienensis editionis Goezianae: tpc V
, -c V
12 spic Herwerden:
-cu V <pci> censor Ienensis: u V (tum spat. c. iv litt. uac. et
lacunae signum) 14 cycutvc c: sc:cy- V utt:cv V
: uci- V
15 sc:c,nvci Palmerius: sc:tc,tvci V tv otscoi:c Wilhelm: tvotsc
i:c V ut co:c0 Jebb: ut: co- V 16 tcitiv c: tt- V 18
stttiv suppl. Dobree (post co:c0 iam Reiske), co:c Diggle 19 co:c0
Foss: co- V
[Late Learning would seem to be enthusiasm for exercises
beyond ones years.]
The Late Learner is the kind of man who at the age of sixty
memorises passages for recitation and while performing at a
party forgets the words. He gets his son to teach him Right
turn, Left turn, and About turn. He joins the young mens
torch-race team for the hero-festivals. If he is invited to a shrine
of Heracles you can be sure that he will throw off his cloak and
try lifting the bull to get it in a neck-lock. When he goes to the
wrestling-schools he ghts with no holds barred. He sits through
three or four performances of a show, to get the songs by heart.
At his initiation into the cult of Sabazios he is anxious that the
priest should judge himthe handsomest of the initiands. He falls
for a courtesan and rams her door, and when her other lover
beats him up he goes to court. While riding into the country
on a borrowed horse he practises fancy horsemanship, falls off,
and cracks his skull. At the Tenth Day Club he

. He
plays his attendant at

. He competes with his childrens
tutor at archery and javelin-throwing and tells them to take a
lesson from him, because the tutor hasnt the know-how. When
he wrestles at the baths he does frequent buttock-twists, so that
tttciot0ci ocsni. sci c:cv ci<v t,,u> ,uvcs<t> 15
utt:cv cpytci co:c co:ci :tpt:icv.
[c0:c c :n oiocscic tptiuc ucviscu sci 16
tt:nsc:c vpctcu :c nti tcit.]
21 ci<v t,,u> Meister: ci tum spat. c. iii litt. uac. V ,uvcs<t>
Siebenkees: ,uvcis tum spat. c. ii litt. uac. V 22 co:ci Siebenkees: co-
V 234 hoc loco Boissonade: post cap. XXVIII V eadem hoc loco
del. Hanow (post XXVIII iam Schneider)
he may pass for an expert. When there are women nearby, he
practises dance-steps, humming his own accompaniment.
[Thus does the stimulus for instruction make people mad and
deranged in personality.]
[ L:i ot n scscc,ic ,c,n uyn ti :c ytpcv tv c,ci.] 1
c ot scscc,c :cicot :i cc tpc:nti O otvc :i 2


scttp c ,tvtcc,c0v:t lpc:cv tc

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cic tsct:c, t,tvt:c ot tv :c :pc:ic:ci ci:pc- 5
:c, tttion ot ti :cu onuc:c tvt,pgn <cionuc>. n
utv:ci un:np to,tvn Opci:: t:i

sct:ci ,c0v

n uyn

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:i,uc:ic. sci


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:c :cic0:c coc ottp cv u tcvc tpc tut sci :c:ci


. co:ci c ,uvcst ts :n coc0 :cu tcpicv:c

uvcptcui sci Oisic :i c0:n :c stn npsuc

co ,cp
cov npc t:i :c t,cutvcv cttp c svt tv :c coc
uvtycv:ci sci Tc ccv vopcsccci :ivt sci Ao:ci 15
:ni pci :ni cotici otcsccui. utti ot sci scsc 4
t,cv:cv t:tpcv uvttictci ttc L,c ot :c0:cv :cv
cvpctcv ttcv tv:cv utuinsc

sci ,cp tiotyn :i tc

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:ni ot tcvnpici cootv cucicv


:ni ,cp co:c0 ,uvcisi :cv:cv titvt,scutvni tpcsc 20

Tit. scscc,ic sn 1 del. Bloch ,c,n post Casaubon (,c,n
:n) Edmonds: ,cv :n V 6 <cionuc> Meier 7 p::c V
uyn V
: yu- V 9 scsc tamquam e V Siebenkees: -c V 10
:i,uc:ic Diggle: uc:i,ic V 11 u V
: u V 14 cov Schneider:
ccv V svt nescioquis ap. Ast: ,uvcst V :c V
: : V 15
vopcsccci Foss: vopccci V 16 :ni pci :ni cotici Diggle: :nv
pcv :nv c0ticv V utti Goez: utti V 17 t,cv:cv V
: om. V
uvttictci Diggle: -cuvtci V ttc tamquame VCobet: tttv
(uel ttv) V
, ttcu V
19 :ni . . . tcvnpici Schwartz: n . . . tcvnpic V
cucicv c: cucc V, -cic V
20 co:c0 Foss (tcu- c): co- V :cv:cv
D ubner: :cv:c V titvt,scutv n V
[Slander is a bent of mind towards making the worst of things
in speech.]
The Slanderer is the kind of man who when asked Who is

in the style of the genealogists I shall begin
with his antecedents. His father was originally called Sosias; but
in the army he became Sosistratos, and when he was enrolled in
a deme, Sosidemos. His mother, however, is a Thracian of good
family. At all events she is called

, and in their own country
women like her are reputed to come from a good family. He
himself, with parents like these, is naturally a criminal with
a tattoo. And he says to

I certainly

. These
women grab passers-by off the street and This is a house with
its legs in the air. In fact, whats being said isnt idle talk: they
couple in the streets like dogs and The only word for them is
she-devils and They answer their own front doors. You can
be sure that when he hears others talking slanderously he will
join in with Theres nobody I detest more than that man. Hes
got a repulsive face. And his depravity has no equal. I tell you: his
t co tcioicv co:ci ,tvvci :pt ycsc0 <:n nutpc> ti
ccv oioci sci [:ci] uypci c0ci vc,sti [:ni] :c0
lciotcvc [nutpci]. sci u,scnutvci otivc ttpi :c0 5
vc:v:c tittv sci pynv ,t tingc un tcytci unot
:cu cisticu co:c0 ciocpnci. sci tt:c ttpi :cv gicv 6 25
sci cisticv scsc tittv sci ttpi :cv :t:ttu:nsc:cv, <:c>
scsc t,tiv tcsccv tcppnicv sci onucspc:icv sci
ttutpicv sci :cv tv :ci ici noi:c :c0:c tcicv.
21 co Immisch: n V ,tvvc V, ,t,cvt V
<:n nutpc> Diggle
22 :ci del. Herwerden c0ci Meineke: ctci V 223 :ni
(om. c) et nutpci del. Ast 23 lciotcvc post Casaubon (lctio-)
Edmonds: lctiocvc V u,scnutvci Schwartz: -nutvc V 24
tingc Schneider: -gc:c V 25 ciocpnci V
: -tci V 26 <:c>
Hanow 28 epilogum qui post tcicv traditur quaere post cap. XXVII
wife brought hima dowry of a talent, but since she presented him
with a child he has given her only threepence a day for food and
he makes her wash in cold water during the month of Posideon.
And he is liable to talk to people in the nearby seats about the
man who has got up to speak, and once he has started he will not
stop before he has abused his relatives too. He will particularly
speak ill of his ownfriends and relatives and of the dead, claiming
that slander is only another word for free speech and democracy
and liberty, and he is never happier than when he is engaged
in it.
[ L:i ot n gictcvnpic ttiuuic scsic.] 1
c ot gictcvnpc [t:i] :cicot :i cc tv:u,yvtiv :c 2
n::nutvci sci onucicu ,cvc cgnsci sci otccu-
vtiv, tcv :c:ci ypn:ci, tuttipc:tpc ,tvntci sci
gctpc:tpc. sci tti :c ypn:c tittv c

,ivt:ci sci 3 5

c cooti t:i ypn:c sci cucicu tv:c tvci, sci

ttiscci ot 0 ypn:c t:i. sci :cv tcvnpcv ot tittv 4
tttpcv, tcv cn:ci :i ti t< >, sci :c utv
cc cucc,tv nn ottp co:c0 t,tci otc :cv vpc-
tcv, tvic ot



<tvci> ,cp co:cv toguc sci 10

git:cipcv sci ttioticv

sci oic:tivtci ot ottp co:c0 c

cos tv:t:ynstv vpctci scvc:tpci. sci t0vcu ot tvci 5
co:ci tv tssnici t,cv:i n tti oisc:npicu spivcutvci. sci
tpc <:cu> scnutvcu ot tittv otivc c Oo ot :cv
cvopc c :c tpc,uc spivtci. sci gnci co:cv svc 15
tvci :c0 onucu (ocs:tv ,cp co:cv :cu oisc0v:c) sci
tittv c Ooy tcutv :cu ottp :cv scivcv uvcytnc-
utvcu, cv :cu :cic:cu tpccutc. otivc ot sci tpc- 6
:c:nci gccv sci uvtopt0ci tv oisc:npici tti tcvnpc
tp,uci sci spiiv spivcv tsotytci :c otc :cv v:ioiscv 20
t,cutvc tti :c ytpcv.
[sci :c ccv n gictcvnpic otgn t:i :n tcvnpic, 7
sci nt t:i :c :n tcpciuic :c cucicv tpc :c cucicv
Tit. gictcvic s (item 1, 22, -tcvc 2) 1 del. Darvaris 2 t:i del.
Herwerden 3 cgnsci Coray, Schneider: cgt- V 7 ttiscci
Coray: -snci V 8 spat. c. vi litt. V 10 <tvci> Foss toguc
Darvaris: -n V 13 co:ci Meier: :ci V oisc:npicu Darvaris:
-ic V 14 tpc <:cu> scnutvcu Meier: tpcscnutvc V 16
ocs:tv Contos: gu::tiv V 17 tcutv V
: tcuci V
(uix ty-) 20
tp,uci V
: -iv V 224 del. Schweigh auser 22 n del. V
[Being Friendly with Villains is a desire for evil.]
The Friend of Villains is the sort of man who falls in with
people who have been defeated in the law courts and have lost
public cases, and supposes that if he associates with them he will
learn the tricks of the trade and become a man who is not to
be tried with. He says of honest men that

and that
there is no such thing as an honest man, because people are all
the same, and he will say sarcastically What an honest man he
is. He describes the villain as a man of independent charac-
ter, if someone wishes < >, and he agrees that what is
said about him by people is partly true, but claims that some

, for in fact (so he claims) he is smart, loyal, and
shrewd; and he pulls out all the stops on his behalf, insisting that
he has never met an abler man. He supports him when he is
speaking in the Assembly or when he is on trial in court. He is
apt to say to the jury You must judge the case, not the man.
And he describes him as the peoples guard-dog (because he
barks at offenders) and claims We shall have nobody willing to
trouble their heads on our behalf if we throw away people like
this. He is also apt to patronise riff-raff and sit with them on
the jury to see that villainy is done, and his judgement is warped
by a propensity to put the worst possible construction on the
arguments advanced by the opposing parties.
[In sum, being friendly with villains is akin to villainy. They
are, as the proverb puts it, birds of a feather.]
[ H ot ciypcstpoti t:iv ttiuuic stpocu ciypc0.] 1
c ot ciypcstpon :cic0:c <:i> cc t:icv cp:cu 2
scvcu un tcpctvci. sci ocvticci tcpc tvcu tcp 3
co:ci sc:ccv:c. sci oicvtucv utpioc gnci oiscicv 4
tvci oiucipicv :ci oicvtucv:i oiocci sci tou co:ci 5
vtuci. sci civctccv stspcutvcv :cv cvcv :ci gici tc- 5
occi. sci tti tcv :nvisc0:c tcpttci c,cv :cu ocu 6
nvis cv tpcsc tigpciv c tc:pcvci. sci tconucv 7
onucici :c utv ts :n tctc tgcoicv csci sc:cittv,
tcpc ot :cv uutpttucv:cv ocvticci

sci :ci sc- 10

cci utcv gcp:icv ttitvci n ovc:ci gtptiv sci tyi-
:c tti:notic :cv ccv tcptytiv

sci <:cv> tvicv :c

utpc :c co:c0 tci:nc tcocci. sci tigcutvc tv 8
:ci ccvtici [sci] ttc :ci tciocpici ctpcv ,t :c
tcicv ttpic :ci c:pici tigtci. sci :cv otc :cv 9 15
cist:cv topiscutvcv ycscv tv :c coc otivc tci:-
nci :c utpc, scivcv tvci gnc :cv Lpunv. sci ciu:icv 10
tsoc0vci t0vci sci ypnutvc tcpc ,vcpiucu tgtsci
Tit. ciypcstpotic 1 del. Darvaris t:i V ttiuuic Bloch:
ttpicuic V 2 c ot ci- :cic0:c <:i> Hanow: t:i ot :cic0:c c
ci- V t:icv Coray, Schneider: ticv V 4 co:ci Edmonds: co- V
5 oiucipicv Petersen: oiucipci V co:ci Amadutius: co- V 634 sci
. . . ci post cap. XI habent AB 6 tcoiocci A (A
) 7
:nvisc0:c V: nvis cv otn(i) AB c,cv V, coni. Gale: ticv AB ocu
Diggle: ucu V: ut AB 8 nvis cv Hanow: nvisc ABV tigpciv
Diggle: giciv AB: gciv V c tc:pcvci AB: tti t:pcv V 10
uutpttucv:cv V: -tu:cv AB ocvticci V: -tci AB 11
ttitvci hoc loco V: post sccci AB 12 :cv ccv Coray, Schnei-
der: ccv V: :cv scvcv AB tcptytiv V: om. AB 12 <:cv> o
1213 tvicv :c utpc AB (:c utpc bis B): tvcv ot utpc V 13 co:c0
Stephanus: co- ABV 14 sci del. Lycius ttc Cobet: titcv AB: tttp
V :ci tciocpici hoc locoAuberius: :c(i) t- ante :ci - AB, tciocpic
uel tciopicv (tciop ) ante :ci - V 15 ttpic AB: om. V 1516
otc :cv cis- hoc loco Diggle: post ycscv V: post coc AB 16 cist:cv
AB: cisticv V 1719 sci . . . tci:nni V: om. AB 17 ciu:icv
Meineke: u:icv V
[Shabby Proteering is desire for shabby prot.]
The Shabby Proteer is the kind who does not provide
enough bread when he entertains. He borrows money from a
visitor who is staying with him. When he is serving out helpings
he says that it is right and proper that the server should be given
a double helping and so he proceeds to give himself one. When
he has wine for sale he sells it to a friend watered down. He
takes his sons to the theatre only when there is free admission.
When he goes abroad on public service he leaves his ofcial
travel allowance at home and borrows from the other delegates,
loads his attendant with more baggage than he can carry and
provides him with shorter rations than anyone else, and asks for
his share of the presents and then sells them. When he is oiling
himself in the baths he says to his slave The oil you bought
is rancid and he uses someone elses. If his slaves nd a few
coppers in the street he is liable to demand a portion of them,
saying Fair shares for all. He takes his cloak to the cleaners
and borrows one from an acquaintance and puts off returning
tticu nutpc tc cv tci:nni. [sci :c :cic0:c.] <sci> 11
1tiocvtici ut:pci :cv tvocsc tistspcuutvci ut:ptv co:c 20
:c tvocv :c tti:notic gcopc tccv. <sci>

otctpic- 12
ci gicu ocsc0v:c tpc :pctcu tctci tticcv

. utti ot sci yptc tcoiocu :piscv:c uvcv 13

tc::cv :t::cpi opcyuc tcoc0vci. sci :cv ocv ot un 14
tcptucutvcv ti :c oiocsctcv :cv unvc ccv oi :iv 25
ppc:icv gciptv :c0 uic0 sc:c c,cv, sci :cv Avt-
:npicvc unvc un ttuttiv co:cu ti :c ucnuc:c oic :c
tc tvci tc, vc un :cv uicv ts:ivni. sci tcpc tcioc 15
scuicutvc tcgcpcv :c0 ycsc0 :nv ttisc:cc,nv tpc-

sci c,iucv ot cuvcv tcpc :c0 ytipicv:c 30

< >. sci gp:tpc t:icv ci:tv :c tcu:c0 tciiv 16
ts :c0 scivc0 ccv, :c ot sc:ctitcutvc tc :n :pcttn
pcgcviocv nuitc tc,pgtci, v c oicscvc0v:t tcot
unci. <sci>uvctconucv ot ut:c,vcpiucv ypncci 17
:c tstivcv tcii, :cv ot tcu:c0 tc uicci sci un vcgt- 35
ptiv ti :c scivcv :cv uicv. utti ot sci uvc,cv:cv tcp 18
co:ci otctvci <:i> :cv tcp tcu:c0 oiocutvcv cv
sci gcscv sci ccu sci ccv sci tcicu :c0 ti :cv yvcv.
sci ,cuc0v:c :ivc :cv gicv n tsoiocutvcu u,c:tpc tpc 19
ypcvcu :ivc tconunci vc <un> ttuni tpcgcpv. sci 20 40
tcpc :cv ,vcpiucv :cic0:c siypcci un: cv tci:nci
un: cv tcoiocv:cv :cytc cv :i scuici:c.
19 sci :c (V: :c ot on AB) :cic0:c del. Schneider <sci> Ast
20 1tiocvtici b, Cobet: -ocvic(i) AB: -ocutvc V :cv AB:
om. V tvocsc tistspcuutvci Casaubon: t- tsstspcuutvc(i) AB:
t(. . . .)ocs(. . .)stspcu(. .)utvc V (cum spatiis uac.) 21 :c tti:notic
gcopc tccv AB: gcopc ot otctcv :c tt- V <sci>Bloch 22
ocsc0v:c . . . tctci V: om. AB tticcv tcocci AB: om.
V 23 utti ot sci yp- AB: sci yp- ot V yptc Cobet: -tc AB: -tn
V 24 :t::cpi V: :t:pci AB opc,ucv B (B
) tcoc0vci V:
-oiocvci AB 2430 sci . . . ytipicv:c V: om. AB 24 ocv Diggle:
ucv V 25 :iv Unger: :nv V 30 ytipicv:c V
: yp- V 31 lac.
indic. Schneider sci gp- t:icv ci:tv AB: gp- tum spat. c. vi litt. uac. V
gp:tpc Herwerden: -:cpc ABV tcu:c0 V: co- AB 32 sc:c-
itcutvc B 33 pcgcviocv nuitc V: nuin :cv pcg- AB v AB: vc
V 34 citv A <sci>Foss 37 co:ci Coray: tcu- V <:i>
Diggle tcu:c0 V
: -:c V 39 n Coray, Schneider: sci V 40
<un> Amadutius ttuni Ussing: tpct- V 41 tci:nci Coray,
Schneider: -:nci V
it for several days until it is demanded back. [And the like.]
He measures out the rations for the household in person, using
a measuring jar set to the old Pheidonian standard, that has
had its bottom dinted inwards, and rigorously levels off the top.

. And you can be sure that when he
repays a debt of thirty minae he pays it back four drachmas
short. When his sons do not attend school for the full month
because of illness he deducts a proportion of the fees, and he
does not send them for lessons during Anthesterion, to avoid
the expense, because there are so many shows. When he collects
his share of a slaves earnings he charges him for the cost of
exchanging the copper coin; and when he gets an account from
< >. When he entertains members
of his phratry he asks for food for his slaves from the communal
meal, but he has an inventory made of the radish-halves left
over from the table, so that the slaves waiting at the table wont
get them. When he is abroad with acquaintances he uses their
slaves and lets his own slave out for hire and doesnt put the
proceeds towards the joint account. And, needless to say, when
the dining club meets at his house he charges for the rewood,
beans, vinegar, salt and lamp-oil that he is providing. When a
friend is getting married or marrying off a daughter he leaves
town some time before, so that he wont have to send a present.
And he borrows from acquaintances the kinds of thing which
nobody would demand back or be in a hurry to take back if
Introductory note
That the Preface is spurious was rst argued by C. G. Sonntag, Dissertatio
in Prooemium Characterum Theophrasti (Leipzig 1787). But it had already been
stigmatised by Furlanus in 1605 (Praefatio indigna . . . tanto philosopho). The
writer is aged 99; Theophrastus died at 85.
The writer has sons; Theophrastus
died childless.
He says that he has sketched good characters as well as bad.
He speaks crassly about the Greek climate and Greek education. His style
is repetitive and banal. He is probably of late imperial or early Byzantine
date, and he may be the pedant who composed the moralising epilogues.
The longest of the epilogues (VIII) shares several linguistic features with the
Preface: a predilectionfor the perfect tense (epil. VIII n.); the nountti:notuuc;
successive clauses linked by ,p; and :tcucsc :i tc:t (VIII) reminiscent of
tcucc . . . cuucv

:i ,cp ontc:t.
The educative purpose which he
nds in the work reminds us of Stobaeus, who compiled his anthology tti :ci
puuici sci t:icci :ci tcioi :nv giv (1.3 Wachsmuth).
The heading tpcciuicv is found only in Laur. 87.14 (11 Wilson), a descen-
dant of A (Stefanis (1994a) 83 n. 33). More commonly tpctcpic (e); also
Otcgpc:c lcust and the like (c).
1 cki . . . tooo: a formulaic expression, reecting the opening
words of X. Mem. 1, Isoc. 4 (tcsi tcucc), Alcid. Od. (tcsi non
tvtuunnv sci tcucc); cf. Lys. 12.41, X. Mem. 3.13.3, PCG adesp. 1017.47,
Plb. 18.13.1, Powell on Cic. Sen. 4 saepenumero admirari soleo.
See the Introduction, pp. 13, 16. The Aged Sage is a recurrent literary ction (M. L.
West, HSCPh 73 (1969) 1212).
As may be inferred from his will (D.L. 5.517). In any case the sons of a man of 99
would be too old for moral instruction. If by ut the writer means young people or
school-children (Steinmetz), he has expressed himself carelessly.
See the Introduction, p. 18.
Pasquali (1918) 14750, (1919) 12 = (1986) 629, has some useful comments on style
and language.
M. Untersteiner, Studi sulla sostica. Il proemio dei Caratteri di Teofrasto e un
probabile frammento di Ippia, RFIC26 (1948) 125 =Scritti Minori (Brescia 1971) 465
88, has the bizarre notion that 14 (t,c) are froma work ltpi tciocv ,c,n by
the sophist Hippias, addressed not to lcsti but to ltpisti (a corruption unique
to Vat. Pal. gr. 149 (57 Wilson) in 3; for its history in printed editions see Torraca
(1994a) 912).
ti:(o :jv civciov: elsewhere with dat. (D.S. 12.1.1) or prep. (sc: +
acc., Isoc. 9.69; ttpi + gen., Arist. Metaph. 987
34; tti + acc., Polystr. De
contemptu 30. 278 (p. 128 Indelli), D.H. 1.2.1, J. BJ 5.462); with no adjunct, as
here, fr. 68 Wimmer (122A Fortenbaugh) ap. Alex.Aphr. (but this need not be
a verbatim quotation). Here, without adjunct, the expression sits awkwardly.
The writer may have had in mind the opening of X. Lac. t,ctvvcnc . . .
tcucc s:.
coc: not . . . either (Denniston 1945).
: yop c(c:t k:.: this would come more naturally as an indirect question
(cuutiv :i ontc:t D. 19.80, 24.6, 41.14, 51.11, Prooem. 14.1, Aeschin. 1.17,
D.H. 5.50.4). But ,p must then either be omitted (Casaubon, also M) or
changed to cpc (Madvig). To retain ,p and punctuate without a question
mark is perverse.
:J Ecc oo :ov oo:ov po ktivy: that national character is
conditioned by climate was a traditional doctrine: e.g. Hp. Aer. 1223 (2.5286
Littr e), Hdt. 2.35.2, Pl. Lg. 747d-e, Epin. 987d, Arist. Pol. 1327
2036, Plb.
4.201, Str. 2.3.7 (Posidon. fr. 49.310ff. Edelstein-Kidd), Liv. 38.17.10, Tac.
Germ. 29, Gal. 4.798808 K uhn; K. Tr udinger, Studien zur Geschichte der griechisch-
r omischen Ethnographie (Basel 1918) 516, E. Kienzle, Der Lobpreis von St adten und
L andern in der alteren griechischen Dichtung (Kallm unz 1936) 1418, J. O. Thomson,
History of Ancient Geography (Cambridge 1948) 1069, F. W. Walbank, C&M 9
(1948) 17881, id. HSCPh 76 (1972) 1567 = Selected Papers (Cambridge 1985)
667, E. Norden, Die germanische Urgeschichte in Tacitus Germania (Stuttgart
5966, A. Dihle, Zur Hellenistischen Ethnographie, in Grecs et Barbares (Entre-
tiens Hardt 8, 1962) 20532, Pease onCic. Diu. 1.79 andNat.Deor. 2.17; cf. Oliver
Goldsmith, The Effect which Climates have upon Men, and other Animals
(1760), in A. Friedman (ed.), Collected Works 3 (Oxford 1966) 11214. Our writer
has dimly remembered this doctrine, but is unaware that within Greece itself
there was no uniformity of climate. Athens claimed a climate surpassing all
others, and Athenians were cleverer than Boeotians because they breathed a
purer air: E. Med. 82730 gtpcutvci stivc::cv cgicv, citi oiccutpc:-
:cu civcv:t cpc citpc, Pl. Ti. 24c :c:nv cov on :c:t utccv :nv
oicscuniv sci v:civ n tc tpc:tpcu ouc oicscuncc sc:cisitv
tstcutvn :cv :ctcv tv ci ,t,tvnt, :nv tospcicv :cv cpcv tv co:ci
sc:ioc0c, c:i gpcviuc::cu cvopc cci, PCGadesp. 155.5, 1001.14 (Men.
fab. inc. 2.14 Arnott), Cic. Fat. 7 Athenis tenue caelum, ex quo etiam acutiores putantur
Attici, crassum Thebis, itaque pingues Thebani et ualentes, Hor. Ep. 2.1.244 Boeotum
in crasso iurares aere natum (cf. Juv. 10.50 ueruecum in patria crassoque sub aere nasci);
M. Goebel, Ethnica, pars prima: De Graecarum Ciuitatum Proprietatibus Prouerbio
notatis (Breslau 1915) 578, 96. That the author lived abroad (Steinmetz) is an
unsafe inference, and would not rescue his credit. <tn> :n Loc
(Casaubon), giving a neat balance with tv:cv :cv Lnvcv, would be an
attractive proposal in a better writer.
v:ov :v E(vov 6co oictucvov: this is equally far from real-
ity, whether through ignorance or ineptitude.
:iv :v :pov: cf. Gorg. Hel. 14, Pl. R. 618b :i (:n) uyn; Ph. De
Abr. 47 (4.11 Cohn-Wendland) t:t vopcv t:t uyn :pctcv tvcpucvic n
2 yp: an illogical connective.
d Hckti: a name common both in Attica and elsewhere (LGPN 1.378,
2.3723, 3a.369).
koi tioko t:y tvtv(kcv:o tvvo: Theophrastus lived to 85 (D.L. 5.40).
Jerome, Ep. 52.3.5, whosays that he livedto107, has muddledhimwithGorgias,
froma careless recollection of Cic. Sen. 13.
It is idle to write tocunscv:ctvvtc
(Casaubon, Proleg.) or to emend D.L. (Casaubon, commentary). The clause is
oddly coordinated with sci; but c:t or c:t sci (Casaubon) are implausible.
oiyko co :t koi ov:ccoo ti: borrowed fromPl. R. 408d
tcv:coctc gtiv cuinsc:t. The pairing tc- sci tcv:coct- is very
common (e.g. HP 7.9.2, Hp. Aer. 9.1 (2.36 Littr e), Hdt. 9.84.1, Isoc. 9.8, Pl.
Smp. 193e, X. An. 6.4.5, D. 10.54, Aeschin. 1.127, Arist. Diu.Somn. 463
Plb. 1.53.13), but :t sci (an affectation of this writer; def. VI n.) is a very
uncommon copula with this expression (X. HG 2.4.25, Cyr. 4.2.28, Aristox.
Harm. 38 (p. 129.21 Macran), though sci alone 34 (p. 125.22)).
opo:ttovc: inspect side by side, as Pl. Ep. 313c (the only other
instance cited by LSJ), like the commoner tcpctcptv; differently Ph. Leg.
269 (6.205 Cohn-Wendland) :cu tv ssci tcpttc:c (of a man seeing with
t kpito: not attested before Cyr.Al. (v ad); commonly oi (LSJ
spitic 1), occasionally ut: (Arist. PA 668
29, J. AJ 1.214).
uyypoi tk:tpci oo:v ti:yctcuiv tv :i oi: after nearly a
century of observing human nature, consorting with all types, and scrupulously
comparing good and bad, to write what the good and the bad practise in their
lives is disappointingly unambitious in aspiration and expression. tsc:ci
(Edmonds 1929, from M) is rash.
3 ko:o yvc o . . . yvy :pov . . . v :pcv: clumsy repetitions.
Jerome borrows in this passage from Sen. 23, where Cicero explicitly refers back to 13.
Jerome does not actually name sapiens ille Graeciae, but the remark which he attributes
to him implies Theophrastus (cf. Cic. Tusc. 3.69 = T. fr. 34a Fortenbaugh). Themistocles
(or the like) in some manuscripts is either a crass interpolation or a corruption of an
intelligent interpolation Theophrastus. Cf. Fortenbaugh, Quellen 238.
pckttvo: this correction (of tpcs-), rst printed (without comment) by
Stephanus, is found in several manuscripts, of which the earliest is Laur. 87.14
(11 Wilson), a descendant of A (Torraca (1974) 82, Stefanis (1994a) 118); others
are Laur. 60.25 (8 Wilson) and Vat. Urb. 119 (59 Wilson) (Stefanis 99). For the
corruption, II.8n.
:Ji cikcvcoi ypv:oi: conduct the management (of themselves and their
affairs) is not a sensible expression.
c opoctyoi ypotvci: not c <c> t- (Schwartz), which would
be contrary to normal idiom, as exemplied by Th. 3.10.6 tcpcoti,uci :c
tpc,i,vcutvci ypcutvci, Lys. 14.12 :c:ci tcpcoti,uc:i ypcutvci, 32
:c out:tpci pt:c ypn:ci tcpcoti,uci, 25.23, [And.] 4.22, Pl. Euthphr.
6e, R. 529d, 540a, Lg. 794e, Isoc. 1.51, 12.16, Lycurg. 83, D. 4.3, 24.144,
Aeschin. 1.92, Arist. EE 1216
27, Plb. 1.20.15, D.S. 1.1.4, etc.
toyycvt::ci: -t:tpci (Edmonds 1929, from M) may be better, but
is unwise.
oo:v: co:cv (M. Schmidt), so that they should not fail themselves, is too
4 ov ct opokccuJo :t p koi ticJoi ti p yo: cf. Pl. Phd.
89a tpc:pttv tpc :c tcptttci :t sci uscttv :cv c,cv. The rst
cpc (om. o) is pointless. But toucc (Edmonds 1929, cl. Aeschin. 1.116
tcpcsccutv toucc) does the writer too much credit. Aorist tionci is
found in Arist. EN 1156
27, [Arist.] Pr. 921
26, MM 1182
5 etc., Hp. and later
(LSJ toc, foot of col. 483a; Veitch 217, Schwyzer 1.755, 778, E. Mayser, Gram-
matik der griechischen Papyri aus der Ptolem aerzeit 1.2 (Berlin and Leipzig 1938) 145).
But the verb is ineptly chosen, and the writer may have mistakenly associated
it with tocv.
p:cv tv cv


:v :jv tipovtov tyok:ov: I shall

rst . . . those who have affected (striven after) dissembling (LSJ ncc ii).
In this sentence he appears to state what his rst subject will be, and in the
next sentence he appears to describe what his technique will be: I shall rst
(speak of?) dissembling . . . And I shall begin with (the concept of) dissembling
and dene it, then describe the dissembler. Taken this way, the language is
clumsily repetitive rather than tautologous. We need not contemplate deletion
(Pauw suggested that the two sentences are alternatives; Herwerden deleted
the former, Sitzler cv . . . tncsc:cv) or the bold replacement of tipcvticv
with ytipcvc cptiv (B ucheler, Edmonds 1929). But no remedy for the syntax
carries conviction. tcincuci <:cv c,cv tc> (o) is a crude conjecture,
unacceptable without change (:cv c,cv ttpi Herwerden, :nv pynv tc
Sitzler), all of these introducing further repetitive language (:cv c,cv above,
cpcuci below, tc below). tcincuci :cv . . . tncsc:c (Stefanis (1994a)
120) is an unlikely expression; and the plural :cv tncsc:cv (of a piece with
the plurals in several of the epilogues) is unexceptionable. uvncuci (Needham)
and <uvticv> tcincuci (Foss 1858) are unappealing.
ti :o pcciitoi koi co po :c pyo:c ytiv: he will
move on to his rst subject, dispensing with preamble and superuous talk.
tp,uc:c is question, matter in hand (LSJ tpc,uc ii.8), and ttpc :c0
tp- is a blend of tc :c0 tp,uc:c (LSJ tc i.2.b, Whitehead on Hyp. Eux.
31), actually proposed here by Edmonds 1929, and ttpc :c0 otcv:c and
the like (LSJ ttpc iii.2). The preamble is this preface, not a preamble about
dissembling. To accept ttpi :c0 tp,uc:c (AB) obliges us to take the mat-
ter to be dissembling, and the preamble to be a preamble about dissembling,
with a feeble and repetitive sequence of thought, as may be seen in a typical
translation: I shall speak rst of those who affect dissembling, dispensing with
preliminaries and details about the topic. I shall begin with dissembling . . .
(Rusten). The conjecture ttpi::c tp,uc:c in three descendants of A(Stefa-
nis (1994a) 84) is evidence that even a copyist sensed the feebleness. E. Mehler,
Mnemosyne 6 (1878) 404, proposed ttpi::c (without tp,uc:c), in ignorance
of that reading.
5 c0:o: simply, at once, without more ado (LSJ a.iv). c (Schwartz),
picked up by sci at the beginning of the next sentence (ut . . . ita), is not an
ti :vo :pcv ko:tv(vtk:oi: to what manner of behaviour he is inclined
(LSJ sc:cgtpc iii, sc:cgtpn ii); unless the character into which he has
drifted (Jebb) is better (II.2n.).
:v oy:ov: affections of the mind (Jebb), emotions (Rusten). How-
ever translated, the word is inept. And the partitive gen. with :c cc is
ko:o yvc: another clumsy repetition (3).
koi:voi: for sct:vci (AB), rst conjectured by Fischer, anticipated
(accented -cvci) by two descendants of A (Torraca (1974) 82); much likelier
than sc:c:nci (o).
Introductory note
The etymology and primary meaning of tpcv are uncertain. O. Ribbeck,
Ueber den Begriff des tpcv, RhM 31 (1876) 381400, remains fundamental.
See also L. Schmidt, Commentatio de tpcvc Notione apud Aristonemet Theophrastum
(Marburg 1873),
W. B uchner,

Uber den Begriff der Eironeia, Hermes 76 (1941)
33958, Z. Pavlovskis, Aristotle, Horace, and the Ironic Man, CPh 63 (1968)
2241, L. Bergson, Eiron und Eironeia, Hermes 99 (1971) 40922, F. Amory,
Eiron and Eironeia, C&M 33 (1981) 4980, J. Cotter, The etymology and
earliest signicance of tpcv, Glotta 70 (1992) 314. There is nothing new
in G. Markantonatos, On the origin and meaning of the word tipcvtic,
RFIC 103 (1975) 1621. T. G. Rosenmeyer, Ironies in serious drama, in M. S.
Silk (ed.), Tragedy and the Tragic: Greek Theatre and Beyond (Oxford 1996) 497519,
gives a useful classication of types of irony, ancient and modern, and extensive
Before Aristotle the word and its cognates are found only in comedy, Plato
and the orators, who apply them to deceitful or dissembling behaviour, pre-
tence of ignorance or innocence, making of excuses, hypocrisy, disingenuous-
ness. They rst appear in Aristophanes: Nu. 449 tpcv in a catalogue of abusive
terms for trickster; V. 174 ccv tpcgciv scnstv c tipcvisc of a cunning
excuse; Au. 1211 tipcvtt:ci of pretended ignorance. In later comedy, Philem.
93.6 tpcv :ni gti of a fox, the epitome of slyness. They are applied dis-
paragingly to Socrates, who hoodwinks others by feigning ignorance (Pl. Ap.
37e, Cra. 384a, Grg. 489e, R. 337a, Smp. 216e, 218d; cf. Euthd. 302b, Lg. 908e,
Sph. 268a-d).
When Demosthenes accuses his countrymen of tipcvtic, he is
accusing themof shilly-shallying and inventing excuses to avoid their civic and
military duties (4.7, 37; cf. 60.18, Prooem. 14.3, Din. 2.11).
Aristotle, for whomeach virtue is a mean between two opposed vices, places
tipcvtic and ccvtic on opposite sides of ntic.
The ccv pretends
to more than the truth, the tpcv to less: EN1108
1923 ttpi utv cov :c nt
c utv utc nn :i sci n utc:n ntic t,tc, n ot tpctcini n
Future editors of EN should assign the conjecture tpcv for tipcvtic at 1124
30 to
Schmidt (ivv), not Susemihl (Teubner 1887), who had reviewed Schmidt in JAW 1
(1873) 2079.
G. Vlastos, Socratic irony, CQ 37 (1987) 7996 (= Socrates, Ironist and Moral Philosopher
(Cambridge 1991) 2144), unconvincingly dissociates Socratic irony from deception
or pretence. See P. Gottlieb, CQ 42 (1992) 2789, I. Vasiliou, CQ 49 (1999) 45672, 52
(2002) 22030.
See the Introduction, p. 6.
utv tti :c utcv ccvtic sci c tycv co:nv ccv, n o tti :c tc:-
:cv tipcvtic sci tpcv <c tycv> (cf. EE 1221
6, 245, MM 1186
2835). The ccv claims creditable qualities that he does not pos-
sess or possesses to a lesser degree than he claims, while the tpcv disclaims
or depreciates qualities that he does possess: EN 1127
203 ocst on c utv
ccv tpctcin:isc :cv tvoccv tvci sci un otcpycv:cv sci uticvcv
n otpyti, c ot tpcv vtciv pvtci :c otpycv:c n t::c tcitv.
The tpcv wilfully misrepresents himself for the worse, the ccv for the
better: EE 1233
2 c utv ,cp tti :c ytipc sc co:c0 tuocutvc
un ,vccv tpcv, c o tti :c t:ic ccv. For Aristotle, then, the mark of
the tpcv is self-depreciation and self-denigration. He adds (EN 1127
that the tpcv is generally a more agreeable character (ycpit:tpc) than the
ccv, for his motive is likely to be purer: not desire for gain but avoidance
of pomposity or ostentation (:c c,snpcv). But he can be commended only if
(like Socrates) he disowns what is creditable or highly esteemed (:c tvocc);
some manifestations of mock-humility (like extreme negligence of dress) are
no better than ccvtic. See also S. Vogt, Aristoteles, Physiognomica (Darmstadt
1999) 3814.
The Lpcv of Theophrastus is very different. He does not depreciate or
denigrate himself. He conceals his true feelings (2), feigns indifference to
criticism (2), is evasive and non-committal and invents excuses (4), capri-
ciously misleads (5), and is pat with professions of disbelief (6). He is, in
essence, a dissembler, and he dissembles without motive (Gomperz (1889) 15,
W. W. Fortenbaugh, Gnomon 68 (1996) 454).
Some, indeed, have found him a
motive: to avoid trouble and inconvenience (B uchner (above) 348, Gaiser 28,
Bergson (above) 415, Stein 612, Rusten 168); even a polite indifference, an
unwillingness to be drawn into what, after all, does not concern him (Ussher).
This does not square with 2 (he goes out of his way to encounter his enemies,
when he could have avoided them) and 5 (to claim that you have something
for sale when you have not is to invite trouble).
Ariston of Keos draws a subtler and richer portrait of the tpcv, and offers
a glimmer of a motive for his conduct.
He is clever and persuasive; in
demeanour expressive and versatile, in behaviour unpredictable and some-
times dramatic. Ariston (or Philodemus) describes him as a type of ccv.
In so far as his aim, in his self-denigration, is to atter others, he resembles the
Aptsc or the Kcc of Theophrastus.
See the Introduction, p. 12 n. 39.
Text in F. Wehrli, Die Schule des Aristoteles, vi: Lykon und Ariston von Keos (Basel
1968) fr.
14, VIVIII, Rusten 1904. On Ariston see the Introduction, pp. 910; on the tpcv,
L. Schmidt, Ribbeck 3958 (both cited above), Pasquali (1919) 1516 = (1986) 889,
Kn ogel (cited p. 10 n. 29) 349, B uchner 3503, Pavlovskis 26, Bergson 41516 (all
cited above), Gigante (p. 10 n. 29) 127.
[1 ] Denition
tv cv: at the opening of a denition, only here and def. XII; elsewhere
only in two spurious passages (pr. 4, VIII.5). Presumably cov emphasizing a
prospective utv (Denniston 473 (2)). Deletion of cov (Sicherl) is pointless.
ctitv v tvoi: in denitions, transmitted in IV, VII, XXVI, XXVII,
restored for octitv tvci in XVI, XXV and for octi tvci in XIII, XXI,
XXIII; also in two spurious passages (VI.7, XVI.13); octitv cv is ubiquitous
in Arist. and in T.s other writings.
o :oi otv: the same expression HP 1.1.6, CP 1.20.3, Arist. Top. 103
(cf. Pl. R. 559a vc :tci cutv co:); similarly c :tci ttpictv HP
2.6.12, Arist. Top. 101
18, 105
19, c tittv :tci HP 1.1.6, 6.1.3, CP 4.9.4,
c :tci tittv Arist. Cat. 1
28, 11
20. Since c tv :tci is also found (HP
1.2.2, Pl. R. 414a, Arist. de An. fr. 4 (424
15), EN 1129
11, Pol. 1323
10, Oec.
12), c tv (ac
, combining c B and tv A) could be right. Cf. def. IX,
XX c cpci ctv (def. V ttpictv, XIV tittv); Hindenlang 70.
pccyi ti ytpcv ptov koi yov: ineptly expressed, like
def. XIII tpctcini :i c,cv sci tptcv ut: tovcic. A gen. after
tpctcini should be objective (pretence of, pretension to), as in def.
XXIII tpctcini (Auberius: tpcocsic V) :i ,ccv cos cv:cv (fur-
ther examples in Stein). The writer appears to want pretence (consisting) in.
He has strung together vocabulary from EN 1108
21 (tpctcini) and EE
1 (tti :c ytipc), both quoted in the Introd. Note, and the common
Aristotelian pairing of tpti and c,ci (EN 1108
11, 1127
20, 1128
5, Rh.
3, 1400
16, MM 1193
2, 21; also Pl. Sph. 219c, [Pl.] Def. 413b). There are
similar pairings of speech and action in def. VI, VIII, XIV. Perhaps tti <:c>
ytpcv (Mac, coni. Casaubon), as XXIX.5 and consistently in Aristotle (EN
1, Metaph. 1019
27, 1019
2, 1046
14, Pol. 1332
2, Rh. 1389
21, 1390
11, MM 1196
29, also Diph. 104.2; similarly, in the passages quoted in the
Introd. Note, EN 1108
212 tti :c utcv . . . tti :c tc::cv, EE 1233
39 tti
:c ytipc); cf. def. V tti :ci t:i:ci, XVII tcpc :c tpcnscv, XXVIII
ti :c ytpcv. And perhaps tpctcini <:i> (Orth), as in def. XIII and
XXIV (:i also def. XVIII, XXII, XXIV, XXV, XXVI).
Self-denigration (if that is what pretence for the worse in action and speech
is designed to express) is characteristic of the tpcv of Aristotle, but not of
Theophrastus. And the sketch exemplies c,ci but not tpti. Further
discussion in Gomperz (1889) 34, 1416, Stein 624.
2 6 ct tpov :cic: :i cc: :cic0:c (:i) cc + inn. is a common
formula, introducing a generalised description of behaviour or personality
(e.g. Pl. Ap. 31a, Cri. 46b, Cra. 395a, X. HG 6.5.7, Cyr. 1.2.3, Mem. 2.6.37,
D. 25.39, Antiph. 166.68, 188.56, often in Aristotle; similarly Ariston fr. 14,
I and VII) or a character type (e.g. [Arist.] MM1203
12 c utv ,cp scc:c
:cic0:c :i cc, VV 1251
22 t:i ot :cic0:c t:iv c uispcuyc cc). The
sketches normally begin, after the spurious denition, c ot (name of character)
:cic0:c (or :cicot) :i cc. The behaviour of AB and V, when examined
as a whole, suggests that divergences are the product of corruption, not of a
desire for variety. Here :i B, t:iv A. In I-XV B has :i in twelve sketches,
omits :i in two (IX, XI), and has t:iv instead of :i in one (III). Of the twelve
where B has :i, A has :i in seven (II in effect, VIII, X, XII, XIII, XIV, XV),
omits :i in one (IV), has t:i :i in one (VII), t:i(v) in three (I, V, VI); in the
remaining three, A like B omits :i in two (IX, XI) and has t:iv instead of :i
in one (III). In XVI-XXX, V has :i in twelve, omits :i in one (XXVI), has
t:i with :i in one (XXIX t:i :cicot :i), and t:i with abnormal word
order in one (XXX t:i ot :cic0:c c). It is reasonable to regard t:i, when it
occurs, as an interpolation. And it is reasonable to restore :i in the few places
where it is not attested (III, IX, XI, XXVI, XXX); scribes who could omit cc
(XIII) or :cic0:c (XXV) could as easily omit :i. The only variations then
remaining to the pattern are II :cv ot sccsc :cic0:cv :ivc c:t (where
the accusatives cannot be right), V utti added (and to be deleted) before
:cic0:c, and the unique word order in XXX (to be remedied by c ot . . .
:cic0:c :i).
We do not know how Theophrastus himself began the sketch. Perhaps
O tpcv :cic0:c :i t:iv cc. Or O tpcv :cic0:c :i cc, since t:iv
is dispensable (Pl. Cri. 46b, Arist. EE 1245
1415, and MM 1203
12 cited
pctov :c typc: contrast XXIV.6 tpcttv tpc:tpc cootvi
ttnci. The verb denotes a deliberate encounter (XI.7, XII.2, 4, XIII.7,
8, XX.4n.), not an accidental one, such as might have been expressed by
tv:u,yvcv (VII.2, XXIV.8; but see 4n.).
ttiv otv

co itv

: He is willing to chat with his enemies, not hate

them is unacceptable, for three reasons. (i) The sense is inept: tttiv (XV.10,
XVI.9, XXIV.6, all with negative) suits ctv (Introd. Note to VII) but not
uitv. We may not translate tttiv as pegen, be accustomedto (Steinmetz),
since this sense requires an inanimate subject (LSJ ii.2). (ii) Asyndeton of posi-
tive and negative verbs is not in T.s manner. His manner is negative + +
positive: 4 below, VI.5, XV.4, XVI.6, 9, XVII.4, XVIII.6, 8, XIX.3, XXII.6,
10, XXIV.13, XXIX.5. (iii) The negative ought to be un, not co (VI.9n.).
Deletion of co uitv (Darvaris before Ussing) is gratuitous: there was no
motive for addition, and the expression is too crass for a gloss on ctv. Of
conjectures which retain ctv none appeals: t- - co uicv Pauw, [tttiv]
- <c>co uicv Bloch (cf. II.4 c on co), t- - <c>co uicv Dobree, t-
- <ocscv gitv>co uitv Darvaris, - ttcv <occi>co uitv Foss 1834,
t- - co <ocscv> uitv Herwerden, t- - <sci tpctcitci gitv> co
uitv Ribbeck 1876, t- - <sci> cuitv (t- cuitv Pierson ap. Naber) Birt
(Kritik und Hermeneutik 35 n. 2). Some descendants of A (Torraca (1974) 83)
replace ctv with a trite conjecture gitv: hence t- gitv <ocstv> co
u- Reiske 1757 (t- ocstv co u- Haupt), t- gitv c0 uit Schneider (t- -
c0 uit Nauck 1863, where c0 uit becomes an otiose appendage after :c
typc). Conceivably ctv (B) is no less an error than ctv (A); and we
might consider ctv,
matching pci immediately below. But we cannot
have either t- ctv uicv (Kayser) or t- ctv c:i uit (Navarre 1918, same
construction as Pl. Phd. 64a-b, Tht. 174b, Alc.1 109d, X. Mem. 3.5.24, Oec. 1.19),
since tttiv does not suit ctv. Moreover, concealment of hatred, passive
behaviour, is a less telling detail than chatting to enemies, active dissimulation.
Conventional morality dictates that enemies should be treated as enemies, and
insults openly resented (Dover, Greek Popular Morality 1804).
koi toivtv opv:o c tt:c poi: cf. Arist. Rh. 1383
30 :c . . .
ttcivtv tcpcv:c sccstic (sc. nutcv t:i), Ariston fr. 14, VII (of the tpcv)
ttcivtv cv t,t[i.
koi :c:ci uutoi \::yvci: defeat in law (the defeat must have
a specic context, and law is the obvious one), as XI.7 n::nutvci (Schnei-
der: n::cu- AB) . . . ut,nv oisnv, XXIX.2 :c n::nutvci sci onucicu
,cvc cgnsci. The verb, when used in this connection, is often qualied
by some addition (oisnv, ,pcgnv, tv oisc:npici, or the like). But it is also
found unqualied (e.g. S. Ai. 1242, Pl. Lg. 936e, D. 20.146, 36.25, 43.4, 7,
47.2). There is therefore no need for <ut,c oisc> n::- (Meier 1850/1)
or <oisnv>n::- (Navarre 1920). Present n::cutvci (AB) should be changed
to perfect (Schwartz; that M has n::nutvci is of no consequence, since it also
has tcunutvci for cucutvci in 3). Although, like viscv be victorious,
present n::cci can mean be defeated, be in a state of defeat, particularly
in military contexts (Mastronarde on E. Ph. 1232), it would less naturally be
applied to being in a state of legal defeat. A perfect part. is guaranteed by
the coordinated perfect at XXIX.2 and is more appropriate than the trans-
mitted present at XI.7, where a specic event is referred to (cf. also S. Ai.
1242 nnutvci, D. 27.25 tpc :ivc oisnv n::nv:ci, 45.51 tcpc,pcgnv
:c:ci is resumptive, referring to the persons just mentioned, as VI.4
:c:cv, 9 :c:ci, XIV.3 :c:nv, XX.10 :c:nv (conj.), XXV.5 :c0:cv,
8 :c:cv, XXVII.2 :c:c. Additions have been proposed which would
c- corrupted to c- S. fr. 83, Ar. Th. 419 (-cv- to -cu- CP 1.5.3), c- to
c- VII.7, VIII.5 (AB), IX.4 (d). On the other hand, c- to c- Men. fr. 129.3.
There is a correction or variant in A: t or i above (Diels), i above (Immisch
1923), ti supra versum ante ctv (Torraca (1974) 83). This last (to judge from
the photograph) is the most plausible diagnosis. I take ti to indicate not titiv for
ctv (Torraca), but ttti (an attested variant, Torraca loc.cit.) for tttiv.
clarify the reference: n::nutvci <c . . . > Meier 1850/1, :c v:itci
(for :c:ci) Hartung, <sci tpc c0 v:ioist>sci :c:ci Edmonds 1929,
sci <c (or tpc c0) oist:ci>:c:ci Kassel ap. Stein (:c:ci picking
up the relative, III.2n.). Such clarication is neither necessary nor desirable. If
the dissembler sympathises with the same people, when they have lost a case,
whomhe praises openly andattacks covertly, they canhave no reasonto suspect
that his sympathy and praise are insincere. With the proposed supplements
he sympathises with persons against whom he has been at odds. In this case
one might suppose that his earlier antagonism would afford some cause for
suspecting his sincerity.
koi . . . c: a natural enough combination, the former particle denoting that
something is added, the latter that what is added is distinct fromwhat precedes
(Denniston 199). A. Rijksbaron, Adverb or connector? The case of sci . . . ot,
in Rijksbaron (ed.), New Approaches to Greek Particles (Amsterdam 1997) 187208,
argues that (in classical Greek generally) sci not ot is the connector, while the
function of ot is to individualize the second item. sci is certainly the connector
in T., whose use of ot is severely restricted (VI.9n.). sci . . . ot is attested 71 times
(including spurious VI.7, epil. Xbis). I restore it by conjecture in epil. III, VI.9,
VIII.8, XVI.15, XXX.17, and contemplate restoring it in VII.4, 7 bis, XX.3,
XXVIII.5. It usually stands at the head of a new sentence, or of a new clause
after a strong break, but occasionally adds a new item in a series where there
is no strong break (II.4 bis, 6, V.6, XI.8, XXIX.3). It connects only clauses
or items which are part of the main innitive structure (that is, are dependent
on introductory cc or otivc). No other author uses it so frequently as does
Theophrastus in this work, where it conveniently introduces variety into a
potentially monotonous series of innitives linked by sci. For T.s other works
(where it is also common) see M uller (1874) 22. Rijksbaron 188 n. 4 gives gures
for the major authors. For the orators, Wyse on Is. 9.11; the papyri, E. Mayser,
Grammatik der griechischen Papyri aus der Ptolem aerzeit II.3 (Berlin and Leipzig 1934)
1312. For the use of sci in passages of character drawing, S. Trenkner, Le style
sci dans le recit attique oral (Assen 1960) 246.
uyyvoyv . . . tytiv :c oo:ov kok ycui koi ti :c ko tou:c
tycvci <ytv>: although u,,vcunv tytiv may be constructed with
tti + dat. (Arist. Rh. 1374
4), the second phrase is feebly repetitive and needs
a colourful verb to give it point. There is nothing to choose between ,tcv
(after t,cutvci Darvaris, after sci Rusten) andtti<,tcv>(Edmonds 1929;
cf. II.3, 4); another possibility is utioicv (B uchner (Introd. Note); cf. VIII.2).
For ,tcv tti, Pl. Euthd. 300e, R. 457b, 518b, X. Oec. 7.3, Smp. 2.17, 18,
23, Cyr. 4.5.55, Ar. Ra. 2, Men. Pk. 2934 (LSJ ,tc ii.1). Less effectively,
tpc tytiv Fischer, nptutv or yciptiv or tpc gtptiv Reiske 1757, cos
,cvcs:tv Ast (wrong neg.: VI.9n.), un ,cvcs:tv (after sci) Meier 1850/1
(after t,- Hartung), un cytci (after sci) Navarre 1920. It is rash to delete
sci . . . t,cutvci (Schneider (1799) 214, anticipating Bloch; also Dobree,
who proposed, alternatively, deletion of sci alone) or to speculate that this and
:c . . . t,cui are authors variants (Stein; similar suggestions at III.3, IV.12,
With the sentiment in general cf. Eub. 25.23 (a scc) :c sct:cui . . .
| tcu:cv tocp,n:c, Axionic. 6.911 (parasite) ccv gitpi :i t:i sci uy-
t:ci :i uci

| ut:tccunv tpc :c0:cv cc : tpnst ut | scsc cucc,cv

totc co t:cuci, Men. fr. 513 scsc sctiv c:i cos cp,it:ci |
tcvnpic ti:cv :tsunpicv gtpti, Nicol.Com. 1.31 (parasite) ot sct:cutvcv
tg tcu:ci ,tcv.
oo:ov . . . ko tou:c: if we wish to restore consistency, the choice between
tcu:cv and co:c0 (Navarre 1920) is arbitrary. The form tcu:- is attested
(besides here) at 6 (doubtful because of corruption), XI.8, XIV.10, XXII.10,
XXV.8, XXVII.12, XXX.16 (V: co:- AB), 17, 18 bis (but I reject one instance,
for a reason given below). In the other places (about 60) where a reexive
form is needed, always co:-, which I change to co:- (restored here by Diels
1898), except that (with no conviction) I take VIII.8 ot co:ci to point to o
tcu:ci rather than ot co:ci or o co:ci. Trace of an original co:- or tcu:-
is preserved in XXIV.9 og co:cv.
The presence of a reexive here suggests that we may restore a reexive in
passages of similar participial structure elsewhere: IV.3 (the preceding :cu
co:c0 (co:- AB) cist:c would be sufcient to commend :c tcp co:ci
(co:- AB) tp,ccutvci), XV.6, XVIII.5, 9, XXX.3. In addition to the many
further passages where reexive may be restored without argument, I restore
it in clauses which are dependent on a verb of speech or command or the like,
but not in clauses which are not so dependent (conditional, III.3 ad n., VII.2,
VIII.7, XVI.6, 8; temporal, XXIV.8, XXVIII.4; gen. absol., XIV.7, XXI.9,
XXII.9, XXIII.2, XXX.18). Hence such variations as VII.2 tittv, cv c:ic0v
tpc co:cv gt,n:ci, c:i . . . cv scni co:c0, ucnt:ci, XXVIII.4,
XXX.18. See in general KG 2.5604 (contrast Schwyzer 2.194).
3 koi

po :cu cikcuvcu koi yovok:cv:o

po cioytoi:
talk mildly to those who are wronged and are resenting it. If the point is that,
just as he pretends to make light of criticisms of himself, so he takes too lightly
the grievances of others, then the point is unclearly formulated and of doubtful
aptness. I see no help in a passage often cited in illustration, X. An. 1.5.14 c o
tycttcivtv (Clearchus) c:i co:c0 ci,cu otncv:c sc:ctunvci tpc
t,ci (Polemarchus) :c co:c0 tc (C. resented the fact that, when he
had nearly been stoned to death, P. made light of his experience). In other
circumstances mild talk might serve the purpose of dissimulation (He was the
mildest mannerd man . . . you never could divine his real thought, Byron,
Don Juan, Canto III.3214). Aristotle actually links tpcci sci tpcvt in Rh.
20. But these mild dissemblers are concealing resentment at wrongs
which they themselves have suffered; they are more to be feared than the
sharp-tempered and outspoken, with whom you know where you stand. If the
wrongs have been suffered by others, then a dissembler will feign indignation,
not mildness. The thought is not much improved if :cu oiscuutvcu is taken
as those who are being wronged by him (so e.g. Casaubon, Gomperz (1889) 15,
Pasquali). In any case, clarity calls for :cu <ot co:c0>o- (Meier 1850/1),
or rather <og tcu:c0> (Hartung). There is no satisfactory conjecture: not
sci oiscutvc tpc :cu ,cvcs:c0v:c Ribbeck 1870, since he would
more appropriately address mild speech to persons doing him wrong than to
persons resenting his wrongs; nor sci tti :c sc tcu:c0 t,cutvci [sci]
tpc :cu cois<c n,>cuutvcu Ussing (:cu oin,cuutvcu Cobet 1874),
since tti s:. does not well cohere with what follows. For tpc oict,tci,
Plu. 800c, D.C. 9.40.22, 76.4.3.
4 I follow Ussing, and take sci :c . . . uccsinvci as a single sentence.
When people wish to meet him urgently he tells them to come back later.
He postpones the meeting as inconvenient, claiming with a lack of candour
(unotv cv tp::ti cucc,nci) that: (i) he has not yet made up his mind on
the question to which they seek an answer (cuttci), (ii) he has only just
returned home (cp:i tcpc,t,cvtvci), (iii) it is late (ct ,i,vtci), (iv) he had
fallen ill (uccsinvci). The traditional division is after ttcvttv, so that a
new train of thought, unrelated to what precedes, begins at sci unotv. This is
less satisfactory, for the following reasons. (a) To tell visitors to return later is
not dissimulation; it becomes dissimulation when a pretence of unavailability
is offered. (b) The excuses alleged in (ii), (iii) and (iv) are very appropriate
examples of such a pretence, and (i), although less obviously appropriate, can
be taken as an example. (c) In 2, 3 and 5 the victims of dissimulation are
identied (:c typc, :c co:cv scsc t,cui, :cu oiscuutvcu (?),
:c . . . cucutvci, :cu ocvticutvcu sci tpcvicv:c). But if a new train
of thought begins at sci unotv, the victims of the dissimulation practised in 4
are not identied; and no connection of thought or circumstance then links
the four examples of dissimulation. The supplement sci <tcpcsnti tpc
oici:cv> tpctcincci (Kassel ap. Stein) partially answers the problem
posed in (c), by supplying a new circumstance for (ii), (iii) and (iv). Stein,
too, argues that sci tpctcincci must begin a new train of thought, for
otherwise it would be otiose after c gnci. But the same verbs are paired
in 5.
Transposition of sci unotv . . . cuttci has been proposed: (i) after
uccsinvci (Schneider), (ii) after tcpcstvci in 5 (Hottinger), (iii) exchanged
withsci . . . tpcvicv:c (Foss 1858). In(i), cgnci cuttci gives aweak
conclusion, serving only as the antithesis to unotv cv tp::ti cucc,nci; in
(ii), it unbalances the series into which it is inserted; in (iii), we have the same
weakness as in (i), and sci . . . tpcvicv:c is not appropriately placed.
koi :c tv:uyyvtiv ko:o cucjv cucvci pc:oi tovttv:
he tells them to come back (as IX.2 (conj.), XXV.7), rather than go back
home (Edmonds). For tv:u,yvtiv used of an encounter which is not acci-
dental (2n.), XXIV.2 :ci ttocv:i tc otitvcu tv:ttci gstiv tv :ci
ttpitc:tv, Men. Asp. 93 tv:uytv cuncuci :i . . . ci, Dysc. 751, Sic. 183
(LSJ ii.1).
koi yctv ov p::ti 6ccyJoi o Joi cuttoi: he claims
that he is at present occupied in thought. cuttci (Casaubon)
is too like
sttci in 5. <t:i> cuttci (Herwerden, from M) is unwanted.
koi pcci(ooi p:i opoytycvvoi koi t yyvtoi [oo:v]:
aorist tpctcincci (as XXIII.7) of a statement of pretence, by contrast
with present tpctcitci in 5 of a state of pretence (V.6n.). He pretends
that he has just arrived and that it is late. While tcpc,t,cvtvci refers (cor-
rectly) to present time, aorist ,tvtci (AB), being in indirect speech, would
refer (incorrectly) to past time (KG1.1934), it was late, and must therefore be
changed to present ,i,vtci, easily corrupted by way of ,ivtci, the usual
spelling (II.2n.). The verb in the expression ct ,i,vtci / tvci is impersonal
(Pl. Smp. 217d snt:cutvc c:i ct tn, X. An. 3.4.36 ct t,i,vt:c, D. 21.84
:n . . . cpc t,i,vt: ct; commonly ct nv, Th. 1.50.5, 8.61.3, Pl. Ly. 223a,
X. HG 1.7.7, etc.). A personal subject co:cv (co:cv Ussing) is impossible;
and he as subject would be nominative not accusative. Deletion of co:cv
(Hottinger before Navarre 1920) is more plausible than deletion of the whole
phrase sci ct ,tvtci co:cv (Kassel ap. Rusten). No other proposal satises:
co:c0 Reiske 1749 (Briefe 359), ibi, anticipating Edmonds and Austen (who
translate he is late for some function (lit. is there late); cf. Edmonds (1908)
119); co:cv Edmonds 1929, joined the company late; co:ci Foss 1858, an
unexampled and unwanted dative; ttcvicv:c Reiske 1757, apparently it was
late when he returned; ct ,tvtci sci uccsinvci co:cv Nast (sci co:cv
u- Schneider), acc. where nom. is needed; hence sci co:c u- Torraca 1994a,
with pointless emphasis.
koi ookiJvoi: of illness, as XIII.9, a sense rst attested in Arist. HA
25 (LSJ 3); not cowardice, irresolution (Rusten). The aorist inn. repre-
sents an original tuccsinv (I became ill), the so-called ingressive aorist
(KG 1.1556), as Th. 2.42.4, 43.6, 5.9.10, 72.1, 7.68.3 (in all of these became
a coward), Arr. An. 7.3.1 (indir. speech, as here) uccsinvci ,p :i :ci
cuc:i :cv Kcvcv . . . c0tc tpctv vcncv:c.
Not (as Fischer claims) Cantabr. (4 Wilson).
5 Borrowing and lending, buying and selling, are recurrent themes (Millett,
Sale, credit and exchange 168, id. Lending and Borrowing 56), and illustrate a
variety of traits: here caprice and obfuscation, with no implication of meanness
or eye for gain.
koi po :cu covticvcu koi tpovcv:o < . . .: active ocvtitiv is
lend (VI.9), middle have oneself lent, borrow (IX.2, 7, XXX.3, 7), usually
of money lent at interest, occasionally (as IX.7) of goods (Korver, Crediet-Wezen
7984, Millett, Lending and Borrowing 2830). tpcvitiv is raise an interest-
free loan from friends. On the tpcvc (XV.7, XVII.9, XXII.9, XXIV.6),
Finley, Studies in Land and Credit 1006, J. Vondeling, Eranos (Groningen 1961),
Millett, Patronage 413, id. Sale, credit and exchange 1834, 187, Lend-
ing and Borrowing 1539, E. E. Cohen, Athenian Economy and Society: A Banking
Perspective (Princeton 1992) 20715 (208 n. 112 on this passage),
on D. 21.101, Arnott on Alex. 145.5, Lane Fox 1467. A single article suf-
ces with the two participles, which are equivalent to nouns (applicants for
loans and applicants for contributions); cf. XXIV.7 :cu tcc0v: :i n
uicuutvcu, also IV.3 :c . . . gici sci cistici, VII.6 (spurious), XXVIII.6
(KG 1.61112).
Tocomplete the sense we needsomething like he says that he has nomoney.
There are numerous supplements: <tittv c cos p,picv tyti Salmasius
(De Usuris Liber (Leiden 1688) 623),
c p,picv cos tyti Jebb, ocu tcu
gnci c co tcu:t Ribbeck, ycttc tpctvt,sutvc (or tpctvtyti)
oiocvci gtioc Wachsmuth ap. Ilberg 1897, ttvicv tpcgcitci Fraenkel
and Groeneboom (cl. Lys. 22.13), gnci c cootv tyti Diels, t,tiv ocu c:i
ctv ct:ci Navarre 1920, tittv c co tcu:t Edmonds 1929, gnci c
tcpt:ci or ypnu:cv tcpt Kassel ap. Stein, t,tiv c cos totcpt Stein.
I add tittv c p,picv co :u,yvti tcpcv (or co tpt:i); cf. D. 30.11,
33.7, 53.12. p,picv in similar contexts: XIV.8, XV.7, XVII.9, XVIII.5. It is
less plausible to look for the missing expression in c co tct, and to assume
that tct is an error of anticipation prompted by the following tccv: e.g.
co ycn Pauw, cos tyti or co:ci ot Petersen, co tcu:t M. Schmidt, cos
totcpt B ucheler.
. . . > o co ot koi j ov Joi otv: tctv offer for sale
as opposed to tcoiocci sell (X.7n.). Salmasius supplement . . . tpc
ot :cu cvn:icv:c> has merit: it balances tpc :cu ocvticutvcu sci
tpcvicv:c, identies the victims of dissimulation, and excuses the omission
(parablepsy -cv:c < . . . -cv:c>). The verb cvn:icv is used in a similar
connection at XXIII.7 :c tcc0i tpctcincci cvn:icv. But to supply
He fails to substantiate his claim that an tpcvc might attract interest.
The ungrammatical ttv printed there, which editors have continued to ascribe to
him, is corrected to tyti in the Emendanda at the end.
a verb of speech (tittv or the like) from the preceding clause, legitimate in
itself (as below :c utv sttci gstiv, :c ot s:.), creates imbalance, since
the following tctv has its own verb of speech. Style would be better served
by sci tpc :cu cvn:icv:c ot gnci, though this forfeits the excuse of
parablepsy. For sci . . . ot (2n.) with prep., art., noun or part. interposed, IV.12,
V.4, VII.5, XXIII.5, XXIX.5 (conj.). Alternatively, sci on its own without
ot (Herwerden), rather than ot on its own (VI.9n.). Simpler proposals: sci
tccv (tccv :i Kassel: cf. X.7, XV.4, XXIV.7) gnci Ast, sci tccv
t,tiv Foss 1858, sci tccv Edmonds 1929. The correction of gnti (AB)
to gnci was made by Bloch 1814, Darvaris 1815, Schneider 1818,
(obiit 1825).
koi kco :i j pccitoi koi icov Joi j tcpokvoi: this echoes
a proverbial expression, used either of pretence (h.Merc. 92 sci :t iocv un
iocv tvci sci scgc scc, D. 25.88 c0:c :c0 cpciv c:t un ocstv
tcpcstvci, 89 c0:c cpcv:t . . . c:t, :c :n tcpciuic, cpcv:c un
cpcv sci sccv:c un sctiv, Plu. 13e tvic :cv tpc::cutvcv cpcv:c
un cpcv sci un sctiv sccv:c, Pl. Mil. 5723 illud quod scies nesciueris |
nec uideris quod uideris, Lib. Or. 47.6 sc:c :nv tcpciuicv . . . cpcv:cv sci coy
cpcv:cv; cf. A. Th. 246 un vuv sccu tugcvc cscu c,cv, [Men.] Mon.
48 J akel un tpcnsti un: cscut un cpc), or of incapacity (A. Ag. 1623 coy
cpci cpcv :ot;, [A.] PV 4478 ttcv:t tttcv u:nv, | scv:t cos
nscucv, S. fr. 923.2 coo cpcv:t ticpci :ugcvn, Matt. 13.13 ttcv:t
co ttcuiv sci sccv:t cos sccuiv); R. Str omberg, Greek Proverbs
(G oteborg 1954) 15.
un tpctcitci is pretend not, as Th. 3.47.4 ot ot, sci ti noisncv,
un tpctcitci, Aeschin. 3.201 tcv . . . un tpctcin:ci oucv sctiv, 2
Ar. Eq. 43 otcscgcv

c:i tcsi sccv co tpcttcit:c (F. Montana,

Eikasmos 11 (2000) 89), D. 8.58, 47.10, Men. Epit. fr. 9 Koerte (p. 130 Sandbach,
p. 520 Arnott), Philem. 23.4, Plb. 5.25.7; J. Wackernagel, Vorlesungen uber Syntax
2 (Basel 1924) 262. For the tense see on 4 tpctcincci.
In gnci un tcpcstvci the neg. un at rst sight surprises. When neg. follows
verb of speech, co is regular, un rare (KG 2.1934); so cos tiotvci below,
IV.2, XIX.2, XX.9, XXIII.5. Possible alternative word order was un g- t-,
like XXIV.5 co gscv yctiv (KG 2.1801, A. C. Moorhouse, Studies
in the Greek Negatives (Cardiff 1959) 12137). The choice of order was perhaps
dictated by what follows. If (as seems likely) gnci is to be supplied with the
following utuvnci (just as, below, gstiv is to be supplied with :c ot cos
tiotvci s:.), the order gnci un tcpcstvci ensures that utuvnci will have
Ast claims that Schneider rst made the correction on L. Bos, Ellipsis Graeca p. 325,
and so anticipated Bloch. I cannot trace which edition of this much reprinted work
he refers to.
its own negative, which for clarity it needs, whereas un gnci tcpcstvci would
have entailed a potentially confusing utuvnci without negative.
For the spelling tcpcstvci (tcp- AB), Arnott on Alex. 274.1, id. Ortho-
graphical variants 204.
koi :o tv ktoi ktiv: cf. Men. 349.12 c :c cgp0 cpcv:t c
t:tpci | sci stcuci t,cv:t. Not stcci (AB): a past tense would
anticipate and enfeeble the last clause (:c ot . . . oicc,icci).
:o ct cok ticvoi: cf. [Arist.] MM 1193
323 (the tpcv) cotv un gscv
ttisput:cutvc :c tiotvci.
:o c jcy c:t koi oo:o c0:o ciocyooi: it is unclear (perhaps
designedly) whether he once had the same thought himself means only that
he has anticipated a particular line of thought or that, having anticipated it,
he has now abandoned it. non tc:t refers to unspecied past time: HP 2.3.3,
3.1.3, H. Il. 1.260, A. Eu. 50, S. Ai. 1142, E. Hi. 375, Ar. Nu. 346, Ra. 62, 931,
Pl. Ly. 215c, Cra. 386a, Min. 316c, Ep. 329e, X. Mem. 3.13.4, 4.3.3, Hier. 6.7,
Isoc. 6.29, D. 24.51, Aeschin. 1.63, 3.193, Arist. HA 633
8. oicc,icci is
not conclude ( Jebb, al.) but reason, think carefully, weigh up the facts. The
verb refers to the process of reasoning, not the attainment of a conclusion,
although it may be implied that a conclusion follows from the reasoning: e.g.
Pl. Phlb. 58d gcopc oicvcntv:t sci scvc oicc,iutvci, Is. 7.45 :c0:c
tv:c stutvci sci oicc,icutvci tpc ouc co:c, D. 18.98 coo ottp
cctttcinsc:cv vpctcv sivouvtt:t oicc,iutvci, 30.30 gntit , cv
:i, ti oicc,ici: cpc tsc: co:cv, Isoc. 6.90 ypnoicc,icutvcu un
gicuytv, 17.9 :c0:c oicc,icutvc oitvct:c, Men. Epit. 2523 tv vus:i
cunv . . . | oiocu tucu:ci oitc,icunv, 5634 c stvc | sci oicc,icu
c scscociucv, tpcocscv. . . . For the verb combined with c0:c, Lycurg. 32
co:ci ot oicc,itt ttpi :c:cv tcp ouv co:c, Aeschin. 3.179.
6 His sceptical mode of speech is illustrated by two separate sets of quoted
remarks. The rst is a trio of brief verbal expressions, general in application,
not related to any specic circumstance.
The second is a series of fuller
expressions, prompted (it appears) by a specic report. They are more naturally
taken as independent remarks than as continuous speech.
:o cv: as a whole, speaking generally, here introducing the nal sen-
tence, while at XXVIII.3 (where there is some corruption) it appears to intro-
duce a summatory description. In X and XXIX it introduces the spurious
epilogues (cf. epil. II :c stgcicv); and Ilberg 1897 suggests that it may have
been added here by the author of the epilogues. Though dispensable, it is
unobjectionable. It occurs frequently in T.s other works (e.g. HP 1.4.1, CP
He had some favourite interjections Monstrous! Incredible! Dont tell me
(P. Ackroyd, Dickens (1990) ch. 9, of John Forster).
1.17.9, Lap. 19); also Pl. Men. 79c, Phdr. 261a, Ion 532c, e, X. Mem. 4. 1. 2, D.
2. 22, 44.11, 19, Prooem. 45.4, [Arist.] MM 1206
ctivo :i :cic:oi :poi :c ycu ypJoi: cf. XXVI.3 otivc :c
:cic:ci :cv c,cv ypncci. otivc with inn. appears in most of the
sketches, normally near the end, to introduce variety. It does not mean adept
at but something like remarkably apt to: this is proved by (above all) XIX.3
otivc . . . tsn tytiv. Ashift fromadept towards apt can be seen in such pas-
sages as CP 2.18.4 c cvc otivc tsci :c ts :cv tcpcstiutvcv cu, fr.
73 Wimmer (488 Fortenbaugh) csctc ,cp n :yn . . . sci otivn tcpttci
:c tpctttcvnutvc, D. 2.20 c ,cp totpcici otivci u,spci :c :cic0:
cvtion, 21.139 otivci :ivt tiiv . . . gtiptci tpc :cu tcuicu, Prooem.
55.3 otivc:c:ci . . . t: gttci . . . c ouv otpyti. Similarly Plu. 59d
(in a character sketch) u,,tvcv sci cisticv tttunvci otivc cucp:nuci
sci unotvc cuuci s:. The use is perhaps colloquial. It has an analogy
in English: Shes a terrible one to laugh (Dickens, Martin Chuzzlewit, ch. 11),
Little Charles was a terrible boy to read (a contemporary of Dickens, quoted
by Ackroyd (n. 17), ch. 2).

yti tou:ov t:tpcv ytycvvoi

: possibly, but not certainly, the rst

of the new series of quoted remarks. sci At,ti co:cv t:tpcv ,t,cvtvci
(Foss), You are telling me that he has become a different person,
much favoured, is improbable. t:tpcv ,- would be like Pl. Phdr. 241a cc
,t,cvc, D. 34.12 t:tpc non nv sci coy c co:c,
Men. Dysc. 65 t:tpc
:i tiu tv:c0c, Georg. 105 cooti ,p tiu t[:tpc (cf. S. OT 10845 cos
cv ttciu t:i | tc: cc), Pl. Trin. 1601 uerbis paucis quam cito | alium
fecisti me: alius ad te ueneram. But t,tiv is normally constructed with c:i or
c (III.3, VIII.8, X.13, XV.7, XX.8, XXII.11, XXIII.3, XXV.2, 3; Goodwin
753), not inn. (at XXIII.4 it means order); co:cv is unwelcome, when no
individual has yet been mentioned; and a remark of this kind does not lead very
naturally into the remarks which follow. sci At,ti tcu:c0 t- ,- (Immisch
ap. Ilberg 1897) and [sci] At,ti <co:cv> tcu:c0 t- ,- (Edmonds 1908)
are no improvement. t,tiv (Needham), although it seems a pale duplicate of
:ci :cic:ci :pctci :c0 c,cu ypnci, might nevertheless be acceptable,
as an introduction to this new and rather different set of remarks.
Koi jv co :o:o po tt cit(iti: the connection of thought is uncer-
tain, because we do not know the sense of what precedes. sci unv is perhaps
adversative, introducing an objection (Denniston 3578, Blomqvist 66). The
combination is rare in T., and this instance is doubted by M uller (1874) 34. The
Foss appears to take this rst as a statement (in his edition, 1858), later as a question
(1861, 26).
Cf. Th. 2.61.2 t,c utv c co:c tiui sci cos ti:cuci, E. Ph. 920 cvnp co cost
co:c (Valckenaer: co:c codd.)

tsvtti tiv (Mastronarde ad loc., J. Gibert, Change

of Mind in Greek Tragedy (G ottingen 1995) 1920).
other attested instances are II.10 (o, wrongly), Piet. fr. 7.10 P otscher (584A.106
Fortenbaugh); VIII.2 sci unv . . . ,t; Piet. fr. 20.13 P otscher (531.13 Forten-
baugh) sci unv <sci>; fr. 152 Wimmer (523.7 Fortenbaugh) sci unv sci. In
negative expressions, sci unv co (Ar. Eq. 340, Pl. Ep. 319d, D. 8.60, Plb. 7.8.2,
9.36.12) is less common than sci unv co . . . ,t or sci unv coot or (what is reg-
ular in T.) co unv ( . . . ,t) (M uller 1112, Blomqvist 502). :co: (Needham)
is perhaps more pointed than :c0:c (cf. VIII.7 :co:c . . . t,tiv).
Aoi :ivi yt: cf. H. Il. 1.2956 cciiv on :c0: tti:ttc, un ,cp
tuci ,t | nuciv , Pl. R. 474d Aci, ttcv, ttptttv, c Icscv, t,tiv
t,ti, Tell that to someone else . . . Do I look like a fool? (Muriel Spark,
in a short story The Seraph and the Zambesi), Tell that to the marines
(a colloquial expression of incredulity, OED).
O:tpcv ct ci i:(oJ tktvcu ko:oyvcpcoi: for the con-
struction, Isoc. 8.38 tcpc:i tcinc, tc:tpcypncuci . . . nsc:cictnc
(with indic., e.g. Arist. EN 1168
28 tcpt:ci . . . tc:tpcv ot gitv tcu:cv
ui:c n ccv :iv). Sense calls for (c)tc:tpcv (ctc:tpcv/-c . . . n Ar. Nu.
1578, [Pl.] Erx. 396c, 399d, 405c; cf. Hdt. 5.119.2), not ctc (AB), which
it is futile to change to ctc o n (Needham) or ctc n (Ussing). For ot
introducing quoted speech (if, indeed, these are independent remarks and not
continuous speech), VI.9n., Denniston 1723. sc:c,i,vcstiv with gen. of
person, without acc. of charge, for which LSJ ii.4 cite only [Pl.] Demod. 382e,
is not uncommon (Th. 3.67.1, Antipho 4o.1, Isoc. 17.16, D. 19.212, 21.47 (law),
al., Aeschin. 1.79, 2.6, 3.214, Din. 1.48, [Arist.] Ath. 45.2, al., Hyp. Dem. fr. iii.7,
Plb. 1.23.5, al.).
A po j u ::cv i:tti: cf. [Pl.] Demod. 385c vpctcu
:i sc:n,cpti tonticv c:i :cytc sci :c :uyc0iv vpctci t,cui
ti:tci, Arist. Rh. 1356
67 :c . . . ttitisti ti:tcutv uccv sci c::cv,
and the adj. :cyuttin. With cpc un, present indic. refers to present time
(LSJ un b.8b, KG2.3945), subj. to future time (LSJ b.8a, KG2.392). ti:tti
(B) is more effective than ti:tni (A) or -ni (ac). He implies that the other
has already given his trust prematurely. There is no call for tti:tuc (Cobet
[7] Epilogue
Features common to this and other epilogues are: moralising tone VI, VIII,
XXVII, XXIX; :cic0:c III, VI (conj.), VIII, XXVI; t:i with inn. II, X;
naming of character II, X; on III, VIII (also pr. 5, and u.l. in the spurious
XXX.10; for on in the genuine text, XX.3n.); nn XXVII (also the spurious
VI.2); gu::tci ot III; proverb at end XXIX. For links between epilogues
and Preface, Introd. Note to pr.
ck: for the image, Diggle, Studies on the Text of Euripides 115. Add E. Ph.
4945 ttpitcsc | c,cv, Rh. 834 ttscv c,cu.
oicyo: a technical term, dened as v:cuc vuvni concise
recapitulation (Anaximen. Lampsac. Rh. 20.1), equated with vcoitci
and ttcvni, duplication, repetition (Alex. Fig. p. 29 Spengel), glossed
as :cu:cc,ic (Suda l 84, Hsch. l 178). Here the meaning is probably
repetitions (reprises Navarre), in reference to the preceding remarks, weak
though that is. At all events, probably not (unattested) equivocation (LSJ),
retractions (Jebb), discorsi contradittorii (Pasquali). This last sense would
reect the usage illustrated by H. Il. 9.56 tiv tptti, S. Tr. 358 tutciv t,ti.
But he contradicts neither himself nor others. scic,ic (Foss 1834) is wrong:
he does not use ne or specious words. Contrast D.H. 8.32 scic,t:t
sci tipcvttt . . . cvcuc sccv tp,ci ttpitv:t vcici. The spelling of
AB (tci-) offers no support: the same corruption occurs in the mss. of
Suda l 84.
toptv t:i :c tpovc: this would most naturally be taken to mean it is
characteristic of the dissembler to discover . . . (KG 1.373). But the analogy of
epilogues II and (especially) X suggests that it is designed to mean one may
discover the dissemblers . . .. It is uncertain whether co ytpcv cv (AB) is a
corruption of :c0 tpcvc (Ussing) or of :cv tipcvcv (Diels). The analogous
passages have both singular (II) and plural (X).
u::toi cv ct J :cu tyti: cf. Hor. Carm. 1.8.910 sanguine uiperino
| cautius uitat, Epist. 1.17.301 cane peius et angui | uitabit, Sen. Con. 7.6.20 hanc (sc.
inuidiam) sapientes uiri uelut pestiferam <uiperam> (Otto, Sprichw orter 25) uitandam
esse praecipiunt.
Introductory note
O. Ribbeck, Kolax. Eine ethologische Studie (ASG 21 (1884) 1114), remains funda-
mental. See also W. Kroll, Kolax, RE xi.1 (1921) 106970, H.-G. Nesselrath,
Lukians Parasitendialog (Berlin and New York 1985) esp. 88121, Millett, Patron-
age 307, D. Konstan, Friendship in the Classical World (Cambridge 1997) 98103.
The etymology of the word is uncertain: Ribbeck 18, Frisk 1.896, Chantraine
Kcc is not adequately translated by atterer. The word is more strongly
opprobrious. This is particularly clear in passages such as Pl. Phdr. 240b sccsi,
otivci npici sci ni ut,ni, D. 18.46 sccst sci tc typci, 19.201
ocpcocsc, scc, :c pc tvcyc, t:n, :cv gicv tpcoc:n; cf.
Dodds on Pl. Grg. 463b. A scc panders and toadies for his own advantage,
and not only with words. He often plays the role for which the name para-
site was later devised (10n.). He is a stock character of comedy (the plays are
listed by Ribbeck 301; cf. PCG 5.381). He was discussed by philosophers: by
Theophrastus himself (in his ltpi sccstic, fr. 83 Wimmel, 5478 Forten-
baugh; cf. Fortenbaugh, Quellen 11518), by the Peripatetic Clearchus (fr. 1921
Wehrli), and by Philodemus (T. Gargiulo, CErc 11 (1981) 10327); and Plutarch
has an essay lc cv :i oicspivtit :cv sccsc :c0 gicu (48e74e). J. Kayser,
Theophrast und Eustathius ttpi otcspitc, Philologus 69 (1910) 32758,
shows that Eustathius portrait of the otcspi:n (De Simulatione, in T. L. F.
Tafel, Eustathii Opuscula (Frankfurt 1832) 8898) is indebted to earlier descrip-
tions of the scc, but fails to prove a direct debt to the Kcc of Theophrastus,
let alone to a lost Theophrastan sketch of an otcspi:n. Cf. N. G. Wilson,
Scholars of Byzantium (London 1983) 2001, and the Introduction, p. 19.
Aristotle denes sccstic in relation to a mean of giic (EN 1108
611). The true gic is pleasant in the proper manner or degree (c ot
no). The man who exceeds the mean of friendship/pleasantness is either
scc or cptsc: the scc acts out of self-interest (cgttic), the cptsc
has no ulterior motive (cf. Anaxandr. 43 :c ,cp sccsttiv v0v ptstiv cvcu
tyti). The man who falls short of the mean is quarrelsome and surly (otpi
:i sci oscc). Cf. EE 1221
7, 1233
304, MM 1193
As usual, Theophrastus ascribes no explicit motive to the Kcc (Intro-
duction, p. 12 n. 39, Introd. Note to I ad n.). The distinction which he makes
between the Kcc and the Aptsc (V) is of a different kind fromthat made by
Aristotle. The Kcc connes his attery to a single patron, whom he attends
with a deference which borders on the servile (especially 3, 8, 11), while yet
displaying an artful self-advertisement (esp. 2 g co:c0 pcutvcu, 4, the
rst-person verbs in 3, 8). The Aptsc on the other hand does not conne
his attentions to a single individual but tries to please all. We may assume (for
it is not made explicit) that he merely wants to be popular. See the Introd.
Note to V.
[1 ] Denition
The denition is alluded to twice by Philodemus: (i) P. Herc. 222 col. xii.13 (ed.
T. Gargiulo, CErc 11 (1981) 109) :nv otc]spiiv :nv :c0 gitv [ti] [stpoi]:
n :nv ciypcv cuiic[v uugtp]cucv :ci sccstcv[:i; (ii) P. Herc. 1082 col.
viii.46 (ed. C. Caini, Sui Papiri Ercolanesi 222, 223 e 1082 (Naples 1939)) :yc
ot sci ,pgcv:c :nv ot sccsticv otcci :i [c]v tvci. See also M.
Ihm, RhM 51 (1896) 315, E. Kondo, CErc 1 (1971) 87.
occi: the verb is used thrice more in spurious passages (pr. 2, 3, epil.
II; cf. def. XVIII otcni), as well as I.6, XXIX.2 (and in a different sense
6iov: the noun recurs in def. XV, but not in the genuine text. Cf. [Pl.]
Def. 415e sccstic cuiic n tpc nocvnv cvtu :c0 t:i:cu (see def. V n.),
Arist. EN 1173
334 c utv ,cp (sc. gic) tpc :,ccv cuitv ocst, c ot
(sc. scc) tpc nocvnv, EE 1233
302 c utv ,cp toytpc ctcv:c tpc :c
ttiuuic cuicv scc, Pol. 1313
41 :cttivc cuic0v:t, cttp t:iv tp,cv
upcuov ct :i kcoktcv:i: the notion that the Kcc acts out of
self-interest, foreign to Theophrastus, is derived from Aristotle, cited in the
Introd. Note. See further Stein 668.
2 6 ct ko :cic: :i cc: I.2n. So in effect Darvaris (actually c ot
s- :cic0:c :i t:iv cc). Wilamowitz 1902b (almost certainly unaware of
Darvaris) silently prints the opening (without denition) as O scc :cic0:c
:i cc. The transmitted opening :cv ot sccsc :cic0:cv :ivc c:t (AB)
continues the unique acc. and inn. constructionof the denition. The genuine
opening has been changed to conform with that construction. This is the only
rational explanation. The alternative is to suppose that a spurious denition
has replaced a genuine denition which used the same construction. In that
case we have two anomalies: (i) 29 sketches beginning with c ot . . . :cic0:c
:i cc or the like (I.2n.), this beginning with a different construction; (ii)
abandonment of the acc. construction when we reach the nom. participles (3
t,cv etc.). If we restore the usual nominative phrase, it is shortsighted not to
replace c:t with cc, even though :cic0:c c:t is faultless in itself (Pl. Smp.
175d, Arist. EN 1114
3, D. 39.33). c:t (beyond suspicion at VII.3, 7) recurs
in three spurious passages (IV.4, XIX.4, XX.9).
o cptucvoi titv: to a person walking with him, not cuc tcptuc-
utvcv (AB) or -c (Darvaris), as he walks. We expect to be told to whom
he is speaking, since a second-person address follows. Cf. 8 tcptucutvcu, sc.
co:c0. For the singular part. without article (when no specic person has been
mentioned), XI.7, XII.2, 4, 7, 8, XVI.14, XX.2; plural, VI.23n.
EvuJi o: cf. VIII.9 tvuuni :c :n :yn;. The verb refers not so much
to visual perception (observe Jebb, notice Rusten) as to mental awareness;
with c (how, followed by verb alone, rather than, as more commonly, adj.
or adverb) X. HG 6.3.12 tvuunn:t c gucpc0i, Eq.Mag. 8.20, Lys. 1.17,
Isoc. 12.223, 14.39, D. 40.39, Cratin.Iun. 1.1. There is no good reason to prefer
the spelling tvuut (Oxford, Barocci 194 (33 Wilson), acccording to Torraca
1974; coni. Herwerden, Cobet 1874). See Threatte 2.4512.
ccui po t ci vpoci: look on you, as opposed to look
at you. The latter is more naturally expressed with ti (as 10 ti tstvcv
tcttcv). With tpc, the acc. is regularly abstract (pay regard to some-
thing), so that literal looking is precluded. When the acc. is personal, literal
looking is not precluded (e.g. Pl. Phd. 115c, LSJ i.1), but there is commonly
a further or alternative implication, look on as a model, look on for help,
look on with admiration, of the look from an inferior or dependant towards
a superior: E. IT 928 :c o Ap,c tpc t v0v tcttti, X. Mem. 4.2.2
tpc tstvcv tctttiv :nv tciv ctc:t tcuocicu vopc otntin, 4.2.30
ctctv ot ypn cpcci ttiscttv tcu:cv, :c0:c tpc t tcttc t
uci ttnci cv tn,ncci, Oec. 17.2 tv:t tcu c cvpctci tpc :cv
tcv tcttcuiv ctc:t ptc :nv ,nv gnti co:cu ttiptiv, Pl. Alc.1
119e co (sc. cicv) tpc :cu :cv v:itcv n,tucvc tctttiv t tc:t
tstivcv t:icv ,t,cvc, Ep. 320d c :cu t ctn :n ciscuutvn . . .
ti tvc :ctcv tctttiv sci tv :c:ci ui:c tpc t. Similarly, with a
clear note of admiration, D. 19.265 :cu :c0:c tcic0v:c . . . ttttcv,
tncuv, t:iucv, cvopc n,c0v:c, Ar. Ec. 726 v tcttcuci, E. Hec.
355 tctt:c. For the general idea cf. H. Od. 8.173 (the eloquent man)
tpycutvcv o vc c:u tcv c ticpcciv.
:c:c ct cotvi :v tv :Ji ti yyvt:oi jv J c: asyndeton (ot om.
A) is less natural; ot sometimes links items in reported speech (VI.9n.). A is
more prone to omission than B. Aomits ot at 6, 9, VIII.6 (other omissions, pr.
1, 5, IV.5, VII.3, VIII.9, 11, IX.7, XIV.12, XV.2). B omits ot at XIV.1 (other
omissions, 10, IV.11, XV.10, and perhaps n after tnv).
We cannot tell whether T. wrote cotvi (B) or cootvi (A). Attic inscriptions
attest only -o- before 378 bc, between 378 and c. 325 -o- and -- equally, after
c. 325 (until the 1st cent. bc) only --. See Threatte 1.4726, 2.753, Arnott on
Alex. 15.5, id. Orthographical variants 2001. In IXV B has -- six times
(II.2, VII.2, VIII.3, 5, X.12, XV.9), -o- four (I.4, IV.2, 5, V.8), while A has --
only thrice (VIII.3, 5, XV.9). In XVIXXX, V consistently has -o- (XVIII.4,
9, XXII.11, XXIII.3, XXIV.6, XXVI.2, XXVIII.4, XXIX.3). The papyrus
(1st cent. bc) has -- at VIII.3. I print -- where it is attested, otherwise -o-, at
the cost of inconsistency.
,iv- (AB) is not attested in Attic inscriptions before 306/5 bc (Threatte
1.5625, 2.770, Arnott on Alex. 37.7, id. Orthographical variants 1956).
tnv n is very uncommon in classical Greek: perhaps only Ar. Nu. 361, 734,
Hdt. 2.111.3, 130.2, 4.189.1, 6.5.3, Isoc. 12.258 (u.l. ti), Pl. Ap. 42a (u.ll. ti, on),
possibly [X.] Ath. 3.8 (Kalinka: ti codd.); LSJ tnv b.ii.2, KG 2.285 Anmerk.
5, Schwyzer 2.543.
tnv (B) could be right, although accidental omission
of n is more likely than interpolation. While A is sometimes guilty of addition
(VI.7 :nv, 9 ot, VII.9 cv, VIII.11 sci, XIV.2 :i), B is sometimes guilty of
omission (above on :c0:c ot).
<koi> Hocckti yt tv :Ji :ci: cf. VII.7 noocsiuntv tv :ci
onuci, X. HG 1.1.31 tv :ci uvtopici noocti. If noocsiuti s:. is taken
as a continuation, without break, of the preceding speech, the asyndeton will
have to be explanatory. But The esteem in which you are held was publicly
acknowledged in the stoa yesterday does not naturally explain why everyone
looks on him with admiration. If it is taken as a separate speech, a connecting
word is needed. Asyndeton would be unnatural, when the two speeches are
as unbalanced as these, the rst consisting of two elements (question and
comment), the second very brief and followed by a long explanatory comment
(tticvcv ,cp s:.) outside the direct speech. The supplement we need is
<sci>, not <n>(Edmonds 1929), whichis not elsewhere used by T. to connect
direct speech.
Here AB spell noocsiuti, but at VII.7 toocsiuntv. In fth-century Attic,
verbs compounded with to, no less than verbs in which tu- is part of the
stem, have augment and reduplication in nu- (D. J. Mastronarde, Glotta 67
(1989) 1015, Rijksbaron, Grammatical Observations 1335, Arnott on Alex. 9.2,
id. Orthographical variants 198). Spellings in tu- appear in inscriptions by
the end of the fourth century (Threatte 1.3845, 2.4823, 4867, 741). Since
scribes are prone to replace nu- with tu-, I attach more weight to the nu-
attested here than to the tu- attested at VII.7, as well as at XVII.5 (t0pnsc)
and XVII.9 (totp,t:nutvcv). See also XXI.11 nonutpti (tonutptv V).
There were three main stoas in the agora: the Stoa Basileios, the Stoa of
Zeus Eleutherios, and the Stoa Poikile (Wycherley, Agora iii 2145, Thompson
and Wycherley, Agora xiv 82103, J. J. Coulton, The Architectural Development of
the Greek Stoa (Oxford 1976) 21922, Wycherley, Stones of Athens 302, 3844,
J. M. Camp, The Athenian Agora: Excavations in the Heart of Athens (London and
New York 1986) 537, 6672, 1007). Socrates conversed in the Stoa Basileios
tnv <n> (Wagner) is not acceptable at E. fr. 360.38 (TrGFSel p. 102) ap. Lycurg.
(Euthphr. 2a) and the Stoa of Zeus Eleutherios (Pl. Thg. 121a, [Pl.] Erx. 392a,
X. Oec. 7.1, Aeschin.Socr. in P. Oxy. 2889).
tivov yop J :pikcv:o vpoov koyvov: ,p regularly intro-
duces an explanatory clause with inn. (IV.10n.), but only here after direct
speech. u,scnutvcv (Cobet 1874), as V.10, XXVIII.5, is needless: gossips
idly sit (Ar. Eq. 13756 :c utipsic . . . :v :ci upci, | :cuut:ci
:cicoi scnutvc, Ec. 302 scnv:c cc0v:t | tv :c :tgcvcuciv, Pl.
3378 c,c . . . tcu | tti :ci scupticii :cv scnutvcv, Eup. 194 tc
tuccv tv :ci scuptici . . . | . . . scicv, Pherecr. 70.23 sc:tstucutvcv
| uvtopicv :c utipcsici tctv oi nutpc, Isoc. 7.15 tti . . . :cv
tp,c:npicv scicv:t sc:n,cpc0utv :cv sct:c:cv, 18.9 scicv tti
:c tp,c:npici c,cu ttcit:c, Men. Sam. 51012 c:t unt[v t]vci
un:t scuptcv stvcv, | un :cv, s[cn]utvcu ot tv:c t tcivc0 | ttpi
tuc0 c[t]v). Of the three stoas mentioned above, we know that the Stoa of
Zeus Eleutherios had seats (Erx. 392b, X. Oec., Aeschin.Socr.)
koi ttv:c ycu :i ty :i:c: cf. Ar. Lys. 8589 scv ttpi vopcv
, tuttni | c,c :i, Pl. Prtg. 314c c,cu . . . c nuv sc:c :nv cocv tvttttv,
R. 354b tuttcv:c co 0:tpcv c,cu, Lg. 799d :ctcu . . . tuttt:csc:c
c,cu ttpi vcucv, Antid. 2.3 ttpi :c0 tcpci:tv t :i tuttci c,c, Lib.
Decl. 32.2 c,c . . . :i tuttcv. The similarity of Plu. Caes. 63.7 tuttcv:c
ot c,cu tcc cpc :cv cv:cv cpi:c is (I assume) fortuitous (see p. 26
n. 77). There is a comparable expression c,cv tutiv, e.g. Men. Dysc.
352, Sam. 64 (S. L. Radt, Mnemosyne 25 (1972) 139 = Kleine Schriften (Leiden etc.
2002) 96).
oo:c povcu v:o: an idiomatic locution, which stresses the
importance of an individual in the larger group, without necessarily implying
that he acts rst. So Pl. Grg. 471c c t:iv c:i Anvcicv tc c0 p-
utvc (yourself included Dodds) otci: cv s:., R. 498c :cu tccu . . .
tc Opcuuycu pcutvcu, Smp. 173d tv:c icu n,tci . . . tc
cu:c0 putvc, Ep. 317c tocsti on tciv pcutvci tc Aicvc, X. HG
7.1.32 pcutvcu tc A,nicu . . . tv:c scitiv, Vect. 5.3 :ivt . . .
co tpcotciv: cv co:n putvci tc vcusnpcv sci tutcpcv;, D. 9.22
ctcv:c vpctcu g oucv pcutvcu, 18.297 oicgcptv:cv ctv-
:cv pcutvcv tc c0, Men. Dysc. 324 tc :c:cv putvc :cv
,ti:cvcv . . . uicv tgtn tv:c, Isoc. 8.104; KG 2.801, Wankel on D.
18.297. The Kcc, in declaring that all, himself included, are of one voice,
simultaneously atters his patron and gives due prominence to himself. g
co:c0 was restored by Ribbeck 1870 before Cobet 1874. Those who retain
t co:c0 (AB) miss the idiom and the point. Everyone mentioned you rst,
and ended by coming back to your name (Jebb). But sc:tvtynvci does not
mean come back to, and it is idle to import this sense by conjecture (vtvty-
nvci Hottinger, tv:c <tiv> Petersen).
ti :o 6vco oo:c ko:tvtyJvoi: they arrived in the end at his name. For
the verb in this sense (LSJ iii, to be brought to a point, cite only later authors),
VII.3 ti tti :c co:c tuci sc:tvtynni, Isoc. 8.101 tti :nv :ttu:nv :c:nv
sc:nvtyncv, 13.19 tv:t tti :c:nv sc:tvtyncv:ci :nv otctiv. It
appears to be a gurative application of a sense regular in Thucydides, of ships,
be brought to land by wind (1.137.2, 3.69.1, 4.26.7, 120.1, 6.2.3, 7.53.1, 71.6;
LSJ ii.2).
3 koi o :cio:o yov: as language, sci cc (AB) :- - is unexceptionable
(Pl. Grg. 483e ccuupic. . . :cic0:ct,tiv, Prtg. 348b, X. HG2.4.42 titcv . . .
:c0:c sci cc :cic0:c). And cc is not to be rejected because (Stein
154 n. 1) t:tpc rather than cc stands with :cic0:c in VII.3 and epil.
XXVI; for T. has cc :cic0:c elsewhere (e.g. HP 4.6.5). But cc draws
pointless attention to the incompleteness of the preceding samples of attery.
cuc (Schneider, not Needham) more pointedly stresses the simultaneity of
speech and action (cf. VII.7 cuc oin,cutvc, XI.4 cuc . . . tpcccv).
The word order (cuc, part., inn.) is the same as 10 (conj.), VII.7, IX.4,
XIX.5, XXIII.2 (alternative orders, V.5n. ad n., XIX.4n.). :c0:c (Foss 1858)
for :cic0:c is unnecessary.
o :c io:cu ttv kpckco, koi tv :i po :o :pyoo :J
ktoJ oo vto:c pctvtyJi yupcv kopccyJoi: he removes
(a) a ock of wool from the mans cloak, (b) a speck of straw from his hair and
beard. For (a), Ar. fr. 689

t :i sccstti tcpcv sci :c spcsoc gcipcv,
Hsch. K 4176 spcsut,uc

:c sccstu:isc :c spcsoc tct,tiv :cv

uc:icv, Plu. Su. 35.7 (an admirer) spcsoc :c0 uc:icu tcc. For (b),
Ar. Eq. 908 t,c ot :c tci ,t cost,cv vtcv tcinc, fr. 416 ocyt
,cp co:c0 :cv cycp tst,ti : ti | ts :c0 ,tvticu :c tcic

:c0 Aic

For both (a) and (b), Phryn. PS p. 4.1417 de Borries gciptv spcsoc

n::isi:ci sci :it:ci tti :cv tv:c tcicv:cv oic sccsticv, c:t sci
tcpttcutvcu gciptv spcsoc :n tn:c n spgc :i :n stgcn n
:c0 ,tvticu. But (b) is not straightforward, in so far as the speck of straw has
fallen on the mans hair (:c :piycuc :n stgcn), and yet the Kcc jokes
that he appears to have white hair in his beard. This leaves us to infer (what is
not explicitly stated) that specks of straw have also fallen onto his beard. If this
is troublesome, deletion of :n stgcn (Herwerden before Edmonds 1929)
will allow :c :piycuc to refer to the beard (cf. A. Th. 666). scpgcc,nci
<sci tst,tiv ts :c0 ,tvticu :c tci> (Stein) is too repetitive.
cyupcv is straw rather than chaff (Chadwick, Lexicographica Graeca
569). For the word order tv :i . . . cyupcv, with enclitic :i early in its
clause (Wackernagels Law), Diggle, Euripidea 170, Eikasmos 9 (1998) 424.
Opi; :i cucv ci \tpv cok tv:t:yyko: for cpci;, Diggle, Studies
on the Text of Euripides 12; c:i, XXIII.9n. We cannot tell whether T. preferred
oucv (B) or outv (A). oucv is universal in Attic inscriptions before c. 330 bc,
thereafter outv (Meisterhans 157, Threatte 2.41516). The evidence of mss.
counts for nothing: they regularly impute outv to fth-century authors.
kotp t :i koi c tyov po :o t:y oivov :jv :pyo: scittp . . .
tyti (AB) is a construction probably unparalleled in classical Greek. LSJ cite
only Pi. N. 4.36 scittp tyti (sti ttptyti W. B. Henry)
and Pl. Smp. 219c ([sci]
ttpi P. Oxy. 843, rightly). Blomqvist 478 cites three instances in Polybius
(2.59.5, 4.30.2, 12.14.2). F. Scheidweiler, Hermes 83 (1955) 22030, cites some
later examples. Cf. Schwyzer 2.688 n. 2, Denniston 486. The alternative to
tycv (Herwerden, anticipated by a corrector in Par. gr. 2986 (45 Wilson))
sci:ci . . . tyti (Herwerden before Blaydes); for sci:ci in T., M uller (1874)
656, Blomqvist 3545.
t :i sci cc: Hdt. 3.2.2, 9.27.5, Th. 1.70.1, Ar. Nu. 356, Pl. Phd. 58e, 66a
(om. pars codd.), X. An. 1.4.15, Cyr. 3.3.42, 5.1.6, Mem. 3.6.2, Smp. 2.6, Hyp.
Eux. 21 (the order ti sci :i cc Men. Asp. 18); without sci, S. OT 1118, E.
Andr. 6, Ar. Ec. 81, Pl. 655, Pl. Phd. 63c, La. 179b, Smp. 212a, Prt. 352c, R. 501d,
Men. Sam. 300, Call. Del. 164, fr. 226.
tpc in proportion or relation to: LSJ c.iii.4. There is no call for tcp
(Nauck 1850; LSJ c.i.7).
There is nothing to choose between the variant word orders (ty- tpc :c
t:n B, tpc :c t:n ty- A). Possibly the variation points to a more sophisti-
cated order tpc :c t:n utcivcv ty- :nv :piyc (ty- omitted, written above
the line or in the margin, then restored in different places), comparable to
preceding tcicv tynsc :cv tc,cvc ut:cv, III.3 tcvnpc:tpci tiiv c
v0v cvpctci, . . . cici ,t,cvciv c tupci, . . . tcci ttionuc0i tvci
(on the other hand, V.6 :cu cocv:c tuscu tytiv; and for an alternative
order, XXX.8n.). There are further variations in order between A and B at
7, III.4, VI.5, def. IX, IX.3, XI.3, XXX.7, 9. I suggest similar transpositions
at 7, IX.3, XXX.7, 9.
4 koi ycv:c ct oo:c :i :cu cu iov kttoi koi toivoi
ct kccv:o: He praises him in his hearing (cf. 6 cpcv:c co:c0 in his
sight). Not sccv:c (AB), since a gen. absolute balancing t,cv:c (the two
participles standing in chiasmus at the beginning and end of their respective
phrases) would suggest when he is listening as opposed to when he is speaking.
So the sense would be: when the man is speaking the Kcc tells the company
to be quiet and listen to him, and when he is listening (not speaking) the Kcc
takes the opportunity to sing his praises. But the next clause (when he pauses,
In A Commentary on selected Nemean Odes of Pindar (Oxford D.Phil. thesis 2001).
This conjecture is preferable to sci ttptyti (Ahrens), scttp tyti (Christ), stttp tyti
Stefanis (1994a) 100 (who conrms to me that what is suprascribed is cv).
he adds an approving Well said) shows that the man has never stopped
speaking, and so cannot be described as a listener as opposed to a speaker. With
the acc., he does not stop speaking but hears himself praised as he speaks. The
Kcc, by insisting that the rest of the company keep silent, simultaneously
atters the speaker and enables his own words of praise to be heard. sccv:c
(proposed alongside sccv:c by Casaubon)
cannot be right, whether taken
as subject of ttcivtci (ut iubeat auditores aures suas commodare recitatori,
&tacite eumlaudare Casaubon) or as object (praise the company for listening
to him Edmonds). The former is against the run of the words (sci ttcivtci
ot, like sci ttinunvcci ot, must be coordinate with stt0ci, not with
ictcv). The latter is faulty sense: to praise the man himself is apt, to praise
the company for listening to him is not. ciocv:c (Reiske 1747, 1749 (Briefe
359), 1757),
suggested by Plu. 531c un:t t,cv:c ttcivtv tcpc ,vcunv
un: ciocv:c spc:tv un:t sct:cv:c guc tti,tci, is maladroit:
Opc is a comment on speech, not on song. Deletion of cpc (Cobet
1874) is a reckless evasion. There are worse conjectures: scu:c Darvaris,
coc0v:c Eberhard 1865, oic spc:cu() Bl umner; sci . . . sccv:c post
sc:tvtynvci (2) trai. Meier 1850/1, post cpcv:c co:c0 (6) Foss 1858 (cf.
Foss 1861, 27), post cpc Ribbeck 1870, del. Ussing. For the general picture,
Eup. 172.910 scv :i :yni t,cv c tc:c, tvu :c0: ttcivc, | sci
sc:ctn::cuci ocscv :ci c,cii yciptiv, Ter. Eu. 2513 quidquid dicunt
laudo; id rursum si negant, laudo id quoque; | negat quis: nego; ait: aio; postremo imperaui
egomet mihi | omnia adsentari.
koi tiy(vooi c, tov oy:oi, Op: He seals his approval
with . . . Well said. Cf. Men. Sic. 2445 vtspc,cv | Opc ,t tv:t
(cf. 257), Ter. Eu. 773 recte, Hor. Ars 428 clamabit enim pulchre, bene, recte. For
these conversational adverbs of approval, Brink on Hor. loc. cit., Arnott on Alex.
132.3. The verb is wrongly classed by LSJ: not (iv.2) remark but (iv.3) set
ones name and seal to a thing (in token of approbation), like Isoc. 12.2 (iotcv)
:cu sccv:c ttinucivtci sci cputv vc,sccucv, Aeschin. 2.49
ttinucivcutvcv . . . sci tcotot,utvcv :cu tcp tuc0 c,cu, Str. 13.2.4
:cv :n gptc co:c0 ncv ttinucivcutvc (Introduction, p. 1 n. 2).
ti tct:ci (AB) is an impossible future; and ti tct:ci (Ast), present indic.
in a general condition (Goodwin 467, LSJ ti b.i.1.b), is unwelcome. Since
the sequence is primary (a leading aorist innitive does not introduce historic
sequence), there is no place here for an optative (ti tcci:c Reiske 1757, ttti
Casaubon actually proposed sccv:c(), and yet a further conjecture cscv:c, in
place not of sccv:c but of cscv:c (o), the only reading then known. sccv:c
is cited from Par. supp. gr. 450 (46 Wilson) by Torraca 1974. Stefanis tells me that the
only other ms. which has it is its relative Ambr. E 119 sup. (21 Wilson).
Also Klotz 1761; and a correction in Darmstadt 2773 (5 Wilson) according to Stefanis
(1994a) 100 n. 73.
tcci:c Schneider). With a conditional clause, the expected construction
is tcv (or cv) tcn:ci. So in effect Ast, who wrote nv tcn:ci (after ti
tcn:ci C. Gesner). For tv, 3, IV.11 (conj.), IX.4, X.7, XVI.3, 4 bis, 6 bis,
12, XX.10, XXIX.2, 4; cv VII.2 bis, VIII.7, XVII.7, XVIII.4, 7, XXIX.5; scv
III.3, XVI.8, 14, XXVI.2, XXVII.5. But a temporal clause is more natural.
For ttv (LSJ is inadequate), XVI.4 (conj.), XXIV.10, HP 4.8.11, 5.7.2, fr.
174.7 Wimmer (359a.51 Fortenbaugh), X. HG 1.1.29, al., [Arist.] Ath. 42.4,
56.1, al., D. 2.21; cf. M uller (1874) 63. For the expression itself, Hdt. 4.111.2
tttcv . . . tccv:ci, HP 3.8.7 c:cv tcn:ci, and XI.3n. Lipography
(virtual haplography, t<tcv> tcn:ci) may be the root of the corruption.
koi koov:i uyp tiytoi: cf. Macho 2356 (atterers or para-
sites) :cv tti,tcv tiiutvcv | ctcv:c :c :ptgcuiv citi tpc ypiv,
Ar. Th. 97981 tti,tci tpcuc | :c nut:tpcii | ycptv:c ycptici
(the datives should be taken equally with the inn. and with tpc ypiv /
ycptv:c). There is no need for sccv:c (Navarre 1920), prompted by Plu.
531c sct:cv:c guc tti,tci (above on sci t,cv:c s:.). uypc
as a term of stylistic criticism (frigid, bathetic, strained, tasteless) covers
various types of ineptitude in language or thought (LSJ ii.4, N. Zink, Griechische
Ausdrucksweisen f ur Warm und Kalt (Mainz 1962) 70, Russell on [Longin.] 4.1,
Wankel on D. 18.256, Arnott on Alex. 184.3, Olson on Ar. Ach. 13840), such
as a joke (Eup. 261.23 :c scu t,t . . . sci gcopc | uypcv) or pun
(Timocl. 19.6, 2 Ar. V. 772b, 2 E. Tr. 14). Another type is dened by T. himself:
Demetr. Eloc. 114 cpit:ci ot :c uypcv Otcgpc:c (fr. 94 Wimmer, 686
Fortenbaugh) c0:c

uypcv t:i :c ottpcv :nv cisticv tc,,ticv,

ccv tuvosc:c co :pcttc0:ci si (S. fr. 611), v:i :c0 t-
utvc tti :pcttn si co :it:ci. :c ,cp tpc,uc uispcv cv co otyt:ci
c,scv :cc0:cv ttc. Sycophantic laughter: Antiph. 80.9 cv sct:ni,
,tci, 142.79, Ter. Eu. 250, 426, 497, Juv. 3.1001, Plu. 54c, 531c (above),
Hegesand. ap. Ath. 249e, Ammian. AP 9. 573.4.
: :t i:icv doi ti :o :o: single connective :t (Denniston 497503)
occurs only here in this work, though T. occasionally has it elsewhere (M uller
(1874) 36). :t . . . sci XIII.10 (def. VI n.).
o cj co cuvtvc ko:oytv :ov yo:o: cf. Pl. Phdr. 228c c on cos
ttiuucv, Thg. 123a c oncos tioc. With a participle c onis almost always
ironical, sceptical, or indignant in tone (Denniston 230). Cf. XX.3n.
5 koi :cu ov:v:o ti:Jvoi kttoi to v oo:o opyi: co:c
is the man himself, the master, as Ar. Nu. 219, Th. 66, fr. 279, Pl. Prt. 314d,
Men. Sam. 256, 258, Theoc. 24.50 (LSJ i.1).
6 koi :c oicci Jo koi cu pitvc titvyko ccvoi 6pv:c
oo:c: the Aptsc too exploits his hosts chidren (V.5n. init.).
unc sci ticu is a natural pairing (e.g. CP 6.16.2 ctici sci unc, Her-
mipp. 63.17 (Pellegrino 21920), Matro 1.112, Eub. 74.3, Lib. Decl. 32.24).
uncv in this context may be translated as apple, though it embraces other
tree-fruits (Olson and Sens on Matro loc. cit.). ctic is the cultivated pear,
as opposed to yp the wild pear (Gow on Theoc. 7.120, Arnott on Alex.
34.23, Olson and Sens ibid.).
koi i(o ct titv Xpy:c o:po vt::io: cf. Ar. Au. 767 :c0
tc:pc vtc::icv. This combines the cosy image of children as edgelings,
under the parental wing (Bond on E. Herc. 712), with the idea that birds
produce young identical to themselves (Eup. 111.2 cucicu :cu vtc::cu :ci
tc:pi; cf. on V.5 scu cucic:tpc . . . :ci tc:pi). Addition of ypn:c0
gauchely directs the focus towards the father. The gaucherie is deliberate:
deletion of ypn:c0 or addition of <ypn:>before ypn:c0 (Groeneboom)
misses the point. Comparable imagery: Ar. Pl. 1011 vn::picv cv sci g::icv
ottscpit:c, Men. fr. 652, Juv. 5.1423 (the legacy-hunter) loquaci | gaudebit
nido, Shakespeare, Macbeth IV.iii.218 all my pretty chickens. For the accent
(vtc::ic A, not vtc::ic B), H. W. Chandler, A Practical Introduction to Greek
Accentuation (Oxford
1881) 341, W. Petersen, Greek Diminutives in -lON(Weimar
1910) 1014. On kissing children, W. Kroll, Ku, RE Suppl. v (1931) 514,
G. Binder, Kuss, DNP 6 (1999) 942.
7 koi uvovctvc likpo:co: Iphicratids are shoes named after Iphi-
crates, a celebrated Athenian general in the rst half of the fourth century, son
of a cobbler (O. Lau, Schuster und Schusterhandwerk in der griechisch-r omischen Liter-
atur und Kunst (Bonn 1967) 136, 177). Light and easily untied, they were designed
for military wear (D.S. 15.44.4 : :t otcotti :c :pc:ic:ci to:cu
sci scgc ttcint, :c utypi :c0 v0v lgispc:ioc t tstivcu sccuutvc),
but became more widely fashionable (2 Luc. 80 (DMeretr.) 14.2 :c isucvic
otconuc:c oitgtpcv:c tcpc :c tccic c sci c lgispc:iot spntot,
tc lgisp:cu tcnv gicscicv ttpi :nv otcotiv ttiototi,utvcu, Alci-
phr. 3.21.12 lgispc:ioc uci vtcup,t tttut :ci Apcucvi ocu scuitiv

c ot tti :c:ci tptvt:c, Damasc. Isid. fr. 89 (p. 130 Zintzen) ottotot:c o
co:c tcvisi, n :c A::isc lgispc:ioc n :c uvnn cvoic ttpi-
ototutvc, Procl. ap. Phot. Bibl. p. 321b Bekker (= A. Severyns, Recherches sur
la Chrestomathie de Proclos. Premi`ere partie. Le Codex 239 de Photius (Paris 1938) 2.54;
Severyns text is reproduced by R. Henry, Photius, Biblioth`eque 5 (Bud e ed. 1967)
164) = 2 Clem.Al. Protr. p. 299 St ahlin (the ocgvngcpc in a Boeotian cult)
:c utv scuc sctiutvc, ypuc0v ot :tgcvcv gtpcv sci cutpcv tn:c
tconpn t:ciutvc lgispc:ioc (M, 2: ttispc:ioc A) :t otcototutvc).
In this last passage (on which see Severyns 2.21832, A. Schachter, Cults of Boio-
tia 1 (BICS Suppl. 38.1, 1981) 835 (84 n. 6 for the point at issue), Burkert, Greek
Religion 100) the variant ttispc:ioc has recently found undeserved favour
(Severyns 1.2223, with tendentious reasoning). This word recurs in Phot. l 277
Theodoridis lgispc:iot

c ttispc:iot

t:i ot toc otconuc:c, where

Theodoridis suggests that it should be replaced with ttispntot, citing our
passage in support. But c ttispc:iot looks like a corruption masquerading
as a gloss, and I should delete it. It is absent fromthe similar denitions in Suda
l 770 lgispc:iot

toc otconuc:c, Hsch. l 1123 lgispc:iot (igispc:npt


otconuc:c toc. The word also turns up in a late Latin-Greek glos-

sary (G. Goetz, Corpus Glossariorum Latinorum 2 (Leipzig 1888) 185.28), socci
ttispc:iot, with u.ll. igi- and oi-, of which the former may be right. LSJ
cites the word in a different sense, a kind of head-dress . . . or towel, from Hp.
Praec. 10 (9.266 Littr e) gtus:tn . . . pi (Triller: :pii codd.) ttispc:iocv
( lgispc:iocv K uhn ap. Littr e), an inscrutable passage (cf. W. H. S. Jones,
Hippocrates 1 (Loeb ed. 1923) 326). Add Tzetz. on Ar. Nu. 102 (p. 379.2 Koster),
singular ttispc:i, headgear. Cf. Hsch. L 4896 ttispc:ioicv

suuuc cypi (Latte: ycpi cod.) :n stgcn. In our passage lgispc:ioc (a
bold and brilliant conjecture) was perhaps corrupted to ttispntoc by way
of ttispc:ioc.
Neither ttispntoc (A) nor tti spntoc (B) is acceptable. LSJ translates
ttispntoc (not elsewhere attested) as goloshes, Wilamowitz

This is based on Wachsmuth (ap. Ilberg), who suggested a type of spnti with a
more than usually elaborate upper part, comparing cticspnti, mentioned
by Poll. 7.91, 94, Hsch. O 1014. The style of the cticspnti (a womans
shoe, according to Poll. 7.94) can only be conjectured: Schuh, der hinten
an der Hacke heraufgeht (Wachsmuth), Schuhe mit breitem Fersenschutz
(M. Bieber, Krepis, RE xi.2 (1922) 171114, at 1712). There is no place here
for goloshes and overshoes. To describe a foot as shapelier than these is no
compliment. tti spntoc might be translated for shoes, if it were linked
with a verb of motion (as Ar. Ec. 819 tycpcuv ti ,cpcv tt cgi:c; LSJ tti
c.iii.1). But it cannot have that meaning when linked with uvcvcutvc: not
accompagnando a comprare le scarpe (Pasquali (1919) 1718 = (1986) 912,
vainly adducing, for lack of a verb of motion, X.2 tci:tv

tti :nv cisicv

uvcvcutvc tti spntoc <tcv> (Foss 1858), in which uvcvcutvc
has to be taken as an introductory scene-setting part. (VII.8n.), while jointly
shopping, creates a ponderous expression. tti spntoc cannot mean to the
shoe-shop. When the name of saleable goods stands for the place where they
are sold the noun always has an article: XI.4 tpctcv tpc :c spuc n :c
up:c n :c spcopuc, Ar. Eq. 1375, Nu. 1065, V. 789, Au. 13, 1288, Lys. 557, Th.
448, Ra. 1068, Ec. 302, etc.; law of 375/4 (SEG xxvi (19767) no. 72.1823; cf.
IV.10n.) tv :ci i:ci; Wachsmuth, Die Stadt Athen 2.4634, Wycherley, Market
of Athens 58(Stones of Athens 934), Kassel andAustinonAr. fr. 258andEup.
327, Arnott on Alex. 47.8. So we should need tti <:c>sp- (Fischer), as well
as a verb of motion. Similarly, tti spntiocv (Diels) at the shoe-shop calls for
<:cv>. Other proposals: ot for tti (ed. Basil.
before Fischer), tti del. Ussing,
t:i Needham (t:i after tvci Petersen), tti <tiu,icu>Edmonds 1929. But
no conjecture which retains spntoc is probable, since the compliment, once
again, would be maladroit. For spntot are mere soles, attached to the foot
by laces, and sometimes studded with nails (IV.12n.), the footwear primarily
of soldiers and travellers (Gow on Macho 13ff., Lau (above) 1213; illustration
in Daremberg-Saglio i.2 (1887) 155760, K. D. Morrow, Greek Footwear and the
Dating of Sculpture (Madison 1985), Index s.u. Krepides). The claim that they
were a ne, well-tting, close-shaped boot (A. A. Bryant, Greek shoes in the
classical period, HSCPh 10 (1899) 57102, at 85), gutsitzende Art der Sandale
(Bieber 1711), is based not on any independent evidence but on a perception
of the type of shoe which our passage requires.
:ov co Joi tvoi topu:tpcv :c occ(o:c: cf. Alciphr. 4.12.3
nisci . . . c tcot, c tc:t, c cppuuci, Hp. Art. 62 (2.214.12
K uhlewein) otconu:icv . . . ccv c Xci puucv tycv (puuc shape; Arnott
on Alex. 60.4). Contrast IV.2. Possibly the alternative word orders (gnci tvci
B, tvci gnci A; 3n.) point to an original gnci topuuc:tpcv tvci :c0
otconuc:c, comparable (for acc. interposed between gnci and tvci) to
V.5 gnci scu cucic:tpc tvci, XIX.2 gnci :c0:c tvci, XXIII.9 gnci
:c:nv tvci, XXIX.5 gnci co:cv svc tvci, XXX.4 gnci oiscicv tvci,
and (for verb interposed between topuuc:tpcv and otconuc:c) to III.3
tcvnpc:tpci tiiv . . . :cv pycicv, V.4 oiscic:tpc t,cui :cv tci:cv.
8 koi cptucvcu p :ivo :v ov pccpoov titv :i Hpo t
tpyt:oi: cf. XXIV.10 sci tpcctc:ttiv ot, ttcv tcptn:ci, :cv tpc0v:c
c:i tpctpyt:ci, Ter. Ph. 777 abi prae, nuntia hanc uenturam, Plin. Ep. 1.5.9 nuntius
a Spurinna: Venio ad te.
c:i regularly introduces direct speech: LSJ ii.1, KG2.3667, Goodwin 711,
E. H. Spieker, AJPh 5 (1884) 2217.
koi vo:po :i Hpc(yytk t: I have announced you in advance.
This, not tpcn,,tsc (o), must replace tpcn,,tsc (AB). tpcn,,tsc
is not adequately supported by Philod. Vit. col. ix.301 tpcc,,ttiv co
tcv:t (servants who will not announce to the master of the house that
someone has arrived), Luc. DDeor. 12.1 tpc,,ticv co:ci (spoken by the
new arrival to the servant, take him a message to say that I have arrived).
In these the verb is used like tic,,ttiv in Hdt. 3.118.2 toiscicu cootvc c
tc,,tci (he refused to allowanyone to take an announcement of his arrival
inside to him), Pl. Prtg. 314e ti,,ticv cov. The right prex is tpc- (cf. pre-
ceding tpcopcucv, likewise corrupted to tpc- in A). The reverse corruption
(tpc- to tpc-) occurs at pr. 3, VII.7, XI.9, XXIV.10, XXVI.2, XXX.19. The
mss. are divided between tpcc,,tci and tpc- at X. Cyr. 5.3.12. See also
VIII.10n., XI.9n., XXIII.7n. This verb is used with impersonal noun (fr. 174.7
Wimmer (359A.512 Fortenbaugh) :nv gcpcv co:cv tpcvcc0i sci tpcc,-
,tcuiv, Th. 7.65.1 tpcn,,tn . . . n tticn; cf. 1.137.4 tpc,,tiv
:n vcycpntc), with object clause (X. Cyr. 3.3.34, 5.3.12) or absolutely (D.
19.35). Here it calls for an object: -s t. Several editors have attributed this to
e, probably misled by Ribbeck (1884) 112, who suggested that tpcn,,tsc
reects an original -s t, but did not say whether he believed that -s t is
right (he probably did not, since he printed -sc).
9 [ti ct koi :o tk yuvoikto ycp ciokcvJoi cuvo:o vtu:]: it
is intolerable not to be told how his breathless activities in the womens market
serve the man he is attering. Possibly an explanation has been lost (Ilberg) or
the passage has been deliberately abbreviated (Diels). As it stands, the sentence
disrupts the structure (we do not want a new construction with ouvc:c) and
is best deleted.
utti never mind, dont worry, rest assured, frequent in comedy and
dialogue, serves as a word of general emphasis or asseveration. Its distribution
(inverse, only comedy; inclassical prose, absent fromthe historians andorators)
proves it colloquial. InAristophanes it usually stands at the head of the sentence
and is followed by a verb (Ach. 368 utti uc :cv Ai cos tvctioccuci, Eq.
1213 sutti spivt scc, Nu. 877 utti oiocst, 1111, Lys. 164, 842, 935,
Ec. 800), once stands in mid-sentence at the head of the main clause (Nu. 422),
twice stands rst and alone with an adverb (Nu. 488, Ra. 532 utti scc),
once is parenthetic (Lys. 172 nut utti ci : ,t tcp nuv tticutv). It
is parenthetic or postponed in Men. Asp. 388 tti :iv utti oic:pinv cos
cppuucv, DE 107 tvocv ,cp utti, Mcyt, Mis. 912 c[i] | :c uispcv
utt[i] :c0 :pc:ic:isc0 [n, Sam. 223 t,ivt: utti tv t:ciuc,
371 ttivcv utti :c ospucv, Eup. 222.1. Cf. Dromo 1.3, Nicostr.Com. 9.3,
Philippid. 9.9. In dialogue it normally opens a speech, as rst word (Pl. Phd.
82a Autti, tgn c Ktn, ti :c :cic0:c, R. 422c, 450a, 539e, X. Cyr. 5.2.13,
8.3.4, Mem. 1.4.7, 4.4.7, D. 52.11), but is once postponed (Pl. R. 500a Kci t,c
utti, tgn, uvcicuci), and once introduces a main clause in mid-speech (Pl.
Hp.Ma. 295b sci tcv utv v0v t0pcutv, utti cos cynpc tcuci). Elsewhere
in T., CP 2.11.1 gcvtpcv ot utti, 5.1.3 ccv utti, 6.14.6 cttp utti (cf.
[Arist.] Mu. 396
9, 398
14, 400
13). Initial utti ot sci is true to T.s usage
(VI.9n., XXVI.3n.); but utti is a word which interpolators too found handy
(V.2, VI.3, denitions XIII, XVI, XVIII, XXV). See also Blomqvist 1037.
The ,uvcistic ,cp is mentioned only twice elsewhere. (i) The
Avtttpc (XXII.10) hires a girl ts :n ,uvcistic (sc. ,cpc) to accom-
pany his wife when she goes out of doors. (ii) Poll. 10.18 sci unv ti ,uvcisticv
,cpcv :cv :ctcv co :c stn :c :cic0:c titpscuiv ttci sctv,
t0pci cv tv :c uvcpi:cci Mtvvopcu (fr. 344) :c cvcuc (= Wycherley,
Agora iii no. 613; cf. nos. 6678). The place to which Pollux refers is the place to
which he referred at the beginning of this section, called ssci or ssc, the
area where slaves were sold (Wachsmuth, Die Stadt Athen 2.4612, Wycherley,
Market of Athens 910 Stones of Athens 956, id. Agora iii nos. 61821, Kassel
and Austin on Diph. 55.3, Arnott on Alex. 104). Polluxs inference that stn
(utensils) were sold there may be based (as Arnott suggests) on a misreading
of Diph. 55, where ssc (ring of slaves) is mentioned after a list of stn. It
is possible, then, that the ,uvcistic ,cp was the place where female slaves
were bought or hired. Such an interpretation is at least compatible with both
Poll. and XXII.10. Lane Fox 1434 reaches the same conclusion, with a differ-
ent argument; but his inference about the present passage (since he treats it as
genuine) is unsafe. Other possibilities remain: a market which sold goods for
women (Wycherley, Market of Athens 7 Stones of Athens 94; also P. Herfst,
Le travail de la femme dans la Gr`ece ancienne (Utrecht 1922) 3640, R. Brock, CQ 44
(1994) 342) or goods made by women (Wycherley ibid., id. Agora iii 201; also W.
Judeich, Topographie von Athen (Munich
1931) 360). At any rate, not a market
where women shopped, since women did not normally do their own shopping.
There is no need for ts <:n> (a, Casaubon); IV.2n.
ouvc:c reappears elsewhere (again with utti) only in the spurious VI.3.
10 koi :v t:iovov p:c toivoi :ov cvcv: here he appears in the
guise of tcpi:c, a role rst attested for him in the Kccst of Eupolis (421
bc; fr. 172 for his own account of his role). See XX.10n., Nesselrath (Introd.
Note), id. Parasit, DNP 9 (2000) 3256, Arnott, Alexis 3367, 5425, 731,
P. G. McC. Brown, ZPE 92 (1992) 98107, C. Damon, The Mask of the Parasite:
A Pathology of Roman Patronage (Ann Arbor 1997) 1114, N. Fisher in D. Harvey
and J. Wilkins (edd.), The Rivals of Aristophanes (London and Swansea 2000)
koi opoktivoi titv: he addresses the man he is attering (now his
host), not a fellow-guest, since the host is the object of his questions in the
second part of this sentence. He sits next to his host, like the Mispcgic:iuc,
who is eager tti ottvcv snti tcp co:cv :cv sctcv:c sc:cstiutvc
otitvnci (XXI.2). The expression tcp co:cv . . . sc:cstiutvc in that
passage (cf. Men. Epit. 4345 sc:cstci . . . tcp co:cv, and tcpcsctc-
utvc III.2, tcpcscnci XIV.2, XXIV.6, XXV.2, 5, XXVI.4) commends
tcpcstiutvci (-cv c) for tcpcutvcv (AB) here. tcpcstiutvci was proposedby
Gronovius (Observationum Libri Tres (Leiden
1662) 556); <:ci>tcpcstiutvci,
which has been wrongly imputed to him, would signify fellow-guest, not host.
The bare participle (sc. co:ci) is like 4 sccv:i, 8 tcptucutvcu. Alter-
natively tcpcsivcutvci (LSJ sivc ii.4, sc:csivc i; cf. X. Cyr. 2.2.28
votitvcv sci tcpcsi:nv). But not tcpnutvci (Nauck), a poetic verb, nor
tcpcstiutvc (reported by Needham from Oxford, Barocci 194 (33 Wilson),
wrongly I have checked), since we need a reference to the person addressed.
tcpcutvcv (AB) gives no adequate sense, whether taken literally, remaining
beside him, sc. when the others have left (Reiske 1750 (Briefe 408), 1757), since
the sequel shows that they are not alone, or taken guratively, standing fast,
steadfastly (e.g. (in laudando) perseverans Pauw, he . . . keeps it up by say-
ing Rusten). There are many other proposals: lcputvcv Bernhard 1750 (ap.
Reiske (1783) 399), tcpc:tivcv Darvaris, tcpcstiutvcv before cpc Meier
1850/1, tcpcutvtiv (the wine lasts well) Petersen, lpuvticv M. Schmidt,
ttpi :cv tcpcstiutvcv Hanow 1860, nptuc Naber, <:cv> tcpcstiutvcv
<tpc:c>Zingerle 1893, <cp:i>or <tou>tcpcstiutvcv Holland1897,
tcpcuticv Bersanetti, tcpcstiutvcv before tc :n :pcttn Navarre
1918, tcpcsccv H. Bolkestein (Mnemosyne 18 (1965) 2812), tcptiutvcv
Stefanis 1997.
o ook t:ii: How luxuriously you entertain, with the verb
used absolutely, as V.5, XXX.2 (t:icv Coray, Schneider: ticv V); cf. X.
Smp. 2.2 :ttc nuc t:ici. For the anonymous conjecture t:ici see the
Introduction, p. 54 n. 172. titi (AB) is inappropriate. What dainty food
you have (LSJ uccsc i.1) mistranslates titi. How luxuriously you dine
(Rusten) misses its tone: not dine (too formal) but eat. How luxuriously you
eat might be acceptable as an address to a fellowguest, but to the host it would
be crude and impolite. He must use a verb which reects, with due formality,
the role of his host.
uccsc refers primarily to physical comfort. It is often used with verbs of
sitting or lying: Ar. Ach. 70 uccsc sc:cstiutvci, Eq. 785 scicu uccsc
(on a cushion), X. HG 4.1.30, Cyr. 8.8.19, Eub. 107.1, Theopomp.Com. 65
ttivcutv . . . sc:cstiutvci uccsc:c: tti :pisivici, Theoc. 7.69 ticuci
uccsc (on a comfortable couch); cf. Prop. 1.14.12 tu licet abiectus Tiberina mol-
liter unda | Lesbia Mentoreo uina bibas opere; with a verb signifying provision of com-
fort for another (t:ici here), Eub. 90.1 c0scuv otc:cpt:t uccsc :ci
suvi; (cf. X. Cyr. 8.8.16). For the word in comparable connections, Ar. V. 1455
:c :pugcv sci uccscv, X. Cyr. 7.2.28 :cv utv ,ccv sci :cv uccscv sci
togpcuvcv tccv, Men. Phasm. 12 Arnott (37 Sandbach) uccsc tcc.
Coray interprets uccsc (with titi) as foiblement, sans app etit, comme
un malade, so that cpc :i co:ci (his conjecture for :cv) describes an attempt
by the Kcc to offer his host something to eat. Similarly G. J. de Vries,
Mnemosyne 17 (1964) 3857, Stefanis 1997. This is not acceptable.
koi po :i :v o :J :poy: for this use of tc after the article,
Pl. Cra. 410b cpti :c tc :n ,n, KG 1.546, LSJ tc i.5. Cf. IV.3, VII.7,
IX.3. We do not want tti (Pauw).
Joi Tcu:i po o ypy:v t:i: cpc expresses a lively feeling of
interest (Denniston 33; W. J. Verdenius, Mnemosyne 17 (1964) 387). cpc (Naber
before Diels) is unwanted. For ypn:c of food, Olson on Ar. Pax 563, Sens
and Olson on Matro 1.634.
koi tpo:Joi j piyc koi ti tiooi ct:oi: the rst question
implies fear or apprehension, hence un (KG 2.3945, LSJ un c.ii.1, Good-
win 369), as VIII.2; the second may be taken as a simple inquiry, and dele-
tion of ti (Wilamowitz 1902b) is inadvisable. ttictci (de) must replace
ttitci (AB). The aorist refers to a single act of investiture, as XIX.6
and XXI.8 vcccutvc (-c- V in both), H. Od. 6.178 ugictci,
Hdt. 1.152.1, 3.139.2 ttpiccutvc, Ar. V. 1132, 1135 vccc0, Lys. 1096
uccutc, Ec. 276 ttcvctt (-- codd.); cf. V.6n. Perhaps t <:i>
tti- (Hanow 1860). For the general idea, Hor. S. 2.5.934 mone, si increbruit
aura, | cautus uti uelet carum caput.
koi t:i :o:o yov tpi:toi oo:v

koi o k:.: restored for sci t:i

(t:i B) ttpi:tini (-:tci c
de) co:cv

sci un :c0:c t,cv s:., where t:i

is meaningless, ttpi:tci lame (he asks if he wishes to put something on
and he wraps him up), :c0:c t,cv otiose (he whispers while he says this), and
oiciupitiv pointless (his ofciousness should not be hidden in a whisper but
spoken aloud for all to hear). Transposition of :c0:c t,cv (Schneider 1799
before Ussing) restores two effective points: (i) :c0:c t,cv, now combined
witht:i, underlines his ofciousness: he takes actionevenbefore he has received
an answer to his questions; cf. Hdt. 8.90.2 t:i :c:cv :c0:c t,cv:cv, X.
Cyr. 5.5.35 t:i t,cv:c co:c0, Plb. 1.79.14, 18.4.3, 28.23.3, 31.24.9, also 3
cuc :cic0:c t,cv, VII.3 ut:cu . . . tcspivcutvci; (ii) his whispering, no
longer connectedwithhis questions, becomes anexcuse for proximity andover-
familiarity. It is not enoughtotranspose t,cv alone (Reiske 1757) or todelete it
(Pasquali), since this leaves :c0:c with oiciupitiv, and we do not want him
whispering these things (i.e. his ofcious questions). I reject t :i (Petersen, with
impossible opt. ttpi:tici) ttpi:tini, deliberative subjunctive in indirect
question (KG 2.537(,), Goodwin 677), because it duplicates the preceding
question (the difference between put on and put around is too slight to justify
it) and leaves :c0:c t,cv still with oiciupitiv. I do not understand t :i
ttpi:tt (Wilamowitz 1902b).
For the unwanted un, I reject un<v> (o), since sci unv and what is more
(Denniston 3512) would be an anomalous connective (I.6n.; M uller (1874)
34, Blomqvist 667). It cannot be taken as adversative (and yet he says all this
in a whisper Rusten). Apart from the faulty sense (whispered ofciousness),
sci unv meaning and yet is not used in this way (Denniston 3578). un may
either be changed to cuc (see on 3 sci cuc :cic0:c t,cv) or deleted.
po :o c pck:ov cioiuptiv: an echo of Pl. Euthd. 275e
tpcsc uci uispcv tpc :cco and276dtiv uispcv tpc ut iupic.
Cf. Pl. R. 449b tt,tv c::ctpcstsugc, Luc. Nec. 21 nptuctpcsc tpc
:c co, XI.3 vcsc, XXIV.8 s:c stsugc, XXV.2 vcst:cv; also
Valckenaer on 2 E. Ph. 916 [911] (ed. Ph. (Franecker 1755) 714). oici- (A)
may reasonably be preferred to i- (B): for omissions by B see on 2 :c0:c ot
s:. The compound is rst attested here. Presumably the prex strengthens
the verb; in later examples (see LSJ), where the subject is plural, it may suggest
koi ti tktvcv cov :c ci otv: see on 2 tcttcui
tpc t. For ctv, Introd. Note to VII.
11 koi :c oico tv :i t:poi ttvc :o pcktoio oo:o
oc:poi: tpcstgcicv, properly pillow, is here cushion (at XXV.4
it could be either); similarly tc:ispcvcv (Theoc. 15.3); Pritchett 2534.
Aeschines alleges, as evidence of the sccstic of Demosthenes towards the
ambassadors of Philip, that ti tpctopicv tstt sci tpcstgcic tnst
sci gcivisioc ttpittt:ct (3.76; cf. 2.111). See also Ar. Eq. 7835, Ov. Ars
12 koi :jv cikov Joi t \pyi:tk:cvJoi: cf. Luc. Pr.Im. 20 nv cisicv
ttcivni scnv sci cpi:c sc:tstucutvnv, ttci cv Znvc tcu :cinot ,
Ouuticu tvoctv con. c ot scc :c0:c :c ttc scv ttpi :n uc:cu
scn ttci, ti ucvcv :i tcpc :c0 uc:cu ctv ttititv. For the verb,
Arnott on Alex. 153.2.
koi :ov ypov t tu:toi: for ,pc farm, eld, Pritchett 262.
koi :jv tikvo 6cov tvoi: this may refer to sculpture or painting. Nat-
uralistic portraiture was a very recent development (M. Robertson, A History
of Greek Art (Cambridge 1975) 5089, Lane Fox 145). Cf. Arist. Po. 1454
ot uiutci :cu ,ccu tiscvc,pgcu

sci ,cp tstvci tcoiocv:t :nv

ioicv ucpgnv cucicu tcic0v:t scicu ,pgcuiv; for the attery, Luc.
Pr.Im. 6 ctv:cv cov :cv :cic:cv sc:t,tc :cv tcptycv:cv co:cu :c
scciv, sci tpct:iti on c:i un tv ttcivci ucvcv c sci tv ,pcgc :c
cucic tcci sccsttci :t sci tctc:cci tcui. Xcipcui ,c0v
tgn :cv ,pcgtcv tstivci ui:c c cv tpc :c toucpgc:tpcv co:cu
tisciv, 10 sci tcu:nv cov :c utv tuc cu ttcivtv sci :nv ttivcicv
:cv tiscvcv, un ,vcpitiv ot :nv cucic:n:c.
[13] Epilogue
:o ktoicv: see on I.6 :c ccv.
:ov koko t:i tooi v:o koi ycv:o koi p::cv:o: One may
see the Toady saying and doing everything (same construction as epil. I toptv
t:i, epil. Xt:iv iotv), not the atterer is onthe lookout for everything inword
or deed (Rusten). The pairing of t,tiv and tp::tiv, elsewhere common
(E. Kemmer, Die polare Ausdrucksweise in der griechischen Literatur (W urzburg 1903)
21315, 23840, Nesselrath on Luc. Par. 5), reects the pairing of nouns for
speech and action in the denitions (def. I n.).
v:o . . . oi yopitoi ocovti: tv:c . . . ci is comparable to
the regular tv:t c:i or c cv (KG 1.567; neuter X. Cyr. 8.2.25 tv:c
c:cu toti), but different in so far as the relative here is c (not c:i or c cv).
tcv (Cobet 1874) could be right (LSJ tc d.iii.2). Alternatively c (de). Less
plausibly tv:n Bucarest 602 (2 Wilson), coni. Diels, tcv :i Jebb, ti Ussing,
oi cv Ribbeck 1874 (cl. M oi ccv).
Introductory note
Aoctyic is talk on matters which others perceive as unimportant. The word
and its cognates are commonly applied to philosophers and sophists: Ar. Nu.
1480, 1485, fr. 506, Eup. 386, 388, Alex. 185 (Arnott ad loc.); frequently in Plato,
e.g. Phd. 70b-c (Socrates) c0scuv , cv cuci . . . tittv :ivc v0v sccv:c,
coo ti scucioctcic tn, c octyc sci co ttpi tpcnscv:cv :cu
c,cu tcic0uci. Aristotle denes as octyc those who are gicucu
sci oin,n:iscu sci ttpi :cv :uycv:cv sc:c:picv:c :c nutpc (EN
345); and octyic is characteristic of the old, who like to tell of the
past (Rh. 1390
911). There is an essay by Plutarch ltpi octyic (502b-
The Aoctyn is characterised by the triviality and unconnectedness of his
talk. He moves calmly from one trite subject to the next, caring little whether
the second follows logically from the rst. He has a single auditor, whom he
detains while they are seated. He is different from the Ac (VII), who has
various auditors in various places and discourses to each on a single subject
with greater urgency and self-importance. See the Introd. Note to VII.
[1 ] Denition
H ct cctyo t:i v: the particle is similarly placed in def. V and IX
(Denniston 3712).
ci(yyi yov okpv koi pccut:ov: an incompetent expression.
We do not want a narration of speeches: oin,ni may have been prompted
by oin,ncci in 2 or by oin,n:isc in Arist. EN 1117
34 (Introd. Note).
The epithets are carelessly chosen. ucspci is a standard epithet for c,ci and
usually conveys a note of disapproval or sarcasm (e.g. S. El. 1335, Ar. Ach.
303, E. IA 313, D. 19.11, 303, Pl. Grg. 465e, Prt. 329b, 335c, Sph. 268b, Plb.
11.10.6; LSJ ii.2). But, while some of the mans subjects (the encomium of
his wife, the account of his dream) may have needed lengthy exposition, and
the accumulation of subjects makes for a long and tedious speech, the sketch
illustrates not somuchlong-windedness or tediousness as triviality. Emendation
is otiose: scipcv H. Friesemann (Collectanea critica (Amsterdam 1786) 1712),
uc:cicv Ast, co scipicv nucspcv (fromM) Edmonds 1908. tpccut:cv
is just as bad: the subjects would not have been more appealing if they had
been better thought out in advance. See Stein 701.
2 :cic: :i: :i restored in place of t:iv (AB) by Hanow 1861, before
Herwerden 1871 and Cobet 1874; I.2n.
v j yiyvokti, :c:oi opokottvc ycv: cf. XIII.5 c0 co (un
Navarre) ,i,vcsti, XXIII.6 ,vc:cv . . . tcpcscnutvcv, Hor. S. 1.9.3
(the boor) accurrit quidam notus mihi nomine tantum. ,iv- (AB) is not attested in
Attic inscriptions before the Roman period (Threatte 1.5625, 2.770, Arnott,
Orthographical variants 196). For cv . . . :c:ci (and the following c . . .
:c0:c), IX.2 cv . . . :c0:cv, KG1.647 (9), Schwyzer 2.640 (1). For the pleonasm
tcpcsctcutvc tnicv, Ar. Th. 409 tcpcsnv:ci tnicv, E. Ph. 160
tnicv tcpc:c:t (cf. Ar. Ra. 969, Ec. 9), Ar. Ec. 725 tcpcsccuctnicv,
Luc. Pisc. 12 tcpcscicutvn tnicv; KG 2.5834, Diggle, Studies on the Text
of Euripides 39. Deletion of tnicv (Schneider) is misguided.
p:cv tv . . . t:o . . . t . . . t:o c(: the repetition brings out
his persistence and the continuousness of his talk. He begins with three self-
referential narratives (his wife, then his dream, then his dinner), and then, when
this strategy proves successful, he embarks on a potentially endless series of
disjointed trivialities. Connective t:c (elswhere IX.2, XIII.6, XXV.4, sci:c
IV.7) has something of a colloquial tone (K. J. Dover, Lysias and the Corpus
Lysiacum (Berkeley and Los Angeles 1968) 845, id. Greek and the Greeks (Oxford
1987) 289). For on, XX.3n.
:J vuk:o tctv tvvicv, :c:c ciyy(ooi: cf. XVI.11. Dreams are
conventionally seen: G. Bj orck, Eranos 44 (1946) 30614, Arnott on Alex.
ov tytv ti :i ctvoi :o ko tko:o citttv: tti :ci o- fr. 121
Wimmer (572 Fortenbaugh), X. Cyr. 1.3.12, Lac. 15.4, Hp. Epid. 2.6.31 (5.138
Littr e), Mul. 75 (8.164), 133 (8.300), Demon, FGrH327 f 1 (LSJ tti b.i.i); :csc
tsc:c CP 2.3.5, Vert. 3, Arist. EN 1107
31 (and often), D. 18.214, 49.66, Hyp.
Eux. 4, Aeschin. 2.25, Men. Dysc. 45, PCG adesp. 1081.2. :c sc tsc:cv
(Schneider) would be anomalous (u.l. Aeschin. 3.217, Arist. GC 335
27; :c
(Hertlein: :c codd.) sc tsc:cv D.S. 1.85.5). Cf. Petr. 66.1 quid habuistis in
3 t:o cj pcyopcv:c :c pyo:c: not quite as matters progress
(Rusten, al.), but as the business proceeds successfully. The phrase expresses
not so much the temporal progression of events in general as the suc-
cessful development of the matter in hand. Sometimes the verb is quali-
ed (e.g. Th. 1.74.4 sc nuyicv cv co:ci tpcuycpnt :c tp,uc:c
ni tct:c, 6.103.2 :cc tpcuycpti co:c t ttioc), but some-
times it stands alone (Hdt. 8.108.3 c0:t :i tpcycpttiv ccv :t t:ci :cv
tpn,u:cv, Th. 4.73.4 :c ttic co:c tpcustycpnsti, 5.37.2 :c:cu
tpcycpncv:c, 6.90.3 ti . . . tpcycpntit :c0:c, 8.68.4 :c tp,cv . . .
tpcuycpntv). ubi incaluerit (Casaubon), warming to the work (Jebb),
getting into his stride (Vellacott), do not quite capture the idea. Cf. TGL s.u.,
LSJ ii.1.
ytiv o cu cvyp:tpc tiiv ci vv vpoci :v pyoov: a motif
as old as Homer (Il. 1.2712 stivcii o cv c0 :i | :cv c v0v pc:ci tiiv
ttiycvici ucytci:c; cf. 5.3034), expressed most memorably by Hor. Carm.
3.6.468 aetas parentumpeior auis tulit | nos nequiores, mox daturos | progeniemuitiosiorem
(cf. Arat. 1234). See A. O. Lovejoy and G. Boas, Primitivism and Related Ideas
in Antiquity (Baltimore 1935), esp. ch. 2, K. Jost, Das Beispiel und Vorbild der
Vorfahren bei den attischen Rednern und Geschichtschreibern bis Demosthenes (Paderborn
1936) 1534, 2314, B. Gatz, Weltalter, goldene Zeit und sinnverwandte Vorstellungen
(Hildesheim 1967). For tcvnpc, Introd. Note to XXIX.
koi o ici ytyvoiv ci upci tv :Ji ycpi: cf. Men. Phasm. 2 Arnott
(27 Sandbach) tc tiiv c tupci [sc: ,cpcv cvici;. For the sale of grain in
the Agora, Wycherley, Agora iii 1934. For tupc, Pritchett 189, 1968, Olson
on Ar. Pax 11445.
Athens was heavily dependent on imported grain, and its price, being sen-
sitive to changes in supply, is a subject of regular remark (Wankel on D. 18.87,
Millett, Sale, credit and exchange 1923); for attested shortages of grain,
XXIII.5n. But, while anyone may complain of the dearness of food (Ter. An.
746 annona carast, Petr. 44.1), it takes a Chatterbox to nd its cheapness a worth-
while subject of conversation. To suppose that he is complaining that his own
wheat is selling too cheaply (Steinmetz, Bodei Giglioni 889) is a misjudge-
ment. cic good value for money, cheap (LSJ 3.b) is regularly applied to food
(wheat, as here, Pherecr. 67; grain, Lys. 22.8, 22; sh, Ar. Eq. 645, 672, V. 491;
silphiumstalks, Ar. Eq. 8945; bread, Eub. 9.23), also to bronze-ware (X. Vect.
4.6); elsewhere at IX.6 (no specic application), XVII.6 (slave). To make the
wheat expensive (<cos> cici Coray, <co> ,t,cvciv Navarre 1920) is to
ruin the point.
koi o cci ticyci vci: these tvci are not ut:cisci (Bodei Giglioni
101 n. 115) but foreign visitors (as V.4, XXIII.2, epil. XXVI; D. Whitehead, The
Ideology of the Athenian Metic (PCPhS Suppl. 4, 1977) 401). They are numerous
probably because (as the next clause suggests) many of them have come from
overseas for the Dionysia (Pickard-Cambridge, DFA 589). Cf. IX.5n.
koi :jv o::ov tk Aicvuov oicv tvoi: the City Dionysia was
held in Elaphebolion (roughly March), the start of the sailing season (Pickard-
Cambridge, DFA636, J. D. Mikalson, The Sacred and Civil Calendar of the Athenian
Year (Princeton 1975) 12530, 137, L. Casson, Ships and Seamanship in the Ancient
World (Princeton
1986) 2703, MacDowell on D. 21.10). The return of sailing
weather, welcome as it was, is a subject of regular remark (Nisbet and Hubbard
onHor. Carm. 1.4.2). For ts starting from, after, LSJ a.ii.2; the formtciucv,
C. A. Lobeck, Phrynichi Eclogae (Leipzig 1820) 61416, KB1.168, LSJ s.u. Similar
change of construction (to acc. and inn. after c with indic.) XX.9, XXIX.3,
the reverse change XXIII.9; cf. KG 2.357, J. Ros, Die MLTABOAH (Variatio)
als Stilprinzip des Thucydides (Nijmegen 1938) 41115.
koi ti ci(titv 6 Ztu 0cop tcv :o tv :Ji yJi t:o ttoi: cf. CP
1.19.3 tv ,t on ttic tcini 0oc:c, Ar. V. 261 0ocp vc,scic tyti :cv
tcv tcinci, D.L. 2.36 cos tt,cv tttv (sc. csp:n) c:i -cvittn
pcv:cc 0ocp tcinti; The expression has the ring of popular speech
M. D. Macleod, Mnemosyne 27 (1974) 756, nds an echo of this passage
(and the preceding c cici ,t,cvciv c tupci) in Luc. Icar. 24 (Zeus asks)
tccu v0v c tupc t:iv cvic tti :n Loc . . . sci ti :c ycvc ot:ci
tticvc ttcupic. The resemblance is too slight to prove direct imitation
(see the Introduction, p. 26).
koi v ypov ti vo:o ytopy(ti: he says what land he will cultivate next
year, implying that he will leave some of his land fallow, the usual practice (West
on Hes. Op. 4623, Pomeroy on X. Oec. 16.11, 13, P. Garnsey, Famine and Food
Supply in the Graeco-Roman World (Cambridge 1988) 934). There may be a hint
of naive optimism: the farmer hopes to strike it rich next year, a familiar saw
(Philem. 85 ti ,tcp,c ti vtc:c tcic, Theodoridis on Phot. A421). cv
,pcv is the most plausible correction of c ,pc (AB). An indirect question is
regularly introduced by relative c with noun in agreement: e.g. HP 2.6.12 cv
:pctcv, Hdt. 4.53.4, Th. 5.9.2, 6.34.6, 8.50.5, Aeschin. 3.94 (KG 2.4389).
The best alternative is c ,pc or -cv (Lycius). But the sense (that he will
farm his land) is weaker. c:i :cv ,pcv (Auberius) and c:i ,pcv (Casaubon)
have a further weakness: since c is used thrice before and thrice after in this
sentence, c:i would be a little surprising (though there is a switch from c to
c:i at VII.9, and a less striking switch at XXIII.3). For the expression ,pcv . . .
,tcp,nti, Men. Georg. 35, PCG adesp. 895.1, D.H. 6.86.4, Plu. 829d; ,pc,
II.12n.; ti vtc:c, KG 1.53840.
koi o yotv t:i :o Jv: cf. X. Mem. 2.9.1 c ycttcv c ic Anvniv
tn vopi cucutvci :c tcu:c0 tp::tiv.
koi o Aic u:ypci ty:yv cico t:ytv: torches played an
important part in the events at Eleusis. This torch is presumably a votive
offering by a grateful initiate. Remains of one such torch of marble survive
(G. E. Mylonas, Eleusis and the Eleusinian Mysteries (Princeton1961) 204). ut,i:nv
is probably very large rather than largest, a sense which would be more
clearly expressed by ut,i:nv <:nv> ocioc (Edmonds 1929), like X. Mem.
1.4.13 :nv uynv spc:i:nv :ci vpctci tvtgut (KG 1.61415). A very
large torch is less pointed and may be preferable for that reason. uu:npici
is at (the time of), local/temporal dative (KG 1.445); cf. XXII.2 :pc,cioc.
The name Auittc (Acuittc Reiske 1757) is well attested: Hyp. fr. 66
Jensen, LGPN 2.98, 3a.10910, J. S. Traill, Persons of Ancient Athens 5 (Toronto
1996) 201.
koi ci tii kcvt :c oictcu: the Odeion of Pericles, a large concert-
hall (sometimes used for other purposes), by the south-east slope of the
Acropolis, adjacent to the theatre of Dionysus. Described by Plu. Per. 13.9
as tc:ucv, it had (so excavation has revealed) 10 rows of 9 columns:
J. Travlos, Pictorial Dictionary of Ancient Athens (London 1971) 38791, R. Meinel,
Das Odeion (Frankfurt 1980) 13550, Stadter on Plu. loc. cit., M. C. Miller, Athens
and Persia in the Fifth Century BC: A Study in Cultural Receptivity (Cambridge 1997)
21842; on its date (disputed), M. Hose, Philologus 137 (1993) 311. The clause is
usually taken as a question in direct speech, but is more effective in its triviality
if taken as a reported statement. <c> sicvt Bodl. Auct. T.V.6 (35 Wilson),
commended by Stefanis (1994a) 91, 93, 118, could be right (cf. V.7 c l: om.
AB). Alternatively, :ci 0iotici.
koi Xt jto: for the isolated statement in direct speech, VII.9.
koi : t:iv \po :(tpcv: again, like tcci sicvt s:., more effective as
a statement than as a question. The Attic spelling :nutpcv (n- AB), restored
by Herwerden before Diels, is also found in Munich 490 (30 Wilson), according
to Stefanis (1994a) 118. See Arnott, Orthographical variants 20910.
koi o . . . Aicvio: these words are transmitted at the end of the sketch,
after scv otcutvni :i co:cv un gi:cci, which must themselves stand at
the end (un gi:cci [sci] c (Steinmetz) and sc:c<t,cv> c (Stark
ap. Steinmetz 350) are futile tinkering). They must therefore be placed earlier;
but precisely where is disputable. Hottinger (before Schneider) transposed
them the minimum distance, after :nutpcv (nutpcv), a transposition already
contemplated but declined by Pauw. The tricolon of dates follows well enough
after yesterday and today, and rounds off the narrative with well-balanced
tedium. There is no clear advantage in transposing themfurther: after t:ntv
(B. A. vanGroningen, Mnemosyne 58 (1930) 567), after 0ioticu (Navarre 1931).
Deletion of sci c . . . Aicvic (Ussing) is gratuitous: the catalogue of festivals
is a ne touch.
Deletion of scv . . . gi:cci (Diels) is also implausible: if
an interpolator was minded to add a comment like this, he would not add it in
this place. The suggestion that it is an afterthought by T. himself (Stein 501)
is no more appealing (see on I.2 u,,vcunv s:.).
Bcycpcivc v t:i :o u:(pio: Boedromion was roughly Septem-
ber. The name of the month may stand without article (e.g. Lsc:cucicvc
HP 3.5.2, Mcuviyicvc Aeschin. 2.91) or with article (see on XXVIII.4 :c0
lciotcvc); sometimes unvc is added (e.g. Bcnopcuicvc unvc HP 4.11.4,
Mcuviyicvc unvc D. 49.6, unvc Mciucs:npicvc Is. 7.14, Arist. HA
18; :c0 Mt:c,ti:vicvc unvc HP 7.1.2, Is. 3.57, D. 56.5, :c0 Mcuvi-
yicvc unvc D. 49.44; cf. XXX.14). For the genitive, KG 1.386. For the
The living religious practice of the Greeks is concentrated on the festivals . . . which
interrupt and articulate everyday life (Burkert, Greek Religion 225).
Mysteries, Mikalson (above on sci :nv c::cv s:.) 546, 65, H. W. Parke,
Festivals of the Athenians (London 1977) 5372, Burkert, Greek Religion 28590.
Huovcivc ct <:o> Ao:cpio: the Apatouria is the annual festi-
val of the phratries, lasting three days, in Pyanopsion (roughly October); L.
Deubner, Attische Feste (Berlin 1932) 2324, Mikalson 79, Parke 8892, Burk-
ert, Greek Religion 255, S. D. Lambert, The Phratries of Attica (Ann Arbor 1993)
ch. 4 (esp. 157), Parker, Athenian Religion 1045, 107, 265; XXI.3n., XXX.16n.
Atc:cpic, without article, is commoner (Hdt. 1.147.2, Ar. Ach. 146, Th. 558,
And. 1.126, Pl. Ti. 21b, X. HG 1.7.8), but the article is included at D. 39.4,
and is desirable here in view of the preceding :c uu:npic and the follow-
ing <:c> . . . Aicvic (where its addition is inescapable). M has it; Stefanis
(1994a) 101, 118, reports it from Ambros. I 111 inf. (25 Wilson), which cannot
(as he suggests) have derived it from a printed edition, since the rst editor to
add it was Darvaris, anticipating Petersen, Herwerden (who took it from M),
and Naber (who wrongly imputed it to A). For the form lucvc- (lucvt-
AB), Meisterhans 23.
Hcictvc ct <:o>ko: ypcu Aicvio: the Rural Dionysia (:c sc:
,pcu A- Ar. Ach. 202, 250, Aeschin. 1.157) in Posideon (roughly December);
Deubner 1348, Pickard-Cambridge, DFA 4256, Mikalson 97, Parke 100
3, Whitehead, Demes of Attica 21222, Csapo and Slater 124. For the form
lcio- (lctio- AB), Meisterhans 54, Threatte 1.200, 2.126, 12930, 705. Cf.
kv ocvyi :i oo:v, j :ooi: cf. Plu. 503a-b (of Aristotle) tvc-
ycutvc ot octycu sci sct:cutvc :ctci :ii oin,nuci, tc-
si co:c0 t,cv:c co cuuc:cv, Api:c:tt;, co :c0:c gni
cuuc:cv, t :i tcoc tycv t otcutvti, and XV.9n. For gi:cci
desist, E. El. 66, Pl. Lg. 960e un :civuv gi:cutc unotvi :pctci tpiv cv
[4] Epilogue
opotov:o c(: swinging the arms, in running, with ytpc some-
times expressed (Lass. 13 [Arist.] Pr. 881
4 c tcv tcpcticv [[tpc
del. Schneider]] :c ytpc, Arist. IA 705
1718 c tcv:t c::cv tcui
tcpcticv:t :c ytpc), sometimes not (Lass. 13 881
6 c::cv t
tcpcticv n un tcpcticv, Arist. EN1123
31 coocuc . . . cv cpucci ut,c-
cyci gt,tiv tcpcticv:i (tcpcticv:i H. Richards, Aristotelica (London
1915) 10), Macho 15 tcpcticv). Apresent part. tcpcticv:cis expected here,
no less than in Arist. EN, which may be the writers model. For on, epil. I n.
:cu :cic:cu :v vpoov <tytiv>: subject changes to plural, as
in epilogues VI, VIII, X. The commoner structure would be :cu :cic:cu
vpctcu (epil. VIII, XXVI.4). But the partitive gen. (which has been taken
as a signof late compositionor of corruption) is regular: XXVI.3 :c :cic:ci
:cv c,cv, Th. 3.42.4 :cu :cic:cu :cv tci:cv, Pl. Alc.1 117e, Isoc.
5.12, 7.76, 11.49, 20.21, D. 24.215, Lycurg. 133, Arist. EN 1168
12, SE 161
1, 175
3, 182
3, Din. 3.13; cf. on V.7 :cv . . . ,uuvcicv tv :c:ci.
For :cic0:c in other epilogues, epil. I n. An inn. is needed to govern :cu
:cic:cu, and gt,tiv is the verb which appears in similar contexts (Arist.
EN 1123
31 cited above; Epic. fr. 163, Plu. 15d, 1094d, cited below); cf. epil. I
gu::tci . . . ot. Casaubons alternative proposal, in the copy of his 1599
edition in the British Library (see the Introduction, p. 54 n. 172), to delete :cu
:cic:cu :cv vpctcv, does not appeal.
koi <:o k:ticv>c ptvcv o::toi: the s:ticv was a small
sail used by warships to escape danger, when the main sail had been taken
down: C. Torr, Ancient Ships (Cambridge 1895) 86, L. Casson, The emer-
gency rig of ancient warships, TAPhA 98 (1967) 438, id. Ships and Seamanship
(3n.) 2367, 2412, J. S. Morrison and R. T. Williams, Greek Oared Ships 900
322 BC (Cambridge 1968) 2989. Jacksons superlative conjecture (Margina-
lia Scaenica 2334) for oicputvc (AB) restores the idiomatic locution found
in Ar. Lys. 64 :s:ticv (van Leeuwen: :s:icv R) nipt:c, Epic. fr. 163
Usener (ap. D.L. 10.6) tcioticv ot tccv, ucspit, gt0,t :c s:ticv p-
utvc (gtu,t:t sc:coicpcutv uel sim. codd.), Plu. 15d:c Ltiscpticv s:ticv
pcutvcu tcin:isnv gt,tiv sci tcpttcvtiv, 1094d :cu utv ttcpcut-
vcu :c s:tic gt,tiv t co:cv sttcuiv. The old interpretation of
oicputvcv, (sc. :cu tcoc) with long strides (LSJ), must be abandoned.
sci . . . ot is found thrice elsewhere in spurious passages (VI.7, epil. X bis;
I.2n.). Although o is dispensable, the transmitted oicp- commends it.
:i pt:c ct:oi tvoi: tptu:c (AB), unattested, would mean
unburned (from tuptc). Better unfevered, either tpt:c or tpts:c
(for both of which see LSJ), even though boring talk normally threatens not
fever but death (Theoc. 5.789, Pl. Mil. 1084, Hor. S. 1.9.314).
tpycv yp: It is difcult. To the single instance with inn. cited by LSJ
iv.1.c (Men. 76, i.e. Asp. 21) may be added XXV.3, HP 4.10.5, X. Cyr. 1.1.5,
3.3.27, 6.3.27, HG 6.1.19, 7.1.31, D. 15.34, 25.47, 59.91, Arist. EN 1109
al., Men. Dysc. 905, Karch. 7, Sic. 410, fr. 9, 767, 807, Apollod.Com. 2, Diph.
100, Posidipp. 21, 35. As here, t:i is commonly omitted (XXV.3n.). There is
a similar idiom in English: It is quite a task to be civil to her (Anne Bront e,
The Tenant of Wildfell Hall, ch. 27), it is a job to (OED Suppl. job 4.b).
uvopktoi: the passive (be content with, approve of), rst in [Arist.]
Ath. 33.2 co uvcptscutvci :c otc :cv :t:pcscicv ,i,vcutvci, is com-
mon in later Greek, e.g. J. Vit. 34 :ni ,vcuni . . . co uvnptst:c li:c
(cf. 185, 315), Heliod. ap. Orib. 49.9.39 :c:ci t,c :ci sc:cp:iuci co
uvcptscuci, Porph. Abst. 2.27 (T. Piet. fr. 13.402 P otscher, 584A.3024
Fortenbaugh) :c utv ,cp n :t gi sci tcc :cv vpctcv n :n uyn
cni opcutvci uvnptst:c, with personal dat. Severianus (4th cent. ad)
p. 215 Staab :c tp::cuiv co:c uvcptscv:ci. Although pstci has
the sense be satised with (LSJ iv.1), uvcpstci (AB) (acquiesce in, put up
with LSJ) is not elsewhere attested. Other conjectures: uvciptci Duport,
uvcp:cci or uvnp:nci Needham, uvtpytci Newton, t:iv pstci
or ptstci Darvaris (the latter also Herwerden), cov pstci Meineke,
uvtip,tci Sheppard.
:c (:t ycjv (:t cucjv cioyivokcuiv: there is nothing to choose
between ycnv . . . tcuonv (B) and tcuonv . . . ycnv (A); II.3n.
Introductory note
O. Ribbeck, Agroikos. Eine ethologische Studie (ASG23 (1888) 168), remains funda-
mental. See also V. Ehrenberg, The People of Aristophanes (Oxford
1951) 7394,
Dover, Greek Popular Morality 11214.
A,pcisic is rustic behaviour seen through the eyes of the townsman. The
Stoics (SVF 3 fr. 677) dened it as ttipic :cv sc:c tciv tcv sci vcucv;
similarly Men. Georg. fr. 3 Koerte (5 Sandbach, Arnott) tiui utv c,pcisc . . .
| sci :cv sc: c:u tpc,u:cv co tcv:tc | tuttipc, Ov. Am. 3.4.378
rusticus est nimium . . . et notos mores non satis Vrbis habet. Rusticity may embrace
rudeness of mind as well as of manner: Alcm. 16 Page cos n vnp ,ptc
coot scic, Ar. Nu. 1358 ucn ,t vn Ai . . . :: ,,vci uci

,cp cisc :cv ,pcv, 492 cvpctc ucn co:ci sci pcpc, 6289
cos tocv c0:c cvop c,pciscv coocuc0 | coo ctcpcv coot scicv coo
ttinucvc, 646 c c,pcisc t sci ouucn, 655 ,ptc t sci scic,
E. Rh. 266 n tc ,pc:ci scic tpcsti:ci gptvi, Apollod.Car. 5.56
c,pcisc . . . coot tcioticv cc | tiouc, Ephipp. 23.1 c scic t sc,pcisc
ciypcttcv, Philet. fr. 10 Powell c0 ut :i t cptcv tcgcic ,pcic:n
| cpnti snpnv, cipcutvc ucstnv

| tttcv tioc scucv sci tcc

uc,nc | ucv tcv:cicv cucv tti:utvc. It is a handy accusation to
level at a townsman: Ar. V. 13201 sct:cv ,pcisc sci tpct:i c,cu
t,cv | uct:c: cootv tisc:c :ci tp,uc:i. Cnemon in Men. Dysc. is
a true c,pcisc, but when a townsman calls him that (956 c,pcisc t) the
purpose is mockery. Several poets wrote comedies entitled A,pcisc (listed
by Kassel and Austin, PCG 4.17; cf. Ph.-E. Legrand, Daos: Tableau de la comedie
grecque pendant la periode dite nouvelle (Lyon and Paris 1910) 7280, Konstantakos
The wordandits cognates are favourites of Plato, whose usage is often
tinged with irony or humour: e.g. Phdr. 229e ,pcisci :ivi cgici ypcutvc,
269b ot ,pcisic pnu :i tittv tciotu:cv, Tht. 146a c0 :i tcu . . . t,c
otc gicc,ic ,pcisicuci . . .;
Aristotle denes ,pcisic in relation to to:pcttic wit. On a scale of
pleasant amusements (:c nou :c . . . tv tcioici) the mean is to:pcttic,
of which an excess is cuccyic buffoonery, a deciency is ,pcisic
(EN 1108
236, EE 1234
35; cf. MM 1193
1219). c,pcisci are insensitive
(vcin:ci) in that they shun pleasures (EN 1104
245, EE 1230
1820) and
Konstantakos has now developed this treatment in two detailed articles soon to
be published: Antiphanes Agroikos-plays: an examination of the ancient evidence
and fragments (RCCM 2004) and Aspects of the gure of the A,pcisc in ancient
comedy (RhM).
are hard-nosed (snpci) in that they cannot make or take a joke (EN 1128
9; cf. EE 1234
810); being unadept in social relations they are prone to take
offence (EN 1128
13); and they are apt to be inexible (iyupc,vcucvt),
like the opinionated (ioic,vcucvt) and the stupid (uct) (EN 1151
This type of ,pcisic may be translated as boorishness.
The A,pcisc is a countryman who comes to town and shows his country
manners (cf. Millett, Lending and Borrowing 35). It is wrong to translate him as
[1 ] Denition
For the ucic of the countryman see the passages cited in the Introd. Note.
The word often connotes not only intellectual incapacity but also a lack of
moral or aesthetic judgement (a failure to understand what is required by
decency and propriety, Dover, Greek Popular Morality 122; cf. Denniston on E.
El. 2946, Bond on Herc. 283, 347). Here ynucv hints at this extended sense.
But as a denition ignorance of good form (I adopt the translation of Bennett
and Hammond) is inadequate: it misses the essential link between ,pcisic
and the country (Stein 73).
2 For comment on this scene see the Introduction, pp. 201.
kuktvo iov ti tkkyov cpttoi: cf. Eup. 99.812 ]
c tc: ti
,c[pc]v sustcticv | [
. . . . . .
sp]iuvcv :n[v] otnvnv vttc (where the
focus is onappearance, not smell). The sustcv was amixture of grainandliquid
(water, wine, milk, honey, or oil) and sometimes cheese, often seasoned with
herbs (here withucv), commonly associatedwiththe poor or the countryman
(A. Delatte, Le Cyceon (Paris 1955), N. J. Richardson, The Homeric Hymn to Demeter
(Oxford 1974) 3448, Dalby 1901).
While ti :nv tssnicv is normal (it was proposed here by Orth), ti tss-
is also found (Pl. Alc.1 113b, Lg. 764a, Kassel and Austin on Eup. 192.148).
The article is often omitted with prepositional phrases indicating localities
(tv tssnici XXIX.5n., ti ,pcv XIV.3, XXVII.10, ti ,cpv XIX.6, tv
,pci 3, XIV.11, tv t:pci XI.3, tti snvnv XXV.8; cf. XXVII.3n., KG
It was nothing out of the ordinary for a countryman to attend the Assembly
(Ehrenberg (Introd. Note) 84, Hansen, Athenian Democracy 61, 1267).
koi :o pcv ktiv coctv :c cu Jcicv 6tiv: upcv is a general
term for perfume, a compound of oil and aromatic fragrance (Od. 1345, Hug,
Salben, RE i.2a (1920) 185166, D. L. Page, Sappho and Alcaeus (Oxford 1955)
789, Gow on Theoc. 15.114 and Macho 187, Bulloch on Call. Lav.Pall. 16,
M.-C. Amouretti, Le pain et lhuile dans la Gr`ece antique (Paris 1986) 1859, Olson
and Sens on Archestr. 60.3 and Matro 1.1056, Dalby 278; V.6n. ypiuc:i).
ucv is an ingredient in the sustcv (as Ar. Pax 1169). The name is applied
to both an aromatic shrub (thyme, for short) and varieties of garlic (A. C.
Andrews, Osiris 13 (1958) 1506, Arnott on Alex. 122.2, Olson on Ar. loc. cit.).
The entry in LSJ ucv 2, mixture of thyme with honey and vinegar, is rightly
deleted in the Rev. Suppl. For the contrast, Pl. Mos. 3942 oboluisti alium. . . :: . . .
non omnes possunt olere unguenta exotica. Countrymenandperfume donot mix: Eup.
222 ycuuvic tstvc utti sct:ci, | c:i <cv> c,pcisc :c:ci tpc
:ci upci. The Avtttpc equivocates with similar insouciance (XXII.11).
Those who suppose that something is missing (sci <:cv tnicv tti :ni
cuni ouytpcivcv:cv> :c upcv Meister, <:cv tcpcsctcutvcv tti :ni
cuni ouytpcivcv:cv> Navarre 1920, who wrongly imputes a lacuna to
Schneider, through misunderstanding Meisters note) ruin a passage of studied
koi to :c cco :o occ(o:o cptv: oversized shoes are associated
with rusticity in Ar. Eq. 31621 otc:tuvcv ttcti otpuc ucynpc0 cc
| :c ,pcisciiv tcvcp,c, c:t gcivtci tcy, | sci tpiv nutpcv
gcpnci utcv nv oucv ocyucv. :: vn Aic sut :c0: topct :co:cv, c:t
sc:,tcv | tutcuv :c onuc:cii sci gici tcpcyttv

| tpiv ,cp
tvci ltp,cniv tvtcv tv :c tuiv (same image Ov. Ars 1.516 nec uagus in
laxa pes tibi pelle natet, Sid.Ap. Ep. 8.11.3 laxo pes natet altus in cothurno) and Hor. S.
1.3.302 rideri possit eo quod | rusticius tonso toga deuit et male laxus | in pede calceus
haeret; with farce in Hor. Ep. 2.1.174 (aspice . . .) quam non astricto percurrat pulpita
socco (in Luc. Gall. 26 a tragic actor trips and reveals :cv tuc:cv :nv otcotiv
ucpgc::nv sci coyi sc:c c,cv :c0 tcoc). Conversely, Pl. Hp.Ma. 294a
tttiocv u:i:i ni notconuc:ccpuc::cv:c, scv ni ,tcc, scicv
gcivt:ci. Hence ttpi tcoc tting, appropriate (Hsch. l 1823 ttpi tcoc

c0:c tscuv :c cpuccv ut:cgtpcv:t tc :cv uuut:pcv :c tciv

otconu:cv. n spic, LSJ tc i.6.c, Kassel and Austin on Pl.Com. 221).
For the turn of phrase, epil. X t::c :cv unpcv. Contrast II.7.
koi tyyi :Ji ovJi otv: talking too loud is associated with rusticity
in Cratin. 371 ,pccc vnp (Phot. A267 c ,pcisc gt,,cutvc sci cos
:tic coot tuutc), Pl. Mos. 67 quid tibi, malum, hic ante aedis clamitatiost? |
an ruri censes te esse?, Cic. de Orat. 3.227 a principio clamare agreste quiddam est, and is
condemned as anti-social, alongside walking too fast, in D. 37.52 Nisccuc
o ttigcvc t:i, sci :cytc coiti sci ut,c gt,,t:ci, 45.77 :ci :cytc
coitiv sci ctv ut,c co :cv to:uyc ttgusc:cv tucu:cv spivc

tg c
,cp cootv cgtcutvc utc :ivc s:.; cf. S. Halliwell in E. M. Craik (ed.),
Owls to Athens: Essays on Classical Subjects presented to Sir Kenneth Dover (Oxford
1990) 70, J. Trevett, Apollodorus the Son of Pasion (Oxford 1992) 1701, S. Vogt,
Aristoteles, Physiognomica (Darmstadt 1999) 945. ut,ni :ni gcvni recurs in
VI.7, 10 (both passages spurious). For ctv, Introd. Note to VII.
3 koi :c tv ci koi ciktci i:tv: friends and family, as XXVIII.6
(XVIII.7n.). For the single article see on I.5 sci tpc :cu s:.
po ct :cu oo:c cik:o vokcivcoi tpi :v ty:ov: conven-
tional wisdom dictates that slaves are not to be trusted (Dover, Greek Popular
Morality 11415). In Men. Georg. 558 a farmers cist:ci, who are foreign, tell
him to go to hell when he falls ill. Contrast Col. 1.8.15 in ceteris seruis haec fere
praecepta seruanda sunt, quae me custodisse non paenitet, ut rusticos, qui modo non incom-
mode se gessissent, saepius quam urbanos familiarius adloquerer . . . iam illud saepe facio, ut
quasi cum peritioribus de aliquibus operibus nouis deliberem. For vcscivc0ci, XII.2.
For ttpi :cv ut,i:cv (a common expression) in similar connections, e.g. Th.
3.42.1 ttpi :cv u- cuttci, Antipho 6.45 ttingicv sci t,cv ,vcuc
ttpi :cv u-, Aeschin. 1.188 :c:ci ttpi :cv u- oicti:tcutv;, Isoc. 8.55
ttpi :cv u- uucci.
koi :c op oo:i tpyocvci io:c tv ypi: for the word order,
XXX.9n.; co:ci, I.2n. Whether the hired workers are freemen or someone
elses slaves is unclear: M. H. Jameson, CJ 73 (1977) 12245, id. in B. Wells
(ed.), Agriculture in Ancient Greece (Stockholm1992) 1423, R. Osborne, Demos: the
Discovery of Classical Attika (Cambridge 1985) 1434, E. M. Wood, Peasant-Citizen
and Slave (London and New York 1988) 6480, 17380, R. Brock, CQ 44 (1994)
342, Lane Fox 131.
v:o :o o :J tkkyo ciyytoi: cf. VII.7; for tc, II.10n.
4 koi votyvc vo :c yvo:c koivtiv: the verb vctci
describes the method by which the u:icv or ycvc was put on, throw ones
cloak up or back, throwit over the shoulder, so as to let it hang in folds (LSJ b.iii; Stone,
Costume 1556, Geddes 31213, Dunbar on Ar. Au. 15679, MacDowell on D.
19.251). Perfect vctnutvc means clad (in an u:icv), as D. 19.251,
and (with :c u:icv added) XXVI.4 (cf. Luc. Alex. 11 u:icv . . . tuscv
An u:icv of normal length reached the calves but not the
ankles. An ankle-length u:icv is a mark of affectation (D. 19.314; cf. Plu. Alc.
1.7 = Archipp. 48, Kassel and Austin on Eup. 104.3). To wear an abnormally
short u:icv is the mark of a penny-pincher (epil. X gcpc0v:c t::c
:cv unpcv :c u:ic), a pro-Spartan (Pl. Prtg. 342c pcytic vccc
gcpc0iv), or an ascetic philosopher (Ath. 565e :picvpic ttpiccutvci
So does present vcccutvnat Ar. Ec. 97. Awoman dressed as a man is in danger of
revealing too much if she climbs over men in the Assembly to get a seat. She is simply
dressed in an u:icv, not (as usually interpreted) hitching up her dress (for which
the right verb is vc:ttci, as Ec. 268). The u:icv is a loose t. If (the passage
continues) the women get themselves seated before the men arrive, they can escape
detection by pulling their cloaks tightly around them (u:tiutvci ciu:ic). If the
present surprises, read vcccutvn. See XIX.6n.
uisp). A standing gure wearing a normal-length u:icv is illustrated by M.
Robertson, A History of Greek Art (Cambridge 1975) gs. 161ab. The A,pcisc
is not wearing too short a cloak: cvc :c0 ,cvc:c is to be taken proleptically
with scivtiv. When he sits, he fails to pull down his cloak below his knees.
This, not a short cloak, is the mark of ,pcisic. His deportment is illustrated
by a gure on the Gotha cup reproduced in the Leipzig ed. (1897) Abb. 2
( J. D. Beazley, Attic Red-Figure Vase-Painters (Oxford
1963) 20, Corpus Vasorum
Antiquorum, Gotha 1 (Berlin 1964) 54 and g. 43.1, J. Boardman, Athenian Red
Figure Vases: The Archaic Period (London 1975) g. 51.1). This deportment incurs
the charge of ,pcisic in Philetaer. 18 ugicu gupc (Naber: :tpvci
gcpc uel sim. codd.)

co scnti, :cv, | uno ,pcisc cvc ,cvc:c

Correct deportment is illustrated by the seated gures in Robertson,
gs. 161cd. Philip of Macedon, vt:cutvci :ci yi:cvi scnutvc cos
totpttc, is admonished uispcv . . . sc:c:tpc :nv ycuoc tcincv

ynucvt ,cp c0:c scnutvc (Plu. 178d). The dying Caesar adjusted his
toga: Suet. Jul. 82. 2 sinistra manu sinum ad ima crura deduxit, quo honestius caderet
etiam inferiore corporis parte uelata (like Polyxena, E. Hec. 56970, Ov. Met. 13.479).
Cf. Ar. Nu. 9734.
scivtiv is rare in classical prose, seldom with humans as subject ([Arist.]
Pr. 885
35 (scicuiv Bekker), 886
1 (u.l. sctcui)), elsewhere birds (Arist.
HA 593
10, 601
7, 614
28, 617
1, 619
8, PA 694
21) or bees (Isoc. 1.52). The
much commoner scitiv, which appears at XVIII.3, was proposed here by
Edmonds 1908.
[:t :o yuvo oo:c ovtoi]: so that his naked parts are revealed
is not acceptable, since :c ,uuv cannot stand for :c ciocc. No emenda-
tion is convincing: ,cviuc Reiske 1748 (Briefe 316, 319), 1749 (Briefe 360), 1757,
,uc Bernhard 1749 (ap. Reiske (1783) 362), ,uuvc <ciocc> Schneider, :c
<s:c> ,uuv Meineke. The words are a pedantic gloss: c:t introduces
comparable interpolations at XIX.4, XX.9. For otcgcivtci (c) see the Intro-
duction, p. 40.
5 koi t oi tv yctvi <(:t topovtoi>(:t tk(::toi tv :o
6cc: it is far less effective to delete un:t (Ussing before Pasquali) than to
supply a second un:t and innitive. togpcivtci (Kassel ap. Stein) has the
gupc gives perfect sense (Kassel and Austin obelize). I assume that the person
addressed is wearing a normal-length u:icv and is seated. If he were wearing a
thigh-length cloak, he could not, even seated, cover his ankles. If he were standing,
he would not be told to cover them. A woman, by contrast, might incur the charge
of ,pcisic for failing to wear ankle-length dress: Sapph. 57 LP :i o ,pcic:i
t,ti vccv . . . ,pcic:iv tttuutvc tccv . . . cos tti:cutvc :c pst tsnv
tti :cv gpcv;.
edge on notci (Stein), either of which is far better than cuutiv (unotvi
<cuutiv>de; un:t <cuutiv>ed. pr.; unotvi <un:t cuutiv>Ast),
which is too close in sense to tstn::tci, and than tti:nvci (Latte ap.
Steinmetz) or tgi:cci (Steinmetz), which offer a contrast with the following
t:nsc but do not consort well with tstn::tci. The same verbs are
paired in X. Eq.Mag. 8.19 cpc ,cp :c tcpocc, nv utv ,cc ni, uccv
togpcivcv:c :cu vpctcu, nv ot otiv, uccv tstn::cv:c.
:ov ct cyi cv J 6vcv J :pycv t:yko toptv: he is so narrow in his
interests and so insensible to his surroundings that, when he goes out into the
streets, nothing can capture his attention except the sight of a familiar farm
animal. He is like a spectator at a show (on tcptv (VI.4, IX.5, XI.3, XIV.4)
and cognates, C. P. Bill, TAPhA 32 (1901) 19624, H. Koller, Glotta 36 (1958)
27386). Conversely, Londoners so seldom get a chance of seeing lambs that
it was no wonder everyone stopped to look at them (Samuel Butler, The Way
of all Flesh (1903) ch. 26).
6 koi pcoipv c :i tk :c :oitcu ctivo oytv: he does not wait to
get to the table but eats while (in the process of) taking something from the
store-room. Cf. Ar. Th. 41920 :cuit0ci sci (Reiske: :cuittci R) sci
tpccipcci ctv (Scaliger: ctv R) | cgi:cv tcicv cvcv, Men. Sam.
22930 ti :c :cuitcv t:uycv titcv, ctv | ttic tpccipcv s:., Luc.
Rh.Pr. 17 scttp ts :cuiticu tpccipcv, D.L. 4.59 tttiocv ,p :i tpctci
:c0 :cuiticu (LSJ tpcciptc i). The spelling :cuiticu (:cuticu AB) is cited
from c
(Marc. 513 (64 Wilson)) by Diels 1883 (wrongly, Stefanis tells me), from
Par. Maz. 4457 (49 Wilson) by Stefanis (1994a) 101, 118.
koi op:tpcv itv: strictly more pure, less diluted with water (e.g.
Antiph. 147, Ephipp. 10), but in effect neat (in Hdt. 6.84.3 cpc:tpcv
titv is synonymous with spn:ctcin). The positive adj. is attested rst
in Emp. B 35.15, the comparative earlier at H. Il. 9.203 cpc:tpcv ot stpcit,
where the sense was disputed by ancient critics, surprised by a request for
stronger wine. According to Ath. 423e424a, T. in his ltpi utn (fr. 116
Wimmer, 574 Fortenbaugh) explained it not as cspc:cv but as stspcutvcv,
comparing a version of the text of Emp. B 35.15 in which the words cp
and cspn:c are opposed. See also Arist. Po. 1461
1425 (with a different
text of Emp.), Plu. 677ce; Fortenbaugh, Quellen 3289. We may imagine
that he drinks straight from the wine-jar, just as he eats straight from the
store-room. To drink wine neat was regarded as characteristic of barbar-
ians (Hdt. loc. cit., Pl. Lg. 637e, Arnott on Alex. 9.34, Olson on Ar. Ach.
735, Dalby 3534). Varying proportions of water and wine are prescribed:
Page, Sappho and Alcaeus 308, West on Hes. Op. 596, Arnott on Alex. 228.2,
Wilkins, Boastful Chef 21618, J. H. Hordern, The Fragments of Timotheus of Miletus
(Oxford 2002) 113.
7 koi :jv i:cciov tipv otv: he makes a sexual assault on the bread-
maker (LSJ ttipc a.iv.2), when his wife is not looking. ctv has point with
the wife as object (cf. Ar. Pax 11389 :nv Opci::cv suvcv | :n ,uvcisc
cuutvn, Lys. 1.12), little or none with (the usual interpretation) the other
slaves. Aorist ctv may stand with present part. (KG 2.635), which will
represent a conative imperfect indic. (KG 1.141, 200, Goodwin 36, 140;
XIV.5n.). The text has been much emended, to no good effect: ttivcv
Darvaris, <un> ctv Meineke, ttipcv [ctv] Naber, tn,c ctv
Fraenkel and Groeneboom, ttpictv Diels. Conjectures which remove the
inoffensive sci:c, so that ctv may be taken not with ttipcv but with
a following participle, produce nonsense: ctv sc:ctc c (Hottinger),
sc:ctc Madvig, sc:cic Immisch 1923, sc:csuic Navarre 1931,
sccic Sicherl. For breadmakers, P. Herfst, Le travail de la femme dans la Gr`ece
ancienne (Utrecht 1922) 28, L. A. Moritz, Grain-Mills and Flour in Classical Antiquity
(Oxford 1958) 35.
ki: o t: oo:J <t:pJoi> :c tvccv i koi oo:i :o
ti:(ctio: although T. uses t:c six times in this work to link verbs (III.2n.),
sci:c is elsewhere regular enough (e.g. Pl. La. 179e, Ly. 223a, Lg. 905b, Antipho
5.38, D. 1.21, X. Cyr. 2.2.4), and there is no good reason to suspect it here. The
supplement <ut:pnci> (<ut:ptv> Casaubon, but aorist is desirable amid
this series of aorists) is commended by XXX.11 ut:ptv co:c :c tvocv :c
tti:notic. It is far better than the change of tc to tci (also Casaubon),
since :c tti:notic is a less natural object for this verb and the datives are less
naturally constructed with it. At XXX.11 personal measurement of rations is
a mark of ciypcstpotic. Here it is a further sign of what the man will get up
to when his wife is out of sight. It was the wifes job, not his, to supervise the
breadmaker and to help the housekeeper measure out the rations (X. Oec. 10.10
uvtctucv co:ni . . . ttistcci . . . <:nv>i:ctcicv, tcpc:nvci ot
sci tcut:pcni :ni :cuici). F. Dirlmeier, Gnomon 26 (1954) 511, detects an
obscene joke in tc (OLD molo b), implausibly.
:c tvocv recurs in XVI.10, XXX.11.
8 koi pi:v ct o :c ocuyci totv <:ov yp:cv: there must
be a lacuna, because (i) tuctv needs an object (Meier 1830 and Diels
1883 vainly understand cpi:cv as object), and (ii) the following sentence
needs at least a copula. tuctv is throw into the manger: X. Cyr. 8.1.38
ttci . . . :cv tvtct, 8.6.12 ttci . . . ycp:cv tut:t, Alex.
241.4 :c:ci . . . :ti:noti tuctv, Plu. Eum. 9.7 :c ttci yicv
tuccv:c. The most suitable object is ycp:cv: X. Cyr. 8.6.12 (cited above),
Hdt. 5.16.4 :ci ot ttcii sci :ci otcu,icii tcptycui ycp:cv iy0,
9.41.2 titvnvtyci . . . ycp:cv :ci otcu,icii, Plu. 178a (= 790b) ycp:c
cos t:i :c otcu,ici. I prefer :cv ycp:cv (ed. pr.) to ycp:cv (Navarre
1920): their fodder, as e.g. Arist. HA 605
289 :cv ycp:cv ti uti t-
:cv:t oiocciv titiv, Hp. Aer. 18.4 (2.68 Littr e) ccv (sc. ypcvcv) cv tcypni
co:ci :ci s:nvtiv c ycp:c. What the ed. pr. actually has is tuctv :cv
ycp:cv sci sccv:c :nv pcv, which is based on tuctv :nv pcv sci
sccv:c :nv pcv (o). So that :cv ycp:cv is a (surprisingly good) conjec-
ture for :nv pcv. No other supplement appeals: :nv cupcv (an abnormal
singular, based on :nv pcv in the recc.) M. Schmidt before Unger 1884,
tupcv or :cv tupcv Zingerle 1888, yicv Navarre 1924.
9 For comment on this scene see the Introduction, pp. 212. With the situation
in general contrast Apollod.Com. 15.15 ti cisicv c:cv :i tiini gicu, |
t:iv tcptv, Niscgcv, :nv :c0 gicu | t0vcicv tou tiicv:c :c pc. |
c upcpc cpc tpc:cv t:iv, n sucv | tnvt sci tpcnt.
koi> :Ji poi ookcoi oo:: the door would normally be answered
by a slave (Olson on Ar. Ach. 3956). For the construction, Men. Dysc. 4934
:ni pci | otcsnsc(t) and (dat. of person) Ar. Ach. 405 (cf. V. 273), Pl. Cri. 43a.
Acc. :nv pcv (AB) is incredible (LSJ otcsccii.1), even though it is attested
again (and again I change it to dat.) at XXVIII.3 co:ci :nv pcv :nv c0ticv
otcsccui. The alternative is to add something in the lacuna to govern :nv
pcv: not simply <. . . sci sccv:c>(o), since gen. absolute with indenite
subject unexpressed would be anomalous (XIV.7n.), but possibly < . . . sci
:cu sccv:c> or better < . . . sci sccv:c :ivc> (like XIV.13 t,cv:c
:ivc, XVII.9 gncv:c :ivc), both proposed by Herwerden before Cobet
1874, or < . . . sci sccv:i> (see on II.2 cuc tcptucutvci) or < . . . scv
scni :i>. Less likely < . . . tcpc> (Diels). For the corruption (tt- for ot-
AB), VII.7n.
koi :ov kvo pckottvc: Hes. Op. 6045 advises the farmer to keep
a dog for security; similarly Var. R. 1.19.3, Cato Agr. 124, Verg. G. 3.4048, Col.
7.12.17. Other domestic guard-dogs: H. Il. 22.69, Od. 7.914, A. Ag. 607, 896,
Ar. V. 957, Lys. 121315, Th. 41617, Theoc. 15.43, 21.15, Antip.Sid. AP 5.30.4
(Gow-Page, Garland of Philip 106); cf. XIV.5, XXIX.5, S. Lilja, Dogs in Ancient
Greek Poetry (Helsinki 1976), Index s.u. Watchdogs, C. Mainoldi, Limage du loup
et du chien dans la Gr`ece ancienne (Paris 1984) 1524. For sucv masc., V.8n.
koi tiotvc :c pyycu: this is still a recognised way of preventing
a dog from barking and biting. Here it is a crudely dramatic gesture, designed
to make a point (Introduction, p. 21). p,yc, of a dog, only Theoc. 6.30;
properly of swine (Ath. 95D, 2 Ar. Ach. 744, Au. 347), but applied to other
beasts and even birds (Headlam on Herod. 5.41).
titv O:c u::ti :o yopcv koi :jv cikov: there is something
of the same proudly deant tone in Clytemnestras t,ciu cv cvopc :cvot
:cv :cucv svc (A. Ag. 896). Trimalchio, with equal bombast, Scylacem iussit
adduci praesidium domus familiaeque (Petr. 64.7). This passage is often assumed
to be a deliberate imitation of T. (Introduction, p. 26). For all the similarity of
language, the situation is different: the dog is summoned not to the door but to
the dinner table. I warn against Edmonds 1908, who adds <t:icv>(absolute;
II.10n.) before :cv svc, and supposes that the man makes an unseemly show
of the dog while giving a dinner party. This was prompted by the epitome M
(sci ticv:c ttictci :c0 p,ycu suvc). I assume that ticv:c reects
pi:cv: M ignores everything else between titv and sci :cv svc.
ycpicv is land, landed property, estate (Pritchett 2689).
10His fault lies not intesting the coinbut inthe reasonwhichhe gives for reject-
ing it. Silver coinage was regularly tested by professionals: p,upc,vcucvt
or ocsiuc:ci ([Pl.] Virt. 378e, Arist. Rh. 1375
5, Moer. c 114 (p. 80 Hansen),
AB 89.7). Banks offered this service: Men. fr. 804.78 tti :pttcv . . . gtptiv
:nv tpcy vc | ti :p,picv sccv t:i ocsiuc:n oni; Bogaert, Banques
et banquiers 456, id., Lessai des monnaies dans lantiquit e, RBN 122 (1976)
534, Millett, Lending and Borrowing 216. A law of 375/4 (SEG 26 (19767) no.
72) provided for public slaves as ocsiuc:ci in the agora and Piraeus. Under
this law, refusal to accept a silver coin veried by the tester became a pun-
ishable offence. See R. S. Stroud, Hesperia 43 (1974) 15788 (the ed. pr.); for
subsequent bibliography, K. M. W. Shipton, CQ 47 (1997) 408.
koi [:o] pypicv ct op :cu oov ccckitiv: p,picv is a
silver coin (LSJ i.1) rather than collectively coinage, money (LSJ i.2, as
XIV.8, XVII.9, XVIII.3, 5, XXI.5). In either case the article is impossible (:c
p,picv XVII.9, XVIII.3 is his/their money; similarly :c ypuicv XXIII.8).
Its omission by the ed. pr. (which also omits sci) is probably fortuitous. Other
interpolated articles at X.3, XVI.2 (V
), XVIII.2, XXVIII.4, perhaps VI.7
(A). p,upioicv (Cobet 1874) is needless.
cuvcv (c) is not supported by XIV.8 tccuvcv p,picv. There a
present part. is needed (witnesses are summoned in the course of the transaction);
here he takes possession of the money before rejecting it. For tcocsiutiv,
X. Oec. 19.16 cp cov . . . ttpi p,upicu tpc:cv cv t, tc:tpcv sccv n
c0, ouvciunv cv t ttci c tti:cci oicocsiutiv :c scc sci :c si-
onc p,pic;, Arist. HA 491
201 :c vcuiuc:c tpc :c co:c tsc:ci
,vcpiuc:c:cv ocsiucuiv, D. 35.24 ocsiucv (of p,picv), Pl. Lg. 742a
ocsiucv (of vcuiuc), and (in the coinage law cited above) ocsiuc:n. Fur-
ther, on ocsiutiv and cognates, T. V. Buttrey in O. Mrkholm and N. M.
Waggoner (edd.), Greek Numismatics and Archaeology: Essays in Honour of Margaret
Thompson (Wetteren 1979) 38, id. Quaderni Ticinesi di Numismatica e Antichit` a Clas-
siche 10 (1981) 848, 94, L. Kurke, Coins, Bodies, Games and Gold: The Politics of
Meaning in Archaic Greece (Princeton 1999) 30916.
ov <yop> cupov tvoi: he rejects the coin because, having less
experience of trafc in silver than city-dwellers, he expects silver to look like
silver. He is concerned about the colour of his money, like the Mispcgic:iuc
(XXI.5), but for a different reason: naivet e, not vanity. He does not know that
discoloured silver may look like lead. Silver, in fact, is produced from lead ore
by smelting: C. Singer, E. J. Holmyard, A. R. Hall (edd.), A History of Techno-
logy 1 (Oxford 1954) 5825, R. J. Forbes, Studies in Ancient Technology 8 (Leiden
1964) 193259, J. Ramin, La technique mini`ere et metallurgique des Anciens (Coll.
Latomus 153, Brussels 1977) 14558, J. F. Healy, Mining and Metallurgy in the
Greek and Roman World (London 1978) 1578, C. E. Conophagos, Le Laurium
antique et la technique grecque de la production de largent (Athens 1980). The coin
looks like lead: he demands a coin that looks like silver. This is the simplest
explanation. Alternatively, he suspects that the coin is a silver-lead alloy (D.
24.214 p,upici . . . sci gcvtpc tpc ycscv sci ucuocv stspcutvci,
never a genuine issue at Athens; Lap. 46 sc:ycscv ypucv sci cp,upcv,
gold-bronze and silver-bronze alloys) or lead with silver-plating (what the law
of 375/4 calls otcucuocv). Such a silver-plated coin might be a forgery
(Hdt. 3.56.2 gold-plated lead; Stroud 172) or (in theory, at least) a genuine
issue, analogous to the silver-plated bronze issued when silver was scarce in
406/5 (Stroud 171, J. H. Kroll, GRBS 17 (1976) 32941). But suspicion of
forgery or adulteration is too rational: the law of 375/4 shows that rational
suspicion must have been voiced frequently. We want an unreasonable quib-
ble, not the kind of thinking which would prompt an Athenian to consult the
ucupcv (anadj. attested only by Hsch. M1591 ucupcv

:c ucuctiot)
gives plausible sense, and is a plausible change for utv utpcv (AB), in which
utv is no less faulty than utpcv. Solitary utv is not supported by XXII.2 and
XXV.2, which are corrupt (see D. E. Eichholz, CR2 (1952) 1445, on utv at Lap.
55 and 69). <,p> (Eberhard 1865) introducing an explanatory clause with
inn. is a regular structure (II.2, VIII.7, 8, XIX.2, XX.9, XXIII.5, XXVI.5,
XXIX.4, 5; KG2.544 Anmerk. 1). t,cv (Casaubon, for icv utv or utv alone)
with inn. would be anomalous (I.6n.). No other adj. appeals: not tt:cv
(Morel), improperly interpreted as underweight, either par suite dusure
(Navarre) or because it is silver-plated bronze (G. St egen, Latomus 25 (1966)
ttpcv Casaubon (in the copy of his 1599 edition in the British Library:
Introduction, p. 54 n. 172) before Duport (scaly is an odd condition for a coin),
t,cv un (oic :c un Petersen) cutpcv Darvaris, uuopcv Hartung, tupcv
Jebb, putcpcv Cichorius (a countryman, of all people, has no cause to reject
a dirty coin), itcv Fraenkel and Groeneboom.
koi t:tpcv v:o::toi: present inn. (he tries to get in exchange)
reecting conative present or imperfect indic. (KG 1.1401, 193, Goodwin
This adj. (and noun tt:cv) came to be used of small coins (LSJ i.6, iii.2, E. Babelon,
Traite des monnaies grecques et romaines 1 (Paris 1901) 4657). Juv. 9.31 tenue argentum (silver
plate) is irrelevant.
25, 36, 119). v:- for cu- (AB) Nauck 1863, before Herwerden 1871 (cu
v:-) and Cobet 1874.
11 koi tv :oi pc:pcv yp(yi J kivcv J cpovcv J okcv: loan of
domestic objects, a frequent theme in the sketches, was commonplace in Athe-
nian society (Millett, Lending and Borrowing ch. 2, esp. 379, with 258 n. 23).
ti (om. B) . . . typntv (AB) would be a highly irregular use of aor. indicative
in a conditional protasis. There are 24 instances of the expected tv (or cv)
with subjunctive (II.4n). :c cp- (AB) is acceptable in itself (his plough), but
the article unbalances the series of nouns, as does :i (M); :ci restores balance.
For csc, XVI.6n.
:o:o :J vuk:o ko:o ypuvov voivyktvc < . . .: :c0:c
(Edmonds 1929) is plausible, since the items are more naturally regarded
individually than en bloc (contrast IX.7). It is usually assumed that a verb
meaning he demands back is required. So <tci:tv> (before :c0:c)
Casaubon, (after vus:c) Reiske 1749 (Briefe 360), 1757, (after :c0:c) Blaydes,
<tci:nci>(before :c0:c) Steinmetz, <tci:tv>(after vus:c) Foss 1834,
<tci:tv tti :nv cisicv>(after vc-) Pasquali, <vc:c tci:tv>(after
vc-) Navarre 1920, <vc:c titvci n:cv> (after vc-) Edmonds 1929
(based vainly on t :i typntv n:tv tcpscipcv M), ci:tv for :c0:c Ast,
tci:tv (or spcu,ci or spcci) for :c0:c Birt (Kritik und Hermeneutik 145).
But to demand back a borrowed object in the middle of the night is unchar-
acteristically troublesome behaviour. <n:tv> after vus:c (Edmonds and
Austen), a nocturnal search for the borrowed object, to see if it has been
returned, is strangely obsessive. vcuiuvnstci (Lycius before Pauw) and
<stci> (Ussher) have insufcient point. :c0: <,nci> (Gaiser) has
12 koi tv oovtoi ct ioi, koi ti :o occ(o:o ct Jcu tykpcoi:
these two clauses cannot stand where transmitted, after tcstipcci. They
interrupt the narrative: :n co:n coc0 refers to sc:c and must follow
directly after it. Further, they would have to be constructed with ct:ci:
and he says that he wishes to sing in the baths is unacceptable. Since the two
clauses are inseparable, they must both be either deleted (Diels) or transposed.
Deletion is unwelcome: these traits suit the man. Schneider placed themat the
end of the sketch. But in style and content (brief coordinated clauses, expressing
two separate traits) they are an unwelcome appendage to the leisurely and
coherent narrative of the visit to town, which is a far more satisfying conclusion.
Meier 1850/1 placed them in the opening sentence (2 utic :c0 tcoc :c
otconuc:cgcptv <sci ti :cotconuc:cot ncu t,spc0ci>sci ut,ni
:ni gcvni ctv <sci tv ccvtici ot cici>), ruinously. Stein endorses
a suggestion of Kassel that the words began life as a marginal addition by
T. himself. This I cannot believe (I.2n.). I have placed them before the visit to
town. The dislocation may be connected with the loss of an inn. at the end of
the preceding sentence: the inn. and these words accidentally omitted, then
added in the margin, then the inn. lost when the words were restored in the
wrong place. For successive clauses beginning with sci . . . ot, II.4, XI.57,
XX.10, XXIX.45.
Singing in the public baths is anti-social: Artem. 1.76 ciotiv tv ccvtici
cos ,ccv, Hor. S. 1.4.746 in medio qui | scripta foro recitent sunt multi quique
lauantes: | suaue locus uoci resonat conclusus, Sen. Ep. 56.2 cui uox sua in balineo placet,
Petr. 73.3 inuitatus balnei sono diduxit usque ad cameram os ebrium et coepit Menecratis
cantica lacerare.
ncu t,spc0ci evokes the spnti, studded with nails (II.7n., Gow on
Macho13ff., O. Lau, Schuster und Schusterhandwerk in der griechisch-r omischen Literatur
und Kunst (Bonn 1967) 914). Examples of such hobnailed sandals have been
found in graves (K. D. Morrow, Greek Footwear and the Dating of Sculpture (Madison
1985) 195 n. 14). Theophrastus required his students to wear shoes, and these
unstitched and without nails, otconuc tytiv, sci :c0:c s::u:cv, ncu
cos tycv (Teles ap. Stob. 4.33.31 = p. 40 Hense
Introd. Note to XXII ad
n. Persons who demonstrate co:pstic and to:ttic by ncv tutitv:t
:c sc::uc:c elicit scorn (Ath. 565e). Cf. XXII.11.
13 koi ti :u ko:oovov: cf. Hdt. 5.29.2, Pl. Thg. 121d, Isoc. 7.52, [Arist.]
Ath. 16.5. The prex sc:c- indicates that Athens stands between his home and
the sea (LSJ sc:ccivc i.2).
tpo:Joi :ov ov:v:o cu Jov oi cipoi koi :o :piyc: what
the price was (when he was in the market). But tiiv (Cobet 1874), what the
price is (currently), would be more natural (for the confusion, Diggle, Euripidea
4556). Prices of certain commodities may uctuate with supply (Millett, Sale,
credit and exchange 193). oigtpci are hides of goatskin, worn by rustics
(Ar. Nu. 72, Men. Dysc. 415, Epit. 22930, 328; R. Renehan, Greek Lexicographical
Notes (G ottingen 1975) 69, Stone, Costume 1667). :piyc is sh preserved
by drying, smoking, or pickling, generally tunny or mackerel, a byword for
cheapness (Ar. V. 491), its vendor held in disrespect (Pl. Chrm. 163b, R. I. Curtis,
Garum and Salsamenta (Leiden 1991) 153); Orth, Kochkunst, RE xi.1 (1921)
9512, Olson on Ar. Pax 563, Olson and Sens on Matro 1.17 and Archestr.
39.12, Pellegrino 208, Dalby 956. Cf. VI.9.
koi ti :(tpcv 6 pyov vcuyvov yti: the rst of the month (vcuun-
vic) was a holiday, celebrated with religious rites (Ar. V. 96, D. 25.99,
Theopomp.Com. 48, Theopomp. FGrH 115 f 344 (quoted on XVI.10
I see no cause to delete ncu cos tycv (Diels, Poetarum Philosophorum Fragmenta (Berlin
1901) 212), followed by Hense.
,cpci s:.); Hdt. 6.57.2 (Sparta); tpc::n nutpcv Plu. 828a) and fes-
tivities of various kinds (Ar. Ach. 999, Antipho fr. 57 Thalheim (cf. Ael. NA
5.21), Lys. fr. 53.2 Thalheim (XXVII.11n.)), and it was a market-day (Ar. Eq.
434, V. 16971, Alciphr. 3.25.2); M. P. Nilsson, Die Entstehung und religi ose Bedeu-
tung des griechischen Kalenders (Lund 1918) 367, id. Ncuunvic, RE xvii.2 (1937)
12924, J. D. Mikalson, HThR 65 (1972) 2916. Since the Athenian year con-
sisted of only 354 days, with six months of 29 days and six of 30, the new-moon
day would not always coincide with the appearance of a new moon, even if
the months were reckoned by the lunar calendar alone. But Athenian life
was articulated by its festivals, and there was a separate festival calendar,
regulated by the archons. The lunar and festival calendars were sometimes
discrepant. Discrepancies were inconvenient, and we hear complaints: Ar.
Nu. 61526, Pax 41415. On these and related issues see W. K. Pritchett and
O. Neugebauer, The Calendars of Athens (Cambridge Mass. 1947), B. P. Meritt,
The Athenian Year (Berkeley and Los Angeles 1961) esp. ch. 2 (The First of the
Month), Pritchett, Ancient Athenian Calendars on Stone (Berkeley and Los Angeles
1963) esp. 31314, 3448, A. W. Gomme, A Historical Commentary on Thucy-
dides 3 (Oxford 1956) 71315, 4 (1970) 2645, A. E. Samuel, Greek and Roman
Chronology (Munich 1972) esp. 525, 578, J. D. Mikalson, The Sacred and Civil
Calendar of the Athenian Year (Princeton 1975) esp. 1415, A. G. Woodhead, The
Study of Greek Inscriptions (Cambridge
1981) 11722, Pritchett, Athenian Calendars
and Ekklesias (Amsterdam 2001) esp. ch. 4. The ofcial vcuunvic was deter-
mined by the archons, and private citizens would need notice of the date (Gow
on Macho 121ff., Pritchett (1963) 347, (2001) 356). In Th. 2.28 an event is
dated vcuunvici sc:c tnvnv: evidence not that the ofcial rst of the month
was out of line with the moon at the time, but evidence that all knew that it
might be.
cpycv (Reiske 1747, 1749, 1753 (Briefe 360, 481) before Darvaris)
for ,cv
(AB) restores sense economically: an anticipatory error (cpycv . . . c,ti =
,cv . . . ,ti), like epil. X unpcv (uispcv AB) . . . uispcv (for further
illustration see on ttpicv below, H. Richards, Notes on Xenophon and Others
(London 1907) 30711, Diggle, Euripidea 288, 428, 46970). c,tiv can mean
hold or celebrate a festival and keep a date (LSJ a.iv.12, West on Hes. Op.
768). The archon, who xes the date and presumably presides over public
ceremonies (D. 25.99), can reasonably be said vcuunvicv c,tiv. There are
many other conjectures, none plausible: e.g. Ascv or Ocuc (names of the
barber) Reiske 1757, tcv:cv (as a gloss) or A,vcv Coray, n ,cp Werle
(withthis questiontransposedbefore the preceding one), ,cpcvcucv Holland
1897, c ,cv, <sci ti> Diels (it is not clear what the A,pcisc would mean
The conjecture is sometimes ascribed to Bloch, through misreading of Ussing, who
ascribes it to Blachius nostras, olim rector Aarhusiensis scholae, i.e. H. H. Blache.
by the agon). Ast deleted c ,cv, understanding c tcv:cv as subject of
c,ti. Edmonds 1929 and Rusten also delete, taking c,ti as impersonal, a
construction which gains no support from the corrupt Archil. 255 West. In
any case, there was no motive for so meaningless an interpolation. For the
spelling :nutpcv (n- AB), III.3n.
koi titv :i ct:oi tou ko:oo cktpooi: immediately on
arrival, like VIII.2 tou tcv:nc, and (tou before the part.) HP 3.5.1,
CP 1.9.3, 3.22.2, 4.6.5, Sens. 48, Vent. 5, Sud. 1 (KG 2.82 Anmerk. 4, LSJ
to b.ii.1). to with tittv (AB) has no point (sci <cv gni>, tittv to
(Edmonds 1929) barely gives it one); and it has less point before ct:ci
(Meier 1850/1) than before sc:c (Casaubon before Foss 1858, Cobet 1874).
In VIII.2 the evidence of l suggests that AB have again misplaced the word.
For tcstipcci, V.6n.; for the corruption (tc- o: otc- AB), II.3, XXX.11.
I doubt whether the timing of his haircut has any connection with the later
superstitious belief that hair should be cut at the turn of the month (W. H.
Roscher, Philologus 57 (1898) 21319).
koi :J oo:J 6cc tpiov: for :n co:n coc0, Ar. Pax 1155, Antipho
1.16, Nicostr.Com. 20.1, PCG adesp. 1093.185, Aristid. 2.373 Jebb (2.502
Dindorf), Lib. Ep. 652.2, 1282.2 (KG 1.3845, Schwyzer 2.112). ttpicv is
going round (the shops in the ,cp), as D. 19.229 tcpvc n,cpct sci
iy0 ttpicv (u.l. ttpiicv), Antiph. 275 v0v ot ttpicv:c ttttpi sci scptcv
i:cu | n:tv, Pl.Com. 211 sci ttpicv (Meineke: ttpiicv codd.: tcpicv
Casaubon) , cuc | :i:cv :piyc ttpiunv :c cist:ci, Pherecr. 13 sci
:c cvcu sci :c scu sci :c ypoc ttpicv:c; similarly Ar.
Lys. 5578 sv :ci y:pci sv :c cyvciiv cucic | ttpitpycv:ci
sc:c :nv ,cpv, Eup. 327.2 ttpincv (u.l. tcp-) t :c scpcoc sci :c
spcuuuc s:., Timocl. 11.8; see on XXI.8 sc:c :nv ,cpcv ttpitc:tv.
I substitute ttpicv for tcpicv (AB), which would most naturally mean as
he goes by (Jebb), im Vorbeigehn (Meister), like XVI.5 (going by, sc. the
crossroads). But to get from Archias as he goes by (Archiass shop) reads
oddly. Casaubon (followed by Cobet 1874) deleted tcpicv as superuous;
but there was no motive for interpolation. ttpicv is corrupted to tcpicv
at VI.4; cf. XIII.11 (ttpi- B: tcp- A), XVI.3. The following tcp would
make corruption even easier: opicv . . . op like XXV.4 otc (poc V)
:c pccstgcicv, XXVII.10 cycutvc (ko:cy- V) . . . ko:c,nvci.
See on cpycv above. For the spelling ttpicv (attested at V.10 by l),
LSJ ttpitiui (init.).
The same change is needed in Chariton 2.1.6 tcpicv (ttpiicv Abresch, ttpicv
Naber) ot :cu Minicv iutvc ctcv:c sci :c :pcttc sci :nv tciv cnv.
W. E. Blake (Oxford 1938) defends tcpicv by reference to 8.1.6 tcpicv:i . . . :nv
,cpv (quite different); G. P. Goold (Loeb ed. 1995) translates it as if it were ttpi(i)cv
(though he went round).
kcooi op Apycu :c :opycu: Archias is a common name in
Attica (LGPN2.70, J. S. Traill, Persons of Ancient Athens 3 (Toronto 1995) 36979).
Use of the name implies a certainfamiliarity betweencustomer andshopkeeper
(Millett, Sale, credit and exchange 191). Although :cu :cpiycu (AB) is
possible (masc. pl. Hdt. 9.120.12, Crates Com. 19.2, Cratin. 44.1, Philippid.
34, Pl.Com. 4, Timocl. 16.5; cf. Kassel and Austin on Chionid. 5), neut. sing.
(as above) is far commoner, and the partitive gen. is apt (KG 1.345, Schwyzer
2.1023). :cu ppiycu (Stefanis 1997) has an unwanted article, which should
in any case be feminine.
Introductory note
Aristotle denes ptstic in relation to a mean of giic (EN 1108
610). The man who exceeds it is either scc or cptsc. The scc
bases his friendship on self-interest; the cptsc does not. See the Introd. Note
to II. At EN 1126
1214 cptsci are described as tv:c tpc nocvnv ttciv-
c0v:t sci cotv v:i:tivcv:t cicutvci otv cutci :c tv:u,yvcuiv
tvci (complacently approving of everything and never raising objections, but
thinking it a duty to avoid giving pain to those with whom they come into
contact); at 1171
1517 tcgici sci tciv cistic tv:u,yvcv:t cootvi
ocsc0iv tvci gici tnv tci:isc (they are promiscuous in friendship and
on familiar terms with all and real friends to no-one except on the political
level). Aristotle also denes ptstic in relation to a mean of tuvc:n dig-
nity (EE 1221
8, 278, 1233
348; cf. MM 1192
309, quoted in part below
under Denition). An excess of tuvc:n is ptstic, a deciency is cootic
self-centredness. The coon has no regard for others, on whom he looks
down; the cptsc devotes all his attention to another, and is inferior to all.
See the Introd. Note to XV.
The distinction which Theophrastus makes between the Aptsc and the
Kcc is true to Aristotle, in so far as the Kcc connes his attery to a single
patron, from whom he may expect to derive some benet, while the Aptsc
tries to please all, for no other motive than desire for popularity.
610 follow without a break, in the papyrus as well as in AB, but they
describe a different character, as Casaubon was rst to see.
He is a show-
off and spendthrift. He is obsessively preoccupied with his appearance (6).
He frequents popular places where he may be seen (7). He sends expensive
presents abroad and makes sure that everyone knows it (8). He buys exotic
animals and eye-catching objets (9). His private palaestra is a further excuse
for self-advertisement (10). He resembles two types described by Aristotle: the
vulgar man (vcuc), who makes a tasteless display of his wealth, spending
too much on inappropriate occasions (EN 1123
1927), and the vain man
(yc0vc), who is ostentatious in dress and manner and wants others to see
and hear how well-off he is (1125
2732). For an exhaustive discussion of the
differences between 15 and 610 see Stein 11721.
It is likely that 610 are the latter part of a sketch whose beginning has
been lost. A similar accident accounts for the present state of XIX. Suggested
When Steinmetz and Stein claim that Casaubon was anticipated by C. Gesner, they
confuse him with J. M. Gesner (1734); Introduction, p. 52 n. 161.
subjects are: Attipcscc or Bvcuc (Casaubon), Mt,cctpttn (Schnei-
der 1799 before Bloch), 1ic:iuc (Schneider 1799 before Darvaris). Ansoldo
Ceb` a (in his Italian translation, Genova 1620) suggested that 610 belong
to XXI (the Mispcgic:iuc); and several editors have placed them either
within or at the end of that sketch. But there is nothing petty about this mans
ambitions. See Stein 120.
For P. Herc. 1457 and bibliography see p. 50. The papyrus has been examined
most recently by T. Dorandi and M. Stein, ZPE 100 (1994) 116, and on my
behalf by Jeffrey Fish (see p. vii). By N I designate the (very unreliable) tran-
scription made by F. Casanova in 1812, when the papyrus was less damaged.
[1 ] Denition
The denition is based on [Pl.] Def. 415e sccstic cuiic n tpc nocvnv cvtu
:c0 t:i:cu, which in turn is based on Pl. Grg. 464e sccsticv utv cov co:c
scc . . . c:i :c0 notc :cyt:ci cvtu :c0 t:i:cu (H. G. Ingenkamp,
Untersuchungen zu den pseudoplatonischen Denitionen (Wiesbaden 1967) 98). It is
inconceivable that Theophrastus should have based a denition of ptstic
on a denition of sccstic. For this and other arguments against authenticity
see Stein 1213. It is uncertain whether the denition was in l. The few and
doubtful traces in col. vi lines 14 which Kondo saw and believed compatible
with it are no longer visible.
t:i v: def. III n.
o poi tpiotv: def. I n.
tv:tui: again in def. XX (in def. XII tv:tui M for tti:tui is wrong);
cf. XIX.4 (spurious) outv:tus:c. Not manners, behaviour (LSJ 2.b) but
manner of encounter or converse (Rev. Suppl.), contact, somewhat like cuiic
(def. II n.). Cf. [Arist.] MM 1192
305 tuvc:n ot t:iv cocotic vc utcv
:t sci ptstic, t:iv ot ttpi :c tv:tti. c :t ,cp coon :cic0:c
t:iv cc untvi tv:uytv unot oict,nvci . . . c ot cptsc :cic0:c cc
tciv cuitv sci tv:c sci tcv:cyni; also tv:u,yvtiv in the passages of
Aristotle cited in the Introd. Note.
ti :i t::oi: cf. [Isoc.] Ep. 4.6, Arr. An. 7.29.1, D.C. 38.25.2; KG
1.5023, and on def. I tpctcini tti ytpcv.
\ccvJ opoktuo:ik(: cf. def. XIX tn tcpcstuc:isn, XX
(tv:tui) tn tcin:isn.
2 [ti] :cic: :i: I.2n., II.9n. It is uncertain whether l had utti.
The supplement ] cpts[c | cutti :cicu:c :i cic] | (Dorandi-Stein) is
the right length. But at the beginning of the second line Fish read
. . .
. . .
[, the rst trace small part of a vertical stroke, then (after the gap) a vertical
stroke followed by
or t
, followed by two traces at the top of the line, possibly
part of a single horizontal stroke. This is not compatible with utti. There
may have been a different introductory formula here, perhaps including t:i.
ppotv pcoycptoi: cf. Pl. Chrm. 153a-b sci ut c tocv . . . tou
tcppctv ntcv:c cc cctv, Men. Dysc. 1046 ttcptucunv tpc

sci tvu | tcppctv, tvci :i givpctc gcopc | ttiotic :t

cucutvc, tpcttc, Timocl. 23.57 tcpicv:c 1tioittcv tvu | . . . tcp-
pctv tiocv . . . | ttcttu , Plu. 62c c . . . scc :ptyti sc:coicsti ot-
ic0:ci tcppctv, cv (scv Hercher) tpcc,cptuni tpc:tpcv cgti tcc-
,t:ci ut:c ucp:pcv sci cpscv tcsi, XV.3, XXIV.6. There is little
to choose between inn. tpcc,cpt0ci (l) and part. tpcc,cptc (AB).
Aorist is the appropriate tense for this inn. (greet, address), whereas present
is appropriate for those which follow (un gitvci be reluctant to release;
tc::tci begin to depart, as VII.7, IX.4, XVI.5). For the distinction
between present and aorist inn. see on 6 tti:si . . . tcstipcci. On
the other hand, a series of participles is not out of place (cf. VIII.2, XIV.3,
XVI.2, XVIII.4, 7, XXI.11, XXV.5, XXVI.4, XXVII.9).
koi vcpo kp:i:cv to: For the accusative predicate, XXIX.4 :cv
tcvnpcv . . . tittv tttpcv, LSJ ttcv ii.3. Calling him vnp sp:i:c
perhaps implies that he addressed himas (c) sp:i:t or (c) sp:i:t vopcv
(Pl. Grg. 515a c t:i:t vopcv, KG 1.3389). LSJ sp:i:c 2.a mis-
leadingly labels the phraseology here as colloquial. The word sp:i:c
retained its Homeric association with gods and heroes: Pi. O. 14.14, Pae. 7b.50
(Zeus), N. 7.27 (Ajax), S. Ph. 3, E. Hel. 41 (Achilles), Gorg. Hel. 3 (Tyndareos)
vopcv sp:i:c, Pal. 3 (Odysseus) sp:i:c . . . vnp. So too did the voca-
tive address: Ar. Pl. 230 c sp:i:t lc0:t tv:cv ociucvcv, PCG adesp.
1093.357 c sp:i:t :cv
, S. OT 40 c sp:i:cv tciv Oioitcu spc
(cf. 1525 sp:i:c nv vnp, which however is spurious). When a man is so
addressed, the tone is elevated: Arist. fr. 44 Rose (p. 18 Ross) c sp:i:t tv-
:cv sci ucscpi:c:c:t (Silenus to Midas), Hegesipp.Com. 2.4 c sp:i:
cvpctt sci cgc:c:t, TrGF 128 Ezechiel 243 sp:i:t Mcn. The voc.
became formulaic only in the Christian era: LSJ 2.b cites Luke 1.3 sp:i:t
Otcgit, to which add e.g. D.H. Orat. Vett. 1, Dem. 58, J. Ap. 1.1, Vit. 430, Gal.
10.34 K uhn, [Longin.] 39.1, Eus. PE 5.20.6. See Dickey, Greek Forms of Address
143, 2812, Lane Fox 143, 165 n. 168.
The form ttc (l) is attested (or all but attested) at VII.3 (e: ttc AB),
VII.7 (Needham: ttc A, tttv B), XVI.8 (ttc V, ttcu V
), and is plausibly
restored at XXV.4 (Ilberg: ttt V, cu s.l.), XXVIII.4 (Cobet: tttv V
, ttcu
); titcv (AB here) is attested (but should probably be changed to ttc) at
XV.7 (AB), XXX.8 (AB: tttp V). Common in Arist., ttc is otherwise rare
in Attic before Theophrastus: Veitch 2334, O. Lautensach, Die Aoriste bei den
attischen Tragikern und Komikern (G ottingen 1911) 11213, KB 2.4223, Schwyzer
1.745, Threatte 2.5489, Kassel and Austin on Dionys.Com. 2.2. Add [D.]
(Apollod.) 59.5 (u.l. -cv). Note also XII.10 ttitcci.
koi ouo ikov: in lDorandi-Stein read cu


t[ (imunteren
Bereich der Zeile zwei punktf ormige Reste eines Buchstabens, danach ein
t) and suggested t
t[i tc as a banalisation of scvc. If t
t[ were rightly
read, t
t[cpsc (Stefanis 1994b) would be more likely. But Fishs diagnosis
and transcript suggest rather cu[u]c

t[. After ]c
, apparently horizontal
stroke at the top of the line, not very compatible with (transcript suggests
it is compatible with top of Z). After mutilated papyrus, part of a vertical
and other ink to the right, then a rather clear t
, though the right vertical
is faint. The other ink shown on the transcript is the two punktf ormige
Reste, and above the left of them the top of a stroke descending to the right:
the traces perfectly suit N. The preceding part of a vertical appears (from
the transcript) compatible with the middle arm of c. Then e.g. t[c (Th.
7.56.2 tcu cuucntci), but giving rather a short line (18 letters, against
a normof 1921), or t[vu tc (Pl. Alc.1 119c), t[c, t[t:c, t[tpic.
At all events, aorist part. is preferable, and scvc unexceptionable (cf. Gal.
14.197 K uhn sci :c0:c o scvc tcp tvici cuut:ci, Philostr. VA 3.58
cuuccutvcv scvc; H. Thesleff, Studies on Intensication in Early and Classical
Greek (Helsingfors 1954) 238, 409).
c:poi :o ytpi tpioov j ivoi: l conrms, what was
rst suspected by Schneider, that AB have omitted a participle. Before
l was known, the following additions were proposed: ccv or tti-
ccutvc Schneider 1799, ccutvc Schneider 1818, sc:cnycv Dar-
varis, ttpiccv Herwerden. In l Bassi read yt[p]
[i | c]c
([ty]c[ut]v[c] Navarre 1918), K. F. W. Schmidt ytp
Kondo ytp
tti|[ccut]v[c], Hammerstaedt and Dorandi (ap. Stein)
| [
. . .
. . . .
], whence Stein proposed [cc]u
[tvc], comparing
XII.14 cpyncutvc ccci t:tpcu unottc utcv:c. Dorandi-Stein read

[i |
. . . . . .
. .
] (or ]u
, ]o
, but not ]c
, ]v
), and difdently proposed the
unappealing co:cv t]
[cv] or ccv c]
[c]. Onthe basis of Dorandi-Steins
reading Stefanis 1994b proposed ttpic]
[cv] (already proposed as a supple-
ment by Herwerden). Fish read ytp

[ | (for i
, only a speck mid-line, then
vertical). The nal v
, if rightly identied, need not entail a following initial
vowel, in view of 3 tpt:iv -. Fish then saw traces of several letters before
[. On the basis of his description and transcript I identify t
The rst letter may have had a crossbar, and there is a speck of ink in the lower
left corner (tcompatible with this). The second letter may have had a curved
bottom, though this, too, is uncertain (t compatible). This is followed by the
left side of an apparently (but not certainly) curved letter before a crack in the
papyrus (transcript shows what appears compatible with loop of p). A space
may intervene before the next trace, clearly the bottom right part of a curved
letter. It is possible that the trace before the crack is the left half of this curved
letter. Whether it is or not, this letter, apparently the fourth of the line, will be
c, t, , or c. (The transcript shows that it is compatible with the bottom right
curve of , and that there is room before it for a lost i.) After a gap, probably
, but perhaps one of the humps of u. This (or u) will have been about the
seventh letter of the line. Others seem to have mistaken this stroke for v
, a
reading certainly mistaken. For the expression cf. E. Or. 3712 Opt:nv . . .
gicii ytpi ttpictv, perhaps IT 796, TrGF adesp. 416 (Diggle, Euripi-
dea 465), Pl. Phdr. 256a ttpiti :cv tpc:nv, X. An. 4.7.25 ttpitccv
ncu, Men. Mis. 622 Arnott (221 Sandbach) :ivc ttpitiv sci gitv
co:c [ocst;, Pk. 156, 301, PCG adesp. 1014.44, 1017.27, D.H. 8.45.1 ttpi-
ccv co:nv ntt:c, Plu. Eum. 10.8 :c ytpi :cv Loutvn ttpiccv,
Gell. 20.1.20 amplexus utraque manu.
This is not an ordinary handshake given as an initial greeting (e.g. Pl. Chrm.
153b sci ucu ccutvc :n ytipc, 0 cspc:t, n o c s:.). Nor is it
the sycophantic or overfamiliar hand-clasping of [X.] Ath. 1.18 v:icnci
vc,st:ci tv :c oisc:npici sci tiicv:c :cu tticuvtci :n
ytipc, Pl. Aul. 11416 et me benignius | omnes salutant quam salutabant prius; | ad-
eunt, consistunt, copulantur dexteras, Hor. S. 1.9.34 accurrit quidam notus mihi nomine
tantum, | arreptaque manu quid agis, dulcissime rerum? (what follows at 1516 usque
tenebo; | persequar hinc quo nunc iter est tibi may be compared with the following un
gitvci sci uispcv tpcttuc), nor the warmly sympathetic double-handed
clasping of Plb. 31.24.9 ccutvc ugc:tpci ytpi :n otic co:c0 sci
titc tutcc. He uses both hands, a sign of overfamiliarity indeed, but also
of disordered dress, for a man soberly wearing a u:icv must keep one hand
inside it (IV.4n., Aeschin. 1.25, Plu. Phoc. 4.3; Geddes 31213, MacDowell
on D. 19.251). He embraces his victim with both arms, and will not release
him (LSJ ginui a.ii.1.b), because he wishes to delay his departure. Cf. Sittl,
Geb arden 2732, Hug, Salutatio, RE i.2a (1920) 20623.
koi ikpov pco: uis[p]cv [
. .
pc[ttuc l. Bassi read ]t
or ],
. Kondo read the last letter as t, c, , or c. Hammerstaedt (ap. Stein)
identied two verticals (t rather than n) followed by c or , possibly t, not c,
and Fish concurs. []t
pc- (Stein) suits the traces. But such an unattested
and undesirable compound would have to be ascribed to Philodemus, not
Theophrastus, as Stein acknowledges; likewise [o]t
pc- (Dorandi-Stein).
Contrast VII.5 :cu titvci gscv:c . . . tpcttuci. We can rule out, as
incompatible with the traces, all other proposals: [c]uc Edmonds 1910, [:i]
,t Navarre 1920, [t]titp- Immisch 1923, [t]:i Holland 1923 before Stark,
[c0]:c Kondo.
koi tpo:(o :t oo:ov 6t:oi toivv o::toi: in l, Dorandi-
Stein read tc[, Fish tc[
.( .)
//cu (cu is found on a fragment now detached,
but I am condent about its placement, thanks partly to the photograph in
Bassis edition which was made when the fragment was still attached). But
tc:tcu[ N (the 1812 transcript), whence coi Stefanis 1994b, like E. IA 1026
tc0 coi ccutc;. ct:ci is virtually meet (LSJ toc a.1.b, Handley
on Men. Dysc. 305 (add Asp. 212, Pk. 159), Introd. Note to VII ad n.). ttcivcv
(l, coni. Needham) is the obvious replacement for t:i civcv (AB); and t:i
ttcivcv (de), while pointed enough (with compliments still on his lips), is
unlikely to be right.
3 koi opokyti ct po coi:ov j vcv oi pt:i: sci tcpc[s]n
(ot) tpc] | oici:c[v c. vii ]
. .
[ c. iiiv] | tcpt:[ l. Perhaps ot was omitted;
otherwise col. vi line 14 (24 letters) would be much longer than the preceding
lines (1921 letters). But there was more than un ucvcv ci in l. N shows a
detached fragment (now lost) which came from the gap in col. vi lines 1217.
In this line it has ]cp[, in the next ]ivcut[. The c of cp stands above the
If P is a misreading of N (as Dorandi-Stein suggest), the line may have
begun (like AB) oici:c[v un ucvcv]. After this, Fish saw traces of 2 or 3
letters, the last compatible with v. K. F. W. Schmidt claimed to read (from a
photograph) oici:c[v un] u
tcpt:[iv. But :c:ci, even if
written, is unlikely to be right. Theophrastus either omits the demonstrative
pronoun with the relative (I.4, XI.3, XII.10, XIII.2, XVIII.6; XIII.5, cited by
Stein, is different) or places it after the relative (III.2n.).
The verb tcptvci is regularly used of supporters at law or of witnesses
(XII.5, LSJ i.4); in connection with arbitration, XII.13 tcpcv oici:ni, [D.]
(Apollod.) 59.48 c tcpcv:t tsc:tpci tti :ni oici:ni.
vo kciv :i tvoi cckJi: an impartial arbitrator. For a private arbitration
the disputants might choose an equal number of arbitrators separately, and
jointly a further arbitrator common to them both: D. 33.14 tti:pttcuiv tvi
utv oici:n:ni scivci . . . , tvc o ts:tpc tcptscic:c, [D.] (Apollod.) 59.45
ottp utv :c0 1puvicvc oici:n:n tsctt:c :upc Acttsntv . . . ottp
ot :tgvcu :cu:cui cupic Acutpt

scivcv ot co:c tpccipc0v:ci

Aic,ti:cvc Aycpvtc (Kapparis ad loc., B. Hubert, De Arbitris Atticis et privatis
et publicis (Leipzig 1885) 910, MacDowell, Law 2036). He does not wish to
seem to be the agreed common arbitrator. He wishes to be seen to be impar-
tial, behaviour appropriate for the common arbitrator but not for him. For
scivc impartial see also Lys. 15.1 ttpi :cv :n :pc:tic ,pcgcv scivcu
tvci :ci :t oicscv:i sci :ci gt,cv:i, D. 18.7 cv sci scivcv ugc:tpci
spcc:nv (Wankel ad loc.), 41.14 :cv scivcv ugc:tpci sci gicv cv:cv,
55.35 tti:ptttiv :c tiociv, <:c> ci sci scivc; LSJ a.iv.3. scivc
And below ]n[ in the line above. Dorandi-Stein relate this to tcpcsnti. But ],t
in the transcript of the non-detached portion perhaps represents ]nti; in this case
]on[ will be a misreading of ]s[.
t (AB) is not an acceptable expression. scivc without t (o) is acceptable.
But :i must be right: conjectured by Pauw, it was once visible in l (:i N,
[i Bassi; Dorandi-Stein saw no trace, but Fishs transcript shows a high dot,
seemingly more compatible with the left tip of : than the top of t); cf. VI.2,
XXVIII.4, KG 1.663, Schwyzer 2.215, LSJ :i a.ii.7, Hindenlang 63.
4 koi <po>:cu vcu ct titv o cikoi:tpo ycui :v ci:v: to
be obsequious and sensible he must address the compliment to the foreigners
(III.3n.), and to them alone. In spite of the agreement of l (:[
. .
. . . .
Dorandi-Stein) with AB (below, p. 231), we need either <tpc> :cu tvcu
(Casaubon) or :c tvci (Schwartz before Coray) or tpc (for :cu) tvcu.
To say (to unspecied persons, presumably citizens) that foreigners speak more
justly than citizens is not obsequious but foolish, since it is likely to alienate
the citizens. For t,tiv or tittv with tpc, I.5, XIII.11, XIV.13, XVII.2, 7,
XXV.2, 4, epil. XXVI, XXIX.5; with dative, I.6, II.2, 10, VII.2, VIII.7, XV.4,
5, 7, XVIII.9, XXVIII.5. For the word order sci <tpc>:cu tvcu ot see
on I.5 (c co tct s:.). He courts foreigners because they increase the circle
of his friends. They are not pleading a case at law (Jebb). The article, which
designates the foreigners as a class (cf. epil. XXVI), precludes this. Even with
tpc tvcu (art. omitted, as XXIII.2), :cv tci:cv still suggests the whole
citizen body, not individuals.
5 Compare the behaviour of the Kcc (II.6). He too kisses the children and
addresses them in terms gratifying to their father. But he gains their favour by
buying them presents and makes sure that their father sees his generosity. The
Aptsc plays with the children and seems as eager to please them as their
father. Cf. Suet. Aug. 83 talis aut ocellatis nucibusque ludebat cum pueris minutis, quos
facie et garrulitate amabiles undique conquirebat, R. Kassel, Kleine Schriften (Berlin and
New York 1991) 30.
koi tiiv:o Joi kcu 6ci:tpo tvoi :i o:p: titcv:c (l) could
be right (I propose ttcv for ticv Vat XXI.11). But the present appropri-
ately suggests that he loses no time. Similar comparisons: Herod. 6.601 coo
cv 0scv tisci sci | tyci cv c0:c, PCG adesp. 128 sci . . . 0scv coot
tv | c0:c cucicv ,t,cvtv, Plu. 1077c ti un:t g::c g::ni un:t uti::ni
uti::c un:t tupci tupc n sci, :c :c0 c,cu, 0scv tv tcv:i ypcvci
,t,cvtv tcpcs:cv, Eust. Od. 1964.1 cucic:tpc scu

tti :cv tv:ni

tcptcisc:cv sc: civ, Diogenian. vii.37 (CPG 1.293), Apostol. xii.73 (CPG
2.560) cucic:tpc scu

:c0:c tcpctciti oic :nv tugtpticv :cv scv,

Shakespeare, Henry VIII V.i.1701 Tis as like you / As cherry is to cherry.
We might expect n 0scv sci (Gale) or scu <sci> (Navarre 1920);
but cucic:tpc scu in Eust. and the paroemiographers suggests that the
brachylogy is acceptable (for related types of brachylogy, KG 2.310 (3), 566 (i)).
Resemblance to the father, besides being (if the children are good-looking) a
tribute to his looks, is an indication of legitimacy (Gow on Theoc. 17.44, West
on Hes. Op. 235).
koi pcoyoytvc iJoi: draws to himself and kisses (LSJ tpc,c
b.i.2). The aorist part. (l, ce, Cobet 1874) should be preferred to the present
(AB) in the light of X. Cyr. 8.4.26 Xpuv:cv . . . tgint tpcc,c,cutvc,
Plu. 160d :c0 ltpivopcu tpcc,c,cutvcu sci gincv:c, as it should at
Chariton 2.7.7 tpcc,<c,>cutvc (Cobet) co:nv sc:tgintv. Cf. also Ar.
Au. 141 cos tsuc, co tpcttc, co tpcn,,cu.
koi op oo:ov koooi: sci|c]ci l (coni. Cobet 1874),
sci|:c]ci (Bassi, Kondo, Dorandi-Stein), contrary to the principle of
syllable-divisionobservedinthis papyrus: ctc[c::t|]ci, c[tc]stipc|ci,
y[pn]|:c, s:n]c|[]ci (KB 1.350.3, E. G. Turner, Greek Manuscripts of the
Ancient World (
1987 =BICS Suppl. 46) 17, R. Janko, Philodemus, On Poems, Book 1
(Oxford 2000) 76 n. 3). sci:cci (AB), supposedly place, would give infe-
rior sense, even if this sense could be established by adequate parallels, which
it cannot (see Stein 87), and aorist inn. is desirable, like the preceding ginci
(see on 6 tti:si . . . tcstipcci). In the transitive use active scici
(o) is more regular, and a transitive middle scitci is attested only in the
senses settle (colonists), A.R. 2.947, 4.278, and set up (temple, altar, statue),
Call. Dian. 233, A.R. 4.1219, [Anacreon] AP 6.143.3 (Page, Further Greek Epi-
grams 520); cf. E. Hi. 31.
But adequate support is provided by compounds:
D. 28.15 uutcpcsciutvc Anucvc, 33.14 (cited on 3 vc scivc s:.),
Lycurg. 141 tcoc sci ,uvcsc tcpcscicutvcu tcu:c, Luc. Pisc. 12
:cu tcuic:tpcu . . . tcpcscicutvn tnicv.
koi :c tv uotiv oo:o yov Ak, tku: so AB, and
probably l (only the nal | su now visible; s[ci
. . . .
. . .
c[| cu[:c
c. xv ] | ou N). Presumably sc and tttsu are words called out by
the man as he plays with the children. But we do not know what he means
by using these words. The game (if game it is) is as unfathomable as that
played by the Oiucn in XXVII.12. There is a further uncertainty: whether
co:c belongs with uutcitiv (co:c stands after the inn. at IV.9, XVIII.3,
XX.5, XXX.11) or with t,cv. Stein argues that, since :c utv uutcitiv is
contrasted with :c ot . . . tcv sctotiv, then uutcitiv co:c will create an
expectation that something contrasted with co:c is to follow. This is perhaps
too strict. Possibly co:c merely emphasises that he participates personally in
Also reported from Par. supp. gr. 450 (46 Wilson) by Torraca (1974) 87, and from
Ambros. E 119 sup. (21 Wilson) by Stefanis (1994b) 130. co:cv is reported (whether
rightly I do not know) from Rehdig. 22 (71 Wilson) by Diels 1883; Stefanis tells me
that it is in Vind. supp. gr. 32 (68 Wilson) and its descendant Laur. Conv. Soppr. 110
(12 Wilson).
In E. Hel. 1534 read sci<:>c:c; in Th. 4.130.7 ttisci:cv:c for tttscicv:c.
the game, or that he ubernimmt das Amt der Kinderw arterin (Bechert); cf.
IV.9, IX.3, XXIV.9, XXX.11. If co:c is taken with t,cv, then he himself
says appears to imply that what he says is also being said by the children or
would as naturally or more naturally be said by them. This would make sense
if the words were recognisable as baby-talk or play-talk. At all events, co:cv
(Fraenkel and Groeneboom) is otiose.
There are many unconvincing explanations of why he uses the words sc
and tttsu: he is referring to toys or amulets (Casaubon; cf. A. B. Cook,
Zeus 2 (Cambridge 1925) 6989), giving a spelling lesson ( A-sc sc, lt-
t-su tttsu Fraenkel and Groeneboom; cf. Edmonds and Austen), telling
a story (uerba initialia alicuius fabellae Pauw) or riddle (P. Graindor, RIB
48 (1905) 1678, adducing Ath. 456b-e, followed by Stefanis 1994b; on riddle-
games see S. Mendner, RLAC10 (1978) 857, Arnott on Alex. 242, Konstantakos
1534, 1623), lifting up and lowering the children, whom he designates by
terms representing lightness and heaviness (S. Koujeas, Hermes 41 (1906) 478
80, id. 1915; Edmonds 1929),
using baby-talk, with csc (so accented) for
p:isc and tttsu for ttu (J. D. Meerwaldt, Mnemosyne 53 (1925) 340,
55 (1927) 4453). Or he is playing a game, such as modern children play, with
a clenched st and extended ngers, which are termed sc and tttsu. So
(with variations) Jebb, Zingerle 1893, W. E. J. Kuiper, Mnemosyne 53 (1925) 350,
U. R udiger, MDAI(R) 734 (19667) 24850. The game described by R udiger
is known in England as Paper, Scissors, Stone (I. and P. Opie, Childrens Games
in Street and Playground (Oxford 1969) 267). I reject this not so much because (as
Stein asserts) it calls for gestures rather than spoken words (the Opies showthat
words may be used) but because the identications are fanciful and arbitrary.
Asuggestion by G. C. Papacharalampous, Acc,pcgic 17 (19578) 4058, that
sc stands for empty hand, tttsu for a coin concealed in the other hand,
is vulnerable to the same criticism.
For tttsu Lycius proposed csc, a conjecture of unrecognised merit.
I shall make the best case I can for it, before concluding that it cannot safely be
accepted. sc and csc (XVI.6n.) are natural partners (X. An. 6.4.23
sc sci usci), and the personal application of their partnership is
described as proverbial by Alex. 88.35 sc: :t :nv tcpciuicv | ti tc: to
utv sc, to ot csc | cvpctc t:iv; cf. Theophylact.Sim. Ep. 79 t:i :cv
cscv tyti otpu:ivcv . . . :i on:c :c stvcv :c0:c sci sc0gcv ocpicv
tti :cc0:cv :cv tnivcv scv oitgnt;, Eust. Il. 1303.38 (4.739.212 van
der Valk) scc csc :c vpctivcv cuc c0:c sc:c :cu tccicu sci
sc. The word sc is applied to the physical body by Epich. 166 c0:c
gi vpctcv, sci ttgunutvci, Timo Phlias. SH 785 cvpctci stvtn
Cf. A. Thumb, CQ 8 (1914) 191, H. G. Viljoen, CQ 31 (1937) 53, whose conjecture
scv :t sci tttsuv in Hermipp. 24.3 is an irresponsible shot in the dark.
cinic tuttci sci (cf. Petr. 42.4 utres inati ambulamus, Sen. Ep. 77.16 saccus
es; E. Norden, Kleine Schriften (Berlin 1966) 23). It may connote simply belly
(Archil. 119 West, E. Med. 679, oracle ap. Plu. Thes. 3.5) or more specically a
drinkers pot-belly and a pot-bellied drinker: Ar. Ach. 1002 scv K:nigcv:c
a skinful of Ctesiphon (c tcyu sci tpc,:cp c K:nigcv sct:t:ci
), Antiph. 20 :c0:cv cov | oi civcgu,icv sci tyc :c0 cuc:c | scv
scc0i. The word uc,c (Tarentine for sc) was also applied personally
(Ar. fr. 308). Falstaff is a tun [wine-barrel] of man (Shakespeare, I Henry IV,
II.iv.499). See also O. Crusius, Philologus 46 (1888) 619. The word csc is
applied to the physical body by Anaxarch. 72 A1 (ii.235.18 DK), A13 (ii.239.2)
t:it :cv Avcpycu cscv, and guratively to a person by Pl. Tht. 161a
c,cv :ivc . . . cscv. The two are combined in the word sccsc
(Ar. fr. 180, Archipp. 4, Diocl.Com. 3). So, engaging in verbal banter with the
children, he calls out two words which are proverbially applied to men with fat
paunches, wineskin and sack. This paves the way for what follows: he lets
some of the children use his paunch as a couch to sleep on, even though they
weigh heavily on him. Self-depreciation is followed by self-imposed discomfort.
And the unattering terms which he applies to himself contrast well with the
attering terms in which he has described the children and, by implication,
their father.
I should like to believe this. But two doubts stand in the way. First, csc
was not in l. This is not, in itself, decisive. The text suffered loss or dislocation
before the time of Philodemus (Introduction, pp. 378). AB share that loss or
dislocation with l (Philodemus). Therefore AB and l are derived from the
same faulty ancestor. That ancestor may well have been further corrupted; if
so, its corruptions will be common to l and AB. There are (I believe) such
commoncorruptions in4 (omissionof tpc) and 9 (tvugcutvcu and scviv).
The second doubt weighs more heavily: saying Wineskin and Sack is not
a very natural way to describe how he plays with the children and draws
attention to his paunch.
Casaubon (unaware of Lycius) suggested that sc and tttsu are terms
by which he designates not himself but the children. But Wineskin and
Sack suit a child less well than a man. And Axe, in allusion to a child,
remains unexplained. Casaubon toyed with three possible explanations: (i)
oxycephalic (gcc), (ii) sharp-witted (Luc. Smp. 6 :cv :cucv, :cv

-igc co:cv c ucn:ci sci Kctioc scc0iv), (iii) like tccv

and cv, hypocoristic for boy.
Casaubon suggested yet another approach: ssc for sc, on the strength
of Hsch. A2435 ssc (quanquamibi fortasse ssclegendum)

t,t:ci ot tcioici, c ucpc (. . .silly, spoken to children because they
are being silly). Why the word ssc or ssc(or Assc) was spoken is claried
by Plu. 1040b (Chrysipp. SVF 3 fr. 313) :n Assc0 sci :n Agi:c0, oi cv
:c tciopic :c0 scscyctv c ,uvcst vtip,cuiv (the names Akko and
Alphito, by which women rouse children from laziness). Akko was a foolish
and lazy woman of folk-tale and comedy, cited by nurses as a warning to idle
infants (J. J. Winkler, Akko, CPh 77 (1982) 1378, refuting the suggestions (i)
that she was a bogey-woman like Mormo, (ii) that she has some connection
with the proverb mentioned below). This does not appear to suit the situation,
and it throws no light on tttsu.
A possible link between sc and a childrens game is suggested by the
proverbial expression sci (or sici) ucpuc::tci play bogey with a
wineskin: Hsch. O 1658 cos sici utv:cp tucpuc::t:c | co:c, ttti
:o t: nn (Crates Com. 10)

tcpciuictti :cv sci :cstvcotocisc:cv

ttti stvc c sc. The proverb is quoted by Suda A4177, M1251, Diogenian.
ii.65, Macar. ii.52, Apostol. iv.10 (CPG 1.206, 2.148, 311); cf. Phot. A 2975,
Hsch. A 7725, Eust. Od. 1552.25, Diogenian. ii.100. The sc cannot be a
bag into which a bogey-woman threatens to put children (as suggested by
Roscher, Lex.Myth. 1 (188490) 21011, s.u. Akko; cf. Crusius, Akko, RE i.1
(1893) 11713). This does not square with the ancient explanations of the
proverb, in which sc stands for a threat which is empty or unreal. More
likely, the threat is that something will be let out of the wineskin, which is empty,
or is the wineskin itself, inated to look like the bogeys head. But if the man
is pretending that a wineskin is a bogey-woman, what is the role of the axe?
I conclude that the passage is inexplicable, possibly corrupt. Other (hopeless)
conjectures: Kcc, Ius Darvaris, Kcsc (Little nger) M. Schmidt.
:o ct ti :J yo:po tv kotctiv o itvc: sctu[ l, but
. . . .
] | N. Apparently l omitted cuc. That it stood after
icutvc cannot be excluded, in spite of N. But then the line would be longer
than normal (24 letters against a norm of 1921). And this word order would
not be acceptable. For the order innitive +cuc+participle at endof sentence,
XI.4; for alternative orders, II.3n. Emendation is ineffectual: sc:cucutvc
Naber, sc:cicutvc Fraenkel and Groeneboom, vc- Edmonds 1929.
6 koi ti:ki ct cktpooi: l (according to N) had tti:cu; but the
notion that he had very expensive haircuts is not to be entertained. tt:c
(Navarre 1920) has no appeal. And present inn. tcstiptci (Koujeas) is
not needed. The aorist is appropriate, because having a haircut is viewed as a
completed act, as IV.13 ct:ci . . . tcstipcci, XXI.3 :cv ucv tcstpci
,c,cv ti Atgc. The aorist is used even when an act, complete on its
own, is repeated: HP 6.7.2 npcvci tcsi sci tc:pci sci ttpci,
[X.] Ath. 1.19 v,sn ,cp cvpctcv tcsi ttcv:c sctnv ctv. The
present inn. is used when an act is viewed from an aspect other than its
completeness, such as its inception, development, or continuance. Here tytiv
(because he continues to have) and tigtci (because he continues to be
oiled). But perhaps ut:ctci should be ut:cctci, since a change of
clothes is most naturally viewed as a completed act. See KG1.1923, Schwyzer
2.2578, Goodwin 96101, Moorhouse, Syntax of Sophocles 1812, 2079.
Constant haircuts ensure that his hair is never too short or too long. Long
hair, while it might suggest parsimony or indifference to personal appear-
ance (Ar. Nu. 8356 cv otc :n gtiocic | ttstipc: cooti tctc:
coo ntic:c), was also characteristic of rich young dandies, cavalrymen,
and Spartan-sympathisers (Bremer, Haartracht und Haarschmuck, RE vii.2
(1912) 211819, Neil on Ar. Eq. 580, Dover on Ar. Nu. 14, MacDowell on Ar.
V. 466, Geddes 309). For types of haircut, K. F. Hermann and H. Bl umner,
Lehrbuch der griechischen Privatalterth umer (Freiburg and T ubingen 1882) 2047,
Daremberg-Saglio i (1887) 1360, F. W. Nicolson, Greek and Roman barbers,
HSCPh 2 (1891) 4156; cf. epil. X n., XXVI.4n.
koi :cu cv:o tukcu tytiv: cf. Ar. Pax 130910 cootv ,p, ctcvnpci,
| tuscv cocv:cv tp,cv t: , nv un :i sci uccv:ci, Cat. 39.12 Egnatius,
quod candidos habet dentes, | renidet usque quaque. By contrast, the Auytpn has
:cu cocv:c utcvc (XIX.4). The Greeks whitened their teeth by chewing
a gum obtained from the stem of the mastic shrub, pistacia lentiscus: HP 9.1.2,
Steier, Mastix, RE xiv.2 (1930) 216875, M. Grieve (ed. C. F. Leyel), A Modern
Herbal (London 1931) 522 (for Scio read Chios), O. Polunin and A. Huxley,
Flowers of the Mediterranean (London 1965) 119, K. Lembach, Die Panzen bei
Theokrit (Heidelberg 1970) 3841, A. Huxley and W. Taylor, Flowers of Greece and
the Aegean (London 1977) 1001, H. Baumann, Greek Wild Flowers and Plant Lore
in Ancient Greece (transl. W. T. and E. R. Stearn, London 1993) 159 and (the gum)
Pl. 335. Thus Hsch. 3025 (PCG adesp. 429) yvcv oic:pc,cv

ticci :nv
yvcv :pc,tiv c sccticutvci tvtsc :c0 tusc0v :cu cocv:c, Luc.
Lex. 12 yivc:pcs:cv vtcviscv, Iamb. VP 28.154 yivitiv :cu cocv:c.
The Romans had numerous recipes for toothpowders: Daremberg-Saglio ii.1
(1892) 102, Mau, Dentifricium, RE v.I (1903) 221.
koi :o i:io ct ypy:o t:otoi: the Avtttpc and the
Aiypcstpon have only one cloak, for, when it is at the laundry, the for-
mer stays at home, the latter borrows a replacement (XXII.8, XXX.10). The
husband in Ar. Ec. 31419 has only one. But we may assume that they have
one for summer and another for winter. This is what distinguishes the Athe-
nians from the Spartans, and Socrates from the Athenians: the Athenians
change their cloaks according to the season, Socrates and the Spartans wear
the same cloak in summer and winter alike (X. Mem. 1.6.26, Lac. 2.14).
When a scc boasts of two smart cloaks in Eup. 172.57 uc:ic ot uci o
t:cv ycpitv:t :c:c, | cv (Porson: :c:civ | codd.) ut:ccuvcv ti
:tpcv ttcvc | ti ,cpv, he may be making one do double duty by
turning it inside out (Kassel and Austin ad loc.). The luxurious Phaeacians have
tuc:c . . . tnuci (H. Od. 8.249); but not Eumaeus (14.51314 co ,cp
tcci ycvci ttnucici :t yi:cvt | tvot tvvuci, uic o cn gc:i
ts:ci). While the Auytpn is faulted for wearing a dirty cloak (XIX.6), a
man who changes a cloak which is still t for wear is extravagant or affected,
an Athenian Lord Goring, who changes his clothes at least ve times a day
(Oscar Wilde, An Ideal Husband, Act I). For the verb, X. Mem. 1.6.6 : ,t unv
u:ic c c:i c ut:cccutvci ycu sci tcu tvtsc ut:ccv-
:ci (Lac. 2.1 uc:icv ut:ccc). For ypn: serviceable, Hdt. 1.94.6 cc
gi nv ypn:c ttitcc, LSJ i.1. <t:i> ypn: (Schneider before Fraenkel
and Groeneboom), though clearer, is unnecessary. See also Geddes 314.
koi ypo:i ttoi: ypuc is a general word for unguent (whether olive
oil or oil from another fruit), and should not be translated (as it often is)
perfumed oil, which is normally expressed by upcv (IV.2n.). The two words
are sometimes explicitly distinguished: Od. 8 tcv:c . . . upcu sci ypiuc:c,
1516 tcc ot (sc. u,occ tisp) ,ivt:ci ttpi Kiisicv sci tcic0iv t
co:cv ypuc. gci ot sci ti :c tcuocc :cv upcv cpuc::tiv cttp sci
:c ts :n cvcu (sc. tcicv) sci :c0:c (co:c Schneider), X. An. 4.4.13 tcu
,cp tv:c0c nopist:c ypuc, ci typcv:c v: tcicu, ticv sci nuivcv
sci uu,oivcv ts :cv tispcv sci :tpuivivcv

ts ot :cv co:cv :c:cv

sci upcv nopist:c. In X. Smp. 2.4 Socrates says that grown men should
not smell of upcv but of sccsc,cic, which is a ypuc not obtainable
from the uupctcci: the more general ypuc embraces the more specic
upcv. Sometimes ypuc is used in place of upcv, when the context makes
the equation clear: either the ypuc is described as an articially scented or
compound product (Xenoph. 3.6 West sn:c counv ypiuci otucutvci,
Call. Lau.Pall. 1517 un upc . . . (co ,cp Acvcic ypiuc:c utis:c git)
| ct:t) or an epithet hints at or species its scent (TrGF 20 Achaeus 5.2
ypiu:cv . . . Ai,ut:icv (glossed as Ai,ut:icu upcu by Ath. 689b; Gow
on Theoc. 15.114), Philox. PMG 836(b).43 ypiuc:c . . . upcicouc). See
further Bulloch on Call. Lau.Pall. 16, S. Lilja, The Treatment of Odours in the
Poetry of Antiquity (Helsinki 1972) 734. Where, as here, the bare ypuc is used,
there is no cause to equate it with upcv. We may imagine an unguent more
exotic than the plain olive oil which was used in the baths and gymnasia.
But (contrary to Stein) what is at issue here is not the mans extravagance.
Frequent haircuts, white teeth, and clean clothes are a sign not of extravagance
but of obsessive preoccupation with personal appearance. And the expression
ypiuc:i tigtci puts the emphasis on appearance, not on smell. We are to
picture the man as sleekly oiled rather than fragrantly scented. For the reverse
picture, XXVI.4n. (coyucv) and Ar. Nu. 8356 (above on sci tti:si s:.).
The original spelling is ypuc, and there is no good evidence that ypuc
had yet supplanted it. ypuc is preserved by the papyrus at Call. fr. 194.45,
76, by the mss. at Call. Lau.Pall. 16, 26, by M at A. Ag. 94 (ypnu- V,
ypiu- FTr), by A at Ath. 409e (Philox. loc. cit.), and is indicated by the mss.
at Xenoph. 3.6 (ypnu- Ath. A), Achaeus 5.2 (ypiuu- Ath. A). The mss. offer
ypuc (ypiuc) at Od. 8, 15 bis, 28 and (the only other occurrences before
Theophrastus, if we ignore the Hippocratic corpus) Achaeus 19.2 (ypnu- Ath.
A, ypiu- E), X. Smp. 2.4, An. 4.4.13. l (now ] | uc:i, but y]pi[|] uc:i N) will
have had y]pi|uc:i not ypi[]|uc:i (Bassi, Kondo, Dorandi-Stein), which is
counter to the normal principles of syllable-division (see on 5 sci tcp co:cv
7 koi :J tv ycp po :o :poo pcci:v: the bankers tables,
located in the Agora (Wycherley, Market of Athens 16 = Stones of Athens 99,
id. Agora iii 1923, 206, Bogaert, Banques et banquiers 379, 62, 3756, R. S.
Stroud, Hesperia 43 (1974) 167, Millett, Sale, credit and exchange 190 n. 50,
id. Lending and Borrowing 211), are a place to meet and talk (Pl. Ap. 17c, Hp.Mi.
368b, Lys. 9.5, Plu. 70e, 513a). :n ,cpc is partitive gen., comparable to that
which is used with place-names, e.g. Hdt. 3.136.1 :n l:cin t Tpcv:c,
X. HG 1.2.14 :c0 ltipcic tv ic:cuici, Men. Dysc. 12, Sic. 6; KG 1.338,
Schwyzer 2.11314. tpcgci:cv is visit frequently; tpctpytci (l) visit is
a trivialisation.
:v ct yuvoov tv :c:ci cio:ptiv c v ci tyci yuvov:oi:
:cv ,uuvcicv is another partitive gen. (KG 1.3389, Schwyzer 2.11516;
cf. III epil. :cu :cic:cu :cv vpctcv, VI.4, XXIII.5), chosen to balance
the preceding phrase. The meaning is not in the gymnasia he will haunt
those places where . . . (Jebb). That would be :cv . . . ,uuvcicv (without tv
:c:ci) oic:pitiv co cv s:. (KG1.3401, Schwyzer 2.114). The reference is
to specic gymnasia. During the rst of their two years of service the ephebes
underwent gymnastic training, supervised by ofcial tcioc:pici, and did
garrison duty at the Piraeus ([Arist.] Ath. 42.3), where, if an inscription is
rightly supplemented, they had their own gymnasium(IG ii
478.30, 305/4 bc
(=O. W. Reinmuth, The Ephebic Inscriptions of the Fourth Century BC (Leiden 1971)
no. 17) tv :ci ,uuvci]c
i :cv tgncv). But they may have exercised in the
ofcial gymnasia in the city too. Three such gymnasia are known at this period,
Akademeia, Lykeion, Kynosarges: K. Schneider, Die griechischen Gymnasien und
Pal astren (diss. Freiburg 1908) 501, J. Oehler, Gymnasium, RE vii.2 (1912)
2011, J. Delorme, Gymnasion,

Etude sur les monuments consacres ` a leducation en Gr`ece
(Paris 1960) 519, Wycherley, Stones of Athens ch. ix, D. G. Kyle, Athletics in Ancient
Greece (Leiden 1987) 7192. [X.] Ath. 2.10 mentions private ,uuvic owned by
the rich (Schneider 312, Delorme 258, S. L. Glass in W. J. Raschke (ed.), The
Archaeology of the Olympics (Madison 1988) 162). The article with tgnci (only
in l) species the ephebes as a class; cf. D. 19.303, [Arist.] Ath. 42.2, 3, 43.1,
53.4, Din. 3.15, [Pl.] Ax. 366e. For detailed discussion of the evidence for the
ephebate, C. P el ekidis, Histoire de lephebie attique des origines ` a 31 avant Jesus-Christ
(Paris 1962), Rhodes on [Arist.] Ath. 42; for a summary of current knowledge
and speculation, Parker, Athenian Religion 2535, H.-J. Gehrke, Ephebeia, DNP
3 (1997) 10715, J. Dillery, CQ 52 (2002) 46270.
Loiterers in gymnasia are usually suspected of looking for boys to pick
up: Ar. V. 10235, Pax 7623, Au. 13942, Aeschin. 1.135; K. J. Dover, Greek
Homosexuality (London 1978) 545, N. Fisher in P. Cartledge, P. Millett, S. von
Reden (edd.), Kosmos: Essays in Order, Conict and Community in Classical Athens
(Cambridge 1998) 94104, T. E. Scanlon, Eros and Greek Athletics (Oxford 2002)
:c ct t:pcu koJoi, :ov Ji o, ycv :v :po:yyv: :c0
t:pcu is a loose partitive gen., by analogy with :n ,cpc and :cv
,uuvcicv, rather than gen. of place, which is poetic (KG 1.3845, Schwyzer
2.112). tc spectacle, performance (LSJ ii.2) is a sense rst attested here and
XXX.6, 14. We do not want (nor has l room for) ni <n> tc (Ast before
Immisch, but with co cv for c:cv). Cf. VI.7 (spurious) c:cv ni tcvn,upi,
XXII.6 c:cv ni Mcutc. In the time of Theophrastus the generals appear to
have been allotted front seats ex ofcio (IG ii
500.356 = SIG
345, 302/1 bc);
contrast Ar. Eq. 5736 (if they are not allotted front seats they will go on strike).
See Pickard-Cambridge, DFA 268, Csapo and Slater 299, M. Maass, Die Pro-
hedrie des Dionysostheaters in Athen (Munich 1972) 87, 901, A. S. Henry, Honours
and Privileges in Athenian Decrees (Hildesheim etc. 1983) 2914. The behaviour
reported here chimes inwithAth. 354d-e Otcgpc:c o tv :ci ltpi sccstic
(fr. 83 Wimmer, 547 Fortenbaugh; cf. Fortenbaugh, Quellen 3034) gniv c
Mp:i c Ap,tc Ktcvuucv :cv ycptu:nv cuc sci sccsc tpcscicv:c
tcsi co:ci sci :c uvoiscui, cucutvcv ot sci ut:c :cv sc:c :nv
tciv tvoccv cpcci s:.
8 koi ycptiv oo:i tv ycv, vci ct ti Buv:icv


ko: c,c]|p
[ c. xviii ]|t
. .
[ (Dorandi-Stein, tv
[ Fish) c.xiii sci]| l,
c,c | c:t[ c. vii ]c[
]ntv | t[
. .
)]n[ c. xii sci]| N, i.e. probably c,c|
pct[iv cu:]c[i u]tv [un]otv (as AB) | tvci [ c.xi sci].
The placing of ,cptiv before co:ci utv unotv might suggest that this
inn. belongs equally to the second part of the sentence, and that only an
accusative noun is needed in place of tti:uc:c. But the word order,
though it suggests that, does not require it (def. III n., Denniston 3712).
And the prepositional phrases (ti Buv:icv etc.) preclude it, unless we are
prepared to take ,cptiv . . . ti Buv:icv as a pregnant construction
(Stein compares X.2, which I regard as corrupt). So in the second clause we
probably need a verb of motion (ttuttiv is added after Kiscv by c, before
ti K- by M). For ,cptiv see Chadwick, Lexicographica Graeca 359. For dat.
co:ci (Sylburg, imputing it, as does everyone else, to Stephanus, who wrote
co:ci) and corruption to acc., XI.8 ccvtv tcu:ci (Casaubon: -:cv AB).
The noun tti:cuc is not attested before the second century ad, is con-
ned to non-literary texts, and has no meaning that would be appropri-
ate here. See LSJ (which, like Jebb, proposes the unwarranted sense com-
mission) and the Revised Supplement. Add Hsch. L 5250 and numerous
attestations in papyri (F. Preisigke, W orterbuch der griechischen Papyrusurkunden 1
(Berlin 1925) 5723). The following nouns (some, marked by asterisk, unat-
tested) have been proposed : tc:uc:c Casaubon (only EM 176.4 in the
sense cgtuc; Casaubon assumes for it one of the senses of tc:cn, part-
ing gift, LSJ 1), tti,uc:c Furlanus before Schwartz,

tti:tuuc:c Pauw,

ttisuic Reiske 1749 (in a letter of Bernhard ap. Reiske, Lebensbeschreibung

362; cf. Briefe 360),

tti:uc:c Reiske 1757, tti:c:c Bernhard 1748 (ap.
Reiske, Lebensbeschreibung 2978; cf. Briefe 263, 294), ,uc:c Darvaris before
Meineke, ttuuc:c Ast, cuoc Foss 1858, u:ic Petersen,

Ussing, cvcv Naber,
tti:nuc:c Bersanetti, cc or cc Edmonds 1910,

tti:pcuc:c W. E. J. Kuiper (according to a review in Museum 45 (1938)

142), tiuuc:c Perrotta, tc Stark, upc Dorandi-Stein. For the inni-
tive, tc:<ttiv> (Foss 1858) would serve (cf. XVII.2, Alex. 278.34 ti
t:tpcv . . . tc:tcv tciv | . . . sccv); but not tti:<ttiv>(Darvaris
before Meiser and Perrotta; tti:tci Petersen), suited only to messages. But
none of these suggestions satises. Hymettian honey and Laconian dogs
are luxury items, whose excellence is associated with their place of origin. A
third noun coupled with these must have a similar geographical epithet or
must be an item of such excellence in its own right that it does not need one.
Neither 0sc A::is (Herwerden) nor A::isc ociouc:c (Meiser) appeals;
and Attic gives insufcient variety, since Hymettian honey (see ad loc.) was
often called Attic. In l tvci [ c. xi sci | ]csc[ leaves insufcient space for
o(t) ti Buv:icv tti:uc:c, let alone for an additional innitive. Possibly
a line has been omitted, which would have accommodated a noun (perhaps
with epithet) and inn.: i.e. tvci [o ti Buv:icv

tti | :uc:c

c. ix
sci] or tvci [o ti Buv:icv c. ii | c. vi


Byzantium, founded in the rst half of the seventh century, occupied a
strategic position at the mouth of the Black Sea. Allied after the Persian wars
for the most part to Athens, it had recently sustained a long siege by Philip II
of Macedon (340339). See Kubitschek, Byzantion, RE iii.1 (1897) 111558,
W. L. MacDonald in R. Stillwell (ed.), The Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites
(Princeton1976) 1779, B. Isaac, The Greek Settlements in Thrace until the Macedonian
Conquest (Leiden 1986) 21537, J. Boardman, The Greeks Overseas (London
2412, 246.
Wine would do nicely, since Byzantines were notorious drinkers (Kassel and Austin
on Men. fr. 66).
Aokoviko kvo ti Kikcv: Laconian dogs are hunting dogs, proverbial
for speed and keenness of scent (Pi. fr. 106, 107a Snell, S. Ai. 8, Pl. Prm. 128c, X.
Cyn. 10.1, 4, Call. Dian. 937, Var. R. 2.9.5, Hor. Epod. 6.5, Verg. G. 3.405, Ov.
Met. 3.208, 223, Gratt. 212, Plin. Nat. 10.1778, Luc. 4.441, Sen. Phaed. 356,
Arr. Cyn. 3.6, Opp. Cyn. 1.372, Nemes. Cyn. 107, Shakespeare, A Midsummer
Nights Dream IV.i.11133). See O. Keller, J

OAI 8 (1905) 2518, id. Die antike
Tierwelt 1 (Leipzig 1909) 11823, Orth, Hund, RE viii.2 (1913) 25501, J.
Aymard, Essai sur les chasses romaines (Paris 1951) 2547, D. B. Hull, Hounds
and Hunting in Ancient Greece (Chicago 1964) 313, S. Lilja, Dogs in Ancient Greek
Poetry (Helsinki 1976) 4951, 61, 96, A. Sakellariou, O Ascvt, svt, o:nv
pycic Ipcuuc:tic, Acscvisci 2tcuoci 13 (1996) 35772, 14 (1998) 716.
On the gender of scv, the conventional doctrine, when of hounds, mostly in
fem. (LSJ scv i), is called into question by F. Williams, Eikasmos 10 (1999)
13742. Laconian hounds, at all events, are fem. in classical Greek (Pi., S.,
Pl., X., Call., cited above), presumably because c Ascivci svt c ntici
togut:tpci :cv pptvcv (Arist. HA 608
278). Elsewhere, dog (not hound)
masc. IV.9, fem. XIV.5.
Cyzicus, founded, perhaps as early as the eighth century, on an island, now
a peninsula, in the southern Propontis, commanded the trade route between
the Black Sea and the Aegean, and achieved a commercial importance which
rivalled Byzantium. See Str. 12.11, F. W. Hasluck, Cyzicus (Cambridge 1910),
Ruge, Kyzikos, RExii.1 (1924) 22833, E. Akurgal in The Princeton Encyclopedia
of Classical Sites 4734, Isaac 1989, Boardman 2401, 2456.
Observe the rasping alliteration Acscvisc svc ti Kiscv, followed by
the melliuous uti Yun::icv ti Pcocv. See on XVI.14 sini n scsi.
koi i Y(::icv ti Pccv: honey fromHymettus was proverbially excel-
lent (Macho 428, Nic. Alex. 446, Eryc. AP 7.36.4 (Gow-Page, Garland of Philip
2265), Cic. Fin. 2.112, Hor. Carm. 2.6.1415, S. 2.2.15, Str. 9.1.23, Plin. Nat.
11.32, Val. Fl. 1.397, Mart. 7.88.8, 11.42.3, 13.104, Luc. Merc.Cond. 35). Sim-
ilarly Attic honey: Ar. Pax 252, Th. 1192, Archestr. fr. 60.1718 Olson and
Sens (Lloyd-Jones and Parsons, SH 192), Antiph. 177.3, Phoenicid. 2.1, [Men.]
Comp. i.2278 J akel, Ov. Tr. 1.4.2930, Dsc. 2.82, Petr. 38.3, Plin. Nat. 21.57,
Mart. 5.37.10, Plu. Dio 58.2; Otto, Sprichw orter 169, Nachtr age zu A. Otto . . . (ed.
R. H aussler, Darmstadt 1968) 106, 172, Frazer on Paus. 1.32.1, Keller, Tierwelt
2 (Leipzig 1913) 422, Schuster, Mel, RE xv.1 (1931) 3678.
koi :o:o civ :c tv :Ji ti ciyytoi: cf. VIII.10, XVII.9,
9 ti ct ko: II.9n., VI.9n., XXVI.3n.
ykcv poi ctiv: tinsc is ape in general, or specically the
Barbary ape (W. C. McDermott, The Ape in Antiquity (Baltimore 1938) 36,
104, al., T. Haltenorth and H. Diller, A Field Guide to the Mammals of Africa
including Madagascar (transl. R. W. Hayman, London 1980) 2678 and Pl. 51).
The Barbary ape and the Ethiopian monkey (Cercopithecus Aethiops or Grivet:
Haltenorth and Diller 2924 and Pl. 53) were commonly kept as pets: Din. fr.
vi.7 Conomis c :cu scic tv :c csci :ptgcv:t, :cu:t:i tinscu,
Eub. 114 :ptgtiv . . . tinscv, and e.g. Herod. 3.401, Plu. Per. 1.1, Cic.
Diu. 1.76, Mart. 7.87.4; McDermott 13140, J. C. M. Toynbee, Animals in
Roman Life and Art (London 1973) 5560, S. Lilja, The Ape in Ancient Com-
edy, Arctos 14 (1980) 318. For :ptgtiv keep animals, XXI.6, LSJ a.ii.2 (add
Anaxandr. 29.1).
koi ::upcv k:(ooi: Bhas the scholiumAcpit :cv :upcv. sci t:i ot
c uispcv tycv copcv tinsc. Tcpcv:ivci ot cpvi :i, nc scuc (Torraca
(1990) 3141; see the Introduction, p. 44), whichI shouldemendtoTcpcv:ivci
ot c scuc, n cpvi :i, for conformity with Eust. Il. 1157.389 = Ath. 182d
(cited below). This derives, ultimately, from the scholia to Theocritus: 2 3.2a
Wendel :ivt ot gciv c:i

:i tinvc, co istic:n

cci ot :cu
:p,cu, t:tpci ot :cu c:pcu . . . :ivt ot sci scucv, 2c :cu :p,cu
(Reinesius: p,cu codd.) :i:pcu t,cui, 2d . . . c ot :upcv tvci gciv
(2 rec. 3.2 D ubner, Ahrens, has in addition :i:upc ot c tinsc c uispcv
tycv copv . . . n :i:upc c tinsc, :cu:t:iv c :p,c c uispcv tycv
copv), 2 7.72c Wendel :ivt ot tcpc Acpit0i :cu c:pcu <c0:c>
(add. Geel) tcotocsci t,tci, 72d . . . n c :upc. Echoes of this debate
are found elewhere: Hsch. T 996 :i:upc

:upc, scuc n cpvi, Eust.

Il. 1157.389 (4.233.23 van der Valk) (scuc) sccutvc :i:pivc :c
tv l:cici Acpit0iv (= Ath. 182d c ot scuivc coc :i:pivc sct:ci
tcpc :c tv l:cici Acpit0iv, c Ap:tuiocpc . . . :cpt tv ttpi
Acpioc) t: cov c:upisc. :i:upci ,cp Acpisc c :upci. See also
E. W ust, Tityroi, RE vi.2a (1937) 160910.
LSJ reects this variety and offers four meanings. (i) short-tailed ape (LSJ
ii.1, the meaning it favours here), from 2
, 2 rec. Theoc. 3.2. This is connected
with the Doric use of Ti:upc for :upc (LSJ i.1, from 2
, 2 Theoc. 3.2,
7.72, Hsch., Eust.; cf. Str. 10.3.15, Ael. VH3.40), and the further use of :upc
for a tailed ape or ape-man (LSJ :upc i.3, OLDsatyrus 2).
(ii) goat (LSJ
ii.2), from 2 Theoc. 3.2 (cf. the Virgilian scholia cited by Wendel ad loc.); also
c:i :cu tinvcu c0<:c> c istic:ci

cci ot Wendel (ed. 1914), c:i :i


c istic:ci [cci] ot Wendel,

Uberlieferung und Entstehung der Theokrit-
Scholien (Berlin 1920) 67. For further discussion see Wendel, De Nominibus Bucolicis
(Leipzig 1900) 20 n. 46, 223,

Uberlieferung 678, 152.
On satyr-apes and ape-men see McDermott 712, 7784, H. A. G. Brijder, Apish
performances in the 6th cent. bc, in J. Christiansen & T. Melander (edd.), Proceedings
of the 3rd Symposium on Ancient Greek and Related Pottery (Copenhagen 1988) 6270.
Phot. 2.217 Naber :i:upiot sci :i:upci

:p,cu toc. (iii) a kind of bird

(LSJ ii.3), from 2
, Hsch. (iv) reed or pipe (LSJ ii.4), from 2
, 2 Theoc. 3.2,
Hsch., more commonly called :i:pivc coc (Eust. = Ath., LSJ :i:pivc,
M. L. West, Ancient Greek Music (Oxford 1992) 923). We may rule out three of
these: an ape duplicates tinsc, a goat does not make a fashionable pet, and
there is nothing showy about a reed pipe.
This leaves a kind of bird. And this bird will be the pheasant, gcicvc,
Phasianus colchicus, named after its place of origin, the river Phasis in Colchis
(D. Braund, Georgia in Antiquity (Oxford 1994) 57). Its native name appears in at
least two guises, not far removed from:i:upc. (i) :t:cpc, explicitly identied
with gcicvc, imported from Media to Alexandria, where it was bred both
for show and as expensive fare for the table (Ptol. Euerg., FGrH 234 f 2a, b, ap.
Ath. 387e, 654c; P. M. Fraser, Ptolemaic Alexandria (Oxford 1972) 1.515, 2.743
n. 181, E. E. Rice, The Grand Procession of Ptolemy Philadelphus (Oxford 1983)
95). (ii) :c:pc, explicitly identied with gcicvc (Artemidorus and Pam-
philus, on the authority of Epaenetus, ap. Ath. 387e; Hsch. T 242 :c:pc

c gcicvc cpvi); cf. T 579 :t:p,n

gc,vcv ton (:t:cpci

toc Schmidt), T 995 :i:pc

cpvi tcic n :i:upc

(:i:upcon Musurus,
:i:upc Schmidt). For these names see Thompson, Glossary of Greek Birds 281
2. The pheasant had been introduced into Greece, and was bred in captivity,
by the end of the fth century. This, and the value placed on it, is indicated by
Ar. Nu. 1089 (I would not give up horses) ti ocin ,t uci | :cu gcicvcu
c0 :ptgti Atc,cpc. See Keller, Tierwelt 2.1456, M. Wellmann, Fasan, RE
vi.2 (1909) 20012, V. Hehn, Kulturpanzen und Haustiere (Berlin
1911) 3679,
Thompson 298300, C. W. H unem order, Phasianus: Studien zur Kulturgeschichte
des Fasans (Bonn 1970), Toynbee (above on tinscv) 2545, J. Pollard, Birds in
Greek Life and Myth (London 1977) 934, S. Cramp et al. (edd.), Handbook of the
Birds of Europe and the Middle East and North Africa: The Birds of the Western Palearctic
2 (Oxford 1980) 50414, H unem order, Fasan, DNP 4 (1998) 433. Darvaris
proposed :c:pcv here, Ribbeck 1870 both this and :t:cpcv. Nothing of
this line (col. vii line 3) is now visible in l. Bassi claimed to read :i:]u
N has
. .
. . .
. . . . .
. . . .
]cc[, which Dorandi-Stein treat (very specula-
tively) as a misreading of c]i [otivc sci :i:]u[pcv s:n]c[. However we
spell the name (for all we know, :i:upc is an acceptable spelling), an oriental
pheasant ts the bill perfectly.
I am unmoved by H unem order (1970) 389, who claims that :i:pc and
:i:upc in Hsch. T 995, 996 (dened by non-specic cpvi) will be a different
birdfrom:t:cpc and:c:pc (specically denedas gcicvc), andthat :i:-
will be onomatopoeic, reecting the cry of a bird such as the partridge (ttpoi),
whose cry Theophrastus described with the verb :i::uitiv (fr. 181 Wimmer,
355b Fortenbaugh, on which see R. W. Sharples in W. W. Fortenbaugh
et al., Sources 5 (1995) 578). H unem order overlooks our passage. In this list
of exotic items there is no place for the familiar partridge, a native of Attica
(W. G. Arnott, CQ 27 (1977) 3367, Dunbar on Ar. Au. 2356). See also Stein
To transpose s:ncci after ocpscoticu or :pc,cu (Bloch) or
before ocpscoticu (Ast), so that the birds too might be constructed with
ptci, was a sensible idea, not supported by l.
koi iktiko tpi:tp: the domestic pigeon or dove (Thompson 238
47, Arnott on Alex. 217.1). The excellence of Sicilian pigeons is noted by Ath.
395b, who cites Alex. 58 ttpi:tpc | tvocv :ptgc :cv istiscv :c:cv
tvu | scu, and Nic. fr. 73; also by an interpolated gloss in Philem. 79
:upc istisc c:i sp:i:c nv c :t ttpi:tpci istisci. For another pet
bird see XXI.6.
koi ccpkoctcu :poycu: knucklebones of gazelle-horn, evidently a
luxury material, are mentioned in IG ii
1533.234 (inventory of the temple
of Asclepius, 339/8 bc; S. B. Aleshire, The Athenian Asklepieion: The People, their
Dedications, and their Inventories (Amsterdam 1989) 154) :p,cci ocpsotci
p,upici ototut(vci), Plb. 26.1.8 (presents given by Antiochus Epiphanes in
176 bc), Call. fr. 676 cpsc :ci, git sc0pt, Aiu:ioc co:isc occ | ttv:t
vtcuns:cu c:pic, Herod. 3.19 c ocpscot (= 7 c :pc,ci), 63
:nii ocpsiv, [Luc.] Am. 16 :t::cpc :pc,cu Aiusn ocpsc; also
ocpsotci alone (without :p,cci) P.Cair.Zen. 59009 b, 59019.2, 59069.7,
PSI 331.2, 7, 444.2 (all iii bc), perhaps Hsch. A 2246 ocpytci (ocpsotci

:p,cci. They were normally made from the ankle-bone of calf,

sheep, or goat, but sometimes from other (including precious) materials: P.
Amandry, BCH Suppl. 9 (1984) 34778, F. Poplin ibid. 38193, S. Laser, Sport
und Spiel, Archaeologia Homerica T (G ottingen 1987) 117, G. H. Gilmour, OJA
16 (1997) 16775. On the game of knucklebones (mentioned as early as H.
Il. 23.88), Lamer, RE xiii.2 (1927) 19335, 20201, S. Mendner in T. Klauser
et al. (edd.), Reallexikon f ur Antike und Christentum10 (Stuttgart 1978) 84950, Gow-
Page, Hellenistic Epigrams 2.60, Nisbet-HubbardonHor. Carm. 1.4.18, Laser 117
22. :p,cci, unlike sci (VI.5n.), are respectable (L. Kurke, Coins, Bodies,
Games, and Gold: the Politics of Meaning in Archaic Greece (Princeton 1999)
koi Ocupioko :v :pcyyov ykcu: spherical (as distinct from
cylindrical) suggests a vessel like the so-called squat lekythos or the aryballos
(H. B. Walters, History of Ancient Pottery (London 1905) i.1958, G. M. A. Richter
and M. J. Milne, Shapes and Names of Athenian Vases (New York 1935) 1416,
B. A. Sparkes and L. Talcott, The Athenian Agora, xii: Black and Plain Pottery
of the 6th, 5th and 4th Centuries BC (Princeton 1970) 1534 with Pl. 38, R. M.
Cook, Greek Painted Pottery (London
1997) 2212). Examples of squat lekythoi
from the neighbourhood of Thurii may be seen in A. D. Trendall, The Red-
gured Vases of Lucania, Campania, and Sicily 2 (Oxford 1967), e.g. Plates 2.1,
65.5, 76.46, 77.4 and 7. What feature further distinguished the Thurian type
remains unknown. If (as suggested by Studniczka ap. Bechert)
it was made
of precious metal (Timae. FGrH 566 f 26c ap. D.S. 13.82.8 mentions silver
nsuci at Acragas, Theoc. 18.45 a silver cti, another word for oil ask),
I should have expected this to be stated explicitly. For geographical names
attached to vessels as indication of shape or type see Gow on Theoc. 2.156;
:pc,,c appliedto a vessel, Men. fr. 229.1 (soc), anon. AP5.135.1 (Gow-
Page, Hellenistic Epigrams 3902) :pc,,n (sc. ,uvc). For the genitive (like
:cv scicv below), X.8 tcicv n gcivisc :cv ycuci ttt:csc:cv, Ar. Pax
1154 uuppivc . . . :cv scptiucv, Ec. 883 utopicv . . . :i :cv lcviscv, fr.
18.2 tpcstgcicv :cv ivcv, fr. 143 sctioi :cv uc,tipiscv, Pherecr. 74.1
2 iyoc . . . :cv ttgc,utvcv | . . . iyoc . . . :cv utcivcv, Cephisod.
4 cvoic . . . :cv tt:cyiocv, Stratt. 25 otconuc:c . . . :cv ctcv,
Pl. Hp.Mi. 368c c ltpisci (sc. cvci) :cv tcu:tcv, X. Smp. 7.2 :pcyc
:cv stpcutiscv, An. 4.1.14 ,uvcisc :cv totpttcv, Alex. 58 ttpi:tpc . . .
:cv istiscv, 211 pscv . . . :cv vpcsnpcv, Eub.18.4 ucv . . . :cv
Yun::icv, 110 scpoc . . . :cv sugcv, Theophil. 2.12 sisc stpcutcv :ivc
| :cv Onpisticv, Hipparch.Com. 1.35 octioicv . . . :cv ltpiscv (n. 42
below), Nicostr.Com. 4.5 cpvipic . . . :cv ,picv, Asclep. AP 5.181.2 (Gow-
Page, Hellenistic Epigrams 921) :tgvcu :cv pcoivcv, P.Cair.Zen. 59110.25
6 (257 bc) :upcu Kuvicu :cv ut,cv, Luc. DMort. 20.9 tttsuv :cv
vcutn,iscv; KG 1.338, Schwyzer 2.118.
Thurii (modern Sibari) was founded by Athens in 444/3 on the site of
Sybaris in S. Italy: H. Philipp, Thurioi, RE vi.1A(1937) 64652, K. Freeman,
Thourioi, G&R 10 (1941) 4964, O. H. Bullitt, The Search for Sybaris (London
1971) ch. 13, W. D. E. Coulson in The Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites
(Princeton 1976) 919, O. Taplin, Comic Angels (Oxford 1993) 1416, A. Muggia,
Thurioi, DNP 12.1 (2002) 51516.
koi ok:ypo :v kciv tk Aoktcocvc: we know nothing about
Spartan walking-sticks, whether crooked or of any other kind. Unwarranted
inferences must not be drawn from Ar. Au. 12813 tcscvcuvcuv . . .
tsu:cicgcpcuv (Porson: su:i tgcpcuv codd.), where the carrying of
su:ic exemplies a craze for Laconian manners. This alludes to the
Spartan su:n, the ofcial dispatch-staff (T. Kelly, The Spartan Scytale,
in J. W. Eadie and J. Ober (edd.), The Craft of the Ancient Historian: Essays in
Honor of Chester G. Starr (Lanham etc. 1985) 14169). To carry a su:n
is to be, or to look like, a Spartan. An Athenian carrying a walking-stick
(cs:npic) is likened to a Spartan carrying a su:n. This does not mean
that the su:n was used as a walking-stick. When the Sicilians recognised
Also by Boardmanap. Lane Fox 168 n. 248, whose citationof Ath. 228ce, as evidence
whether for precious metals or for nsuci at Thurii, is a red herring.
the symbol and ethos of Sparta in the staff and dress of Gylippus (Plu. Nic.
19.6 tv . . . :ni cs:npici sci :ci :picvi :c uccv sci :c icuc :n
tp:n sccpcv:t), Gylippus was carrying a su:n, not a walking-stick.
At Ar. Lys. 991 su:c Acscvis does not mean Spartan walking-stick
(Sommerstein ad loc., with an imaginative description of what it looked like;
rightly Henderson ad loc.). Nor need we entertain the notion that the word
s:ccv (cudgel, club LSJ) might describe a Spartan walking-stick (Dunbar
on Ar. Au. 12813). If s:ccv at Ar. Ec. 78 refers to cs:npic at 74, it does
so because the walking-stick looks like a cudgel.
A curved or bent stick (cs:npic scutn) was characteristic of country-
men, a straight stick (cpn or totc) of the rich (EM 185.568). The curved
stick is mentioned by Ar. fr. 142, and Sophocles claimed to have invented it,
that is (I assume) to have introduced it onto the stage (Test. A 1.26 Radt).
This was probably a straight stick with a curved handle. By contrast, scic
probably signies crooked, that is, with a series of irregular bends, such as
may be seen in Daremberg-Saglio i (1877) 641 g. 730, J. Boardman, Athenian
Red Figure Vases: The Archaic Period (London 1975) gs. 253, 259, 260, id. Athe-
nian Red Figure Vases: The Classical Period (London 1989) g. 178. E. Hec. 656
scici sitcvi ytpc | oitptiocutvn does not help us to elucidate the shape:
Hecuba, leaning on a crooked arm-staff, supports herself by (presumably)
clasping a chorus-womans arm, bent at the elbow. For the circumstances in
which Athenians carried walking-sticks see MacDowell on Ar. V. 33. To carry a
walking-stick all the time might excite disapproval, like walking too quickly or
talking too loudly (D. 37.52). See also de Waele, Stab, RE iii.2a (1929) 1896
1901, Stone, Costume 2467. The gen. :cv scicv is like :cv :pc,,cv
koi oooov Hpo tvuovyv: same construction as XXX.11
1tiocvtici ut:pci :cv tvocsc tistspcuutvci, S. Tr. 1578 ot:cv t,,t-
,pcuutvnv | uvnuc:c (KG1.125, Schwyzer 2.241, Diggle, Studies on the Text of
Euripides 81). This splendid conjecture (Herwerden 1871, Cobet 1874), restoring
taut and idiomatic style, is vindicated by l, which omits tycucv. The plural
was prompted by the ending of ltpc, an error of anticipatory
assimilation, like VI.4 :c:cv (Petersen: -:ci AB) :c, VI.8 :c (A: :c
B) . . . :c, VIII.8 co:c (Wilamowitz: -:cv B, -:cv A) tv:cv, X.6 :c
(B: :cu A) sic:c, X.11 t:icv (B: -cv:c A) onuc:c, XXIX.5
oisc:npicu(Darvaris: -icV) spivcutvci. Andltpc thenpromptedanother
error of assimilation, -cu for -nv, shared by lwith AB (above, p. 231), compa-
rable to III.3 uu:npici ut,i:nv (B: -ci A), IV.7 :c tvocv tci sci co:ci
(B: -c A). It is unwise to found on c]u
the conjecture cocic ltpc
tvugcutvc (Stein). The homoioteleuta are unwelcome; and one embroi-
dered tapestry is a sufcient luxury to make the point. In itself, cocicv
tycucv ltpc tvugcutvcu (AB) is acceptable: like Hipparch.Com. 1.35
octioicv tv ,ctn:cv tcisicv, | ltpc tycv sci ,p0tc tcti :iv, |
:cv ltpiscv,
1514.89 =1515.3 (349/8 bc) (a yi:cvisc) ,puuc:c
tyti tvugcutvc, Callix. FGrH 627 f 2 (Ath. 196ef) tgct:iot . . . tiscvc
tycuci :cv citcv tvugcutvc, D.L. 6.102 tc . . . tycv tvugcutvc
:c ocotsc :ciytc. But tycucv followed so soon by tycv is displeasing, and
will have been interpolated (at the prompting of tycv) to provide a construc-
tion, after the corruption (the earlier corruption, as l shows) of tvugcutvnv
to -utvcu.
The tapestry is embroidered with Persians, probably not because it shows
a victory of Greeks over Persians (Jebb, comparing the fresco of Marathon in
the Stoa Poikile (II.2n.) and Verg. G. 3.25 purpurea intexti tollant aulaea Britanni,
defeated Britons embroidered on a theatre curtain), but because it comes from
Persia. Persian or barbarian textiles, often elaborately patterned with exotic
scenes, made luxurious drapes: E. Ion 115962 cppcv oguc:c depicting
tonpt:ucu vc0 v:ic Lnviiv etc., Ar. Ra. 938 tcpctt:uciv :c
Mnoisc (cf. fr. 624), Men. Dysc. 923 tcpctt:cuc cpcpiscv ogcv:cv,
Hipparch.Com. 1.35 (cited above; embroidered, like this, with Persians); Gow
onTheoc. 15.78, F. v. Lorentz, BAPBAP0NY1AMATA, MDAI(R) 52 (1937)
166222 (esp. 198212), Pritchett 24850, T. B. L. Webster, BRL 45 (1962)
2624. The tapestry will have been hung where visitors might see it, perhaps
in a dining room: Hyp. fr. 139 Jensen c . . . tvvtc cpycv:t t:icv:c tv
:ni :cci, ttpigpcutvci :i utpc co:n cocici, Hor. Carm. 3.29.1415
pauperum | cenae sine aulaeis, S. 2.8.54; Reisch, Aulaeum, RE ii.2 (1896) 23989,
Webster 2647.
koi ooi:pcicv kcv:pov tycv koi oipi:(picv: since :c0:c at the
beginning of the next sentence refers to tcci:pioicv (this is proved by the
nal words :c:cu t:iv n tcci:pc), it follows that gcipi:npicv is gov-
erned not (like tcci:pioicv) by s:ncci but (like scvi:pcv) by tycv (same
word order as XIX.2 ttpcv tycv sci gcv, XX.9 sntc ycvc tcc
tycv sci ctc; cf. IV.11, X.10, 13, XIV.10, XXVIII.6).
tcci:pioicv (l, coni. Cobet 1874) is attested only in PSI 418.7
(iii bc) and Call. Dieg. viii.35 (1.196 Pfeiffer). AB have coioicv tcci:piccv,
the former word attested once as diminutive of coc (LSJ ii small tube),
unexampled in the sense ascribed to it here (LSJ i place of athletic exer-
cises, ring), the latter unattested. The preceding cocicv prompted coioicv
tcci:piccv. Similarly VI.5 tcvocst0ci sci tcpvccsnci (-st0ci B),
XIX.34 npicnvci . . . gtipcoti (npicoti V), XXI.9 tcinci . . .
So the lines should be punctuated (Blaydes, as reported, but not followed, by Kassel
and Austin). A Persian-style rug is likelier than a Persian-style grifn. See above on
sci Ocupicsc :cv :pc,,cv nscu.
:nc (tcinc V), XXII.8 tsoci . . . t0vci (tst0vci V), XXVII.89
tpt . . . t:cipc (tp V), XXVIII.3 ,uvcst . . . svt (,uvcst V). See
also XXIII.8n., Jackson, Marginalia Scaenica 2237, Diggle, Euripidea 496.
By contrast with the gymnasium, which was normally a public establishment
(7n.), the palaestra was often a private establishment (K. Schneider 302,
Oehler 201011, Delorme 261, Kyle 667, Glass 162, all cited on 7).
scvi:pc is an area or room for wrestling, derived from scvi, the ne
sand which covered the oor and with which wrestlers sprinkled themselves
before ghting to give a hold on their bodies (LSJ scvi ii, scvic i.4, Eust.
Il. 382.32 (1.604.1516 van der Valk) scvitci ,cp :c ,cvitci, ctv
sci scvi:pc, n sc:c :nv tcci:pcv). It is the term used in literary texts
(Call. fr. 328 nyi scvi:pci | ctivci pci :t sci tcpi tttnci, Lyc.
867 tn scvi:pc, Plu. 638c (wrestling requires) tnc0 sci scvi:pc
sci snpcuc:c, Ael. NA 6.15 :cu opcucu sci :c scvi:pc, 11.10 opcuci
sci scvi:pci sci ,uuvic; LSJ 2), in preference to scvi:npicv (IGRom. iv
293a col. i.19, Pergamum ii bc), scviuc (T. Homolle, BCH 23 (1899) 5657,
J. Jannoray, Le gymnase (Fouilles de Delphes, ii: Topographie et architecture, Paris 1953)
88, J. Pouilloux, BCHSuppl. 4 (1977) 10323, Delphi iii bc, associated with one
or more gcipi:npic), scviuc(IGv.1(1) 938, Cythera, date uncertain), t,scv-
iuc (IG ix.2 31, Hypata, Hellenistic?). On these see Delorme 27681. Since
gcipi:npicv designates an area or room where a sport was played, scviv
(AB) makes an odd partner for it (a little wrestling-school which has sand and
a gcipi:npicv). Delorme suggested that scviv is here used synonymously
with the nouns listed above (scvi:pc, scvi:npicv etc.). This is an unlikely
use. Stein suggested that it implies a contrast with tnc, so that scviv tycv
specically excludes the alternative mode of wrestling, in mud. This does not
reduce the oddity of the pairing. Meier 1850/1 conjectured scvi<:npic>v.
This word is not found in a literary text before Vitruvius (conisterium5.11.2). So I
write scvi<:pc>v. Even though l agrees with AB, emendation is legitimate
(above, p. 231).
gcipi:npicv is attested as a component of gymnasia at Delphi (iii bc, cited
above), Delos (IGix199 A. 110, iii bc), Pergamum(ii bc, citedabove), andduring
the Roman period (Delorme 2812); also called gcipi:pcat Delos (Inscr.Delos
1412 a 20, 1417 a i 140, ii bc; Delorme 282, J. Audiat, Exploration archeologique de
Delos, XXVIII: Le gymnase (Paris 1970) 967). Pliny had a sphaeristerium in both
of his country-houses: one (Ep. 5.6.27) accommodates several kinds of exer-
cise and several groups of spectators (plura genera exercitationis pluresque circulos
capit); of the other (Ep. 2.17.12) no details are given. Another is mentioned by
Suet. Ves. 20, but its use is not specied. Cf. I. Nielsen, Thermae et Balnea: The
Add Gorg. Hel. 18 cuc:i . . . cuuc (X: cuc A).
Architecture and Cultural History of Roman Public Baths (Aarhus 1990) 1.165, M.
Weber, Antike Badekultur (Munich 1996) 33. Latin sphaeristerium will be derived
from sphaera ball. But for the Greeks ball games were diversions, no part
of athletic training. They held about the same position as bowls or billiards
with us (H. A. Harris, Greek Athletes and Athletics (London 1964) 24). On ball
games, in general, E. N. Gardiner, Athletics of the Ancient World (Oxford 1930)
ch. xviii, W. S. Hett, G&R 1 (1931) 269, H. A. Harris, Sport in Greece and Rome
(London 1972) ch. 3, Mendner (above, p. 241) 8524, I. Weiler, Der Sport bei den
V olkern der alten Welt (Darmstadt 1981) 20914, S. Laser, Archaeologia Homerica
T (G ottingen 1987) 903. It would therefore be surprising to nd an area
especially designated for ball games in the palaestra. A sport immeasurably
more important than ball-playing, and one which was practised in gymnasia,
was boxing. In partnership with scvi:pcv, which designates the wrestling
area, gcipi:npicv will be an area or room for boxing practice (rst sug-
gested, and admirably argued, by Delorme 2816; argued again by Delorme,
BCH 106 (1982) 5373, in answer to the objections of G. Roux, BCH 104 (1980)
1349), from gcpc, a glove used by boxers in practice (Pl. Lg. 830b, Plu. 80b,
Phryn. ap. AB I.62,
Poll. 3.150; LSJ Rev. Suppl., correcting LSJ gcpc 4)
instead of the uv:t used in real contests; similarly ttigcipcv or -gcpc
(Plu. 825e :cv . . . tv :c tcci:pci oicucycutvcv ttigcipci (u.l.
-ci) ttpiotcui :c ytpc). Hence gcipcucytv spar (Pl. Lg. 830e, Men.
Dysc. 517) and gcipcucyic (Aristomen. 13). See further H. Fr` ere in Melanges de
philologie, de litterature et dhistoire anciennes offerts ` a Alfred Ernout (Paris 1940) 14158,
S. Mendner, Boxhandschuhe imAltertum, Gymnasium60 (1953) 206, Harris,
Greek Athletes and Athletics 989, Gomme and Sandbach on Men. Dysc. 517, M.
Poliakoff, Studies in the Terminology of Greek Combat Sports (Meisenheim 1982) 88
100, T. F. Scanlon, Greek boxing gloves: terminology and evolution, Stadion
89 (19823) 3145.
I am not impressed by the objections to Delormes interpretation raised
by Poliakoff 100 n. 9 and Stein 110. Poliakoff cites Gal. vi (a mistake for v)
9023 K uhn (Roman and irrelevant). Stein observes (i) that a gcipi:pc :cv
Appngcpcv on the Acropolis ([Plu.] 839c) must be a place for ball games
(what the word meant to a writer in the Roman period cannot prescribe what
it meant on Delos several centuries earlier), (ii) that Plinys sphaeristeria were
not used for boxing (nor were they in a gymnasium; nor did the Romans have
boxing gloves called sphaerae).
In Phryn. read :c :c gcipc ttpiocutvcv (-ocvcutvcv cod.) oicuytci. The
correction is certain: see Pl. Lg. 830b, Plu. 825e (cited below). I do not know who
rst proposed it: it is accepted (or proposed) by Fr` ere, adopted (without attribution)
by Mendner, ignored by Poliakoff (all cited below).
It was not a kind of indoor football hall (Wilson, Khoregia 42). The girls will have
played handball, not football.
10 koi :c:c tpiov ypyvvvoi: for ttpicv, IV.13n. The form ypnvv-
vci, restored by Foss for ypn v0v ti (AB), was possibly in l (
. .
. . . . .
Dorandi-Stein, [
. . . .
ci Fish; earlier [yp]c
[vvu]vci Bassi (coni. Need-
ham), [y]p
ci K. F. W. Schmidt, [yp]n[vvu]vci Kondo). It presupposes
a present ypnvvuui, while at X.13 ypnvvtiv (ypcvv- AB) presupposes ypnv-
vc. The expected present is siypnui (D. 53.12, non-Attic inscriptions cited by
LSJ ypc (B) b), with which accords XXX.20 siypcci. Though unattested,
ypnvvuui is a legitimate form, bearing the same relationship to siypnui as
stpvvuui to sipvnui, sptuvvuui to spiuvnui, tt:vvuui to ti:vnui. Thematic
forms (-c for -uui) appear early in literary texts (e.g. cuvc H. Il. 19.175,
Pi. N. 7.70, otisvc Hes. Op. 451, cc Archil. 26.6, cpvc Pi. O. 13.12,
tvvc Pi. P. 1.5). Though rarely attested in Attic inscriptions before the end
of the fourth cent. (Meisterhans 191, Threatte 2.61925), they proliferate in the
scivn. See further on XI.8 otisvtiv. The development siypnui >ypnvvuui >
ypnvvc is paralleled by sipvnui > stpvvuui > stpcvvc (Alc.Com. 15),
spiuvnui >sptuvvuui >sptucvvc (sptucvvcui CP 4.3.3). And ypnvvc
is attested by P.Cair.Zen. 59304.4 (250 bc) ypnvvucut

c. See Schwyzer 1.6989,
P. Chantraine, Morphologie historique du grec (Paris 1964) 21820. Since -vci is
supported here by l, it is prudent to accept it and to suppose that -tiv at X.13
is either a legitimate alternative or a mistake. There is no good reason to sub-
stitute siypvci (Needham) or ypnci (Ussing, already ypnci ti Petersen).
For the sense of the verb, Millett, Lending and Borrowing 29.
:c ci:o, :c 6cyci, :c pcvikc: other asyndetic tricola
of nouns at VI.9, XVI.10, 11, XXV.8 (conj.); innitives VI.5, XXI.10; clauses
VI.6 (XXV.4n.). Gymnasia and palaestras were regularly used, fromthe fourth
cent. onwards, for public displays by sophists, musicians, and the like (Oehler
2014, Delorme 31636).
:c cgi:c (l) is preferable to :c giccgci :c cgi:c (AB),
because (i) T. has several asyndetic tricola (listed above), no tetracolon; (ii)
interpolation is more likely than accidental or deliberate omission (the notion
of Immisch 1923 and Edmonds 1929 that an uncomplimentary reference to
philosophers was suppressed by Philodemus, himself a philosopher, is far-
fetched), especially since ABhave another interpolation (tycucv) and a quasi-
interpolation (coioicv) just above; (iii) philosophers and sophists are an insuf-
ciently varied pair, when compared with the pair which follows; (iv) public
displays suit sophists more than philosophers. Bloch had already proposed to
delete :c cgi:c as a gloss on :c giccgci.
ctcuyci (drill-sergeant LSJ, instructor in ghting with weapons Rev.
Suppl.; also ctcuyn Pl. Euthd. 299c) taught the art of ghting in heavy
armour: attack and defence, drill, manoeuvres, possibly tactics. Like sophists,
they were itinerant fee-taking professional teachers, who promoted business by
public displays of their techniques (ttiotisvuci Pl. La. 179e, 183c). We hear
their typical commands in XXVII.3. Such instruction was later institution-
alised as part of the ephebate ([Arist.] Ath. 42.3). See J. K. Anderson, Military
Theory and Practice in the Age of Xenophon (Berkeley and Los Angeles 1970) 867,
E. L. Wheeler, GRBS 23 (1982) 22333, Chiron 13 (1983) 120.
cpucvisci are musical theorists (rst in Arist., then T. fr. 89.2 Wimmer,
716.17 Fortenbaugh). Some of themlectured or gave demonstrations in public.
For exemplication of the term (LSJ is inadequate) and of specic theorists,
M. L. West, Ancient Greek Music 218, 3678.

koi oo:o tv :o ticttiv: the double compound (l,

coni. Cobet 1858) is more effective than ttio- (AB). A transitive use is attested
earlier (but uncertainly) in Isoc. 19.24 tv co:c ,cp :c:ci . . . tvtttotiunv
(Priscian. 17.169: ttto- Isoc. codd.: tvto- Coray) :nv t0vcicv; absolute, as here,
Ph. De Abr. 190 (4.42 Cohn-Wendland) t,scctitci sci tvttiotisvuci
(sc. tv tpnuici), Lib. Decl. 16.28 ciscocun:ci :c oisc:npic :c tcvnpc
utv tvcistci, :c ot ,cc tvttiotisvuci. Compounds with tv- are
regularly used as nal-consecutive (see on XVI.6 ttippci) innitives: Hdt.
2.178.1, 6.102, 7.59.2, 9.2.1, 9.7.2, Th. 2.20.4, 2.44.1, 2.74.2, S. OC 790,
E. Hi. 1096, Ph. 727, Ba. 508, Ar. Eq. 782, Pax 1228, Au. 38, 122, Eup. 70.3,
269.1, Pherecr. 70.3, And. 3.27, Pl. Phd. 84a, Phdr. 228e, X. Mem. 3.8.8, Smp.
2.18, 3.8, D. 18.198, Aeschin. 3.150, Arist. Pol. 1331
12; KG 2.14 Anmerk. 12,
J. Wackernagel, Vorlesungen uber Syntax 2 (Basel 1924) 1778, Cope on Arist. Rh.
2.4.12 (1381
29). For ttiotisvuci of displays by sophists and the like see LSJ
i.2.b, and on ctcuyci above. For the noun ttiotii, LSJ i.23, Delorme
317 n. 4.; the corruption (tc- AB), XVI.2, 14, Diggle, Euripidea 290.
0:tpcv ttiivoi tticov jcy uykov:oi, v 6 t:tpc tyi :v
tovov po :ov t:tpcv: this is a makeshift text, combining elements
from l and AB. Consistent with the traces in l is ti

[itvci] t
[ocv no]n
[:ci ]v[c :i t]|t
[ni] :cv
[t]c[u]tvc[v. At the beginning, t
[ Dorandi-Stein, t
. .
[ Fish (base of a vertical followed by the bottom of a
curved letter). Not tt
[tiitvci], which is incompatible with Fishs diagnosis,
and in any case too long. And probably not t:
[iuc (Dorandi-Stein). For
then t
[ (Bassi, Fish; ttt[ Dorandi-Stein) will have to be t
[itvci, leav-
ing insufcient room for a temporal conjunction: t
[itvci ttv] (Edmonds
1910) is too long; ttti[itvci cv] (contemplated by Dorandi-Stein) might t,
but cv is unsuitable, as they acknowledge. Better therefore ti

[itvci] t
(Dorandi-Stein, who describe the nal trace as compatible with i or
the right vertical of n, u, v, t). non had already been proposed by Edmonds
1910 (t
[itvci non]
[cv). tttiov, although unique in this
The ctcuyci in the inscription cited by Stein are not instructors but youths who
have won prizes for skill with arms at a festival in the second century. This is a different
work (c:cv is regular), is very common elsewhere (several instances in T.); cf.
ttv II.4n., tttion XXVIII.2, and, for tttiocv non, VII.10 c:cv . . . non.
Alternatively, ti

[itvci] t
[:c c:c]v
(Stefanis 1994b), where c:cv is welcome
enough, but ttti:c (so placed) is unstylish. Then, where Dorandi-Stein read
. . . . .
] |
. .
] (| t[
. .
] N), either ]v[c ttni] | :
[] (Dorandi-Stein) or ]v[c
:i t]|t
[ni] (]v
[tni :i] Edmonds 1910; ]v [t:tpci :i t]t[ni] Kondo;
ttitvci v ttni :i for tttiiv tti (AB) Madvig 1868). For :i with following
gen., XXVIII.3n. ]v [cc cci t]|t
[ni] (Stein formerly) is too long, and
so is ]v [tsc:c t]|t
[ni] (Stefanis). ]v[c tsc]|:
[c] :cv tcutvc[v ttni
:]c:cu (Stefanis) would give false division at tsc|:c (see on 5 sci tcp
co:cv scicci), and there is not enough room for ttni in place of c:i.
AB had a fuller text than l at the end: there is no room in l for tpc :cv
t:tpcv. But lhad a fuller text than ABin the middle, where ABare incoherent
and probably lacunose. We may accommodate the extra matter from l in a
lacuna in AB, except that (in view of :cv t:tpcv) the missing subject in AB was
more likely c t:tpc than :i. Although c t:tpc could have been separately
omitted later in the clause (<c t:tpc> tpc :cv t:tpcv Edmonds 1929),
we need posit only a single lacuna if we write < . . . c t:tpc> ttni (H.-G.
Nesselrath ap. Stein). The expression c t:tpc . . . tpc :cv t:tpcv, where
we might expect t:tpc . . . tpc t:tpcv (many, beginning with Pauw, have
deleted :cv), does not here limit the numbers to two, as it normally would,
but singles out two as representative of a larger number, as X. Cyr. 8.2.28 c
tticvt tstcocv tccv:c c t:tpc :cv t:tpcv ,tvtci, HG 2.2.3 c t:tpc
:ci t:tpci tcpc,,tcv, An. 6.1.5 vt:ncv tpc:cv utv Opcist sci tpc
cocv cpyncv:c uv :c ctci . . . :tc ot c t:tpc :cv t:tpcv tciti. The
pleonastic 0:tpcv tt- is idiomatic (KG 2.5834). We do not want o:tpcv
(Coray before Fraenkel and Groeneboom; o:tptv Pauw). For u,sccv:ci,
XXVIII.5n. For the idea, Luc. Rh.Pr. 22 tv :c spcti ut:ctv:c tiitvci
ypn, ttinucv ,p.
We may explain (a) the text of l by assuming that Philodemus simplied at
both beginning (tiitvci for 0:tpcv tttiitvci) and end (:i for c t:tpc . . .
tpc :cv t:tpcv) and (b) the text of AB by assuming a saut du meme au meme
(0:tpcv tttiitvci (Foss 1858: tttiiv AB) ttti<ocv non u,sccv:ci v c
t:tpc ttni> :cv tcutvcv).
:i Tc:cu t:iv \ oo:po : II.8n.
Introductory note
Atcvcic is loss of sense (as distinct from cvcic lack of sense, and tcpvcic
madness), manifested in behaviour which, to a hostile observer, appears irra-
tional or irresponsible. The concept has no place in Aristotles ethical sys-
tem but belongs rather to the polemical vocabulary of the orators: D. 18.249
c0: tcvcic cistcu c0:t uscgcv:ic 1icsp:cu c0:t Aicvocu sci
Mtv:cu ucvic c0: c cootv ttipc:cv nv :c:ci sc: tuc0, 25.32 coy
cpc c:i :n gtc co:c0 sci tci:tic co c,iuc coo cioc cootuic
tcvci n,t:ci, uccv o ccv t: tcvci n :c:cu tci:tic;,
33 (contrasted with vc0, gptvt ,cci, and tpcvcic), 34 (coupled with
vciotic), 26.19, 44.15, 58 (coupled with tpctt:tic), 61.4, Hyp. Lyc. 6, Dem.
7, Din. 1.82, 104. Speakers in Thucydides use it to describe the reckless daring
to which an army is reduced by desperation (1.82.4, 7.67.4). No adjectival
form is attested (E. Hel. 1321 tcvcu coni. Verrall), and the participle tc-
vtvcnutvc is used in its stead: Th. 7.81.5, X. HG 7.5.12, Isoc. 8.93 (quoted on
6), D. 19.69, 25.32, 43.41; adverbial tcvtvcnutvc X. HG 7.2.8, Isoc. 6.75.
Menander has the verb once: Pk. 375 tcvtvcnt, tpc tcv; (for forcibly
detaining a free woman). In Nicol.Com. 1.43 tcvcic is listed among the ills
of the parasite.
The tcvcic described by Theophrastus is not recklessness (Jebb), wilful
disreputableness (Edmonds), shamelessness (Rusten), lack of constraint,
impropriety (LSJ Rev. Suppl.), translations warped by the spurious denition.
Nor is it anything so dramatic as the shameless inconsequentiality which on a
sufciently spectacular scale labels the agent a psychopath (Dover, Greek Pop-
ular Morality 149 n. 2). The sketch exemplies loss of sense or good judgement,
manifested in unsuitable or reprehensible behaviour. If we ignore the inter-
polations and an uncured corruption, this (in bald summary) is how the man
behaves: he dances anobscene dance while sober (3), demands anentrance fee
from ticket-holders (4), engages in opprobrious trades (5), leaves his mother
uncared for, is arrested for theft and spends much of his time in gaol (6),
is constantly in court as defendant or plaintiff (8), and sets himself up as a
patron of low tradesmen, whom he funds at exorbitant interest (9). These are
the actions of a man who has lost all sense of how to behave. The suicide of
Hedda Gabler was tcvcic in the eyes of Judge Brack: One doesnt do that
kind of thing.
[1 ] Denition
The denition is inadequate and inept. It was possibly known to Philodemus
(ltpi sccstic), P. Herc. 223 fr. 8. 15 (M. Gigante and G. Indelli, CErc 8
(1978) 130) tcvtvcnutvcv . . . otcutv[c]v:c tcpvcc[sc] sci :tcvci
sci tcv:[ctc]ci oic icu u,cucyt[v, where otcutv[c]v:c may have
been suggested by otcucvn (the rest alludes to 5).
occvj oiypv tpyov koi yov: this ought to mean tolerance or
endurance of disgraceful action and speech (LSJ ii, as e.g. [Pl.] Def. 412c
scp:tpic otcucvn tn, for which see Ingenkamp 423). While endurance
of disgraceful speech would suit, and may have been prompted by, the spurious
scsc sc0ci in 2, the expression as a whole must be designed to mean
tolerance of [doing] . . . and [speaking] . . . (LSJ iii, Chadwick, Lexicographica
Graeca 309; see also Stein 1256). This is nonsense. And the pairing of action
and speech, typical of the denitions (def. I n.), is faulty, since the sketch does
not illustrate speech. ottpcn, a conjecture reported by Casaubon (see the
Introduction, p. 54 n. 172), does not appeal. As a correction of oiscicc,cv
(AB) there is little to choose between sci c,cv (ed. Basil.
before Stephanus)
and :t sci c,cv (Gale). Denitions I, VIII, XIII, XIV have sci alone in
similar phrases; and T. has only one instance of :t . . . sci in this work (XIII.10),
although he uses it commonly elsewhere (M uller (1874) 3640). But the author
of the prooemium affects :t (. . .) sci (ve instances), and there is no reason why
the author of the denitions should not have used it.
2 :cic: :i: :i (B) not t:iv (A); I.2n.
23 [oi . . . ti cuvo:o ko]: sense and style condemn these words.
Clear indications of interpolation are the generalising adjectival style (in
place of specic exemplication by innitives) of :ci nti ,cpcc :i sci
vctuputvc sci tcv:ctcic (there is another interpolation of generalising
adjectives at XIX.4), and the clumsy resumption of the innitive construction
with utti ouvc:c sci (8n. init., VII.6n.) and its abnormal asyndeton (utti
ot is invariable: see on 9 <sci> . . . ot, II.9n.).
oi :oy, kok kcoi, ciccpyJvoi cuvovci: if ouvutvc (AB)
is retained, it is unclear whether scsc sc0ci is to be constructed with cc
or with ouvutvc. If with cc, the participial phrase ciocpnnvci ouv-
utvc is appended feebly (deleted by Pasquali before Edmonds 1929); if with
ouvutvc, the asyndeton is intolerable (sc0ci <sci> ciocpnnvci ed.
This (or a variant of it) also appears in descendants of A (Torraca (1974) 88, Stefanis
(1994a) 85, 118).
pr.; ciocpnnvci del. Darvaris before Cobet 1854). It is also unclear whether
ciocpnnvci is to be taken as passive in sense, duplicating scsc sc0ci (cf.
J. Vahlen, Opuscula Academica 2 (Leipzig 1908) 3837), or as active (LSJ ii).
Deletion of ouvutvc (Meier 1850/1) claries the construction of scsc
sc0ci. But ouvcutvci (Foss 1858) also claries ciocpnnvci (by showing
that it is active in sense), and effects so great an improvement so economically
that it deserves to be accepted, even if the sentence is an interpolation. Steins
claim that ouvcutvci would need the article cannot be upheld, even if the
sentence is genuine (see VII.7 (conj.), XI.6, XII.9, 11, XX.3, 4 (conj.), XXV.4,
XXVIII.5 (conj.), KG 1.6089; singular part. without article, II.2n.); much
less, if it is not. If we retain ouvutvc, we must conclude at once that ouv-
utvc and anything which we link to it are interpolated, since this participial
style is alien to Theophrastus. If we accept ouvcutvci, we must conclude that
scsc sc0ci at least is interpolated. For while to swear an oath pat and
to abuse the powerful might exemplify loss of sense, the intervening to get
a bad reputation does not. In Plu. Alc. 13.5 the vciyuv:ic and tcvcic
of Hyperbolus are exemplied by his indifference to what people said against
him (c:ptt:c . . . tpc :c scsc sctiv sci tcn cv ci,cpici ocn).
But the expression c:ptt:c . . . tpc :c scsc sctiv shows how inade-
quate is the bare cc . . . scsc sc0ci (cf. S. Halliwell, CQ 41 (1991) 287,
who is suitably cautious). Something more would be needed, like <tscv>
scsc sc0ci (Herwerden). It would be possible to retain the two other inn.
phrases (writing cucci :cy, ciocpnnvci ouvcutvci, cpytci s:.). But
both cucci :cy and ciocpnnvci ouvcutvci are displeasingly curt, and
cpytci vngcv s:. is a better opening illustration.
:i jti ycpo :i koi votupvc koi ov:cci: the noun nc
appears in epilogues I and XXVII, and at VIII.2 (where text and meaning are
uncertain). For its use in general see O. Thimme, 1i Tpctc Hc (diss.
G ottingen 1935). For ,cpcc (belonging to the agora, hence common,
vulgar), Ar. Eq. 181 (tcvnpc s ,cpc), 218, Ra. 1015, Pl. Prt. 347c, Arist.
EN 1158
21, Pol. 1319
28; LSJ ii, Kassel and Austin on Ar. fr. 488.2, Whitehead
on Hyp. Ath. 3, Millett, Sale, credit and exchange 185, id. Encounters in the
Agora 21819, also on 9 ,cpcicv; similarly forensis (Brink on Hor. Ars 245).
For :i, V.3n. The gurative use of vctuputvc (literal at XI.2) is attested
for Anacr. 5 Page (Phot. A 1687 Theodoridis). tcv:ctcic is not attested
again before ii ad (LSJ, Stein 127). No need for tcv:coctc (Darvaris before
Usener) or tcv:cc (Navarre 1924).
3 pytoi v(ov :ov kpcoko: a sober man does not dance (Cic. Mur.
13 nemo enim fere saltat sobrius, nisi forte insanit; cf. XII.14, XV.10, Arnott on
Alex. 102.12). Least of all does he dance the scpoc, which only drunk-
enness can excuse. The scpoc was an obscene dance, associated with the
comic stage, performed by drunkards: Ar. Nu. 555 tpcti co:ci ,pc0v
utnv :c0 scpocsc c0vtsc, D. 2.18 :nv sc nutpcv spcicv :c0 icu
sci utnv sci scpocsiuc (cf. 19 ttpi co:cv tvci . . . :cic:cu vpctcu
ccu ututv:c cpytci :cic0:c cc t,c v0v csvc tpc ouc
cvcuci), Mnesim. 4.18 tpctci ycpt, ttt:ci scpoc, Alciphr. 2.15.2
ticutc ti utnv . . . sci c:i tti:notic scpocsitiv s:., Jul. Mis. 350b
cos tycv uttiv coot scpocsitiv. The verb is applied guratively to vulgar
and unsuitable behaviour by Hyp. Phil. 7 ti o c[ti] scpocsicv sci ,tc-
:ctcicv, cttp tcitv tcc, tti :cv oisc:npicv tcgttci, t[on]n
t. See H. Schnabel, Kordax (Munich 1910), Warnecke, Kordax, RE xi.2 (1922)
13825, E. Roos, Die tragische Orchestik im Zerrbild der altattischen Kom odie (Lund
1951) 15366, A. W. Pickard-Cambridge, Dithyramb, Tragedy and Comedy (Oxford
1962) 1679.
The scholium in B toc ciypc sci tpttc0 cpyntc (see the Intro-
duction, p. 44) is identical, save for word-order, with 2 D. 2.18 (1.71 Dilts) and
2 Luc. Bacch. 1 (p. 9 Rabe); cf. 2 Tzetz. Ar. Pl. 279 (p. 80 Koster).

koi pcotcv tyov tv koiki ycpi

: to dance the scpoc while

sober and wearing a mask in a comic chorus is nonsense. Introduction of a
negative (<cos>tycv Casaubon, sco for sci Pauw, <un>tycv Schneider)
can be at best only a partial solution. Failure to wear a mask might be deemed
tcvcic, if the mask is regarded as a disguise and therefore a guarantee of
anonymity. But sober and not wearing a mask in a comic chorus is an odd
pairing and not a natural way of saying sober and not in a comic chorus (where
the wearing of a mask excuses participation in the dance). Dovers paraphrase
(on Ar. Nu. 540) dancing the scpoc when neither drunk nor a member of
a comic chorus is a product of tcvcic highlights the problem, by failing
to take notice of the mask: wearing a mask in a comic chorus says much
more than being a member of a comic chorus. Replacement of sci with
c (Unger before Sitzler), cttp (Naber), c <:i> (Groeneboom) avails
nothing. Better (but still not good enough) <ccv>tv (without a mask <such
as one might wear> in a comic chorus). Wachsmuth (ap. Meister) proposed
sco tpccttcv tycv tv scuc:isci ycpci, on the strength of D. 19.287,
where an individual is vilied who tv :c tcutc cvtu :c0 tpcctcu (u.l.
tpcctticu) scuti (revels in the procession at the Dionysia without a mask).
What propriety he is transgressing is unclear: perhaps he is behaving with the
indecency of a satyr, without wearing a satyr mask (see MacDowell ad loc.,
F. Frontisi-Ducroux, DHA 18.1 (1992) 24556, Wilson, Khoregia 345 n. 213).
At all events, a comastic chorus is otherwise unknown, and this passage of
D. gives no support to it. Navarre 1918 implausibly suggests that the words are
The latter is reported from Laur. 60.18 (7 Wilson) by Torraca (1974) 88, Stefanis
(1994a) 103, 118.
a relic of 2
(quoted above), which originally ran toc ciypc sci tpttc0
cpyntc <c cpyt:c :i> tp- s:. Perhaps the text is lacunose.
4 koi tv ooi ct :cu yokc tkytiv ko tko:cv tpiov: the word
cuc:cembraces puppet-shows, juggling, circuses andother kinds of popular
entertainment (songs at XXVII.7); LSJ i.2, Wachsmuth, Die Stadt Athen 2.494
5, G. Lafaye, Praestigiator, in Daremberg-Saglio iv.1 (19047) 628, W. Kroll,
Ocuuc:ctcici, RE Suppl. vi (1935) 127882, B. Hu, ICS 22 (1997) 434,
Olson and Sens on Matro 1.121. ycsc are coins worth as little as an eighth of
an obol (M. N. Tod, NC 6 (1946) 4762, V. Schmidt, Sprachliche Untersuchungen zu
Herondas (Berlin 1968) 435). Cf. X.6 :piycscv, XXVIII.4, XXX.9. tst,tiv
is the technical term for levying payments of various kinds (LSJ ii); cf. 9. For
ttpicv (Needham spelled ttpiicv) and the corruption, IV.13n.
koi ytoi :c:ov :c :o ccv pcui koi pcko toptv
ici: quarrel with (as XIV.9, XXIII.8, Men. DE 62, Dysc. 355, LSJ ii;
gurative uynv VII.7) those of them who . . . (for the construction see on
V.7 :cv . . . ,uuvcicv tv :c:ci). :c:ci :c (AB) is impossible: it does
not mean those who (Rusten), which is :c alone (so o), but these, who.
For the corruption see on V.9 sci cocicv s:. For the resumptive use of the
pronoun see on I.2 sci :c:ci. For tcptv, IV.5n.
The uccv was probably some kind of admission ticket (Pickard-
Cambridge, DFA 2702; cf. A. L. Boegehold, Hesperia 29 (1960) 393401,
M. Lang and M. Crosby, The Athenian Agora, x: Weights, Measures and Tokens
(Princeton1964) 768, P. Gauthier, Symbola (Nancy 1972) 736, W. M uri, 2YM-
BOAON, in Griechische Studien: Ausgew ahlte wort- und sachgeschichtliche Forschungen
zur Antike (Basel 1976) 144 (p. 7 for this passage), R. Hurschmann, Eintritts-
und Erkennungsmarken, DNP 3 (1997) 91718); less likely a receipt given by
the collector on his rst round, which he repudiates on his second, claiming
that it has changed hands in the meantime (Meister). The second participial
phrase probably amplies the rst (those who are in possession of a ticket and
so expect to get a free seat), as XII.9 snscc:c sci utucnsc:c, 11 cv:c
sci vciscv:c, XVIII.9 :c tingci :i tcp co:c0 sci t,cui, XXIX.2
:c n::nutvci sci onucicu ,cvc cgnsci. Rusten (translating sci as
or) supposes a distinction between those who possess a uccv (which they
have paid for) and those who regard themselves as entitled to a free seat (and
so have not paid for a uccv). As often in this work (e.g., the next sentence),
sci links alternatives (Rusten 171, referring to Denniston 292). Denniston offers
nothing comparable; and in the next sentence sci links items which may (in
practical reality) be alternatives, but whose alternative status is not at issue. If
His very plausible conjecture cuciv for cuc:i at X. Smp. 2.1 was anticipated by
A. Meineke, Alciphronis Rhetoris Epistolae (Leipzig 1853) 132.
the activities mentionedhere are to be seenas clear alternatives, I shouldexpect
n for sci (giving a structure like XXIV.7 :cu tcc0v: :i n uicuutvcu).
For n in other verbal disjunctions, VII.7, XVI.3, XXVI.3, XXX.19 (conj.).
Conjectures such as <co> gtpcui (Coray), <un> g- (Navarre 1920), :c
<oi> (Diels), :c <oi> . . . gcivcui (Pasquali) are misguided: if the spec-
tators are cheating, the collectors behaviour is not reprehensible.
5 ctivo ct ko: 9n.
ovccktoi koi cpvcckJoi koi :tovJoi: these three roles (tcv-
ocst, tcpvccsc, :tcvn) and the rst of the following three (snpu)
appear on a list of disreputable professions (ici tg c cv :i cvtioitin) in
Poll. 6.128. The innkeeper is disreputable because he takes in all-comers, tran-
sient and by implication low-class, who cannot nd lodging with respectable
hosts; cf. XX.9, Pl. Lg. 918d tv:c :c ttpi :nv sctnticv sci tutcpicv sci
tcvocsticv ,tvn oictn:ci :t sci tv ciypc ,t,cvtv cvtiotiv. Brothel-
keepers are linked with usurers lending small sums at high interest (like this
man, 9) by Arist. EN 1121
3; cf. Millett, Lending and Borrowing 182,
Whitehead on Hyp. Ath. 3. The tax-collector is a regular object of abuse: Ar.
Eq. 248 (Cleon) :tcvnv sci gpc,,c sci Xpuoiv cptc,n, Philonid.
5 tcpvc:tcvci, Apollod.Com. 13.1213 tot: tticpst ucp:upt oiscp-
pcgt | stt:ti :tcvt pcioicup,t, Xeno 1 tv:t :tcvci, tv:t tiiv
cptc,t, Luc. Pseudol. 30 t :i vciyv:c ci:t, uccv ot tpcci:t sci
ctcou:t sci :tcvt. The right to collect a tax was often sold by auction
to the highest bidder, and the purchaser hoped to collect more in taxes than
he had paid (W. Schwahn, Ttcvci, RE v.1a (1934) 41821, H. Michell, The
Economics of Ancient Greece (Cambridge 1940) 3567, MacDowell on And. 1.73
cv, W. Eder, Telonai, DNP 12.1 (2002) 103).
koi yctov oiypov tpyoov ccckioi, o kyp::tiv,
oytipttiv, kuttiv: and not reject . . . but (be ready) to . . .. The innitives
in the second clause are constructed not with otivc but with a positive notion
mentally supplied in opposition to the negative tcocsiuci, as e.g. E. Ph.
121718 cos tcc . . . tttv c (sc. tsttuc) unv0ci (KG 2.5667).
Between the alternative word orders (ciypcv tp,cicv B, tp- ci- A) there is
nothing to choose (II.3n.). For the asyndetic tricolon, V.10n.
snp::tiv is be an auctioneer (LSJ i.1.b, iii.1), as D. 44.4 oic:tt ,cp
tv ltipcit snp::cv

:c0:c o t:iv . . . tcpic vpctci :tsunpicv,

not herald (Dover, Greek Popular Morality 41, whose citations from tragedy are
not to the point). Similarly snpu fr. 97.1 Wimmer (650.2 Fortenbaugh), not
herald (Fortenbaugh et al.) but auctioneer (LSJ i.3; add Ar. Ec. 757, fr. 339,
D. 51.22); transitive (tc)snp::tiv (uvctc- Men. Sam. 509) is regularly sell
(or offer for sale) by auction (Konstantakos 134). Cf. Juv. 7.56 (cum) nec foedum
alii nec turpe putarent | praecones eri, Oehler, Keryx, RE xi.1 (1921) 3502.
u,tipc in the fourth century normally described a man who was hired
in the Agora to butcher and cook sacricial animals. Comedy portrays him as
conceited, garrulous, rapacious, and consorting with slaves. Bibliography in
Arnott on Alex. 24, Olson and Sens on Matro 1.11; add J. Wilkins, The Boastful
Chef: The Discourse of Food in Greek Comedy (Oxford 2000).
suttiv dicing is routinely damned by comic poets (Ar. V. 75, Ec. 672, Pl.
243), orators (Lys. 14.27, 16.11, Isoc. 7.48, 15.287, Aeschin. 1.42, 53, 75, 95),
historians (Theopomp. FGrHist 115 f 49), andphilosophers (Socrates inX. Mem.
1.2.57, Oec. 1.20, Arist. EN 1122
711). See on V.9 ocpscoticu :pc,cu.
6 <ko>: something must have dropped out, because there is a clear break
between the three preceding innitives (not constructed with otivc), which
round off the list of disreputable occupations, and the three following (con-
structed with otivc), which refer to criminal behaviour and its consequences.
Asyndeton is impossible. The obvious remedy is <sci> (Herwerden). Not
<otivc ot sci> (Meier 1850/1), which opened the previous sentence and
is never repeated in the same sketch (VII.6n.); nor <ouvc:c ot sci> (also
Meier), an adjective unwanted here (II.9n.) even after it has been eliminated in
3. I amnot attracted by the notion (Kassel ap. Stein 124 n. 1; see I.2n.) that the
sentence :nv un:tpc s:. began life as a marginal addition by Theophrastus,
which a copyist incorporated without a connective. For the following asyndetic
trio of clauses, V.10n.
:jv y:po j :ptiv: a law attributed to Solon required sons to look
after elderly parents (D.L. 1.55 tv :i un :ptgni :cu ,cvtc, c:iuc t:c);
Harrison1.78, Dover, Greek Popular Morality 2735, MacDowell, Law92, Rhodes
on [Arist.] Ath. 56.6. Neglect of parents is a manifestation of tcvcic in Isoc.
8.93 t :i tcv:tciv tcvtvcnutvc t:i sci un tpcv un:t ,cvtcv un:t
tciocv un: ccu unotvc gpcv:iti.
ytoi kcJ: the procedure known as tc,c,n (LSJ iii), whereby
certain types of criminal caught in the act might be arrested and carried off
to the authorities. See Harrison 2.2229, M. H. Hansen, Apagoge, Endeixis and
Ephegesis against Kakourgoi, Atimoi and Pheugontes (Odense 1976) 3653, MacDow-
ell 1489, Rhodes on [Arist.] Ath. 52.1, D. Cohen, Theft in Athenian Law(Munich
1983) ch. 2, Todd, The Shape of Athenian Law 11718.
:o cto:(picv to ypvcv ciktv J :jv oo:c cikov: cf. Din. 2.2
tv :ci otuc:npici ttic ypcvcv n tc oic:t:pigt, Pl. Ps. 1172 carcerem,
patriam tuam (uestram domum Serv. A. 1.140), Cic. Agr. 2.101 in carcere habitan-
dum, Ver. 5.143, Liv. 3.57.4. The prison was reserved primarily for persons
awaiting trial or execution, or with outstanding nes or debts to the state: Har-
rison 2.177, 2414, MacDowell 1667, 2567, Rhodes on [Arist.] Ath. 52.1,
D. Allen, Imprisonment in classical Athens, CQ 47 (1997) 12135, ead. The
World of Prometheus: The Politics of Punishing in Democratic Athens (Princeton 2000)
22630, V. Hunter, The prison of Athens, Phoenix 51 (1997) 296326. To
replace otuc:npicv with stpcucv (M) is perverse (see the Introduction, p. 43
n. 146). co:c0 (Stephanus: co- AB) is also found in d (Stefanis tells me) and as
a correction by the rst hand in Cantabr. (4 Wilson).
[7]This sentence describes a tiresome loud-mouthedharanguer of crowds, and
is clumsy in expression and trite in content. The nite verbs, characteristic of
the epilogues, interrupt the innitive structure. Meister suspected too little (sci
ut:cu s:.), Diels too much (all of 710). Ussher wrongly imputes deletion
of 7 to Ast, who suspected the whole sketch.
koi c:c c v tvoi ctitv :v k:.: The phrase cv tvci octitv is
characteristic of the denitions (def. I n.), and the clause has the same structure
as the sentence interpolatedat XVI.12 sci :cv ttpippcivcutvcv tti c::n
ttiutc octitv cv tvci. The subject of octitv cannot be :c0:c (AB); unless
the subject is personal, the following co:c0 has nothing to refer to, and even
an interpolator should do better than this. co:c (C. Gesner 1559, before
Casaubon) is far preferable to :c:cv (Needham) and :cic0:c (Foss 1858).
For the genitive, KG 1.372.
tpii:ovov :cu 6ycu: gathering crowds round them, a rare use (X.
Cyr. 7.5.41, LSJ a.ii); cf. epil. VIII ttpi:ti tcicutvci. The remarkable
claim that to gather a crowd . . . was, at Athens, a capital offence (Ussher 72,
citing no evidence) derives from Casaubon (on epil. VIII), who cites Sen. Con.
3.8. In default of other evidence, disbelief is advisable.
koi pckocv:ov, tyyi :Ji ovJi koi optppoyuoi
ciccpcuvov koi ciotycvov po oo:c: the accumulation of
insufciently varied participles is displeasing. The last is an anticlimax,
which should not be disguised by over-translation (argue with, Edmonds,
Rusten). oic:tivcutvcv (Naber) would be an improvement (X.14n.); less so
tpcccv:cv (Naber). Petersen deleted ciocpcuutvcv (which recurs in
the spurious 2 and epil.). There is no need for tpcsccv:cv <sci> u-
(Coray before Darvaris and Hartung). For ut,ni :ni gcvni (repeated in
the epilogue), IV.2n. For tcptppc,uici broken (by passion), Plu. TG 2.6
:pcyuvcutvcv . . . :ni gcvni sci tcpcppn,vutvcv oi cp,nv (LSJ ii.2, De
Martino in F. De Martino and A. H. Sommerstein (edd.), Lo Spettacolo delle Voci
(Bari 1995) 1.54).
koi t:ou ci tv pcoiv, ci ct oiv piv kcoi oo:c: while all
this is going on (ut:c) some people approach, in response to the noise, but
others do not stay to listen. If tpiv sc0ci co:c0 could mean before hearing
him out (Jebb, al.), rather than simply before hearing him, the point would
be different: nobody hears the whole speech, because the audience comes and
goes. But that is not the natural sense of the words (contrast VII.7, where a
similar point, that people leave in the middle of a speech, is made clearly),
and it is unwise to impose this sense by emendation (<oi>csc0ci Unger
1886, co:c0 <:c tcv> Diels, :c0 ccu Meiser). It is in the next clause that
emendation is needed; and there I shall suggest an emendation which justies
the most natural rendering of tpiv sc0ci co:c0. With the verbal antithesis
cf. Hdt. 1.199.2 c utv ,cp tpctpycv:ci, c ot ttpycv:ci. The transposition
c utv ut:c (Edmonds 1929) is neat.
o :c tv py(v, :c ct <coct> uo(v, :c ct pc :c
pyo:c yti: after c utv . . . c ot in the preceding clause, this car-
ries antithesis to excess; cf. epil. VIII. Either pynv (B) or :nv pynv (A) could
be right: the art. interpolated (IV.10n.) or accidentally omitted (II.2n.). Those
who hear not even a syllable are those who ticiv tpiv sc0ci co:c0.
A better rhetorician might have placed this clause not in second place but
third. Without the negative ucnv is inept: epitome (Jebb), summing-
up (Edmonds), Zusammenfassung (Steinmetz) are not attested meanings.
None of the proposed substitutes are plausible: uvcgnv (with :tc for utpc)
Naber, uc,nv Wachsmuth ap. Meister (see Stein 4 n. 7), :ttu:nv Diels,
utccnv Meiser. t,ti (-tiv AB) is reported from Laur. 60.18 (7 Wilson) by
Torraca (1974) 89, Stefanis (1994a) 118.
cok o toptoi iv :jv vciov oo:c J :ov Ji ov(yupi:
surprising in sentiment (he deliberately advertises his tcvcic), banal in
expression. With c:cv ni tcvn,upi cf. V.7, XXII.6.
8 ikovo ct ko: 9n.
scvc of a person XXIX.4 vpctci scvc:tpci, but not elsewhere in
this work with inn. (for which, LSJ i). Elsewhere the innitives depend on cc
or otivc (I reject tpcuuc with inn. at XII.10). scvc ot should perhaps
be deleted, since the innitives can be constructed with otivc in 5, once 7
has been removed; the motive for the interpolation would be the same as for
utti ouvc:c sci in 3.
cko :o tv tytiv, :o ct cioktiv, :o ct tvuoi, :o ct opt-
voi: the accumulation of innitives indicates howconstantly and in what varied
capacities he is involved with the law. Just as the rst two offer a natural con-
trast (he is sometimes a defendant, sometimes a plaintiff), so also the last two
seem to balance each other (sometimes he nds an excuse for not appear-
ing in court, but when he does appear he is overburdened with preparatory
documentation). <sci> :c utv tcuvuci (Casaubon) expresses this bal-
ance more clearly, but is unnecessary. Ussher, who nds much of the sen-
tence mere padding, deletes :c ot oicstiv (so that :c ot tcuvuci may
be contrasted with :c utv gt,tiv) and tycv . . . ytpiv (which contains
two of T.s most engaging images). The sentence as a whole continues the
theme of 6. There we learned that he is frequently convicted of criminal
offences. Now we learn that he is equally at home in court as a plaintiff. A
convicted criminal, he does not scruple, in the little time that he is out of prison,
to prosecute others, and he is punctilious in his preparation to an obsessive
oisc . . . tcuvuci is swear off (attending) cases, perhaps by pleading
ill-health or some other excuse, an extension of such expressions as XXIV.5
tcuvuci :c py, co gscv yctiv (take an oath to avoid ofce,
pleading lack of time), Aeschin. 2.94 tptticv tcucutvc (cf. D. 19.1229,
1712, Arist. Pol. 1297
20, Ath. 49.2). The nature of this oath is dened by Poll.
8.55 tcucic . . . c:cv :i n tpttu:n cptti n tt cnv :ivc onucicv
otnpticv ppc:tv n ouvc:tv gscv tcuvn:ci co:c n oi t:tpcu.
See LSJ tcuvuui ii.2, tcucic ii, J. H. Lipsius, Das attische Recht und Rechtsver-
fahren (Leipzig 190515) 407, R. J. Bonner and G. Smith, The Administration of
Justice from Homer to Aristotle 2 (Chicago 1938) 163, J. Plescia, The Oath and Perjury
in Ancient Greece (Tallahassee 1970) 312. If we may believe Suda L 1841, the
same oath was used in a legal context (such as we have here) as a plea that a
case should not be admitted: tcucic, c:cv :i gsni n ottp tcu:c0 n ottp
t:tpcu t,sccutvc un otv ti,tci oisnv

t:c sci :nv ci:icv oi nv cos

tic,c,iuc n oisn (Bonner and Smith 164). The verb is often used in a differ-
ent legal context, of witnesses who decline to give evidence, in the sense take
an oath disclaiming knowledge (Poll. continues tcuvuv:c ot sci c sntv:t
up:upt, ti gscitv unotv tti:cci :c:cv tg tscc0v:c). See Wyse
on Is. 9.18, E. Leisi, Der Zeuge im attischen Recht (Frauenfeld 1908) 6770, Lipsius
8789, Plescia 56, Harrison 2.1435, MacDowell, Law 243 (and on D. 19.176),
Todd in P. Cartledge, P. Millett, S. Todd (edd.), Nomos: Essays in Athenian Law,
Politics and Society (Cambridge 1990) 245, C. Carey, CQ 35 (1995) 11419. This
sense has been alleged here (Jebb, Edmonds, Bonner and Smith 164, Lane Fox
1445). But in this sense the verb is normally absolute and is often contrasted
explicitly with ucp:uptv (e.g. D. 19.176 n ucp:uptv n tcuvuci), and a
direct object would not be oisc but the knowledge or testimony disclaimed
(Aeschin. 1.47 tcuvuci :c ntic, c s:., the reverse of 46 :nn
ucp:uptv, [Arist.] Ath. 55.5 tcuvuv:ci :c ucp:upic). He is not a witness:
the cases which he swears off attending are cases in which he is a defendant.
I see no justication for the claim that tcuvuci is here indistinguishable
from otcuvuci (actually conjectured by Meier 1850/1), take an oath for a
postponement (Lipsius 902 n. 3, followed by Stein and Rusten). For this oath,
Harrison 2.155, MacDowell 208, Plescia 502, Whitehead on Hyp. Eux. 7.
And clear himself on oath (Ussher) is compatible with neither the language
nor the law.
tcptvci is attend, but not as witness (Jebb). For this sense to be clear
we should need an explicit reference to witnessing (as XII.5 ucp:upncv
tcptvci), or a personal dative instead of oisci (V.3 n.). In any case, a witness
would not bring an tyvc.
tyov tyvcv tv :i pckcoi: on the comedy of this scene see the Intro-
duction, p. 23. The tyvc is a jar in which were sealed various documents
relating to impending court cases (LSJ Rev. Suppl.): Ar. fr. 274, Eup. 453,
D. 39.17, 45.8, 17, 578, 47.16, 48.48, 49.65, 54.27, [Arist.] Ath. 53.23, Men.
Epit. fr. 4 Sandbach, Philem. 46. A litigant might appeal against the judge-
ment of a public arbitrator and choose to have a trial by jury. Plaintiff and
defendant placed all evidence produced at the arbitration in separate jars, and
these were sealed up until the day of the trial. The procedure is described in
[Arist.] Ath. 53.23. See Rhodes ad loc. (with Addenda p. 780), MacDowell, Law
209, A. L. Boegehold, The Athenian Agora, xxviii: The Lawcourts at Athens (Prince-
ton 1995) 7981. The lexicographers imply that the use of the jar was not
restricted to cases of public arbitration: Harp. p. 143 Dindorf (L 177 Keaney)
(= Suda L 4012, Phot. L 2502 Theodoridis) c,,c :i ti c :c ,pcuuc:tc
:c tpc :c oisc t:itv:c, Phot. L 2503 scoisc :i t:i ycsc0 ti cv
c :t ucp:upici sci c tpcsnti t,,pcgci tvtcv:c otc :cv oisc-
cutvcv sci sc:tnucivcv:c vc unoti scscup,nni ttpi :c tuccutvc.
An inscription on the lid of a clay tyvc possibly attests its use in an vspii,
preliminary examination (Boegehold, Hesperia Suppl. 19 (1982) 16, id. Agora
xxviii 79; Todd, The Shape of Athenian Law 1289 is sceptical). The present text
is proof enough of wider use. This is not a process of public arbitration, such
as is described in [Arist.] Ath. 53.23 (mentioned above). For there the jars are
brought in by the four judges who acted for the defendants tribe. Here the
jar is brought in by the litigant himself. Boegehold, Agora xxviii 7980, suggests
that the jar may have been used as a depositary for legal documents which
might be needed later, and that here the point may be that he regularly let
himself act as a person with whom others would deposit sealed documents,
especially wills, and that he took on the sort of custodial responsibility that
led almost inevitably to days in court. This does not explain why he is also
carrying strings of documents in his hands. More likely the documents in the
jar and in his hands relate to a case in which he is personally involved.
The tpcscticv is a front pocket, a bag-like fold made by drawing up the
chitonthroughthe belt (GowonTheoc. 16.16, Gomme andSandbachonMen.
Epit. 382), used by the Avtttpc to carry home his vegetables (XXII.7).
The tyvc was a bulky object to put in such a pocket. Erot. L 79 describes
it as y:pc toc ut,cc:cucu sci ut,n, a type of large chytra with a
large mouth. The lid mentioned above was c. 19 centimetres in diameter.
koi 6pocu ypoo:ticov tv :o ytpv: strings (chains) of little docu-
ments, perhaps gurative, implying analmost interminably repetitive series (as
Ar. Ra. 91415 c ot ycpc , nptiotv cpuccu cv | utcv tgtn :t::cpc
uvtyc cv, X. Cyr. 6.3.2 tccu cpuccu tcicutvc :cv cuccv sci
:cv stucgcpcv; cf. Ar. fr. 226 ngiu:cv . . . cucu (heaps) gtpcv:t),
rather than literal, implying that the documents are tied together. If they are
tied together, how they are tied is unclear. They are not tied together in a bun-
dle, like the lawyers briefs in Juv. 7.107 magno comites in fasce libelli (illustrated by
T. Birt, Die Buchrolle in der Kunst (Leipzig 1907) 256), since the noun for bundles is
not cpucci but otuci (D.H. Isoc. 18 otuc tvu tcc oiscviscv c,cv
lcspc:ticv ttpigtptci gniv otc :cv iictccv Api:c:tn (fr. 140
Rose), LSJ otun 1, Pritchett 30910). And they are not writing-tablets with
multiple leaves (E. IT 727 ot:cu . . . tcupci oict:uyci, Men. fr. 238
,pcuuc:tioicv . . . oiupcv, Poll. 10.57 ,pcuuc:tioicv oiupcv n :pit:u-
ycv n sci tticvcv t:uycv), since leaves do not form a string or chain but
are folded together. For discussion and illustration see V. Gardthausen, Das
Buchwesen (Leipzig
1911) 12630, E. M. Thompson, An Introduction to Greek and
Latin Palaeography (Oxford 1912) 1417, W. Schubart, Das Buch bei den Griechen
und R omern (Heidelberg
1962) 2930, D. Diringer, The Book before Printing (New
York 1982) 2933. An example of tablets linked together by their edges in a
chain (Gardthausen 129), adduced in explanation of our text by Birt (Kritik und
Hermeneutik 2612), is a late Roman product. For the general picture, Mart.
5.51.1 hic qui libellis praegrauem gerit laeuam (a lawyer with a handful of docu-
ments). The little documents will not be notes for a speech (M. R. Christ, The
Litigious Athenian (Baltimore and London 1998) 38, 271 n. 38) but documents
relevant to the case. On the proliferation of written evidence and legal docu-
ments in the fourth century, W. V. Harris, Ancient Literacy (Cambridge Mass. and
London 1989) 6972, R. Thomas, Oral Tradition and Written Records in Classical
Athens (Cambridge 1989) 425, Lane Fox 1445.
The diminutive ,pcuuc:tioicv has a belittling tone in D. 56.1 tv ,pcu-
uc:tioici oucv ycscv tcvnutvci sci uioici uispci tvu (hendiadys,
which shows that the word does not refer excusively to a tablet, as LSJ imply),
perhaps also Isoc. 17.34, D. 54.37 (less obviously Antipho 5.536), and so per-
haps here. The correct spelling is ,pcuuc:tioicv (Herwerden before Blaydes
and Diels), dimin. of ,pcuuc:tcv, not -ioicv (AB), an unexpected dimin.
of late and rare dimin. ,pcuu:icv. The doctrine of Hdn. 2.488 Lentz pre-
scribes that ti utv tc :c0 ,pcuu:icv, :c0 nucivcv:c :c uispcv ,puuc,
oic :c0 l ,pgt:ci, c cpicv ccpioicv, cyvicv cycvioicv

ti ot tc
:c0 ,pcuuc:tcv ,t,cvt, :c0 nucivcv:c :nv uispcv ot:cv, oic :n Ll
oigc,,cu, cttp ,,tcv ,,tioicv, ,pcgtcv ,pcgtioicv. This requires
qualication: (i) cycvioicv is not dimin. of cyvicv but is an alternative
dimin. of ycvcv; (ii) ccpioicv is an acceptable dimin. of cpicv, because
the latter has come to be no longer felt as dimin. (W. Petersen, Greek Diminutives
in -lON (Weimar 1910) 206). We may therefore register surprise over ,pcu-
uc:ioicv as dimin. of ,pcuu:icv. G. Dore, RF 92 (1964) 30910, to whom
Stein appeals in support of -ioicv, misses the point. For the distinction between
,pcuuc:tcv and ,pcuu:icv, W. B uhler, Zenobii Athoi Proverbia 5 (G ottingen
1999) 31415. For the form ,pcuuc:tioicv in comedy, Gomme and Sandbach
on Men. Sic. 141, Kassel and Austin on Men. fr. 238. An analogous form is
Men. Sam. 233 :cuitioicu (Croenert: :cuticu l), from :cuitcv.
9He makes short-termloans at exorbitant interest to small-tradesmen. Millett,
Lending and Borrowing 17988, has a valuable discussionof this section, andshows
that the picture of his money-lending activities is realistic and not overdrawn.
Lane Fox 130 does not persuade me to the contrary. See also G. Billeter,
Geschichte des Zinsfusses im griechisch-r omischen Altertum bis auf Justinian (Leipzig
1898) 445.
<koi> . . . c: the added sci (Meier 1850/1) restores normality (I.2n.).
ot on its own (without preceding sci or utv) is used in these circumstances:
(i) in clauses where the inn. depends on cc or otivc, (a) to introduce an
antithesis, as if utv had preceded (IX.7, XII.10, XVI.4, 12, XXIV.8, XXVI.2
:cv ot ccv, XXX.16, 17; cf. M uller (1874) 234), (b) to introduce a second
clause which supplies as much an addition as an antithesis to the rst (VII.7
tc,,ttiv, tpcoin,ncci ot sci, VIII.2 tpc:nci . . . tpc :c0 ot tittv
(text not fully secure), IX.5 tcptv, c,tiv ot sci);
(ii) in clauses other than
these it is used as a connective, (a) introducing formulaic phrases (utti ot
sci II.9 (spurious), V.9, XXI.11, XXIV.12, XXVII.5, XXVIII.4, XXX.13,
18, utti ot otivc XIX.3, XXVI.3, otivc ot sci VI.5, IX.8, X.10, XII.8,
XIV.8, XV.11, XXIX.6, scvc ot sci 8 s.u.l.), (b) introducing quoted speech
(I.6, VIII.7, 10, XXVIII.4), (c) linking clauses in quoted speech (II.2, XXVI.2,
XXVIII.2, 4) or reported speech (VIII.8 tvci ot . . . sci (n. 50 above), possibly
So, inclauses where (as here) the innitive depends oncc or otivc, the reg-
ular connective (both between separate sentences and between clauses within
the same sentence) is sci . . . ot (68 instances: I.2n.); but ot sometimes introduces
a second element or antithesis within the same sentence (11 instances: i(a) and
i(b) above). There are three passages (beside this), in which ot (and not sci . . .
ot) is attested as a connective between separate sentences, and I judge that it
is reasonable to add sci in these too: VIII.8 <sci> . . . t,ti<v> ot, XVI.15
<sci> ucivcutvcv ot (Blaydes: :t V), XXX.17 <sci> uvctconucv ot. I
judge spurious two passages (VIII.6, 10) where ot appears with an anomalous
cok ccckitiv: the normal negative with innitives dependent on cc
or otivc is un (about 30 instances). But there are a few instances of co. In ve
the inn. has another inn. dependent on it, and co +inn. may be taken as a
single unit (KG2.182 (3)), and in three of these cv is present too: X.8 sci cos cv
tcci . . . usc:pc,nci, XV.10 sci c0:t cici . . . cv ttnci, XVI.9 sci c0:t
In VII.7, IX.5, and VIII.8 (listed under category ii(c)), ot sci seems to have much the
same function as sci . . . ot, which it would be possible (but rash) to restore.
ttinvci . . . ttnci, XXIV.6 sci tpcttv tpc:tpc cootvi <t>tnci,
11 sci c0:t . . . tcci cv tittv. In two others there is no such dependent
inn., but cv is present in one: XV.6 sci cos tytiv, 9 sci . . . cos cv otcutvci.
Here cos tcocsiutiv (like cos tcci, cos ttnci) forms a single unit,
with a second inn. dependent on it. Perhaps we should write cos <cv>
tcocsiutiv, and XV.6 cos <cv> tytiv, XVI.9 <cv> ttnci, XXIV.6
<cv t>tnci. For accidental omission of cv, XVI.3n. tcocsiutiv is used
with direct object at 5, IV.10; not elsewhere with bare inn. in classical Greek,
but with articular inn. X. Cyr. 8.1.47, Isoc. 5.75, Men. Dysc. 1867.
coc o cv ycpoov :po:yytv koi tou :c:ci covttiv: coot
is not . . . either (Denniston 1947), and cos tcocsiutiv . . . coot picks
up 5 unotuicv ciypcv tp,cicv tcocsiuci. It cannot mean not even,
because it is absurd to say that he does not disdain to be captain even of many
,cpcci at once, as if a more modest person would have been :pc:n,c of
one at a time (Jebb). cuc with tccv aptly brings out the multiplicity and
promiscuousness of his clientele. The words are regularly combined: e.g. Th.
5.17.2 uvcocv cuc tcc oiscicti tpctvt,sc:cv, X. Mem. 3.14.5 c cuc
tcc ticv, Arist. EN 1158
11 tpcv tccv cuc, Men. Epit. 166. Others
(e.g. Meister and Stein) take cuc with sci (for this structure, KG 2.231, LSJ
cuc a.3, Rijksbaron, Grammatical Observations 1434), which would indicate the
simultaneity of his patronage and his offer to lend money. But cuc does not
harmonise well with sci to (for which cf. XXX.4). Rather, he acts as if he is
in charge of the ,cpcci (this, not takes charge of, is the force of :pc:n,tv)
and at once, as soon as asked, lends them money. coot might, indeed, convey
a stronger point if it could be taken with a following noun (as XXVIII.5 un
tcytci unot :cu cisticu co:c0 ciocpnci) denoting the low status of
the market-traders (he does not scruple to manage even . . .). Any such noun
must be general enough to include butchers and shmongers, whose shops he
visits to collect his interest: coot sctncv (Jebb) would serve, but the change is
implausible; coo cv:ctccv (Diels), a plausible change, is too exclusive.
Not coot tcutccv (Ast), coot cpc (Blaydes). coot (Edmonds 1929) is
inappropriate (Denniston 234).
The ,cpcci are market-traders: X. Cyr. 1.2.3, Vect. 3.13, [Arist.]
Oec. 1347
34, 1350
26; cf. 2 ,cpcc. With ,cpcicv :pc:n,tv cf.
XXIX.6 tpc:c:nci gccv. Comic cooks are apt to picture themselves as
:pc:n,ci (Dionys.Com. 2.1112, Posidipp. 29, Sosip. 1.4456); likewise Plau-
tine slaves (E. Fraenkel, Plautinisches im Plautus (Berlin 1922) 23140 = Elementi
Plautini in Plauto (Florence 1960) 22331). For ocvtitiv, I.5n.
koi :J cpoyJ :kcv :po \ioio :J \po p::toi: there
being six obols to the drachma, the interest is 25% daily, an exorbitant rate.
For lending by the day see Millett, Lending and Borrowing 183; on the etymology
and connotations of :csc, ibid. 456. For the spelling -tic (Diels, Index s.u.:
-cic AB), M. N. Tod, NC 7 (1947) 223, Threatte 1.21516. For :n nutpc,
XXVIII.4 (conj.), Th. 3.17.4, al., Ar. Ach. 66, Lys. 32.20, 28, Pl. Lg. 766d, X.
Vect. 3.9, al., D. 20.115, 42.7, Aeschin. 1.97, Hyp. Lyc. 2, [Arist.] Ath. 29.5, al.,
Men. Epit. 137, 140, fr. 258; see on X.13 :c0 tvicu:c0, KG 1.387, Schwyzer
2.113. For the confusion of p and (t::tci AB), XXI.11, Diggle, Euripidea
koi tccttiv :o oytipto, :o iyucoio, :o :opiycoio: tgcottiv
is do the rounds of, inspect, regular in military contexts (Ar. Au. 1160, X. HG
2.4.24, 5.3.22, Cyr. 8.6.16), here picking up the gurative use of :pc:n,tv.
uc,tiptc is taken as butchers or cooks quarter of Athens by LSJ 3, citing Antiph.
201. More precisely, according to Poll. 9.48, Antiph. so described the place
where cooks might be hired (tn o cv sci uc,tiptc :cv tctc utpcv,
coy nittp :c citc :cv otc :c :tyvci tp,c:npicv, c :ctc
ctv uic0v:ci :cu uc,tipcu

c Av:igvn (201) ts :cv uc,tipticv

coicv . . .). This is the forum coquinum of Pl. Ps. 790. But, alongside sh-
shops, uc,tiptc will be butchers shops or stalls (LSJ 1, E. M. Rankin, The R ole
of the MAILlPOl in the Life of the Ancient Greeks (Chicago 1907) 435, Konstanta-
kos 2534; cf. Wycherley, Agora iii 205). For u,tipc equivalent to sptctcn
(IX.4), butcher rather than cook (5n.), see Rankin 646, G. Berthiaume,
Les r oles du m ageiros (Leiden 1982) 623, Arnott on Alex. 103.225. For shmon-
gers in the Agora, Wycherley, Agora iii 1956; their low repute, IV.13n., Arnott
on Alex. 16. As to spelling, not iyuctctc and :cpiyctctc (c). Metre
guarantees p:ctcicv at Ar. Ra. 112, fr. 1; cf. XI.9 uupctcicv, attested by
the papyrus (ii bc) at Hyp. Ath. 6, 9, 12, 19. For the asyndetic tricolon, V.10n.
koi :cu :kcu o :c tc(o:c ti :jv yvcv tkytiv: it was
the practice, for lack of suitable pockets, to carry small coins in the mouth (Ar.
V. 609, 791, Au. 503, Ec. 818, fr. 3, 48, Alex. 133.7).
ti :nv ,vcv tst,tiv
(the verb, 4) is the pregnant construction, collect <and put>into the cheek
(KG 1.5434). The verb which might be expected here is t,st:tiv (take a
mouthful of, LSJ Rev. Suppl., used in this connection by Ar. V. 791, Alex. 133.7
t,sc :c stpu ti :nv ,vcv; cf. E. Cycl. 629 t,scv:t citpc ,vci).
We might consider t,st:tiv for tst,tiv (rather than <t,st:cv>tst,tiv
Navarre 1918); but the less obvious expression has a certain directness (he takes
no chances, grabbing his interest direct from the traders tills and stufng it
into his mouth, in Milletts vigorous paraphrase). It is pedantic to object that
money, not interest, is put intothe mouth(ycsc0 for :cscu Casaubon). With
the expression :cu :cscu tc :c0 tutcnuc:c cf. XXX.7 :c . . . ts :n
tctc tgcoicv. There is no need for :cu :cscu <:cu> tc (Edmonds
and Austen before Navarre 1918); KG 1.61516. It is unclear whether :c0
Apractice shared by the Victorian poor (Dickens, Little Dorrit, ch. 16, antepenultimate
tutcnuc:c is his business venture, money-lending (e.g. Meister, Rusten), or
theirs (e.g. Jebb, Edmonds); perhaps it may be allowed to comprehend both.
[10] Epilogue
ci <:cic:ci>, :o :o t0u:cv tycv:t: a plural subject is introduced
(epil. III n.). The supplement restores a word characteristic of epilogues (epil.
I n.) and used also in the spurious VIII.5 (cf. genuine XXVIII.2, XXIX.5);
omission was easy in the sequence c :cic0:ci :c. Earlier proposals: c om. o,
c0:c or c c0:c (for c :c) Schwartz. Cf. Critias 6.89 ,cc . . . cuiv
| ti ciypcu ucu, LSJ c i.1.b.
po ciccpov koi tyytvci tyyi :Ji ovJi: see on 7 sci
tpcsccv:cv s:.
:o tpyo:(pio: the word embraces both workshop (Wyse on Is. 3.22,
Finley, Studies in Land and Credit 6571) and shop (here, epil. VIII, Ar. Eq.
744, Isoc. 7.15, 18.9, D. 25.52, Hyp. Ath. 6, 10, Antiph. 251), a traditional
place of idleness and talk (XI.9n.); cf. Wycherley, Market of Athens 4
(= Stones of Athens 92), id. Agora iii no. 615, Thompson and Wycherley, Agora xiv
Introductory note
Actv often connotes what we mean by pronouncing the word talk in a
contemptuous or impatient way: talking too much, or talking when action
would be more appropriate . . . , or talking out of turn when prompt and silent
compliance is needed (K. J. Dover, Aristophanes, Frogs (Oxford 1993) 22). This
is a fault for which Aristophanes blamed the sophists or Euripides (Nu. 931,
1053, 1394, Ra. 91, 917, 954, 1069, 1492), and some blamed Pericles (Pl. Grg.
515e). But often the verb has a neutral sense, talk, engage in conversation
(e.g. Men. Epit. 886, Pk. 470); and it is in this neutral sense that Theophrastus
uses it outside this sketch (I.2, II.10, IV.2, XX.2, XXIV.8, tpcctv XI.4,
XIX.5). See further Arnott on Alex. 200.4, S. Vogt, Aristoteles, Physiognomica
(Darmstadt 1999) 3202.
The Ac receives a more subtle and lively portrait than the Aoctyn
(III), and his talk has a different stamp. The Aoctyn inicts his company on
a single silent victim and detains him where they sit. The Ac nds a varied
audience: a passer-by (2), a crowd (4), occupants of school and palaestra (5),
fellow jurors, theatre-goers, diners (8); he follows his victims home (5). The
Aoctyn delivers disconnected commonplaces and does not know that he
is a bore. The Ac is a know-all, and proud of it. He is not always rst
to speak: but, if others start, he will interrupt, discourteous, patronising and
self-important (3), or, if they want the latest news from the Assembly, he will
give it, then add what they do not want, reports of old debates from home and
abroad, his own famous speeches, and his political opinions (7). He is aware
of his failing, but with no shame, for he jokes about it (9) and does not mind
if others do so (10).
Theophrastus is alleged to have put down a c with a deft turn of wit:
fr. 452 Fortenbaugh (Gnomol. Vat. 331 Sternbach) c co:c (sc. Theophrastus)
ci ttpittcv tttv c0picv t tc0 t:ci un iotv; (Fortenbaugh, Quellen
[1 ] Denition
The denition is almost identical with [Pl.] Def. 416a cic spcic c,cu
cc,c (Ingenkamp 103). It says nothing which would distinguish ci from
octyic. Cf. Stein 129.
t :i oo:jv 6ptoi cci:c: cf. def. XI co ycttcv ot t:i . . .
oicpicci; more commonly c cpci ctv and the like (def. I n.).
tvoi v ctitv: def. I n.
kpoo :c ycu: cf. [A.] PV 884 ,cn . . . spc:n, Ar. Ra. 838
spc:t . . . :cuc, Plu. Lyc. 19.3 n tpc :c ctv spcic stvcv :cv c,cv
tcit sci vcn:cv. The article is unwelcome; perhaps :i (def. I n.).
2 :cic: :i: not t:i :i (A); I.2n.
:i tv:uyyvcv:i titv, v 6:icv po oo:ov yy:oi, :i cotv
yti koi :i oo:o v:o cct ko, v kcyi oo:c, o(t:oi: for
co:cv . . . co:c0 (Edmonds 1908: co- AB), I.2n. ad n. With cotv t,ti
cf. Pl. Lg. 862a scttt ot t:t :i t,c . . . t:t sci unotv :c tcptcv
(LSJ t,c iii.6); for cotv (cootv A), II.2n. With co:c tv:c cot cf. Semon.
7.13 n tv: sc0ci, tv:c o tiotvci tti, Theoc. 15.64 tv:c ,uvcst
cv:i. Other talkative know-alls: Pl. Trin. 199211, Mart. 9.35, Juv. 6.40212.
3 koi t:ou ct ckpivcvoi tiotv to: cf. VIII.3 cos tc
tcspivcci. If ttictv is right, it probably has the same sense here which
it has in VIII.2 and in two passages classied under separate headings by LSJ:
2 Pi. P. 4.28 tticv gni (LSJ i.4, transitive add, contribute, hence of
speech throw in, mention) and Plb. 1.80.1 tg cv . . . tticcv . . . tgn
(intrans. follow, come next LSJ ii.5, speaking next in succession Walbank ad
loc.). LSJ associates our passage with this last and arbitrarily translates inter-
rupt. Stein (on VIII.2) adds two further passages: Plb. 22.3.8 ,tvcutvn . . .
uvnun :c0 citc tticcv (interjecting Walbank) c tpttu:n tc-
c :ivc oit:it:c c,cu t,scuicv :cv l:ctuccv, D.S. 13.28.45
tcci . . . :cv scnutvcv tcpncv. c o tticcv cpci gni :cu
:ci cpci :nv uugcpcv tugcvicv:c; What appears to be common to
all ve passages is the notion of throwing in an additional (verbal) contribution.
That contribution may be, in effect, an interruption; but interrupt need not
be the primary implication of the verb. That would be more clearly expressed
by otc- (o); LSJ otcc iii, MacDowell on D. 21.204. Not, however, otc-
ctv (Koujeas), which is take over from another speaker (LSJ i.3.a), and
this is the primary implication in the two passages of X. which LSJ i.3.b cite
for the sense interrupt.
-tiv (AB) must be changed to -ctv (either ttictv a (Torraca
(1974) 90), or otcctv Edmonds 1929), not because of preceding tittv
and following tcpicci, but because ttc must be coincident in time with
the inn. and cannot be coincident with a present. Present inn. -tiv
would require present part., as VIII.9 yt:itiv t,cv. For aorist part.
of a verb of speaking coincident with aor. inn., XXVI.5 tittv . . . gnc
(s.u.l.), XXX.9 tci:nci . . . gnc (similarly, with aor. indic., 7 ttc
noocsiuntv), Pl. Men. 77atcoc0vci . . . titcv, Smp. 214ctitcv . . . tti:ci,
Lg. 712c tcspivcci . . . titcv, D. 20.76, 29.25, 60.23, Arist. EN 1179
(KG 1.197200, Schwyzer 2.3001, Barrett on E. Hi. 28992). The mss. do, in
fact, offer two instances of aorist part. coincident with present inn. (7 sc:c-
itcv:c tc::tci, VIII.2 tticcv tpc:cv), and a third has been
introduced by conjecture at XXVIII.4 uvtticuvtci ttc (Cobet: tttv
, ttcu V
). All three can be set right very simply. The form ttc (V.2n.)
is reported from Ambros. E 119 sup. (21 Wilson) by Stefanis (1994a) 107.
u j tiyi ti ytiv: Do not forget what you are leading up
to, perhaps implying do not allow yourself to be distracted from your train
of thought by my interruption, but, when I have nished, resume where you
left off. For emphatic , I.6, VIII.2, 7, XVII.3, XVIII.9, XXVIII.3 (out
with imperative XXI.11). u un with imperative or equivalent is elsewhere
very common: e.g. H. Il. 9.600, Thgn. 1240, A. Th. 698, Eum. 227, [A.] PV
807, S. El. 1309, Ph. 922, OC 282, E. IT 1474, Or. 1027, IA 1135, fr. 1064.5, Pl.
Cra. 420e, X. Cyr. 7.1.17, D. 22.29. Many prefer the articulation Ltc ;
un s:. (AB), from which coherent sense (You astonish me: take care that
you do not involve yourself in self-contradiction Jebb) can be extracted only
with difculty. The same is true of the punctuation Ltc (un ttini)
c utti t,tiv (Ussher). In ttc ; <sci> un s:. (Foss 1858 before
Pasquali) the disconnected question has little point. Cf. Radermacher 2034,
Stein 12930.
E yt :i t ovyo: cf. Luc. JTr. 42 to ,t, c Tiucsti, c:i (u.l.
c:i ut) ottuvnc :cv s:., Nau. 3 to ,t . . . c:i nuc vcuiuvnsti.
expression combines (i) to ,t c:i (Ar. Nu. 866, Pl. La. 181a, 200a, Luc. Lex. 3,
Deor.Conc. 4, Tox. 35, Herm. 77, DMort. 6.6, 24.2, DMar. 5.1) and (ii) to ,t
ottuvnc (Luc. Icar. 13, Philops. 38, Nec. 19, Nau. 35 (conj.), DDeor. 11.4, D.C.
exc. Salmas. (3.764 Boissevain), Heliod. 7.10.5). Alternatives to to ,t in (ii) are
scc (Pl. Lg. 832a, Luc. DMeretr. 13.2), scc ,t (Pl. Phdr. 266d), ti sccv
(Pl. Hp.Ma. 286c), cpc (Pl. Tht. 187e, 208c, Plu. 932d).
'O opicv: Auberius proposed the neat transposition Lo ,t c:i ut
ottuvnc [sci] c tcptitcv; cf. Luc. Icar. 13 to ,t ottuvnc

c ,cp ui:c
typnv tittv, :c0:c cos co ctc tcptitcv.
Toy yt uvJko :o pyo: cf. Ariston fr. 14, VIII (p. 40 Wehrli) c
[:]cyu uvnsc.
Hoi t opt:(pcuv, ti ti :o oo:o tci ko:tvty(yi: see on II.2 tti
:c cvcuc co:c0 sc:tvtynvci.
koi t:po :opoyo :cio:o cpooi: :cpcy is an admirable con-
jecture for py (AB). The interruptions do not create beginnings (cues Jebb,
openings Edmonds, Rusten); they sow confusion, disturb the ow of speech,
These similarities are not evidence that Lucian was familiar with T. (Introduction,
p. 26). Both authors are using a colloquial form of expression, which was widespread,
as the following passages show.
put the speaker off his stride. Plural :cpcyci is very common. There is no like-
lihoodingcpu (d
e, vainly advocatedby Terzaghi) or tpioc (Navarre 1918).
:t yct vovtoi :ov tv:uyyvcv:o: he does not even recover (draw
breath, get a breathing space) fromthe last verbal assault before another begins.
So H. Il. 11.799801 c st . . . tcycv:ci tctucic | Tpct, vctvtci
o pnci ut Aycicv | :tipcutvci

ci,n ot : vtvtui tctucic, X. HG

6.4.24 ti o ttictci . . . ctt :c ,t,tvnutvcv tc, uucutc
vctvtcv:c sci vctcucutvcu sci uticu ,t,tvnutvcu :c n::n-
:ci c0:c ti uynv itvci, D. 18.195 :nvci uvttv vctvt0ci (stand,
rally, recover breath, before the next attack), E. Andr. 1137 co oiocv:t u-
tvc. Commonly, in this sense, respirare (OLD s.u. 2). No need for vctvt0ci
<tcci> (Coray) or uno <cv> vctvt0ci (Herwerden).
4 koi :ov yt :cu ko tvo cyuioyi: sci . . . ,t is attested again at 7
and XXVIII.5, and is acceptable in itself (Denniston 1578), but may be a
mistake (in all three places) for the more regular sci . . . ot (I.2n., VI.9n.). Here
Darvaris proposed [sci] . . . ot (impossibly).
:cu sc tvc people individually is not a regular use of sc tvc with the
article, but is linguistically unexceptionable (sc tvc is in effect adverbial, so
the expression is of the same stamp as c v0v: cf. M uller (1878) 12, KG 1.269
(c)) and comparable to :c sc tsc:c (III.2n.). Normally sc tvc stands in
apposition to subject or object. I quote examples where it is opposed (as here)
to a part of cpcc: HP 4.2.7 (scptcv) coy cpccv . . . c stycpiutvcv
sc tvc, Pl. Alc.1 114d c utv cpccu ttiti :c co:, c ot sc tvc, X. An.
4.7.8 tncv . . . cvpctci c tocunscv:c, coy cpcci c sc tvc,
Hyp. Eux. 33 :cu ot uscgcv:cuutvcu . . . n sc tvc n cpcu, Men.
Asp. 758 sc tvc utv | stiv (Kassel: scitiv B) tscutv . . . uvc,c,cv |
tv:c o pccu tscut; similarly Hdt. 7.104.4 Acstociucvici sc:c utv tvc
ucycutvci . . . ctt ot s:. See LSJ sc: b.ii.3, KG 1.480, Schwyzer 2.477.
tc,uicni enfeeble, unnerve (LSJ) is an admirable conjecture, far supe-
rior in aptness and interest to tc,uuvcni (AB) strip bare, which is not
elsewhere attested in a metaphorical sense (vanquish LSJ). That T. is con-
sciously alluding to H. Il. 6.265 un u tc,uicni utvtc is suggested by
(i) the use of the same part of the verb (-cni/-cni), (ii) an earlier use of
the same passage by Pl. Cra. 415a un icv, c ociucvit, spicc,c0, un u
tc,uicni utvtc. No other conjecture need detain us: tcsvcini c
tc:puycni Eberhard 1865, tctvini Bersanetti, tc:uutcvini Meiser,
tc,uuvni Navarre 1918.
ctivo koi ti :cu pcu [koi] uvt:yk:o cptuJvoi: that dele-
tion of sci (Meineke) is preferable to deletion of sci uvt:nsc:c (Cobet
1874) is shown by Pl. Ly. 203a cpcci uvt:ci, X. An. 7.3.47 u:v:t
cpcci, Posidon. fr. 69 Edelstein-Kidd cpccu . . . vpctcu uvt:c:c.
Other instances of interpolated sci: VIII.11 (A), XIV.5, 10, XXVI.4, XXX.8.
The language has a military note (observed by Jebb, whose translation I have
adopted in part); cf. 3 vctvt0ci, 7 uynv.
5 koi ti :o cicokoto ct koi ti :o oo:po tiiov: the oiocsctcv
was a primary school (Ziebarth, Schulen, REii.1a(1921) 7589, H.-I. Marrou,
Histoire de leducation dans lantiquite (Paris
1965) 83, 2212); cf. XXII.6, XXX.14.
A law attributed to Solon (Aeschin. 1.12) forbidding adults access to schools,
on pain of death, had evidently fallen into abeyance. With ti :c tcci:pc
tiicv cf. XXVII.6.
kotiv :cu oco pcovvtiv: for :cu tcoc, XVI.12n. For tpc-
ucvvtiv, Ar. Nu. 966 tpcuctv ciu toiocstv (Dover ad loc.), E. fr. 912.10
ccu tpcuctv, Pl. Lg. 643c :cv ucnu:cv cc vc,scc tpcutucnst-
vci tpcucvvtiv. Similarly tpcoiostiv (e.g. Ar. Nu. 476, Dover ad loc.). No
need for tpcu- (Auberius before Casaubon) or ttpc u- (Foss 1858).
[:co:o koi pcot :c oicc:poi koi cicokci]: tpcctv
(AB) must be replaced by tpcct (tpcct sci Sheppard, sci tpcct
Diels), since an inn. constructed with otivc could not be introduced by
:cc0:c sci. This explanatory comment is otiose. The formulation is com-
parable to epil. VIII c0:c sci sc:ctcvc0i :c tuocc,ici. Attempts
to integrate the clause into the sentence are ineffectual: (with tpcctv)
:cu ccu sci Reiske 1749 (Briefe 360), :c ,uuvuc:c sci Reiske 1757,
:ci co:c :t . . . sci Schwartz, :c ciuc sci Ribbeck 1870, :c tcu:cv sci
Ussing; (with tpcccv Needham) :cc0:c [sci] Needham, :nvisc0:c
Darvaris, :cic0:c sci Ast, :cc0:c sci <:cic0:c> Foss 1858, :cc0:c on
Petersen (before Navarre 1920, but with tpcct), :cc0:c . . . sci Blaydes.
<:c> oiocsci (Schneider) is needless; for the single article see on I.5
sci tpc :cu s:.
6 koi :cu ivoi kcv:o ctivo pcoi koi cko:o:Joi ti :o
ciko: Edmonds 1910 deleted otivc, perhaps rightly. Its reappearance (after
otivc 4) is unnecessary and abnormal (at XV.8, 11 and XXIX.5, 6 otivc
is followed not by sci . . . otivc but by otivc ot sci). Since the preceding
interpolated sentence (with indic.) interrupts the inn. construction, otivc
may have been added to clarify the resumed construction. I have suggested
that ouvc:c at VI.3 and scvc at VI.8 (both after interpolated indic.) may
owe their origin to the same cause. For tpcttuci cf. V.2; for tcsc:c:nci
ti :c cisic, Plb. 8.27.6 tcsc:t:ncv co:cv ti cscv.
7 koi ucvci <:o o>:J tkkyo oyytiv: tucutvci with-
out art., to people when they have enquired (VI.23n.). tucutvc (AB) has
much less point: tc,,ttiv calls for a dat. specifying the recipients of the
report (cf. XIV.7, XXI.11). The Ac, unlike the Aoctyn, sometimes
waits for the prompting of others (Introd. Note). The phrase <:c tc> :n
tssnic goes tc scivc0 with tucutvci and tc,,ttiv. The supple-
ment <:c tc> (Dobree before Kayser) is commended by IV.3 :c . . .
uic:c . . . tv:c :c tc :n tssnic oin,tci, in preference to
<:c>(Bloch before Petersen) or <:s>(also Dobree, before Eberhard 1865
and Fraenkel and Groeneboom). There is no allusion here (as Jebb supposes) to
a period of widespread disfranchisement under Antipater. At the best of times
the Assembly was attended by only a fraction of the citizens (Hansen, Athenian
Democracy 1302); the rest would have to learn its proceedings at second hand.
pcciyy(ooi ct ko: we might have expected sci tpcoin,ncci ot
The compound verb is rare: Philo Leg. 299 (Cohn-Wendland 6.210),
Luc. Per. 43.
:jv t Api:cv: c:t ytvcvyv :c p(:cpc yyv koi :jv <tv>
Aoktcoicvci ti Auvcpcu: he narrates the battle which once occurred
in the time of the orator Aristophon and the one among the Lacedaemonians
in the time of Lysander. These are not literal battles but (in keeping with the
military imagery observed in 4) gurative battles of words (Pl. Ti. 88a uyc
tv c,ci tcicuutvn; cf. gurative uytci VI.4n.). He is preoccupied not
with military history but with public speeches, his own and those of others;
the reference to his own oratorical success (c0 tc:t c,cu co:c s:.) sug-
gests (even if it does not demand) that a reference to the oratory of others
has preceded. He reports the latest speeches from the Assembly, and then
proceeds, by a loose association of ideas, to mention a dispute, involving the
orator/politician Aristophon, which took place in Athens a generation earlier,
and then an even remoter debate which took place in Sparta a generation
before that. Then he mentions the public speeches for which he once won
credit himself. His rst allusion is perhaps to the prosecution by Aristophon in
356/5 of the generals Iphicrates, Menestheus, and Timotheos, for their failure
in the Social War, and his second to the public debate in 400 between Agesilaus
and Leotychidas, claimants to the kingship at Sparta, when the citizen body
decided in favour of Agesilaus, in whose support Lysander had spoken deci-
sively (X. HG 3.3.13). So (cleverly, but unheeded) H. Weil, Deux allusions ` a
des faits historiques dans les Caract`eres de Theophraste, RPh 14 (1890) 1067.
Three simple changes are called for. First, tc:t (de) for :c:t. Sense forbids
(what would be most natural) that :c:t should refer to the time indicated
in the preceding clause. If we refer it to some denite time (on that former
occasion), it is otiose after tt Api:cgcv:c. It does not normally refer to
indenite time (sometime in the past) unless it is coupled with a contrasting
reference to present time (Diggle, Euripidea 4912). For tc:t (this is the only
Some descendants of A have <sci> tpcoin,ncci ot sci (Torraca (1974) 90).
instance of :c:t in this work), 7 (immediately below), I.5, XII.12, XVI.14.
Second, <tv> (Weil) Acstociucvici (as Arist. Rh. 1415
32). Third, tti (de)
for otc, two prepositions regularly confused (IV.9; Diggle, Studies on the Text
of Euripides 40, N. Hopkinson, Callimachus, Hymn to Demeter (Cambridge 1984)
115 n. 1).
On Aristophon (c.435c.335) see, for the ancient evidence, J. Miller,
Aristophon (3), RE ii.1 (1895) 10057, J. Kirchner, Prosopographia Attica 1
(Berlin 1901) 1445; for modern scholarship, D. Whitehead, Hypereides, The
Forensic Speeches (Oxford 2000) 232. According to Hyp. Eux. 28 he became
iyupc:c:c tv :ni tci:tici. Demosthenes lists him among his most distin-
guished predecessors (18.219 tcci tcp ouv, cvopt Anvcci, ,t,cvci
pn:cpt tvocci sci ut,ci tpc tuc0, Kci:pc:c tstvc, Api:cgcv,
Ktgcc, Opccuc, t:tpci uupici). His prosecution of Iphicrates was long
remembered; for Iphicrates replied to the charge with some neat quips, in a
speech which was attributed to Lysias (Lys. frr. 459 Thalheim; its authorship
is discussed by D.H. Lys. 12). The evidence for this trial (and those of the two
other generals) is presented by M. H. Hansen, Eisangelia: The Sovereignty of the
Peoples Court in Athens in the Fourth Century BC and the Impeachment of Generals and
Politicians (Odense 1975) 1002.
The term pn:cp connotes, in effect, politician: Hansen, The Athenian
Politicians 403322, GRBS 24 (1983) 3355 (= The Athenian Ecclesia II: A
Collection of Articles 19831989 (Copenhagen 1989) 124), id. Athenian Demo-
cracy 1435, 26871. The designation X. c pn:cp is conventional (D. 42.21
1ic:p:cu :c0 pn:cpc, Hyp. fr. 97 Jensen, Din. 1.38, Arist. Rh. 1398
Plb. 28.19.7, D.S. 16.54.2, 16.87.1). Similarly VIII.4 A:ticu :c0 con:c0 and
Ascv c tp,cc. For the word order (participle between Api:cgcv:c
and :c0 pn:cpc), XXV.5 :pcuuc:icv :ivc tpcgtpcutvcv :cv gicv
Many prefer a different Aristophon, the archon of 330/329 (v. Schoeffer,
Aristophon(1), REii.1 (1895) 1005), and refer the rst battle to one whichfell in
that year. Casaubonsuggested the victory of Alexander at Arbela (Gaugamela).
The battle itself fell in the preceding year; news of it reached Athens during
Aristophons archonship(D.S. 17.62.1; H. Wankel, Demosthenes, Rede f ur Ktesiphon
uber den Kranz (Heidelberg 1976) 268). Needham suggested the victory of
Antipater over the Spartans at Megalopolis. Again, this battle is normally dated
in the preceding year (Wankel 23 n. 46, Lane Fox 158 n. 14). More important,
the reference to Spartans in connection with the next battle implies that they
were not involved in the former battle. And, whether we choose Arbela or
Megalopolis, it will be necessary to delete :c0 pn:cpc (Fischer; Casaubon
had mistakenly supposed that the archon and the politician were one and the
same). As an alternative, Casaubon proposed to refer uynv to the contest
between Demosthenes and Aeschines over the crown (the pn:cpcv ,cvc of
D. 18.226), which fell in the archonship of Aristophon (D.H. Amm. 1.12, Plu.
Dem. 24.2). In this case, :c0 pn:cpc must be emended (since it was not a
single orators ght) to :cv pn:cpcv (Casaubon) or :cv pn:cpciv (Diels); not
:c pn:cpi (Holland 1897, for conformity with the following dative, which is
faulty). But the (two) orators is not an acceptable designation of Demosthenes
and Aeschines (rightly Wankel 29). In any case, tt Api:cgcv:c means in
the time of A., not in the archonship of A., which is tt Api:cgcv:c
cpycv:c (D.S. 17.62.1, D.H. Amm. 1.12, Plu. Dem. 24.2, Arr. An. 3.22.2). So
Aristophon is not the archon. He is the politician as the transmitted text
tells us.
Once it is accepted that the battle in Aristophons time is a verbal battle,
it follows that the battle with which Lysander is associated must be a verbal
battle too. Transition froma gurative to a literal battle (the favoured candidate
is Lysanders victory at Aigospotamoi in 405) is unthinkable. The dispute
surrounding the election of Agesilaus, and Lysanders role in that election,
were widely known: Plu. Ages. 3.35, Lys. 22.56, Nep. Ag. 1.5, J.-F. Bommelaer,
Lysandre de Sparte, Histoire et traditions (Paris 1981) 174, 1801, P. Cartledge, Agesilaus
and the Crisis of Sparta (London 1987) 11015, C. D. Hamilton, Agesilaus and the
Failure of Spartan Hegemony (Ithaca and London 1991) 269.
The only alternative worth considering is that the text is lacunose (Reiske
1757, Cobet 1874) and that :nv s:. refers to something other than uynv.
Nothing is gained by a change like :nv Acstociucvicv (de) otc Auvopci
(Ussing), hardly acceptable for the (battle) of the Spartans under Lysander;
for that I should expect <:cv> Acstociucvicv (KG 1.61516). And deletion
of sci :nv . . . Auvopcu (Hottinger) is implausible, since there was no motive
for addition (interpolation on a wider scale had already been contemplated
by Reiske 1757). Further implausibilities in G. F. Unger, Die Grothat des
Aristophon, Philologus 47 (1889) 64452, and Naber.
koi c0 c:t ycu oo:o to yocckytv tv :i c(oi: For ttc
(Needham, not Casaubon), V.2n. For noo- (Needham, before Edmonds
and Austen, Navarre 1920), II.2n. tv :ci onuci is in the Assembly, as
XXII.3 (conj.), perhaps XXI.11 (conj.), a very common expression. M. H.
Hansen, GRBS 19 (1978) 130 n. 14 (= The Athenian Ecclesia: A Collection of
Articles 19761983 (Copenhagen 1983) 142 n. 14), cites more than 60 instances
from the orators. Add from the orators Lys. 13.33, 65, D. 19.182, 297 (law in
D. 24.20, 50), from other authors Ar. V. 594, Nu. 432, Lys. 514, Th. 4.118.11,
14, 5.45.2, 8.53.1, 8.68.1, Pl. Alc.1 114c, Euthd. 284b, Grg. 500c, 515d, R. 565b,
X. Mem. 1.1.18, HG 1.7.20, 7.4.4, [X.] Ath. 1.18, [Arist.] Ath. 25.4. See also
XXI.11n., XXII.3n., Whitehead on Hyp. Eux. 24.
koi ko:o :v yv yt o ciyyctvc ko:yycpov optotv: for
plural tncv, LSJ i.2.b ad n. In place of ,t perhaps ot (Darvaris before
Hartung); 4n.
:t :cu kccv:o j:ci tiooi J vu:oi J t:ou
ko:otcv:o o::toi: ttictci connotes a verbal assault,
protest, object, implying interrupt, as VIII.5 (spurious), Pl. Grg. 469c tuc0
on t,cv:c [[:ci c,ci del. Hirschig]] tticc0, 506b tuc0 ,t sccv
tticuvcu, tv :i ci ocsc un scc t,tiv, Smp. 214e tv :i un nt
t,c, ut:cu tticc0 (LSJ iii.8). For the corruption (-c- AB), I.2n. Not
<:cv tpc:cv>ttic- (Immisch 1897), <tv:cv>ttic- (Fraenkel and
The form vu:ci (l) is attested in Dionys.Com. 2.43 and Asclep. AP
12.135.3 (Gow-Page, Hellenistic Epigrams 896), -ci (AB) in the Septuagint and
later (non-Attic) writers.
Present inn. tc::tci signies begin to depart (see on V.2 tcp-
pctv tpcc,cpt0ci). Aorist part. sc:citcv:c (AB) would have to be
anterior in time to present inn., and must therefore be changed to present
sc:ctitcv:c (Stein 130). See on 3 ttictv ttc. For ut:c with-
out part., as VI.7 (spurious), LSJ i.2a. No need for ut:cu <t,cv:c> or
<cc0v:c> (Herwerden), for conformity with 3 and 4.
8koi uvcikov ct kooi kpvoi koi uvtopv tooi koi uvctivv
oytv: a bare present participle often sets the scene or indicates the type of
activity on which the subject is engaged: IX.4 ccvcv, X.3 ui:cv, 12
ccvcv, XIV.4 tcpcv, XX.6 ticv, 10 tvicv, XXII.5 :pinpcpycv,
XXIV.13 tti:tcv, XXV.2 ttcv, 3 :pc:tucutvc, XXX.2 t:icv, 5
9 koi ytiv :i Xotv c t:i iov: sci t,tiv (l) is preferable to
t,cv (AB), which suggests that the explanations which follow account for (or
are in some way associated with) the behaviour just described. sci t,tiv (or
tittv) begins a new clause at IV.13, IX.8, XV.7, XXII.11, XXV.3, XXVI.5,
XXIX.5. Schwartz had already proposed t,tiv (without sci) for t,cv. For
c:i introducing direct speech, II.8n. The supplement uci (Kassel ap. Stein
132), not co:ci (Gronewald), suits the space in l. :ci ci (AB) reads less
naturally, and had already come under suspicion (:c cc Nauck 1850). For the
transition from direct speech (with rst person reference) to reported speech,
III.3, XXVI.4.
koi o tv oypi t:iv \ y::o: tv o,pci (HP 1.4.2, 1.14.3, of plants
which live in wetness, moisture) here combines the gurative notion of verbal
uency (as, in a different image, E. Ba. 268 t0:pcycv . . . ,ccv) with a hint
of something more literal. Cf. Pers. 1.1045 summa delumbe saliua | hoc natat in
labris et in udo est Maenas et Attis, Gell. 1.15.1 uerbis uuidis (Salmasius: ubi dis uel
(h)umidis codd.) et lapsantibus difuunt, ibid. 17 quorum lingua tam prodiga infrenisque
sit ut uat semper et aestuet conluuione uerborum taeterrima. For o,pc, Chadwick,
Lexicographica Graeca 297303.
koi :i cok v io(titv coc ti :v yticvov ctitv tvoi o:tpc:
the swallow is traditionally talkative (Ar. Ra. 679, Nicostr.Com. 28, Philem.
154, Phil. AP 6.247 (Gow-Page, Garland of Philip 2781), Arr. An. 1.25.8, Babr.
131.15; sc:in Anacr. 108, Simon. 101; garrula . . . hirundo Verg. G. 4.307).
But he does himself no credit with this comparison, since the swallow is also
a barbarous twitterer (e.g. A. Ag. 10501, Ar. Au. 16801, Ra. 93; Thompson,
Glossary of Greek Birds 3201). Cf. (proverbial) :pu,cvc ci:tpc (Leutsch
on Macar. v.49 (CPG 2.1834), Kassel and Austin on Men. fr. 309, Arnott
on Alex. 96), pcyic ci:tpc (Suda P 60, Diogenian. vii.99 (CPG 1.304));
Ar. Ra. 8991 utipcsic . . . Lopitiocu . . . ci:tpc. For this style of
hyperbolical comparison, W. B uhler, Zenobii Athoi Proverbia 5 (G ottingen 1999)
10 koi ko:tvc octvoi oo :v oo:c oicov, :ov oo:ov jcy
kotctiv cucvcv koyi: his children naughtily propose that he should
talk them to sleep, at the one time when he does not wish to talk, because
he wishes to go to sleep himself. The tables are turned: the man who has
prevented others from doing what they should be doing (sctiv 5 and 8)
is now prevented from doing what he wants to do. We need cucutvcv (a
few mss.)
scni (Hartung). cucutvc sttni (AB) is much less effective:
t,cv:c alongside sttni is otiose, and, if it is the children who are described
as wishing to go to sleep, their naughtiness (keeping their father awake) is lost,
and the joke (which comes in ctc s:.) is anticipated. co:c . . . cucutvcv
scni (Rusten), when he wants them to go to bed right now, and they stop
him by saying . . ., also spoils the joke and enfeebles scni. And co:c . . .
cucutvc sttni t,cv:cv (Edmonds 1929), who when it is late and he
would fain be sleeping and bids them do likewise, cry . . ., is clumsy.
ycv:o Ho, ti :i \v: cf. XX.5 :c0 tttcu, 7 c uuun.
Not :c0:c (AB, om. c
, del. Auberius) with t,cv:c, since T. does not
add the demonstrative to a verb of speaking before direct speech; t,cv:c
must stand alone, before the direct speech, like t,cv at VIII.9. The obvious
vocative is tttc, an affectionate address, particularly suited to a coaxing
request (H. Od. 6.57 lttc gi , cos cv on uci . . .;, Ar. Pax 120 nvis cv
ci:in: cp:cv tttcv ut scc0ci). To the instances of the voc. cited by
LSJ add Men. Mis. 614 Arnott (213 Sandbach), 649 (248), 969 (439), perhaps
Par. supp. gr. 450 (46 Wilson), according to Torraca 1974; also Marc. 513 (64 Wilson)
and Cantabr. (4 Wilson), which both have -cv with c s.l. In the preceding clause,
co:c0 (for co:c0) is in Cantabr. and (Stefanis tells me) in Ambros. O 52 sup.
(22 Wilson) before correction and in two very late mss. (25, 65 Wilson).
Theoc. 15.16 (conj.). See also Frisk 2.4712, Chantraine 8556, D. Bain,
Antichthon 18 (1984) 378, M. Golden, Baby talk and child language in ancient
Greece, in F. De Martino and A. H. Sommerstein (edd.), Lo Spettacolo delle
Voci (Bari 1995) 2.1134 (esp. 21, 245, 31), Dickey, Greek Forms of Address 81,
221, 223. For the spelling (tttc / ttc), Arnott, Orthographical variants
204. Homeric c::c (Casaubon) and :t::c (Needham) deserve no considera-
tion. Nor do recondite :c:c (Ribbeck, according to Bechert; only Myrin. AP
11.67.4 (Gow-Page, Garland of Philip 2577)), or unattested ::c (Reiske 1747,
1749 (Briefe 360), 1757) and :c:c (Edmonds 1910); cf. Headlam on Herod.
1.60, V. Schmidt, Sprachliche Untersuchungen zu Herondas (Berlin 1968) 11617,
Frisk 2.860, Chantraine 1096, Golden 212.
It is rational to change ctv (AB) to imperative (Auberius, who printed
ct but intended it as imperative, before Sylburg). Inn. for imper., mainly
poetical though occasionally found in prose (Goodwin 784, KG 2.202,
Schwyzer 2.3802, V. Bers, Greek Poetic Syntax in the Classical Age (NewHaven and
London 1984) ch. 6), is unwelcome in a style which is structured around inni-
tives. Their ubiquity (or the inuence of sttni/scni) will have prompted
the corruption.
o v \ 0vc yi: ctc alone (without cv) introduces a subjunc-
tive in a nal clause at XVIII.5 (conj.), XX.10, XXI.7, 11, XXIII.4, XXVII.8,
14, and regularly in Attic prose and verse. But ctc cv is also well attested
(Goodwin 328, KG 2.3856, Schwyzer 2.665, 671), and is almost invariable
in Attic inscriptions before the time of Theophrastus (Meisterhans 2534,
S. Amigues, Les subordonnees nales par Ol02 en attique classique (Paris 1977) 95
197 (cf. Bers 1645), K. J. Dover, The Evolution of Greek Prose Style (Oxford 1997)
82). Deletion of cv (contemplated by Edmonds and Austen) could be right but
is unsafe.
0tvc :ivc cuvti is the normal expression: S. Ph. 7667, E. Ion 315, Hp.
Epid. 5.2 (5.204 Littr e), [Arist.] Pr. 886
18, 916
2, 917
18, Alex. 279.2, Lyc.
766. So too Pl. Smp. 223b t . . . 0tvcv ctv, where the subject of ctv
is 0tvcv (Cobet (1858) 558) not t (LSJ 0tvc i.1), since 0tvcv :i cuvti
would be abnormal (D.C. 71.24.4 c0:t :pcgnv cutcv c0 0tvcv cgpcv:iv
ctv ouvutvc is exceptional). 0tvcv :i cpt:ci would be normal (h.Merc.
449, Th. 2.75.3, 3.49.3, D.H. 6.29.5, 14.8.1, Longus 2.7.4, 4.36.3), as would
0tvcu :i :u,yvti (XVIII.4n.) and c,yvti (XXV.6n.).
Introductory note
The verb c,ctcitv, in its specialised sense fabricate tales (LSJ i.2), belongs
to the polemical vocabulary of the orators: Th. 6.38.1 (the speaker denounces
alarmist opponents) c0:t cv:c c0:t cv ,tvcutvc c,ctcic0iv, And. 1.54
tc,ctcicuv c typci ttpi tuc0 cucutvci oictiv ut (also 3.35), Lys.
16.11 c,ctcic0v:c sci tuocutvcu, 22.14 c0:c o cutvci :c uugcpc
:c out:tpc cpciv c:t :c utv tpc:tpci :cv ccv tuvvcv:ci, :c o
co:ci c,ctcic0iv, Isoc. 5.75 :c0:c gucpc0v:t sci gscv:t spic
tiotvci . . . tccu tticui sci ui:c utv :cu :cv co:cv scscv
ttiuuc0v:c cvttp c c,ctcic0v:t, D. 4.49, 6.14, 21.198, Din. 1.32.
Hence c,ctcic D. 24.15, Din. 1.35. See S. Lewis, News and Society in the
Greek Polis (London 1996) 45, 7596.
The Ac,ctcic is a very different character from the Aoctyn (III) and
the Ac (VII). He is an impostor, who spreads news of his own invention
and uses a variety of artices to lend it credibility. On meeting a friend he
greets him with a smile and politely inquires after his health and his news (2).
But these are empty courtesies. Impatient to tell his own ctions, he will not
wait for an answer, and affects to believe that his friend has disclaimed any
news of his own and has asked to hear his (2). He assures him that his news
is tasty (3) and atters him that he has singled him out to share a secret (10).
He quotes unveriable authorities (4, 8) and pretends to be moved by the
misfortunes he narrates (9). His news is entirely centred on a single (allegedly
historical) event; and in that respect the sketch is unique. But he appears to
present his news about this event on more than one occasion, citing different
sources to different listeners (2n. :ci gici). For the persons alludedto andthe
historical circumstances around which this ction may have been fabricated
see the Introduction, pp. 2932.
The text as transmitted by AB presents a stylistic anomaly (several instances
of indicatives where we expect innitives), and may have suffered extensive
corruption, rewriting, or interpolation.
[1 ] Denition
The pairing c,cv sci tptcv is characteristic of the denitions (def. I
n.). But tpti, elsewhere actions of the character himself, are here actions
which he invents. Something has probably dropped out (cv <ti:ttci>
ct:ci Diels, cv <oicttipcv tuvvtci> - Navarre 1924), although
it is just possible that the writer meant actions which he wishes (to happen).
There is little point in replacing cv with ccv (Herwerden) or c (E. Orth,
PhW 45 (1925) 10535).
2 tou ov:(o :i oi: to is more effective with tcv:nc (l),
immediately on meeting (IV.13n.), showing how quick off the mark he is,
than with the following participles (AB). :ci gici is his friend. The article
is dispensable (XV.7, XXII.9, XXX.12), but is supported by XVII.2, XXX.5.
The friend is soon replaced by someone (7 :i). Since the meeting described
here will have been recurrent (the authorities cited in 4 are alternatives and
will not all have been cited at once), the identity of the friend will change from
meeting to meeting; so :i may stand for :i gicv. It is needless to delete
:ci (which, to judge by the space available, was present in l) or write :ci
(Eberhard, Cobet).

ko:ooov :o Jc

: and so probably l (s[c:cccv :c] nc suits

the space). It is hard to believe in this expression. nc is found in three
other passages, all spurious (VI.2n.). I rule out (what is linguistically most
straightforward) dropping his usual manner. For the verb in this sense, Luc.
Tim. 35 :c tvu :c0:c c,picv sci :pcyu sc:cccv, Lex. 1 :cv utv tp-
cvc ttoc sc:ct (drop the role of tpcv), Alciphr. 4.7.8 sc:ct :nv
ucpicv :c:nv sci noicv. It is unclear what his usual manner would be.
If a solemn one (abiecta grauitate Ussing, with nc mores . . . ingenuum
hominemdecentes), we need to be told this explicitly; we cannot be left to infer
it fromthe smile which follows. M unsterberg (1894) takes his usual manner to
be c,ctciic, which he drops temporarily while he asks his initial questions.
A distinction between rumour-mongering (normal manner) and questioning
(abnormal manner) is captious.
The verb is used of lowering the eyes (h.Ven. 156, h.Cer. 194, Ach. Tat. 6.6.3;
but not A. Ch. 574, adduced by LSJ ii.1). A literal lowering is not in question,
since a downward look is at odds with a smile, and nc does not refer to
the eyes. But a gurative lowering might be possible. Jebb translates giving a
demure, subdued air to his whole bearing. nc can mean a visible bearing
or manner (X. Smp. 8.3 coy cpc:t c . . . co:c0 . . . cpcv . . . :c nc,
Hyp. 3.2 :c0: tt,tv tcuocuc . . . :ci nti, LSJ ii.2b). But cast down
the bearing/manner is no way to say assume a subdued air; and, again, this
does not suit the smile. To translate uultu demisso (Ast), in the sense relaxing
his expression (Rusten), is to impute to nc a sense which it does not strictly
have. [Arist.] Phgn. 805
2 :c tti :cv tpcctcv nn (and similar expressions
Eberhard 1876 claims to have made the proposal before Cobet 1874, but does not
say where. It is not in his Obseruationes Babrianae (1865).
in 805
8, 806
30, 807
11, 27, 808
6; cf. S. Vogt, Aristoteles, Physiognomica (Darm-
stadt 1999) 2989) refer to traits of character as revealed in facial expressions;
and Philostr. Gym. 25 cgcucv nn (of facial expression, LSJ ii.2b) must
be interpreted in the light of the preceding ,i,vcst:c on :nv tv cgcuc
nisnv tccv (the expression of character by the eyes, LSJ nisc ii.1). In E. Cycl.
167 sc:cccv . . . :c cgp0 the verb is literal, lower the eyebrows (cf. PCG
adesp. 680 otcsctvci :c cgp0), in relaxation (Quint. Inst. 11.3.79 ira . . .
contractis [sc. superciliis], tristitia deductis, hilaritas remissis ostenditur), a humorous
inversion of the normal raise the eyebrows (Pearson on S. fr. 902, Arnott on
Alex. 16.12, 67). Stein suggests that sc:cccv :c nc, where the verb has
a less literally appropriate object, is comparable to X. Smp. 3.10 vctc :c
tpcctcv (where the more literally appropriate object, as shown by Ar. Eq.
631, is ut:ctcv, conjectured by Dindorf, perhaps rightly; for the corruption
see Arnott on Alex. 275.4). I decline to equate nc with tpcctcv.
Conjecture has failed: ut:cccv (Casaubon, comparing [Arist.] Phgn.
8 :c nc :c tti :c0 tpcctcu ut:cctv) is implausible, because
there is nothing here to explain a change of manner or expression (contrast
8 tpcctc . . . ut:ctnsc:c, where it is clear how and why expressions
have changed); sc:cccv Gale (s- :c :nc Herwerden), ut:cccv :c
toc Darvaris, ut:cccv Hartung, sc:cctv [:c nc] Mey, vcccv
Meiser, sc:cccv :cv u0cv or :cu ucu Sitzler, sc:cccv:i Ussher.
koi ticio tpo:Joi Htv ;: a unique reference to the facial
expression of the subject of the sketch (in 8 the faces belong to others); E. C.
Evans, Physiognomics in the Ancient World (TAPhS n.s. 59.5, 1969) 389, Forten-
baugh in W. W. Fortenbaugh et al. (1985) 274, Vogt (above) 978. For the
elliptical question, Pl. Mx. 234a L ,cpc n tctv Mtvttvc;, Phdr. 227a,
0 git 1copt, tc on sci tctv;, Hor. S. 2.4.1 unde et quo Catius?.
koi Ayti :i; koi H tyti;, po :c ct titv tktvcv Ko:
in the latter part, tpc :c[u o(t) tittiv tstivcv] scc [ (l, suppl. Gronewald)
nally solves the problem of how to articulate or emend ttpi :c0ot tittv
scivcv sci c (AB). Previous suggestions, all wide of the mark, need not be
rehearsed. For tpc :c0 withacc. and inn., HP9.17.3 tpc :c0 otinv ,tvtci
(M uller (1878) 3, Hindenlang 68), D. 18.33, 60, 19.73, 75, 236, 21.110, 25.8,
Aeschin. 1.128, Lycurg. 99, Arist. Cat. 8
10, [Arist.] Ath. 4.3, Mir. 837
16, Pr.
In the earlier part, it is possible but not certain that l had the same text as
AB: sci] | t,ti [:i sci tc tyti] | tpc :c[u o(t) (suppl. Gronewald). This
text raises two doubts. We might have expected sci . . . ot rather than ot alone
(VI.9n.); and, for all we know, lmay have had sci] | tpc :c[u o(t). Second, the
otcccv (Hanow) is not for sc:cccv (as Cichorius claims) but for tticcv
meaning of At,ti :i; is unclear. Perhaps Have you anything to say?, Do
you wish to say anything?. But the expression, in this sense, is unexampled (S.
Ant. 757 cni t,tiv :i . . .; is only a partial parallel); it would more naturally
mean Is there anything in what you say? (VII.2n.). Stein contemplates t,ti
:i <scivcv>;, and suggests that l may have had room for [:i scivcv sci tc
tyti]. This expression would be uncomfortably like the following un t,t:ci
:i scivc:tpcv; (where l may have had scivcv, and if this is right there, it rules
out scivcv here). And it is most unlikely that lhad scivcv, since the line would
then be much longer than any other in this column. Some prefer At,ti :i;.
The order is acceptable (LSJ :i b.1b, J. D. Denniston, Greek Prose Style (Oxford
1952) 48; in verse, E. Ph. 1338 t,ti ot :i;, G. Thomson, CQ33 (1939) 14752),
but the sense (You are saying what? = What is it that you are saying?) is not,
since he has said nothing (contrast :i t,ti; used differently in 3).
tiotv Epo:i j yt:o :i koiv:tpcv; koi jv yo y t:i
:o tytvo: not tticcv tpc:cv Mn . . .; (AB). There is no offence
in a direct question introduced by un. Such a question need not expect a
negative answer, but may imply only apprehension or hesitation on the part
of the questioner (F. C. Babbitt, HSCPh 12 (1901) 30717, Denniston 478,
Barrett on E. Hi. 794). But a question whether there is any news cannot be
followed by a statement that the news is good. No distinction is being made
here between fresh news and current news (Is there any further news? The news
that I have is in fact good); if there were, ,t would stand not with ,c (The
current news is good) but with :c t,cutvc (The current news is good). Thus
far, I am in agreement with Stein 1369. I add that (a) with tpc:cv the part.
must be changed to tticv (Edmonds 1929), coincident in time with the
inn. (VII.3n.), but (b) tpc:cv preceded by aorist tpc:nci and followed by
aor. tittv ought to be tpc:nci (aor. II.10, IV.13, XIII.7, XX.7; pres. XIV.2,
XV.4, XVI.6, XVIII.4, XXV.2, always in company with other presents). With
Lpc:ci un. . .; (Kassel ap. Stein) the speaker anticipates the questionwhich
(in his eagerness to tell his news) he pretends that his friend wishes to put to
him. The comment now follows logically: You ask whether there is any news?
Yes, there is in fact good news. For tpc:ci un . . . , II.10n.
The change of tpc:cv to tpc:ci requires the further change of tticcv
(AB) to ttictv (Stefanis and I independently). Stein believes that we can
dispense with an inn. before the direct speech. Ellipse of a verb of speech is
easy and natural when it occurs in a simple introductory clause, as [Pl.] Erx.
395e t:i o co:c0 :i cucutvcu t,tiv otcspcc c Kpi:ic u ,cp titt
uci s:.. This is the pattern in the examples (mostly from later writers) cited
by Stein and by E. Kieckers, IF 36 (1916) 236. These would justify 10 sci At
o co:cv t ucvcv tiotvci, but not the two other examples fromTheophrastus
cited by Stein: XVIII.9 sci :c tingci :i tcp co:c0 sci t,cui lccu;

co ,cp ycc tc ttuttiv, Mnotv tpc,uc:tcu s:.

(. . . tc, tittv Mnotv tpc,uc:tcu s:. Madvig), XXV.6 sci :c0
ctis:c0 ot :c tctuiscv nunvcv:c scnutvc tv :ni snvni Atc, t
scpcsc s:. (snvni <tittv>Pauw). Our passage has an even less straight-
forward sequence (. . . tpc:nci . . . tpc :c0 ot tittv tstvcv Kcc
tticcv Lpc:ci s:.). Such omission of the inn., in a clause which is
linked by ot to a clause which has an inn., produces an unnatural imbalance.
For the sense of ttictv, VII.3n. Here (as there) otc- has been proposed
(otcccv Foss 1858, otcccv Hanow 1860).
With un t,t:ci :i scivc:tpcv; cf. D. 4.10 ctt, titt uci, ttpicv:t
co:cv tuvvtci At,t:ci :i scivcv;, 11.17 tuvcvcutvci . . . t :i t,t:ci
vtc:tpcv, Acts 17.21 Anvcci ot tv:t sci c ttionuc0v:t tvci ti cootv
t:tpcv noscipcuv n t,tiv :i n sctiv :i scivc:tpcv, Plu. 519a un :i scivcv;,
594f tpcutvcu . . . un :i scivc:tpcv, also Pl. Prt. 310b cited below. For the
comparative, XVI.8n., KG 2.306, E. Norden, Agnostos Theos (Leipzig
3335. In l, as Gronewald observes, un t,[t:ci :i scivc:tpcv sci] | would
be much longer than any other line in this column, while un t,[t:ci :i
scivcv sci] would be the same length as the neighbouring lines. scivcv is just
as good (t,tiv :i scivcv Ar. Nu. 1032, V. 527, 1053, X. Mem. 4.4.7), but not
obviously better. Steins claim that scivc:tpcv is not attested in a question until
after Hellenistic times overlooks [D.] 12.5 (Anaximen. Lampsac. FGrH 72 f 41)
tcpc :i tc: t:ci scivc:tpcv.
With sci unv ,c ,t t:i :c t,cutvc cf. Pl. Prt. 310b lttcsp:n
tgnv co:c

un :i vtc:tpcv ,,tti; Oootv , n o c ti un ,c

,t. The news is good because the speaker welcomes it, not because (Stein) it
makes a good story. For sci unv . . . ,t in answers, Denniston 3535.
3 koi cok to ckpvooi titv T yti; cotv k(kco;: cf. VII.3
ut:cu . . . tcspivcutvci. What do you mean? Have you heard nothing?
amounts to Do you mean to tell me that you have heard nothing?. In his
eagerness to tell his own tale, he behaves as if his friend has indicated that
he has nothing to say. :i t,ti; was a conventionally aggressive opening: Ar.
Nu. 11724 v0v utv , iotv t tpc:cv tcpvn:isc | sv:ic,isc, sci :c0:c
:cotiycpicv | :tyvc ttcvt, :c :i t,ti ; (2
c:t ,cp :cu tvcv:icu
sc:ctnci cuciutc :ni :cic:ni gcvni ypcutc). A second question
often follows: Ar. Ach. 768, Nu. 367, V. 1378, Au. 57, 1233, Pl. 143, 388, Pl. Prt.
309d, D. 19.124, 21.195, 23.35, 32.15, 58.25, Strattis 13.2. For the form cotv,
cck c t tooy(tiv koivv yov: cf. IX.3 tocyc0, Pl. R. 352b toc-
yc0 :c0 c,cu, 571d t:ic c,cv sccv, Phdr. 227b :cv c,cv ouc
Auic t:ic, Ti. 27b :nv :cv c,cv t:iciv, Ar. fr. 162 ycp:ct :cv
ucvcioicv (Kassel and Austin on fr. 347.1), Men. Georg. 435 ccuci
,ccv c,cv . . . ,[t0]ci, Metag. 15, Luc. Smp. 2, Lex. 1, Shakespeare,
Macbeth I.iv.556 And in his commendations I amfed; / It is a banquet to me,
Much Ado about Nothing II.iii.20 His words are a very fantastical banquet, just
so many strange dishes. For the genitive, KG 1.3556.
4 He invents eye-witnesses, lending them plausibility by giving them names,
as Aeschines charged Demosthenes with doing (2.153, 3.99). Cf. XXIII.6
tpc:iti ticvc ts:ci :c:cv cvcuc:c.
koi t:iv . . . c yiv kykcvoi: this is very abnormal style, and I suspect
corruption or rewriting. Normality can be restored only by substantial change,
such as sci <gnci c> t:iv . . . co [gniv] snsctv[ci]. Below, too, other
verbs of speech in the indic. appear to have been interpolated (6 oin,t:ci)
or to have ousted innitives (7 gnti for gnci, 8 t,ti for t,tiv).
t:iv oo:i . . . opoytycvo t oo:J :J yy: He has (a soldier
etc.) arrived, as e.g. Hdt. 1.193.4 tii ot gi gcivist ttgusc:t vc tcv :c
ttoicv, not periphrastic perfect (a soldier etc.) has arrived. See KG 1.38
40, W. J. Aerts, Periphrastica (Amsterdam 1965) 3651, C. H. Kahn, The Verb
Be in Ancient Greek (Dordrecht and Boston 1973) 12644, Moorhouse, Syntax of
Sophocles 2056, Rijksbaron, Grammatical Observations 734.
J :po:io:y: a soldier, the noun unqualied, as e.g. IV.6 c0v n cvcv n
:p,cv, XII.12 tc, XVI.4 cgiv, 6 u0, XVII.5 cv:icv, XX.9 sntc
and u,tipc. No need for :pc:ic:n <:i> (Edmonds 1929).
J o A:tcu :c ooy:c: a slave regularly accompanied a hoplite
on campaign (XXV.4, W. K. Pritchett, The Greek State at War i (Berkeley etc.
1971) 4951, M. Launey, Recherches sur les armees hellenistiques (Paris
1987) 780
5). The con:n might play (i) to troops on the march or going into battle
(M. L. West, Ancient Greek Music (Oxford 1992) 2930, Pritchett 1058), (ii)
at sacrices before battle (P. Stengel, Die griechischen Kultusaltert umer (Munich
1920) 111 n. 15, Pritchett 10915), (iii) to entertain the commanders (H. Berve,
Das Alexanderreich auf prosopographischer Grundlage 1 (Munich 1926) 736, lists
the entertainers in Alexanders camp). The name Asteios is attested in Attica
( J. Kirchner, Prosopographia Attica 1 (Berlin 1901) 176, LGPN 2.76, J. S. Traill,
Persons of Ancient Athens 3 (Toronto 1995) 465) and elsewhere (LGPN 1.92, 3a.81).
Astias ( A:icu Reiske 1757) is no commoner in Attica (Kirchner 176, LGPN
2.76, Traill 4656) but is a little commoner elsewhere (LGPN 1.92, 3a.81).
Another possibility is Asteas ( A:tcu), attested in Attica (Kirchner 176, LGPN
1.76, Traill 464), and as the name of foreign residents (Osborne and Byrne 76)
and elsewhere (LGPN 1.92, 3A.81).
J Akov 6 tpycc: Lycon is a contractor, supplying the army with
unspecied equipment or services. For illustration of the range of contracted
work which this noun and its cognates can denote see Stein 1423. The name
Lycon is widespread (Kirchner 2.29, LGPN 1.291, 2.288, 3a.2801, Osborne
and Byrne 54, 87, 160, 309, 342).
5 [oi tv cv vocpoi :v yov :cio:o tiiv oo:c, ov coti v
tyci tiooi]: this feeble comment in the indicative is insufferable. The
language is typical of an interpolator: vcgcpci :cv c,cv (abstract phrase-
ology reminiscent of the denitions), utv cov (def. I n.), :cic0:ci (epil. I n.).
vcgcpci are not sources (authorities), but references back (to sources or
authorities); LSJ ii.1, Stein 1456. For the form coti, II.2n. ttictci is
attack, object to (VII.7n.), here with a non-personal object, as Pl. Tht. 184c
ttictci :n tcspitc nv tcspivni, ni cos cpn, X. HG2.1.32 ttt-
t:c tv :ni tssnici :c0 . . . ngiuc:c. In place of co:c0 I should accept
co:ci (ascribed by Cichorius to e; Stefanis conrms that he is right), advocated
by Stein (who compares XXI.4, XXIII.5), if I believed that this sentence was
6 [ciyyt:oi ct :c:cu kov ytiv] o: if this is genuine, we must choose
between (i) He relates (his news), claiming that these men say that . . ., an
intolerably feeble use of oin,t:ci without object, and (ii) He relates, claiming
that these men say (it), that . . ., a accid parenthesis unnaturally separat-
ing oin,t:ci from its object. The alternatives are discussed by Stein, who
concludes that (ii) is the lesser evil. But there are further indications that the
words are not genuine: abnormal indicative (4n.) and abnormal connective
ot (VI.9n.). oin,tci (Schneider) removes only a part of the offence. Diels
condemned c utv cov s:., but did not say where he thought the genuine
text resumed. Ussher condemned (as well as the previous sentence) oin,t-
:ci ot. But co gniv snsctvci, :c:cu gscv t,tiv is long-winded. I
delete all ve words, since co gniv snsctvci c gives a tauter construc-
tion (sctiv c HP 9.1.4, with genitive too e.g. Pl. Cri. 53d, Phd. 61e, X.
Mem. 2.4.1, D. 1.22). I assume that the words were added to give a con-
struction for c s:., after the preceding interpolation had separated this
clause fromits governing verb snsctvci. For this type of resumptive addition,
VI.23n. init.
Hcupyov koi 6 oitu yyi vtvkykt koi Kovcpc toypy:oi:
see the Introduction, pp. 2932. For the career of Polyperchon, in outline,
see Berve (4n.) 2.3256, W. Heckel, The Marshals of Alexanders Empire (London
and New York 1992) 188204. For Cassander, Berve 2.2012. The correct
spellings are lcuttpycv (B: lcut- A) (W. Dittenberger, Orientis Graeci
Inscriptiones Selectae i (Leipzig 1903) 12 n. 14, O. Hoffmann, Die Makedonen, ihre
Sprache und ihr Volkstum (G ottingen 1906) 156, Meisterhans 91, Threatte 1.507)
and Kcvopc (Dittenberger no. 5 (311 bc), Hoffmann 2089, Threatte
1.525). AB have Kcvopc here and 9, and there is no better reason
to accept this than there is to accept the regular misspelling Kcvopc
(Fraenkel on A. Ag. 1035). Stein argues that Kcvopc may be an accept-
able Attic spelling, because (in words other than this) Attic inscriptions tend to
simplify -- to -- (Meisterhans 94, Threatte, 1.51316). This tells against, not
for, accepting -- in a literary text.
Both uyni (B) and uynv (A) are possible, but the dative is likelier. uyni
viscv, very common with acc. object, is used absolutely at E. Ph. 1143, 1416,
1472, X. HG 7.1.35, An. 2.6.5, Isoc. 4.87, 12.254 (with the noun qualied, Hdt.
4.110.1 :ni tti Otpucocv:i uyni). uynv viscv is less common, and the
noun is generally qualied: Pl. La. 191c :nv tst, X. Cyr. 7.5.53 :nv ut,nv,
Isoc. 5.53 sci:nv, 8.58 :nv uynv nv tvisncv Oncci Acstociucvicu,
Aeschin. 3.181 :nv tv Mcpccvi uynv :cu cppcu visnc, [Arist.]
Ath. 15.3 :nv tti lcnvioi, 22.3 :nv tv Mcpccvi, Din. 1.73 :nv tv Ats-
:pci, Chron.Oxyrh. FGrH f 255.5 :nv tv Xcipcvici ttigcvt::nv uynv
Anvcicu sci Bcic:cu tvisntv. Possible examples of uynv viscv used
absolutely are X. An. 2.1.4 (u.l. uyni), Aeschin. 3.87 (u.l. uyni gives hiatus).
In Aeschin. 2.80 co :c :nv tipnvnv tc,,ticiv c :c :nv uynv
(u.l. :c uyc) visnciv the acc. was chosen to balance the preceding :nv
tipnvnv. See also on 11 ttcucyici sci vcuucyici viscv:t.
7 koi v tyi :i oo:i u ct :o:o i:tti;, Joi: for , VII.3n.
For ot introducing quoted speech, 10, I.6n., VI.9n.; introducing questions,
Denniston 1737. gnci is say yes, as XVIII.4 (LSJ iii). The inn. (for gnti
AB) restores normality (4n.). If indic. is retained, a present (vci, gni Darvaris,
gni Hanow 1860) is needless (Headlam on Herod. 4.57, Stein 149).
[:o pyo] coi yop tv :Ji ti: cf. Hdt. 3.39.3 :c tpn,uc:c . . .
nv tcutvc v :t :nv lcvinv sci :nv cnv Loc (LSJ cc ii.4). But
the postponement of ,p is highly abnormal (Denniston 978). Blomqvist 121
(followed by K. J. Dover, CQ 35 (1985) 342 = Greek and the Greeks (Oxford 1987)
66) cites HP 4.6.1 co ucvcv tv :c tti sci :c iuvci sci :c tc:cuc
,p (,p om. UM, rightly followed by S. Amigues, Bud e ed.; cf. Hinden-
lang 846) and CP 3.11.3 c nic t,ti ,p (,p is merely an unsignalled
supplement in Wimmers text; better c <,cp> nic t,ti Einarson). I
take :c tpc,uc to be the addition of a reader who did not see that :c0:c
(in the preceding sentence) can be understood as subject of ccci. Alter-
native remedies exist: :c tpc,uc ,cp - (Darvaris) or - ,cp :c tpc,uc
(Fraenkel and Groeneboom), postulating an improbable transposition from
regular order to irregular; <gcvtpcv> :c tpc,uc

- s:. (Navarre 1920),

improving on <gcvtpcv>gnti <tvci>:c s:. (Cobet 1874); <,t,cvtvci>
gni :c tpc,uc

- s:. (Edmonds 1929), based on an interpolation in c

(<,t,cvtvci>, probably designed to go with :c0:c ti:tti). For ,p intro-
ducing an explanatory clause with inn., IV.10n.
koi :ov ycv ttv:tvtiv: the compound is rare, elsewhere intrans. only
at Ar. Pax 515 (with personal subject); cf. intrans. :tivtiv (LSJ b.ii), tv:tivtiv
(XIII.3n.), tti:tivtiv (LSJ i.2cd), and other compounds (KG 1.94).
koi v:o uovtv [:oo:o yop ytiv tpi :J yy]: the clauses are
tautologous; anda further explanatory ,p-clause is anunwelcome appendage
to a sentence introduced by explanatory ,p. Alternatively uugcvtv [:co:c
,cp t,tiv] ttpi :n uyn (uugcvtv with ttpi HP 9.4.3, LSJ uugcvtc
ii.1). Hottinger proposed the larger deletion, not (as some have claimed) the
lesser. :co:c (for :c0:c AB) is reported fromLaur. 86.3 (10 Wilson) by Torraca
(1974) 91, Stefanis (1994a) 119.
koi cuv :ov oov ytycvvoi: the graphic metaphor, broth, soup, for
bloodbath, occurs only here. R. M unsterberg, WS 17 (1895) 318, adduces
J. AJ 13.243 :cv vtcv . . . :ci cuci :c:cv (cattle sacriced on the altar
in Jerusalem) ttpitppcivt u,ytc :c lcuocicv vcuiuc sci :nv t:picv
co:cv totticv. But this is based on D.S. 34/35.1.4, where cuc is a literal
broth made from the esh of a sacriced sow. The soup, sometimes made
from fatty animals like horse and pig (Arist. HA 520
810), might contain
bones (IX.4) and meat (IX.4n., Ar. Eq. 1178, fr. 606, Pl. Ly. 209d, Telecl. 1.8,
Nicopho 21.3; cf. V. J. Rosivach, The System of Public Sacrice in Fourth-Century
Athens (Atlanta 1994) 856, Pellegrino 131, Wilkins, Boastful Chef 149 n. 225),
and so is an apt metaphor for carnage on the battleeld. A variety called
cuc utc (XX.6n.) was also called cuc:ic blood broth (Poll. 6.57, Phot.
Z 70 Theodoridis, Suda Z 136). For a similar image (a bloodbath) cf. E. Rh.
430 cuc:npc ttcvc; for culinary images similarly applied, Ar. Eq. 372
ttpiscuuc: ts c0 stuc (Men. Sam. 2923 sc:csct:ti ,t ut | . . .
ti ttpiscuuc:c), Nu. 4556 ts ucu ycponv | :c gpcv:i:c tcpctv-
:cv, Pl. Mil. 8 fartem (s.u.l.) facere ex hostibus, Truc. 613 te hic hac offatim conciam
(Lipsius: ofciam codd.: ofgam Schoell; cf. 621, 626). Emendation is ruinous:
gcvcv ed. pr., cucv Pauw, cpcv Darvaris, oic,ucv Blaydes before
M unsterberg 1894.
The inn. ,t,cvtvci is not coordinate with preceding ccci, tttv:tivtiv,
and uugcvtv. Those innitives explain why he answers yes (gnci), while
sci . . . ,t,cvtvci is a factual statement about the battle. Therefore ,t,cvtvci
(like the following tvci) is constructed with gnci. M unsterberg 1894, delet-
ing sci as well as :co:c . . . uyn, constructs it with uugcvtv. But LSJ
(uugcvtc ii.1) attests the inn. only with the passive verb. If :co:c . . . uyn
were retained, it would be possible (but not preferable) to take :co: and
tcuv . . . ,t,cvtvci as joint objects of t,tiv (they say the same things about
the battle and that . . .).
8 tvoi c tou:i koi ytcv :o poo :v tv :c pyoiv: for ot . . .
sci, VI.9n. No need for nutcv sci (Blaydes). For tcu:ci (Edmonds 1908,
who in 1929 attributes it to Diels 1909), 1.2n. For the identity of :cv tv :c
tp,uciv those in ofce, political leaders (LSJ iii.2, Wankel on D. 18.45)
see the Introduction, p. 30.
6pv yop oo:o v:ov t:otyk:o: the present cpcv expresses the
continued effect of his (past) seeing, as commonly with verbs denoting percep-
tion (KG 1.135, Schwyzer 2.274; IX.2n.). co:cv (B: -cv A) must be replaced
by co:c (Wilamowitz ap. Diels 1909; declined by Foss 1861). co:c has point;
its position after the verb (Foss claimed that the order co:c ,cp cpcv would
be correct) is unexceptionable (IV.9, XIV.6, XVIII.3, XX.5, XXX.11). For
the type of error (anticipatory assimilation) see on V.9 sci cocicv s:. By
contrast, co:cv is misplaced: the natural order would be tv:cv ,cp co:cv
cpcv, as shown by the passages cited (in defence of co:cv) by Stein. co:<c
:>cv (Edmonds 1929) is less suitable; co: (Reiske 1757 before Kayser) is not
naturally followed by tv:cv.
<koi>ytiv c : addition of sci (VI.9n.) and change of t,ti (AB) to inn.
(4n.) restore normality at small cost.
jcy t:jv \pov Jkcv:o tk Moktccvo, v:o :o:o cct: who
has been here four days since his arrival, a regular use of the acc. with a
perfect (nscv:c is perf. in sense), as Th. 8.23.1 :pi:nv nutpcv co:c0 nscv:c,
Pl. Prt. 309d lpc:c,cpc ttiotonunstv; :: Tpi:nv ,t non nutpcv, Lys. 24.6
tttcuuci :ptgcv :pi:cv t:c :cu:i, X. An. 4.5.24 :nv u,c:tpc . . . tv:nv
nutpcv ,t,cunutvnv, Aeschin. 3.77 tocunv . . . nutpcv :n u,c:pc co:ci
:t:ttu:nsuic, PCG adesp. 1084.3 (Men. fab. inc. 6.3 Arnott) ttut:[c]v
,t,unsc unvc (KG 1.314 (b), Barrett on E. Hi. 9078). With tv:c :c0:c
cot cf. VII.2 tv:c cot. Not tot (d, Darvaris, Nauck 1863), less suitable after
preceding cpcv . . . co:c. Deletion of :c0:c (Schneider) is arbitrary.
9 koi :o:o citiov: the demonstrative (Casaubon) provides a suitable object
for oiticv, while tv:c (B) does not, and :c0:c tv:c (A; cf. XVIII.4) is too
close to preceding tv:c :c0:c. Since :c0:c and tv:c are easily confused
(Diggle, Euripidea 494), perhaps they were variants, A carrying both, B only
the corrupt variant. Less plausibly :c0 cuc c, cuc Ussing before Navarre
1920, cuc :cic0:c Stein.
ctt: a colloquial parenthesis, like Ar. Ra. 54 tc cti (V. 1428 coni.
Starkie), more commonly tc ocst (E. Hi. 446, Hec. 1160, Ar. Ach. 12, 24, Nu.
881, Pl. 742, Arar. 13, Diph. 96.1, Theophil. 2.2; cf. tccv ocst Ar. Ec. 399,
S. fr. 373.5 coni. Herwerden). Similarly parenthetic, Pl. Smp. 216d tcn ctt
,tuti . . . cgpcvn, Eub. 80.89 tniscv :ivc | ctt ut,tc. Not paren-
thetic but accommodated to the syntax, Ar. Nu. 1368 sv:c0c tc ctt ucu
:nv scpoicv cptytv;, X. Mem. 4.2.23 v0v ot tc cti ut uc tytiv . . .;,
D. 6.20 lc ,cp ctt, tgnv, c cvopt Mtnvici, ouytpc sctiv
Ouvicu . . .;, much like XIV.13 tccu cti . . . ttvnvtyci vtspc;.
See further KG 2.3534, J. Vahlen, Hermes 24 (1889) 4734, Pasquali (1926)
2479 = (1986) 8557, P. T. Stevens, Colloquial Expressions in Euripides
(Wiesbaden 1976) 39, K. J. Dover, Greek and the Greeks (Oxford 1987) 230. Stein
objects that a second person verb implies an auditor; but a stereotyped collo-
quialism (in fact merely the lively equivalent of an adverb, Barrett on E. Hi.
446) is not answerable to such logic. ctci (AB) cannot be saved by writing
tc (Diels), which does not effectively qualify oiticv (as Diels acknowledged;
he imputed the sentence to an interpolator) and is in the wrong place to qualify
ctci (he somehow believes Rusten); and ctci, taken with yt:itiv, is
weak. c ccv :t (Navarre 1918; for the construction, G. W. Butterworth, CR
33 (1919) 1517) is lame.
iov yt:itiv: this is the rhetorical technique of yt:icuc or
conquestio (ea pars orationis, qua conquerimur, et commoti sumus ex iniuria
uel aduersa fortuna, J. C. G. Ernesti, Lexicon Technologiae Graecorum Rhetoricae
(Leipzig 1795) 338), illustrated by Aps. p. 333 Hammer ynuci . . . ypnni
yt:ic:isc c:cv t,ni c :n tun ocsn:cu (tpcocsn:cu Bake)
:yn, andCic. Inu. 1.1067 conquestio est oratio auditorummisericordiamcaptans. . . .
id locis communibus efcere oportebit, per quos fortunae uis in omnes et hominum inrmitas
ostenditur. . . . primus locus est misericordiae per quem quibus in bonis fuerint et nunc quibus
in malis sint ostenditur, and practised by himat Att. 3.10.2. Cf. Arist. Rh. 1386
(pity is excited by disasters attributable to :yn). For ticvc, XXIII.6.
Au:uyj Kovcpc

:ooopc: nom. of exclamation (KG 1.46,

Schwyzer 2.656). For the adjectives, Dickey, Greek Forms of Address 1635, 286
7. The commiseration is here a rhetorical :ctc and is not at variance with
the earlier statement (2) that the news (which proves to be news of Cassanders
defeat) is good.
tvuJi :o :J :yy;: addressed to the friend, not Cassander (an exclama-
tionis not anaddress). For tvuuni . . .;, II.2n. Noneedfor tvuuc0(Schwartz).
For :c :n :yn, Th. 4.18.3, 7.61.3, E. Alc. 785, IA 1403, Pl. Alc.2 147a, D.
4.45, Men. Asp. 248, fr. 311, Dem. Phal. fr. 81 Wehrli (below), Ariston fr. 13, ii
Wehrli. Also (proposed here by Schwartz) :c :n :yn: Th. 4.55.3, S. OT977,
E. Ph. 1202, D. 4.12 (u.l. :c), Prooem. 39.2, Plb. 2.49.8, 2.50.12, 15.8.3, 25.3.9).
For the periphrasis, XXV.2 :c :c0 tc0. Various remarks on :yn attributed
to Theophrastus are collected in frr. 487501 Fortenbaugh (commentary by
Fortenbaugh, Quellen 21228). Demetrius of Phaleronwrote awork on:yn(frr.
7981 Wehrli = 82AB Stork et al. ap. W. W. Fortenbaugh and E. Sch utrumpf
(edd.), Demetrius of Phalerum: Text, Translation and Discussion (New Brunswick and
London 2000)), adducing the overthrow of the Persian empire by the Mace-
donian to illustrate how :c :n :yn ycttcv (sc. t:i); Walbank on Plb.
29.21, Dodds, The Greeks and the Irrational 242, 259 n. 37, Bodei Giglioni 92.

cv iyupo ytvtvc

: the lack of a nite verb is unbelievable. If

cov is right, <,t>,tvcutvc (Casaubon) is plausible (Denniston 4415).
Not Casaubon, who says only interpretes uidentur tvuuc0 legisse (uide Lycius,
considera Auberius).
iyupc, if right, will mean powerful, strong in ghting power (Chadwick,
Lexicographica Graeca 1667). There may simply be a lacuna: e.g. . . . ,tvcutvc
<v0v c tvn t:i> Foss 1858 (feebly expressed, but the general idea
may be right: cf. Cic. Inu. 1.1067, quoted above), <tcctv>Jebb. cc
cov (Holland and Ilberg 1897) does not help the syntactical structure; nor do
iyupc ucycutvc (Coray) or iyupc , uuvutvc (Wilamowitz ap. Diels).
The syntax, at least, is amended by c:ccitcpc, cc iyupc ,tvcutvc,
tvuuni . . .; (Auberius), more economically by c :ccitcpc (tvuuni :c :n
:yn;) cc iyupc ,tvcutvc (Herwerden before Edmonds 1908).
10 koi At c oo:ov t vcv ticvoi: for ot introducing quoted speech,
7, I.6n. It is possible to understand an introductory verb of speech (see on
2 ttictv), and so there is no compelling reason to mark a lacuna after
sci (Cichorius). But the text cannot be considered secure, in view of the cor-
ruption or lacuna which precedes. sci otv co:cv ,t ucvcv tiotvci t,tiv . . .
tpcotopcunstvci (Fraenkel and Groeneboom) is heavy-handed.
Not co:cv t, for (as ucvcv indicates) the pronoun is emphatic. Cf. Pl.
Grg. 472b cv un t co:cv tvc cv:c up:upc tcpycuci, Phd. 91a ctc
co:ci tuci c:i ui:c octi c0:c tytiv; contrast Smp. 198c un . . . co:cv
ut icv . . . tcintitv, R. 378b coot co:ci uci ocst. See Arnott on Alex.
112.34. For ucvcv in combination with the pronouns, Pl. Ly. 211c out . . .
co:c ucvc. There is no advantage in co:c (printed without comment by
Stephanus and Casaubon).
[i ct :c tv :Ji ti pcctcpykt yov]: cf. V.8 :c tv :ni
tcti oin,tci. Indicative tpcotopunst (B) must be preferred to -stvci
(A), since such a perfect inn. is not naturally constructed with cc, and, if
it were so constructed, we should expect <sci> tci ot (VI.9n.). But the
indic. prompts suspicion that the sentence may be inauthentic (Diels 1883),
a pedantic addition making explicit what may be better left inexplicit in the
preceding remark; and the perfect may betray the hand of the composer of
the lines which follow. Whoever is the author, we might consider changing
tpc- (tpcopcucv recurs at XXV.5) to tpc- (Coray; II.8 tpcopcucv B,
tpc- A; cf. II.8n., XI.9n., XXIII.7n.) or even ttpi- (XVIII.4; 2 tpc l, ttpi
AB). tpcuotopcunsti (tpco- Schneider) is a less apt tense. tci o <non>
(Herwerden) is uncalled for.
[11 ] Epilogue
The persons described here are public speakers, unlike the man described
above. The feeble moralising is typical of the epilogues. The rhetoric is more
than usually overwrought. Several features of vocabulary or style are shared
with the Preface (see Introd. Note to Preface) or with other spurious passages
(plural subject, epil. III n.; :cic:cv epil. I n.; c utv . . . c ot VI.7; ttpi:ti
tcicutvci VI.7; tvu epil. X; tp,c:npicv epil. VI; c0:c sci VII. 5, epil.
The use of the perfects tctnsciv and cgnsciv with no difference
in aspect from the aorist tcptotitvnncv is a sign of post-classical Greek:
E. Mayser, Grammatik der griechischen Papyri aus der Ptolem aerzeit ii.1 (Berlin and
Leipzig 1926) 176207, P. Chantraine, Histoire du parfait grec (Paris 1927) 235
45, Schwyzer 2.2878, F. Blass and A. Debrunner, A Greek Grammar of the
New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature (transl. and rev. R. W. Funk,
Cambridge and Chicago 1961) 1757.
ui:t o::cui: ui:tc (fr. 154 Wimmer (526 Forten-
baugh), X. Mem. 1.7.2, D. 61.3) is a likelier correction of ui:tc (AB)
than is <:c0>ui:tc0 (Wachsmuth ap. Cichorius). For the verb, LSJ a.ii.
t::cui (Nauck 1850) and ui:tn t::cui (Edmonds 1929) are no
:o i:io ct(koiv: the verb perhaps hints that they are guilty of
contributory negligence. It was a capital offence to steal cloaks from gymnasia
(D. 24.113), and to steal (presumably cloaks) frombaths ([Arist.] Pr. 952
MacDowell, Law 148, D. Cohen, Theft in Athenian Law (Munich 1983) 6983.
Cf. Pl. Rud. 3824, Cat. 33.1, Petr. 30.711, Sen. Ep. 56.2, D.L. 6.52; Ginouv` es,
Balaneutik`e 215, Gow on Macho 100f., Dunbar on Ar. Au. 497.
tcoyoi koi vouoyoi vikv:t: a conventional pairing of nouns (Hdt.
8.15.1, Th. 1.23.1, 1.100.1, 2.89.8, Plb. 5.69.7, D.S. 13.51.7), as with verbs (Th.
1.112.4 tvcuuyncv sci tttcuyncv, Lys. 2.47, Isoc. 7.75, X. HG 1.1.14,
Lycurg. 72); cf. Cic. Sen. 13 nec tamen omnes possunt esse Scipiones aut Maximi, ut
urbium expugnationes [cf. the following tcti . . . sc:c sp:c cpc0v:t], ut
pedestres naualesque pugnas . . . recordentur. For the dative, Hdt. 7.10.2 visncv:t
vcuucyini, X. HG 1.6.2, and on 6 uyni vtvisnst. But ttcucyic sci vcu-
ucyic (M unsterberg 1895) is an appealing plural and an acceptable acc. (e.g.
D. 21.169 vcuucyic vtvisnsc:t). By a common rhetorical device the speakers
are represented as doing what they are describing: Isoc. 5.75 (of c,ctcici,
quoted in the Introd. Note) :cytc ctcv:c :ci c,ci sc:c:ptgcutvci
(overthrowing the whole world), Liv. 44.22.8 in omnibus circulis atque etiam, si dis
placet, in conuiuiis sunt qui exercitus in Macedoniam ducant. The device is commonly
applied to writers (R. Kassel, RhM 109 (1966) 810 =Kleine Schriften (Berlin and
New York 1991) 3668, McKeown on Ov. Am. 2.18.2).
tp(cu cko o(koiv: by default, through failure to attend (LSJ tpnuc
ti :i yoi ko:o kp:c oipcv:t optctiv(yov: cf. Pl. Ba.
966 urbis uerbis qui inermus capit. The verb tcpcotitvtv is attested only in
Amphis 31.
coi yop tv :ci, coi ct tpyo:ypoi, coi ct pti :J ycp co
ciytptcuiv . . . ;: not (with datives) tcici ,cp co (AB) :cci . . . cos tvoin-
utptcuiv (Schneider, cos tvnu- Diels), since we do not want two negatives
in this sentence; nor (with nom.) tcic ,cp co :c, tccv ot tp,c:npicv
(AB), tccv ot utpc . . . co (Foss 1858, <co> co Nauck 1863 before Blaydes
and Cichorius) oinutptcuiv, since tcic ,cp co . . . <co> (or <co> co)
should properly be tcic ,cp . . . <co> co. The simple remedy is to replace
the rst co with tv (Ast, unaware that Darvaris had proposed tv tcici ,p the
year before). For omission of tv with the two following nouns, XXIV.11n., KG
1.5489, Diggle, Studies on the Text of Euripides 234.
Introductory note
Aristotle (EN 1108
315, EE 1221
1; cf. MM 1193
1) denes vciyuv:ic in
relation to a mean of cioc (modesty): excess of cioc is sc:tni (bashful-
ness), deciency is vciyuv:ic (shamelessness). At EE 1233
269 the modest
man is described as heeding the opinion of those who appear reasonable (:cv
gcivcutvcv ttitiscv), the bashful manevery opinion, the shameless mannone
(c . . . unotuic gpcv:icv ocn vciyuv:c). Elsewhere (Rh. 1383
15) Aristotle denes vciyuv:ic as contempt and indifference (ci,cpic
:i sci ttic) with regard to misdeeds which seem to lead to dishonour
(ocic). Indifference to reputation or to the opinion of others is character-
istic of the vciyuv:c: EN 1115
1314 c utv ,cp gccutvc (sc. ocicv)
ttitisn sci cionucv, c ot un gccutvc vciyuv:c, Rh. 1368
223 c o
vciyuv:c (sc. coisc t:i) oi ci,cpicv ocn, Pl. Lg. 701a :c ,cp :nv
:c0 t:icvc occv un gctci oic pc, :c0: co:c t:iv ytocv n
tcvnpc vciyuv:ic. Cf. Plu. Alc. 13.5 (quoted on VI.23).
The Avciyuv:c of Theophrastus takes advantage of others (credi-
tors, neighbours, tradesmen, guests) and carries off his petty sharp prac-
tices with brazen jocularity. He manifests his shamelessness solely in greed
and stinginess. The association between shamelessness and greed is tradi-
tional: Pi. N. 9.33 cioc ,cp otc spgc stpoti stt:t:ci, Pl. Hipparch. 225b
gicstpotv oi vciyuv:icv, Lg. 941b sctn utv ypnu:cv vtttpcv,
cptc,n ot vciyuv:cv, Isoc. 17.8 :c utv ,cp ypnuc:c tc tvci :c tcp
co:ci stiutvc sci ci vciyuv:ic, X. Cyr. 2.2.25 tpc . . . :c ttcvts:tv
gcopci sci vciyuv:ci, Is. 1.8 :nv utv cov :c:cv vciyuv:icv sci :nv
ciypcstpoticv, D. 27.38 :c0: co ut,n sci ttpigcvn vciyuv:ic; :c0:
coy ottpcn otivn ciypcstpotic;, Arist. Rh. 1383
2230 (vciyuv:ic
manifested in ciypcstpotic and vttutpic). See the Introd. Notes to XXII
( Avtttpc) and XXX (Aiypcstpon).
[1 ] Denition
For Aristotle vciyuv:ic is necessarily associated with indifference to rep-
utation; for him and for others it may be, but need not be, associated with
stpoc (Introd. Note). The denition makes stpoc a necessary associate, as
does [Pl.] Def. 416a vciyuv:ic ti uyn otcutvn:isn ocic tvtsc stp-
ocu (Ingenkamp 102). The two denitions are related to each other. Ours
could be based on the sketch, where all the actions of the Avciyuv:c may
be said to be prompted by stpoc. If so, ours was the model for [Pl.] Def. If,
conversely, ours is based on [Pl.] Def. (as others appear to be), then either [Pl.]
Def. is based on the sketch or both [Pl.] Def. and the sketch focus on stpoc
independently of each other. See Stein 16870.
o poi otv: def. I n.
ko:opvyi: cf. Arist. Rh. 1380
201 n o vciyuv:ic ci,cpic sci

cv ,c0v tcu sc:cgpcvc0utv cos ciyuvcutc. For similar

terminology see the passages cited in the Introd. Note.
cy oiyp tvtko kpccu: equivalent to ocic tvtsc stpocu in [Pl.]
Def. (quoted above). ciypc (ascribed to c
by Stefanis (1994a) 70) with ocn
(as D. 20.10, LSJ occ iii.3) is preferable to ciypc0 (AB) with stpocu, since
the epithet is less suitable here than in the denition of ciypcstpotic (XXX);
and tvtsc stpocu (B) to stpocu tvtsc (A), less likely word order (in view of
[Pl.] Def.), and tvtsc (a regular variant) belongs to later prose (Barrett on E.
Hi. 4536). For variations in word order between A and B, II.3n.
2 :cic: <:i>: for <:i> (added by Cobet 1874 before Diels), I.2n.
p:cv tv v c:tpt po :c:cv tovtov covttoi: whom he
is defrauding, by withholding money which he owes, probably a small-scale
loan, such as was regularly made between neighbours (Millett, Lending and Bor-
rowing 145). The verb tc:tptv embraces a variety of transactions which
involve another in nancial loss (D. Cohen, Theft in Athenian Law (Munich
1983) 1333). It commonly denotes failure or refusal to repay a loan: e.g. Ar.
Nu. 13056 tc:tpnci ct:ci | :c ypnuc cocvtic:c, Ec. 449 sci
:c0: tcgtptiv tv:c scos tc:tptv, D. 35.42 ocvtitci . . . vcu:isc
ypnuc:c sci :c0: tc:tptv sci un tcoiocvci (Cohen 1822). The
present tense (very common with this verb) indicates the continued effect of
an action performed or begun in the past (VIII.8n., KG 1.1357, Rijksbaron,
Grammatical Observations 14). The conjectures tc:tpntit (Schneider) and
tt:tpnt or tt:tpnst (Hanow 1860) are ill-conceived. For the acc. of
person (only), LSJ i.3, KG 1.328 (add Is. 9.31, 10.17, 34.27, 49.61). Aristotle
includes, among shameworthy actions, withholding a deposit (Rh. 1383
20 :c
tc:tpnci tcpcsc:cnsnv) and asking for a loan from a man who wants
his money back (1383
He returns (ttcvtcv, as I.4, XXV.7) to the man he is defrauding. This
conjecture makes explicit an important detail, and does so more convincingly
than tiv tcv (Herwerden). ttcv (AB) departing is wrong, since
there is no indication where he departs from; in XI.7, XXII.3 departure is
from a specied place; in VII.6, XVI.14 (conj.), XXI.11 it is from the place of
the activity previously described or implied; and so it is in X. Cyr. 3.2.2, An.
4.8.6, which Stein cites to support his translation of ttcv as returning.
If (what is not specied) he departs from home, that is of no interest; in any
case that would be ttcv (XVI.10, XIX.6, 7, XXVI.4). tttcv (Feraboli)
is mistaken: Theophrastus says tpctcv (I.2 etc.). For cv . . . tpc :c0:cv,
23 t:o < koi> o :c tc: there is likely to be a
lacuna, because c s:. brings a change of scene, and Theophrastus links
newscenes with a bare sci or sci . . . ot. At III.2 tpc:cv utv . . . t:c introduce
activities of which the second not only follows next in time the activity which
precedes but is also a logical sequel to it (similarly t:c alone, XIII.6, XXV.4;
sci:c IV.7). Stein claims that the picture is complete in itself, and that word
order (tpc:cv utv standing at the head of the clause instead of before tpc
:c0:cv or ocvtitci) precludes elaboration. But the missing clause may have
described a subsequent act of nancial malpractice at the expense of a different
party. Petersen, who (before Steinmetz) added the necessary sci, transposed
t:c before tpc :c0:cv, where it is not appropriate.
3 oo:o tv ctivtv op t:poi: cf. Men. fr. 225.4 vc . . . otitvni tcp
t:tpci. A sacrice is followed by a feast (P. Stengel, Die griechischen Kul-
tusaltert umer (Munich
1920) 106, Burkert, Homo Necans 67, J. D. Mikalson,
Athenian Popular Religion (Chapel Hill and London 1983) 8990, R. A. Seaford,
Ritual and Reciprocity (Oxford 1994) 4253, V. J. Rosivach, The System of Public Sac-
rice in Fourth-Century Athens (Atlanta 1994) 23, 910). It is customary to invite
friends and relations (Ar. Pl. 2238, Antipho 1.16, X. Mem. 2.3.11, 2.9.4, Isoc.
19.10, Is. 1.31, 8.1516, Men. Dysc. 61314; XXII.4n.) or send them presents
of food (XV.5n.). Not to share the meal is inhospitable (Luc. Tim. 43); to dine
out is shameless (X. HG 3.1.24 ciypcv tut :tusc:c tvitci otc c0 c
un tvitiv t).
:o ct kpo c:ivoi i o: cf. H. Il. 9.214 tt o cc, Ar.
Pax 1074 :co ci ,t tc:tc :cu:i, Crates Com. 16.10, Alc.Com. 17.2,
Archestr. 14.7, 37.8, 57.4 Olson and Sens (Lloyd-Jones and Parsons, SH 144.7,
167.8, 188.4); for tc:itvci, XIV.6, XXII.5. Salt is a preservative: Bl umner,
Salz, RE i.2a (1920) 2090, K. F. Kiple and K. C. Ornelas (edd.), The Cambridge
World History of Food (Cambridge 2000) 848, Dalby 2901. For salt in general,
Olson and Sens on Archestr. 14.7. F. Frost, Sausage and meat preservation in
antiquity, GRBS 40 (1999) 24152, misinterprets this passage (at 244) through
failing to recognise the syntactical relationship of this clause to its context (next
koi pckottvc :ov kcucv: this resumes the narrative which
began at co:c utv otitvtv tcp t:tpci and was interrupted by the quasi-
parenthetic :c ot sptc tc:itvci ci tc. The parenthesis might have
been expressed with subordination (co:c otitvtv tcp t:tpci :c sptc tc-
ti ci tc), but instead is coordinated, to neater effect. There is no
lacuna betweensci andtpcsctutvc (Edmonds 1910). Nor dothese words
begin a new scene (Edmonds, Stein). There is similar behaviour at XXX.16
(the Aiypcstpon) gp:tpc t:icv ci:tv :c tcu:c0 tciiv ts :c0 scivc0
ccv. But the Aiypcstpon asks; the Avciyuv:c takes without asking, and
adds to his offence by telling the slave, in everyones hearing, to enjoy his meal.
He means what he says. The Roman customof handing food to a slave for later
consumption by the master at home (Mart. 2.37.8, 3.23, Luc. Symp. 11, Herm.
11) has no bearing on this scene. Nor has the behaviour of the gip,upc in
Lib. Decl. 32.26, who tells his slave to eat, then signals to him to keep the food
for home. Contrast Ath. 128de.
For :cv sccucv, the slave who accompanies his master out of doors,
XVIII.8, XXI.4, XXIII.8, XXVII.12, XXX.7; Wyse on Is. 5.11, V. Ehrenberg,
The People of Aristophanes (Oxford
1951) 177.
ccvoi p:cv koi kpo o :J :poy po: cf. II.10 cpc :i :cv tc
:n :pcttn. The order which I have restored is more natural than that of
either A (oc0vci tc :n :pcttn cp:cv sci sptc cpc) or B (oc0vci tc
:n :pcttn cpc sptc sci cp:cv). The pair of nouns is badly placed, alike
in A (separating tc :n :pcttn from cpc) and B (parenthesising tc
:n :pcttn cpc). I assume that these words were omitted in an ancestor,
written in the margin or above the line, and then incorporated in different
places in A and B (II.3n.). During this process the order of the nouns became
reversed in B: the order cp:cv sci sptc (A), not sptc sci cp:cv (B), is the
norm (Ar. Eq. 282, Pl. 320, X. Cyr. 1.3.4, D.S. 33.7.2, Hp. VM 8, Int. 12 (1.586,
7.196 Littr e), Gal. 1.633, 6.571, 8.566 K uhn, Luc. Sat. 7; with words interposed
between the nouns, H. Od. 17.3434, Ar. Pl. 1136, and often). cp:c (cp:ci
XXX.2) is baked wheat-bread (Olson on Ar. Pax 1, 11921, Olson and Sens on
Matro 1.45 and Archestr. 5.1516, Pellegrino 512, Dalby 5861).
koi titv kcuv:ov v:ov Eooyc, Ttit: Tibeios is an ethnic
name of slaves (Men. Her. 21, 28, Mess. (PCG vi.2 p. 159), Per. 3, fr. 172, 241,
Luc. Gall. 29, Tim. 22, Philops. 30, Merc.Cond. 25, Salt. 29, DMeretr. 9.5, Metrod.
AP 14.123.11, Synes. Ep. 3), common in Paphlagonia (Str. 7.3.12, 12.3.25),
derived from Tibeion in Phrygia (St.Byz. p. 622.1213 Titicv (AV: -icv R:
item in seqq.) :ctc (cpc A) 1pu,ic tc Titicu (Ticu Kaibel) :ivc.
ts :c:cu sci Titicu :cu occu scc0i; cf. Suda T 555 Tiic

cn n
1pu,ic c0:c sct:ci, Leucon 4). See M. Lambertz, Die griechischen Sklaven-
namen (Vienna 1907) 71, Headlam on Herod. 1.1, L. Robert, RPh 33 (1959) 229
n. 5, id. Noms indig`enes dans lAsie-Mineure Greco-Romaine 1 (Paris 1963) 5301, L.
Zgusta, Kleinasiatische Personennamen (Prague 1964) 1556, Kleinasiatische Ortsna-
men (Heidelberg 1984) 1335, S. Lauffer, Die Bergwerkssklaven von Laureion (Wies-
1979) 129, Ch. Fragiadakis, Die attischen Sklavennamen von der sp atarchaischen
Epoche bis in die r omische Kaiserzeit (Athens 1988) 375, al., P. M. Fraser in S. Horn-
blower and E. Matthews (edd.), Greek Personal Names: Their Value as Evidence
(Oxford 2000) 152. The name, corrupted in AB, is found in the epitome Mand
its scholium Tiit ocuiscv cvcuc c sci Apcucv sci It:c sci :c :cic0:c
(which is of a piece with 2 uet. Ar. Ach. 243 tii ot sci tv :ni scucioici cist:ci
-cvic Tiic cic Acc It:c, 2 Luc. 80.9 cvcuc ocuiscv c lcputvcv,
cttp c Apcucv sci c Tiic sci cc cc tc ,tvcu sct:ci, c c 1p-
,ic, Gal. 10.4 K uhn It:ci sci Tiici sci 1p,t sci Opcist p,upcvn:ci)
and in Mc
(Introduction, pp. 3940, 43 n. 147), and was conjectured by C.
Salmasius (Plinianae Exercitationes in Caii Iulii Solini Polyhistora (Paris 1629) 47).
The spelling Titic is guaranteed by inscriptions (W. Schulze, RhM 48 (1893)
257 = Kleine Schriften (G ottingen
1966) 4212, Threatte 1.317, LGPN 1.435,
2.427, Osborne and Byrne nos. 8067, 2927, 7134) and is preserved in papyri
of Menander.
4koi ovv ct ociv(ktiv :ov kptcoyv t :i yp(ic oo:i yycvt:
the present part. ccvcv sets the scene (VII.8n.), when he is shopping for
cc. The word ccv embraces various kinds of food, such as meat (XXII.7,
and here), sh (LSJ i.3, Gow on Macho 28, Arnott on Alex. 47.6, J. Davidson,
CQ43 (1993) 62 n. 74), vegetables (XXII.7), all eaten as a supplement to bread,
the staple food. See further J. E. Kalitsunakis, O1ON und O1A PlON, in
Festschrift . . . P. Kretschmer (Vienna 1926) 96106, A. Hug, Ocv, RE xviii.1
(1939) 75960, J. Davidson, Opsophagia: revolutionary eating in Athens, in
J. Wilkins, D. Harvey, M. Dobson (edd.), Food in Antiquity (Exeter 1995) 20513,
S. D. Olson and A. Sens, Archestratos of Gela (Oxford 2000) xlixli, and their
note on Archestr. 9.2. Athenians might do their own shopping (X.12, XI.8,
XXII.7, Carey on Lys. 1.8) or leave it to slaves (XIV.9, XVIII.2, X. Mem. 1.5.2,
Oec. 7.35, 8.22, Men. Sam. 18995, Antiph. 69), but not to wives (II.9n.).
For butchers, VI.9n. For the noun sptctcn (rst here, next Macho 305),
G. Berthiaume, Les r oles du m ageiros (Leiden 1982) 623, J. Wilkins in Tria Lustra:
Essays and Notes presented to John Pinsent (Liverpool Classical Papers 3, ed. H. D.
Jocelyn, 1993) 123. Long before sptc- was restored by Blaydes, sptc- (AB) had
been proscribed from Attic by Porson (ed. Hec. (London 1797) x) and Lobeck
(Phrynichi Eclogae (Leipzig 1820) 6935).
To remind another of past favours is bad form (XXIV.3n.). For the turn of
phrase t :i ypniuc co:ci ,t,cvt cf. D. 36.44 tcc sci :ci ci tc:pi
sci ci sci cc :c out:tpci tp,uci 1cpuicv ,t,cvt ypniuc, Men.
Dysc. 320 sci ypniuc , t vn Ai ti :c cit uci, PCG adesp. 1093.80
o]vcuci ,tvtci ypni[u]c s,c :i ci, Alciphr. 4.6.1 :c utv cc tv c
co:ni ypniun ,t,cvc; Dover, Greek Popular Morality 2969, Whitehead on
Hyp. Phil. 10. For a similar request (to a shmonger) to throw in something
extra free, Antiph. 204.56.
koi t:yko po :i :oi i:o tv kpo, ti ct j :cv ti
:ov oov totv: for t:nsc, XI.4, Ar. Ra. 1378 tcpi:ccv tcpc :c
t:i,,t. For :cuc balance, scales, Chadwick, Lexicographica Graeca 259
60. With ui:c utv sptc, ti ot un cf. XVIII.7 ui:c utv un oc0vci, cv
o cpc s:. (LSJ uc iii init.).
We should probably take sptc, no less than c:c0v, with ti :cv cucv.
Soup needs meat (VIII.7n.). In default of meat a bone will serve, for it will at
least have scraps of meat on it (Rosivach (3n.) 856), and perhaps its marrow
will add avour.
For the prepositional phrase, XXX.18 tcicu :c0 ti :cv
yvcv, Ar. Pax 1263 (ocpc:c) ti ypcsc, X. Oec. 9.6 scucv ,uvcisc :cv
ti tcp:c . . . tn:c vopc :nv ti tcp:c sci tctucv, D. 4.28 tsciv ti
:nv vc0v uvc, Theoc. 5.98 t ycvcv uccscv tcscv; Diggle, Studies on the
Text of Euripides 289, 69. Although the words can equally mean throw a bone
into the soup (Pl. Lys. 209d tcutvcv sptcv c:i cv cn:ci tuctv ti :cv
cucv), the context leaves no ambiguity, and emendation is futile. Not u,cv
d), since this noun, while it can denote the scales in general (e.g. Pl. Prt. 356b
:nc tv :ci u,ci), properly denotes the beam, and so does not consort well
with tuctv, which invites the more specic t:i,,c (Pl. Ti. 63b :iti
ti t:i,,c, R. 550e tv t:i,,i u,c0 stiutvcu tsc:tpcu). Much less
cpcv (Ussing), cvcv (Naber), cucv (M unsterberg 1894). Additions such as
c:c0v <ci:tv> (Petersen) and tuctv <stt0ci> (Immisch 1923) lessen
the degree of vciyuv:ic and the relevance of his standing beside the scales.
koi tov tv yi, t tyti, ti ct (, po o :J :poy yckicv
o ytv o::toi: if he gets it, i.e. if the butcher allows himto have
it as a return for past favours (LSJ cuvca.ii.1 have given one, get, receive
(as XXIII.2); often (as XVIII.9) of getting from a vendor, a.ii.1.h, Fraenkel on
A. Ag. 275, Kassel and Austin on Ar. fr. 258.1, Arnott on Alex. 15.1819). This
is better than ni (d; the corruption, I.2n.), if he is undetected, because
surreptitious theft weakens the point of the preceding clause (the reminder
of past favours) and is not vciyuv:ic, unlike the brazen-faced theft which
follows the butchers refusal (Pl. Lg. 941b sctn utv ypnu:cv vtttpcv,
cptc,n ot vciyuv:cv).
The brief indicative phrase to tyti is perhaps acceptable (compare the for-
mulaic tc ctt at VIII.9). But it is tempting to delete it (Kayser 1860
before Herwerden 1871, Cobet 1874) and thereby restore an idiomatic ellipse:
Th. 3.3.3 nv utv uuni n ttpc

ti ot un, Mu:invcici tittv s:., Pl. Prt.

325d tcv utv tscv ttin:ci

ti ot un, s:. (LSJ ti b.vii.2, KG 2.4845, Good-

win 482, to whose citations may be added S. fr. 458, Ar. Th. 536, Men. fr.
659, Pl.Com. 23). Ellipse, however, is not invariable: Pl. Hp.Ma. 295b tcv utv
t0pcutv, si:c tti

ti ot un, :tpc.
We cant afford meat every day . . .. When I was a girl, said Lady Nollard, there
was an excellent cheap and nourishing soup or broth we used to make for the cottagers
on the estate. Quite a meal in itself, made of bones of course (Barbara Pym, A Glass
of Blessings (1958) ch. 2).
:pttc is a shop counter or stall (Wycherley, Market of Athens 1617 =
Stones of Athens 99, id. Agora iii 1923). ycisicv (elsewhere only Poll. 6.52) is
cows guts (uilissima uiscerumpars Ussing), diminutive of yci (Ar. Eq. 1179,
V. 1144), more commonly ycist (Ar. Pax 717, Ra. 576, fr. 83, 702, Pherecr.
113.15, Diox. 1.2, Eub. 63.4; Pellegrino 100).
5 koi vci ct oo:c ov ycpoi j ccu :o pc <uv>toptv:
the tvci will be visitors from abroad who are staying with him; perhaps
the occasion is the City Dionysia, which was attended by foreigners (III.3n.).
The Aiypcstpon borrows money tcpc tvcu tcp co:ci sc:ccv:c
(XXX.3). For tvci . . . co:c0, XIV.10n.
The visitors buy theatre seats for themselves and their host. A generous host
might have paid the whole cost; he fails to repay them even for the cost of his
own seat. With ,cpc (AB) the host buys the seats. This is awkward on
two counts. First, it makes no sense to say that he buys the seats and then fails
to pay his share, if he buys them with his own money. It would make sense if
he buys them with money lent by his visitors. But we cannot be left to infer
that he is using borrowed money; this would be a point of crucial importance,
and it would have to be stated explicitly. Further, having bought seats for his
guests, having failed to pay his share leaves it unclear (and commentators have
debated fruitlessly) whether he buys a seat for himself as well as his guests or
takes one of the seats which he has bought for them or squeezes himself into a
space smaller than he has paid for.
If his guests have bought the tickets and
he fails to pay his share, there is little scope for ambiguity: the natural inference
is that they have bought him a ticket, for which he does not repay them. It
has sometimes been inferred (from the unemended text) that tvci could not
buy seats themselves but must have thembought for themby citizens. Pickard-
Cambridge, DFA 266 n. 8, rightly declines to make such an inference. The
passages adduced by Ussher (D. 18.28, 44.37), with the approval of Arnott on
Alex. 42, are irrelevant.
tc is place for seeing from, seat in the theatre: LSJ iii.1 and the inscriptions
cited by A. S. Henry, Honours and Privileges in Athenian Decrees (Hildesheim etc.
1983) 2924. With ocu :c utpc cf. D. 41.11 uuctci :c utpc. The
compound <uv>tcptv (Cobet 1874, O. Benndorf, Z oG 26 (1875) 25 n. 1,
28), which recurs in VII.8, is highly desirable: he shares in the spectacle, but
not in the cost. Cf. IV.5n.
ytiv ct koi :cu ocu ti :jv o:tpoov koi :ov oicoyoyv: his
conduct on the previous day has established that he expects his visitors to
pay for his children and their paidagogos. For the phraseology, XXX.6 tti
There is a strange misunderstanding in Csapo and Slater 290 (He buys places at the
theater for his foreign guests, then does not give them the seats).
tcv . . . tcpttci c,cv :cu oc. For children at the theatre, Pickard-
Cambridge, DFA 2634; slaves, 265. For ot sci, VI.9n.; ti :nv o:tpcicv, Od.
56, Hdt. 4.113.2, X. An. 2.3.25, D. 19.15, KG 1.470 (LSJ ti ii.2).
Casaubon restored :cu uc, Edmonds 1908 :cu oc, for :cu c A,
:cu B. Editors prefer :cu ut (cd). Attic inscriptions show that o- not u-
was the normal spelling in 3rd declension forms from earliest times and in
2nd declension forms from the middle of the fth century, and that u- is
scarcely ever attested between c. 450 bc and c. 100 bc; and that after c. 350 bc
2nd declension terminations had replaced 3rd (Meisterhans 5960, 1445,
Threatte 1.33842, 2.2202, 735; also KB 1.5068, Schwyzer 1.5734, Arnott,
Orthographical variants 21516, and, for the distribution of forms in the mss.
of the orators, Wyse on Is. 2.2). Cf. XVII.7 uc V; XIX.2 ocv and ucv
conjectured for co:cv V; XXI.3 ucv V; XXVII.3 uc0 V; XXX.6 uc V,
ut AB. Stein, who advocates ut both here and at XXX.6, observes that the
earliest instance of a 2nd declension plural cited by Meisterhans (144 n. 1250)
is from the second century (oc IG ii
1236.3, dated ante 150 by Threatte
1.341, ca. 180 2.222). I add that Threatte (1.340, 2.221) cites two instances of
oci (ii
3856.2, post 250; 4031, init. saec. ii). The latest instances of ot (to say
nothing of ut, which was never a regular form) cited by him (1.340, 2.221)
are IG ii
103.20 (369/8), 218.17 (346/5). Plurals are rare. While we cannot
be sure that ot did not survive a little longer, there is equally no evidence
that it did. In the much commoner singular the 3rd declension disappears by
c. 350 bc.
6 tovyvc io: for the adj., III.3n.
7 koi ti :jv c:pov cikov tov covttoi kpi, c:t <ct>yupo:
deletion of :nv (Cobet 1874) is needless (XXX.8 :ci c:pici, sc. tcici; cf.
XXV.7). ocvtitci may be appliedtothe borrowingof goods (IV.11n.) noless
than of money (Korver, Crediet-Wezen 823). For spici, Pritchett 1856, Olson
and Sens on Archestr. 5.4, Dalby 456. The cyupc (wheat straw, II.3n.) are for
use, like the barley, as animal fodder (Pritchett 1823, Chadwick, Lexicographica
Graeca 578). For the ellipse of tc:t utv, Plb. 6.15.8, 10.30.9, 12.4.8, Ariston
fr. 14, VIII Wehrli (Wilamowitz on E. Herc. 635, Denniston 166). For ot, VI.9n.
koi :o:o <:cu> yp(ov:o voykoi cptiv po oo:v: cf.
XXI.8 :c utv cc tv:c oc0vci :ci tcioi ttvt,stv cscot. He might be
expected to repay such a loan in kind (Millett, Lending and Borrowing 319, 140
5, on reciprocal loans between neighbours). tpc co:c (Edmonds 1929) is
wrong: these comestible items were not returnable. So, for the same reason, is
<:cv> ypncv:c (Sicherl).
8 ctivo ct ko: VI.9n.
po :o yoko :o tv :i oovtoi pcttv: :cycsicare the bronze
cauldrons, presumably (as the denite article suggests) a recognised area in
the baths (similarly Teles (p. 41 Hense
) ap. Stob. 4.33.31 coic . . . tpc
:nv suivcv co :c ycsic [ycstc codd.]), plural of ycsicv, bronze vessel,
sometimes specically for heating liquids (Ar. fr. 345, Eup. 99.41, [Arist.] Spir.
20; D. A. Amyx, Hesperia 27 (1958) 21819), elsewhere associated with
bathing (Ar. fr. 109, Eup. 272, PMich.Zen. 65.2 (245/4 bc), Poll. 10.63); LSJ
Rev.Suppl. ycsicv i.2 (to which this passage should be added). Not ycstc
(AB, and LSJ ycstcv ii.1; for the misspelling, XVIII.4n.). Cf. Ginouv` es,
Balaneutik`e 205.
Better tpcttv (A) than tpctcv (B). In tpctcv sci c, the
sci (and then) links participles of which the former is anterior in time to
the latter. This (though it might have been expressed by tpctcv c,
like II.6 tpiutvc titvt,sc, VIII.2 tcv:nc . . . sc:cccv, XI.2
tcv:nc . . . vcuputvc, XVI.10 tpc:c . . . ttcv, XXII.9
tpcocutvc tcsuc, XXV.5 sttc otcccv) is regular enough
(IV.9 tpcsctutvc sci tticcutvc, V.2 tpcttuc sci tpc:nc,
XIV.2 c,iutvc :c ngci sci stgcicv tcinc, 6 ccv <:i>
sci tcti, XVI.5 tti ,cvc:c ttcv sci tpcsuvnc, XXV.4 tsttuc
sci sttc, 5 tpcopcucv sci cpptv sttc). But otivc is then
abnormally far from the inn. sc:cytcci, with three participial phrases
intervening; otivc normally has an inn. very close at hand, and only once
does a participial phrase intervene, and that a brief one (XIV.8 otivc ot sci
tccuvcv p,picv cgticutvcv up:upc tcpcctv). The structure
tpcttv sci . . . sc:cytcci is like IV.2 tcpttci sci . . . gstiv,
VII.4 tcptunvci sci gu,tv tcinci, XI.7 tpcttv sci uvnnvci, XV.7
nstiv . . . sci t,tiv.
koi o p:oivov cv:c :c oovo oo:o oo:c ko:oyooi:
cf. E. Hec. 60910 cc0c :t0yc . . . c tvt,st, Antiph. 26.24
sc:cstoc . . . :nv ut,i:nv | p:civcv oucv ts utcu cc :c0 t-
n:c | tcv:c 0oc:c. For the verb t:tiv, Bulloch on Call. Lau.Pall. 45,
Chadwick, Lexicographica Graeca 61. For p:civc, Ginouv` es 21314, Kassel and
Austin on Ar. fr. 450. The ccvt bath-keeper was owner and manager and
at times attendant (water-pourer in Ar. fr. 450, Pl. R. 344d, and by implication
here), and he was not held in repute (Ar. Eq. 1403, Ra. 710); Ginouv` es 212.
To pour ones own bath water became proverbial for self-help: Ar. Pax 1103
s,c ucu:ci ccvtc, on which Zen. iii.58 (CPG 1.70) tcpciuic, ccvti
tucu:ci oicscvnc. t,t:ci ot c:cv c ccvtu vcptn:ci sci tcu:ci :i
cuvni :nv p:civcv sci oicscvni.
koi titv :i cu:oi

iov kkt

: Atcuuci (Herwerden, already

contemplated by Foss 1834) could be right (direct speech after c:i, II.8n.). If
ticv is retained, it must be associated with a verb of speech. If it is to be
associated with tittv, the order tittv c:i tcu:ci (or Atcuuci) ticv
is awkward. We expect, rather, ticv tittv c:i (Petersen) or tittv ticv
c:i (Fraenkel and Groeneboom before Pasquali). In the passages cited by
Stein (XX.10 otci :cv tcpi:cv co:c0 tcc :i t:i :ci uvotitvc0v:i,
XXIII.9 gnci :c:nv tvci :nv tc:pcicv tpc :cv un tioc:c) the adjunct
has a different semantic connection with the leading verb and comes much
less awkwardly after the subordinated phrase. This difculty is not solved by
associating ticv with the later remark: <sci> ticv Boissonade, sctti:
ticv Hartung, ticv ot sci Ussing, sci:c ticv Jebb (for sci:c, IV.7n.),
ticv <ot> Holland 1897. For if the two remarks are simply coordinated
(he says . . . and . . .), there is no obvious point in his making the second
remark, as distinct from the rst, as he leaves. Contrast II.8 tittv c:i lpc
t tpyt:ci sci vc:ptc c:i lpcn,,ts t, where vc:ptc is ne-
cessarily linked to the second remark. A similar objection may be made to
the structure titcv (rather ttc, V.2n.) . . . ticv spc,tv (Foss 1858) or
ticv scs<y>tiv (Immisch 1923, i.e. scy- or sc,y-). The latter would
be like 4 ,tcv tc::tci. But sc(,)ytiv does not naturally intro-
duce direct speech (on this verb see D. Arnould, Le rire et les larmes dans la
litterature grecque dHom`ere ` a Platon (Paris 1990) 1614; add Ariston fr. 14, VIII
Wehrli vcsc,ytiv). The remaining conjectures: c:t for c:i Pauw (a tem-
poral clause superuous in sense and maladroit in expression); (for - ticv
sst) - tttitcv sstvc (sstvc already Gale) Coray ap. Schneider 1821, -
tpcsc sci Usener before Herwerden, Atcuuci scc sci Fraenkel and
Groeneboom(sci for sst already Petersen), Atcu:ci cicv, sssn (It has
been a cheap wash, you swab) Bury; (for sst) sstivci Auberius, ssttv
or sci t:i Needham, Kti Pauw (clamans me uoca, quousque uelis; Ast
takes it as summon me to court, which, as Jebb says, seems a rather cum-
brous joke), sci c:i Coray, spti (sptiv needed) Boissonade, sctv Foss
1834 before Ribbeck 1870, Kcc Blaydes, Kcp t Holland 1897, Ksti-
vcu Edmonds 1908, Kcst or Kcsc t Koujeas, sci Lst Navarre 1918, sci
Pasquali, <ot> Kcsiti; Steinmetz, sci Apst (or sci ticv Apst )
Ussher (his translation implies Apsti).
Oocto ci ypi: No thanks (are owed) to you, so dont expect
payment; cf. XVII.9 ypiv cgtitiv c notp,t:nutvcv, Hdt. 5.90.1 :c0:c
tcinci ypi cootuic tgcivt:c tpc Anvcicv, X. Cyr. 3.2.30 cootuicv
co:ci ypiv cgticutv, D. 16.12 cootuicv ouv ypiv tcui :n c:npic.
Payment is mentioned by Luc. Lex. 2, Ath. 351f, implied by Ar. Nu. 8357;
Ginouv` es 218.
Introductory note
Mispcc,ic, with its cognates uispcc,c and uispcc,tci, is trie-
counting, preoccupation with the petty: with unimportant details (Pl. Smp.
210d, R. 486a, Lg. 746e, [Pl.] Hp.Ma. 304b, Lys. 33.3, X. HG 3.1.26) or with
trivial pursuits (Pl. Tht. 175a, Isoc. 13.8, 15.262). It is often associated with
vttutpic: Pl. R. 486a, Arist. Metaph. 995
1012, [Arist.] Phgn. 809
22, VV
14 (quoted on def.); see the Introd. Note to XXI ( Avtttpc). And,
like vttutpic, it is often applied to meanness with money: Arist. fr. 56
Rose (p. 56 Ross) :cv ,cp tccv, c Api:c:tn gniv, c utv co ypcv-
:ci :ci tc:ci oic uispcc,icv, [D.] (Apollod.) 59.36 tcu:tn o nv, c
Mt,cpt o vtttpci sci uispcc,ci, Poll. 2.123 uispcc,cv ot Yttption
(fr. 255 Jensen) . . . :cv ti p,picv vtttpcv, Men. fr. 106.56 ctpc
,cp nv, u ot uispcc,c <

>co tcv | scivc tpicci, Ephipp. 15.10 c

uispcc,c t. : : u ot ,t icv tcu:tn, Ath. 44b 1cpyc gni (FGrH81 f
13) . . . :cu lnpc tv:c oopctc:tv sci:ci tcuic::cu vpctcv
cv:c, ucvci:tv :t co:cu ti t,ti oic uispcc,icv, tn:c ot gcptv
tcu:tt::c, D.L. 4.50 (Bion) tpc tcicv uispcc,cv, coy co:c,
tgn, :nv coicv sts:n:ci, n coic :c0:cv. tt,t :cu uispcc,cu
:cv utv otcpycv:cv c ioicv ttiuttci, c o t c:picv unotv
The Mispcc,c exemplies this narrower use. He is comparable to the
persons whom Aristotle calls siui (skinint) and suuivctpi:n (13n.). In
EN 1119
27ff. Aristotle says that vttutpic has two sides, deciency in giv-
ing and excess in getting. Those who exceed in getting are ciypcstpot.
Those who are decient in giving are gtiocci, ,iypci, siuist (1121
and those who are excessively reluctant to give anything at all have names like
suuivctpi:ci (1121
268). In EE 1232
14 the siui is described as fussing
over tries (gcopcttpi uispcoic:tivcutvc). In[Arist.] VV1251
9 (quotedon
def.) his expenditure is small-scale (sc:c uispcv). [Arist.] MM 1192
89 com-
bines (as representatives of vttutpic:n) siuisc . . . sci suuivctpi:c
sci ciypcstpot sci uispcc,cu. Cf. Konstantakos 1356.
The Mispcc,c is mean and petty. His motive is not greed, and he does
not wish to prot at the expense of others, like the Aiypcstpon (XXX). He
is afraid that others will take advantage of him, and is obsessed with keeping
what is his own; and others pay the price for his petty economies and his jealous
insistence on his rights.
[1 ] Denition
The sketch illustrates more than sparing of expense (Introd. Note ad n.).
Stein plausibly suggests that the author had an eye on [Arist.] VV 1251
where all the words in the denition (or their equivalent) are found within a
short compass: gtiocic ot sc nv otcvci ,ivcv:ci :cv ypnu:cv ti :c

siuisic ot sc nv octcvci utv, sc:c uispcv ot sci scsc, sci ttic

t:cv:ci :ci un sc:c scipcv tpctci :c oigcpcv. . . . sccut ot :ni
vttutpici uispcc,ic.
:c ciopcu: either expenditure ([Arist.] VV 1250
27, 1251
34, 1251
plural :c oigcpc D. 32.18; LSJ ii.4.a) or ready money, cash (inscriptions
from 3rd cent. onwards; LSJ ii.4.b). Cf. Wendland 115, Korver, Crediet-Wezen
2 tv :i yvi \ioicv oi:tv

ti :jv cikov

: he demands back half

an obol in or within the month, presumably as payment of interest (interest is
object of tci:tv at XII.11, XVIII.5). It was customary to calculate interest
monthly (Ar. Nu. 756, D. 37.5, 53.13, Aeschin. 3.104; monthly accounting,
Hyp. Ath. 19; Millett, Lending and Borrowing 103), and to collect it either monthly
(Ar. Nu. 1718) or annually (D. 50.61). A normal rate of interest would be 1%
per month (Millett 92, 1048). At this rate, monthly interest of half an obol
represents a modest loanof 50 obols. But he is asking for his interest (with)inthe
month. If he is pestering his debtor before the monthly payment is due, he is
going beyond his legal right, and this is out of character. Perhaps he has made
a short-term loan, of less than a months duration. Short-term loans might
attract much heavier interest. The Atcvtvcnutvc (VI.9) charges one and a
half obols to the drachma (25%) per day. Alternatively, whatever the duration
of the loan, he has stipulated repayment of half an obol within the month, i.e.
by the end of the month in which the loan was made. This use of tv accords with
And. 1.83 (a decree) tcpcoiocv:cv . . . tv :ciot :ci unvi (they are to deliver
this month), IG xii.7 69.19 repayment of capital tv :piunvci, SIG
repayment tv t univ (both from Amorgos, iv/iii bc); cf. LSJ tv a.iv.2, KG
1.464, Schwyzer 2.458. In the contracts cited by Stein payment is required
in a named month. This is regular (another instance which comes to hand is
IG xii.7 67.6 (iv/iii bc?), repayment tv unvi lccyyici). But this is not the
same as payment in the (unspecied) month. At all events, the nature of his
uispcc,ic is clear: he takes the trouble (perhaps makes a special journey) to
collect a paltry sum. Emendationis unwise: tv :ci ocvtini Herwerden, ts:ci
unvi Cobet 1874, ts:ci unvi Blaydes. For the spelling nuicticv, VI.9n.
Either the words tti :nv cisicv are corrupt or something is missing. Stein
(following Holland 1897) explains them as a stipulation in the contract (hence
Rusten, stipulates the repayment of a half-cent within the month, to his
house), adducing contracts from Ptolemaic Egypt which stipulate the return
of borrowed items (but not money) to the lenders house (H.-A. Rupprecht,
Untersuchungen zum Darlehen im Recht der graeco-aegyptischen Papyri der Ptolem aerzeit
(Munich 1967) 678). It is unsafe to use papyri as evidence for institutions of
mainland Greece (Millett, Lending and Borrowing 253 n. 44). Even if we allow
(for the sake of argument) that an Athenian might contract for the return of
money (as opposed to borrowed items) to his house, there will be an awkward
brachylogy, inadequately supported by VI.9 :cu :cscu . . . ti :nv ,vcv
tst,tiv, Timocl. 11.4 ccvti tcp co:cv cisot (which are much easier)
and V.8 ,cptiv . . . tvci . . . ti Buv:icv (where I look for a different
construction). The most plausible solution is <tcv> (c) tti :nv cisicv (like
IX.7 tti :nv c:picv cisicv tcv ocvtitci), which adds a telling detail
(a special journey tocollect a trie). Withtti :ni cisici (Casaubon) the half obol
becomes the small amount by which rent for the house has been underpaid,
anidea not easy to extract fromthe words. The rearrangement . . . tci:tv tti
:ni cisici ui:cv sci piutv s:. (Coray; J. M. Gesner had proposed . . .
tti :nv cisicv <:cv> ui:cv sci) reads awkwardly. tti:csicv (Unger
1886) gives an odd expression (to demand half an obol as compound interest) and
disastrously anticipates the mention of compound interest at 10. octcvcv ti
:nv cisicv (Petersen) gives reasonable sense, to spend half an obol on (the
upkeep of) the house, but does not suit tv :ci unvi (we should expect :c0
unvc monthly).
34 The rst part (3) presupposes a ottvcv tc uuccv (LSJ uucn
iv.a, Mau, Convivium, REiv.1 (1900) 1202, M uri, uucn, REiv.1a (1931)
1090, Gow on Macho 445 and 315, Arnott on Alex. 15). The Mispcc,c
counts how many cups of wine each guest has drunk, so that he will not be
charged for more than his own share. For niggardly behaviour in a similar
setting cf. XXX.18. The second part (4), which is lacunose, suits the same
situation: when the person who has bought the food and drink is settling the
accounts, the Mispcc,c claims that he paid too much for items which in
fact he bought cheaply. In Ephipp. 15 one character urges another to buy
economically for dinner. In Alex. 15 a guest disputes the accounts with the
buyer. It is possible, however, to explain 4 in other terms: the Mispcc,c
disputes the account with an agent who has made purchases for him, much as
in [Arist.] Oec. 1352
48 tc:tic :t :ivc tt ,cpcu :i sci cicutvc
c:i tocvcv tti:t:ynstv, co:ci ot utti ts:t:iunutvc c,itci, tpc
:cu uvnti :c0 ,cpc:c0 tt,tv c:i snscc tn :c ,cpuc:c co:cv
ottp:iuic n,cpcstvci

co:c cov co tpcttiv. See Millett, Sale, credit and

exchange 188.
3 koi [6] ui:v pitv :o kiko o tko:c okt: the
unwanted article may be a casual intrusion (IV.10n.) or the vestige of an
intrusive cc (6). It does not point to cuci:cv (Dietrich ap. Holland 1897),
which substitutes a non-Attic verb (Hdt. 1.146.3, cuci:c 7.119.3; the latter
deliberately avoided in the formulaic i:ci sci cuctcvoci, Aeschin. 2.55,
163) for a verb which is particularly apt. ui:tv denotes communal dining
of a formal or ofcial kind, most often by soldiers, but also by ambassadors
(Aeschin. 2 passim), magistrates (Arist. Pol. 1317
38), ephebes ([Arist.] Ath. 42.3),
Prytaneis (Ath. 43.3), prisoners (Din. 2.9), religious associations (SEG 32 (1982)
505, Thespiae c. 300 bc; cf. P. Roesch,

Etudes Beotiennes (Paris 1982) 1426). It is
to be distinguished fromthe non-specic uvotitvtv which follows. The singu-
lar verb usually takes a dative (Ar. Eq. 1325, Lys. 13.79, Aeschin. 2.20, 97, Din.
2.9), or a dat. is readily understood from the context (D. 19.191, Aeschin. 3.52).
Here there is no dat., and it is not clear, until the end of the sentence, who are
the communal diners. But the bare ui:cv is unexceptionable: it indicates
the type of activity on which he is engaged, as bare introductory participles
often do (VII.8n.). Conjecture is needless: ui:cv Sylburg (<:cv>- Coray,
after J. M. Gesner); tvcu t:icv (Naber), eliminating the apt verb; -i:cv
<Ap:tuiic:c> (Holland 1897), undesirably anticipating :ni Ap:tuioi,
and <c:npic:c suvn,c> (Wachsmuth ap. Immisch 1923). For these
names see belowon tpytci . . . :ni Ap:tuioi. We must replace :t sisc
(AB) with :c s- (ac), not because :t is almost foreign to this work (def. VI n.)
but because sense requires the article.
koi pytoi tyi:cv :Ji Ap:ici :v uvctivcv:ov: the verb
tpytci denotes a preliminary offering made before the meal begins: e.g.
X. Hier. 4.2 (suspicious tyrants) :c:cv tpiv tpytci :c tc :cu
oicscvcu tpc:cv sttcuiv tc,ttci (LSJ ii.2); Stengel, Atcpyci,
RE i.2 (1894) 26668, Burkert, Homo Necans 6, Greek Religion 668, Structure and
History in Greek Mythology and Ritual (Berkeley etc. 1979) 524, Olson on Ar. Pax
1056. That the preliminary offering is made to Artemis (rather than the gods in
general or those commonly associated with feasts and symposia) suggests that
this is a private religious association, or dining- and drinking-club, under the
patronage of Artemis. For associations connected with Artemis, including so-
called Ap:tuiic:ci and c:npic:ci, E. Ziebarth, Das griechische Vereinswesen
(Leipzig 1896) 345, F. Poland, Geschichte des griechischen Vereinswesens (Leipzig
1909) 188, Parker, Athenian Religion 33940, 342. The otscoi:ci (XXVII.11)
are comparable. Withtyi:cv . . . :cv uvotitvcv:cv cf. XXX.7 tyi:c
tti:notic :cv ccv, KG 1.224.
4 koi o ikpc :i pitvc cyt:oi v:o < > kov tvoi:
c,it:ci is transitive (sharing cc as object with tpiutvc), calculates the
charge for (cf. LSJ i.1, 3); in XIV.2, XXIV.12 intransitive, do the accounts.
Probably an expression indicating dearness has dropped out, as well as an
inn., unless gscv should be changed to gstiv (e, Stephanus). Not tvci
<c,cv> (ed. pr.); nor tvci <ttpi> (Kayser), which means superuous
rather than expensive; much less ttpi:: in place of tv:c (Diels), which is
the natural correlative of cc (e.g. CP 5.6.10, Hdt 8.35.1, Th. 2.47.4, X. Cyr.
8.6.10, D. 18.26) and particularly apt here (he objects to the cost of every single
item, like the diner in Alex. 15). tv:c <:iuic> (Herwerden) gstiv tvci
will do well enough (LSJ :iuic ii.2). Among the more elaborate supplements
are tvci <:iuic t::c sci:vci :nv :iunv> (Meister ap. Holland 1897),
c,it:ci <co:ci, tcocsiuci :c c:picoctcvci>tv:cgscv
<cvic> tvci (<cvic> Unger 1886, the rest Edmonds 1929; for the dative
with c,it:ci, LSJ i.3; tcocsiutiv, IV.10, VI.5, 9). Fair sense is given by
tv:c gscv tvci <:iuic:tpc (or ottp:iuic) tcocsiutiv>(Stein, mis-
reported by Rusten), though a likelier order may be tv:c <tcocsiutiv
:iuic:tpc>gscv tvci, with inn. followed by participial phrase, as XVI.7
sccpci . . . gscv . . . ,t,cvtvci, XXIV.5 tcuvuci . . . co gscv
yctiv, XXX.9 tci:nci . . . tvci gnc.
5 koi cik:cu y:pov [tvoi] J cco ko:ov:c tipoi o :v
ti:yctov: a master complains of a :picv broken by a slave in Ar.
Ra. 9856, a husband of a y:pc broken by his wife in Th. 403. y:pc
is an earthenware kettle for heating water or soup: B. A. Sparkes, JHS 82
(1962) 130 and Plate vi.1, B. A. Sparkes and L. Talcott, The Athenian Agora,
xii: Black and Plain Pottery of the 6th, 5th and 4th Centuries BC (Princeton 1970)
2246 and Plates 934, Olson and Sens on Matro 1.489, Olson on Ar. Ach.
284. tvci is probably a dittograph of preceding tvci. The noun needs no
qualication: :iv (Needham) is otiose (VIII.4n.), tcciv (Petersen) weak,
tvnv (Edmonds 1908, cl. Ar. Ra. 9856 :c :picv | :c ttpivcv) impos-
sible (year-old is a mistranslation, exploded by Stein). tisn (Pauw) would be
oddly placed; n sci (M unsterberg 1895) is unappealing. ct is a shallow
earthenware cooking-pot: Sparkes 1301 and Plate vi.3, Sparkes and Talcott
2278 and Plate 95, Arnott on Alex. 115.213, Olson and Sens on Archestr.
6 koi :J yuvoiko tkocy :pyokcv: the verb means, as normal, drop
(XIX.8, Ar. Lys. 156, Th. 401, LSJ iii), not, abnormally, lose (Stein), which is
tc- (o). The coin is lost because it has been dropped. The :piycscv is a
coin worth three ycsc (VI.4n.), attested only in IG iv
109 iii.128, 140, iv
116.15 (Epidauros iii bc), v.1(1) 1433.33 (Messene c. 100 bc), Vitr. 3.1.7; M. N.
Tod, NC 6 (1946) 501.
[cc] t:optiv :o kty koi :o kvo koi :o kio:c: repetition of
cc is unparalleled and unnecessary. We might replace it with otivc (Blaydes),
which may legitimately be followed by otivc ot sci at 10, as it is at XV.8,
11 and XXIX.5, 6 (VII.6n.). On the other hand, otivc ot sci stands without
preceding otivc at VI.5, IX.8, XII.8, XIV.8. Deletion (also Blaydes) is the
likelier solution.
Plural stn commonly refer to unspecied household objects or items of
furniture (e.g. HP 2.6.6 : :t sivc sci :cc stn, Pl. R. 373a svci
:t . . . sci :pttci sci :cc stn). Here not furniture (Jebb), since it is
one of a trio, with two specic items of furniture, couches and chests, and must
therefore be something equally specic, like utensils (die Ger ate Holland,
das Geschirr Stein, pots, pans Edmonds, the dishes Rusten). So Lap. 42
stn :c tti:pttc, Men. Dysc. 492 (stn of a cook), Antiphan. 150.2
(stn washed by a :pcttctcic), Luc. Dips. 7, Prom.Es 2, sing. st0c Ar.
Th. 402, Eub. 30.1; and probably X. Oec. 9.15 vcuici cov tsttucv . . . :nv
,uvcsc sci co:nv vcucgcsc :cv tv :ni cisici tvci sci tt:tiv ot, c:cv
ocni co:ni, :c stn.
svci are couches for sleeping or dining (Pritchett 2269, G. M. A. Richter,
The Furniture of the Greeks, Etruscans and Romans (London 1966) 5263). sic:ci
are wooden chests with lids, lockable (XVIII.4), for storing clothes (Ar. V. 1056,
Ath. 84a), money and valuables (Lys. 12.1011), documents (Ar. Eq. 1000);
Pritchett 2205, Richter 728.
koi civ :o koo:o: the verb means probe, poke into, seek for by
delving (LSJ Rev.Suppl., West on Hes. Op. 3734), equated with ncgcv
by the lexicographers (Apollon. 59.14, Et.Gen. B = EM 279.47), here only in
prose; Headlam on Herod. 3.54, 7.78, Frisk 1.400, Chantraine 287.
scuc:c sweepings is a brilliant conjecture (for scuuc:c AB), which
appears out of the blue in LSJ
s.uu. oigc and suuc.
Its merits have
gone unrecognised (except, implicitly, by West on Hes. Op. 3734). The word
is attested in only two sources. (i) IG xii.5 593 a.223 = SIG
1218.223 =
F. Sokolowski, Lois sacrees des cites grecques (Paris 1969) no. 97 (Ceos, late v bc),
where the supplement sc[uc]:c (U. K ohler, MDAI(A) 1 (1876) 1445)
and its interpretation are certain (Parker, Miasma 356). The interpretation
(tcviuuc:c, uc:c) proposed by K. Meuli, Phyllobolia f ur Peter von der M uhll
(Basle 1946) 205 n. 1, is etymologically impossible (the report of this interpre-
tation by Sokolowski and by R. Garland, BICS 36 (1989) 12, is inaccurate).
(ii) Hsch. 221 puc:c

scuc:c. sci sctpic tcpc Pivcvi (fr. 22),

223 cpuc

cpc ,n. sci suuc (suuuc cod.). Similarly XXII.12 :nv

cisicv sc0vci sweep the house clean (LSJ scvc ii, Phryn. 39.2 :cvocv
vcsuvcv; cf. suv:pcv broom). Editors continue to interpret scu-
uc:c (AB) in senses either implausible or unattested (curtains Jebb, Edmonds,
I take sc()uc:c attested in c (Stefanis (1994a) 78) to be an accident, not a
oorboards (of the upper storey) Studniczka ap. Holland 1897 (followed by
Stein and Rusten), bed-clothes Ussher) and less well suited to oigcv.
7 koi tv :i oJi :cc:cu ccoi :t j ui:ttv :i piovoi:
he ensures that no-one gets a bargain from him; on the contrary, he charges
more than it was reasonable to charge, so that the buyer with hindsight regrets
his purchase. It is a bad bargain for the buyer (Vellacott). Not the buyer will
make nothing by it (Edmonds), implying, contrary to reason, that the prot
in a sale should be on the buyers side; nor the buyer cant recover his price
of purchase (Rusten), introducing a notion more specic than is warranted by
the Greek. Haggling (cf. XVII.6) is subject to rules of etiquette (Millett, Sale,
credit and exchange 1934). The seller breaches those rules, and the buyer,
through misjudgement or pressing need, agrees to pay over the odds. But there
remains a doubt whether the text is rightly emended: corruption of :cc:cu
(o) to :cc:c (AB) is unexpected. For the contrast between tctv and
tcoiocci (offer for sale and sell), XV.4, XXX.5, X. Mem. 2.5.5, Smp.
8.21, D. 27.32, Alex. 130.34, 133.8; Neil on Ar. Eq. 1601, P. Chantraine, RPh
14 (1940) 1124, F. Pringsheim, The Greek Law of Sale (Weimar 1950) 159.
8For hostility to trespassers see Men. Dysc. 103ff. Contrast the liberality (admit-
tedly self-interested) of Cimon, whose land was unfenced, ctc tni :ci
cucutvci :n ctcpc tcctiv ([Arist.] Ath. 27.3; cf. Theopomp. FGrH
115 f 89 ap. Ath. 533a). See also Pl. Lg. 844d845d.
koi cok v toi c0:t ukc:poyJoi tk :c oo:c k(cu: for cos cv tcci,
VI.9n. There is no merit in cootvc tcci (Blaydes). The verb usc:pc,nci is
found only here and Poll. 6.40, 49; but usc:pc,ion of a miser (oic :c to:tt
:c0 pcuc:c) Archil. 250, Hippon. 167; usc:p,c Ael. NA 17.31. There
is no need for 0sc :pu,nci (Blaydes). Figs are traditionally cheap (Anan. 3),
and the poor mans fare (Hippon. 26.5, Adesp. Iamb. 46 West, Archestr. 60.15
Olson and Sens (Lloyd-Jones and Parsons, SH192)). Cf. G. A. Gerhard, Phoinix
von Kolophon (Leipzig and Berlin 1909) 11012, Pritchett 1901, Pellegrino 186.
For tcci as a correction in e (tc AB) see Stefanis (1994a) 101, 119. For the
suggestion that A has sctcu not sntcu, Stefanis 66 n. 3.
c0:t toov J cviko :v yooi t:ok:ov vtoi: for the olive,
Pritchett 1834. There is no need to write tcv; a distinction (Suda L
764) between tcic (tree) and tc (olive) is not supported by Attic inscrip-
tions, where both forms are used in both senses (Threatte 1.278, 2.726). The
gcvi, date-palm (V. Hehn, Kulturpanzen und Haustiere (Berlin
1911) 27086,
Dalby 11314), did not mature or produce edible fruit in Greece (HP 3.3.5,
Paul Millett reminds me of the parable of the woman who sweeps out her house to
nd a lost drachma (Luke 15.8). Her action is presented as praiseworthy.
Plu. 723c, Paus. 9.19.8); in villages abroad Xenophon saw dates like those
whichmay be seeninGreece reservedfor slaves (An. 2.3.15). Diels deletionof n
gcivisc, as the additionof aninterpolator living ina country abundant inedible
dates, was short-sighted. The less edible the fruit, the greater the uispcc,ic.
With :cv ycuci ttt:csc:cv cf. H. (e.g.) Il. 4.482 ycuci tttv, Pi. P. 8.93,
N. 4.41, E. Med. 1170, 1256 (conj.), Phaeth. 220, Pl. Euthphr. 14d. There is no
good reason to prefer ycuci stiutvcv (A). But the two readings might be
explained as alternative glosses on ycucitt:cv (Cobet, cl. Luc. Lex. 13 tcic
ycucitt:t, Hsch. X 134 ycucitt:t . . . ycuci stiutvci). For the gen. see on
V.9 :cv :pc,,cv nscu.
9 koi :cu pcu c tikctoi 6ypoi ti ciovcuiv ci oo:c: bound-
aries, not boundary-stones, as ti oicutvcuiv c co:ci shows. Boundary-stones
do not change their nature, but rather their position (IG ii
1165.1822 =SIG
911.1822 (300250 bc) c ttiutn:ci . . . ttisctcv:ci . . . :cu cpcu ti
tgt:nsciv sc:c :c co:). Much less are these the pillars set up on mort-
gaged property (LSJ cpc ii.b; Finley, Studies in Land and Credit, passim, Millett,
Sale, credit and exchange 1768, Todd, The Shape of Athenian Law 2525), as
suggested by (among others) Bodei Giglioni 878 (rightly rejected by Stein
and by Millett, Lending and Borrowing 304 n. 12). For encroachment on a neigh-
bours land (which might entail the movement of boundary-stones), Pl. Lg.
843c c o cv tttp,n:ci :c :c0 ,ti:cvc ottpcivcv :cu cpcu s:.,
Luc. Nau. 38 cucpc non cv uci ttctv :c0 ,pc0 tticivcv sc: ci,cv t
:c tc:cv cpcv, Nisbet and Hubbard on Hor. Carm. 2.18.234. With oicut-
vcuiv c co:ci cf. Antiph. 229.23 oicutvtiv tc ti | :c ypcuc :co:c,
Alex. 35.3.
10 ctivo ct ko: VI.9n.
otpytpov poi koi :kcv :kcu: the noun ottpnutpic connotes
defaulting, failure to meet an agreed date (Poll. 3.85 c . . . cos ts:ic
sc:c tpctuicv ottpnutpc sci :c tpc,uc ottpnutpic; cf. Harp. 296.36
Dindorf (Y 7 Keaney), also (right of) execution of the penalty for defaulting
(D. 30.27, 33.6, seizure of property sc:c:nv ottpnutpicv or :ni ottpnutpici),
and, in a more concrete sense, the penalty itself (IG iv
103.74, 75, 86, 88,
99, Epidaurus iv bc). This concrete sense is appropriate here, since the sec-
ond object of tpcci (compound interest) is concrete. For tpcci exact,
LSJ vi. The expression (not elsewhere attested) will mean much the same as
ottpnutpcv titp::tiv exact (payment/penalty) from an overdue debtor
(D. 21.11, 45.70). He takes punitive action when the debtor defaults, perhaps
by distraining on his possessions, as the lawallows (J. V. A. Fine, Hesperia Suppl.
9 (1951) 857, MacDowell on D. 21.81, Millett, Lending and Borrowing 184). For
the legal technicalities of distraint, Harrison 2.2447, MacDowell, Law 1425.
But, whatever right a creditor might have in law, the execution of that right was
left to him, and it was not easy to recover a debt if the debtor was determined
to avoid payment. Millett illustrates the lengths to which a lender might have
to go in order to recover a bad debt . . ., involving self-help at virtually every
stage (Lending and Borrowing 824). The process might be protracted, trouble-
some, and nally fruitless. Perhaps what is of interest here is his determination
to pursue defaulters, in spite of these obstacles, when others would regard it as
not worth the effort. Just as he goes out of his way in 2 to collect a triing sum
as soon as he can, so here he accepts no pleas for deferment (such as we hear
in Ar. Nu. 11389, D. 47.4950). He demands what is rightfully his, because he
is the sort of man who does not allow others to take advantage of him.
Ar. Nu. 1156 :csci :cscv, Men. fr. 446 :cv :cscv :cscu, Pl. Lg. 842d
tti:cscv :cscv, SIG
955.1516 (Amorgos iv/iii bc) are the only references,
before the Roman period, to the charging of compound interest (Korver,
Crediet-Wezen 1215, H. Hommel, Gnomon 36 (1964) 616 n. 1, Bogaert, Ban-
ques et banquiers 3601, Millett, Lending and Borrowing 185, Stein 182, W. B uhler,
Zenobii Athoi Proverbia 5 (G ottingen 1999) 340). If (as this suggests) it was not a
common practice, then here it illustrates the behaviour of a man who is intent
on exacting that little bit more than is normally exacted. Perhaps he charges
defaulters compound interest: [He] is merciless in exacting unpaid debts, on
which he charges compound interest (Millett, Lending and Borrowing 185). And
yet ottpnutpicv and :cscv :cscu, linked by sci, appear to be parallel and
independent items, not merely a hendiadys, and the former will embrace all
the sanctions available against the defaulter, not compound interest alone. sci
<sc > ottpnutpicv (Herwerden, cl. D. 30.27 cist:nv . . . cv tccv sc:c
:nv ottpnutpicv ts :cv Agccu, withthe following sci implausibly retained),
specifying compound interest as the sole penalty, does not appeal.
11 koi t:iv cy:o ikpo :o kpo ko opotvoi: cf. XXX.2 t:icv
cp:cu scvcu un tcpctvci (for tcpctvci, Arnott on Alex. 98.2, Olson
and Sens on Archestr. 13.4; see also on XX.4 tcpcstiutvcu). Provision of
inadequate fare is characteristic of comic misers: Eup. 156, Antiph. 166.68,
Eub. 87, Mnesim. 3, Men. Epit. 13941, fr. 390, Pl. Aul. 2947, 37187 (I
owe all these to Konstantakos 140). It is labelled uispcc,ic in Luc. JTr. 15.
Entertainment of demesmen was probably a liturgy; cf. Is. 3.80 Otucgcpic
t:icv :c ,uvcsc sci :cc cc tpcnst ni:cup,tv tv :ci onuci,
J. K. Davies, Athenian Propertied Families 600300 BC (Oxford 1971) xxiiiiv,
Whitehead, Demes of Attica 152, 251, 3445, R. Parker, Festivals of the Attic
Demes, in T. Linders and G. Nordquist (edd.), Gifts to the Gods (Uppsala 1987),
138. There might be as few as 100200 in a deme (R. G. Osborne, Demos: The
Discovery of Classical Attika (Cambridge 1985) 425, Millett, Lending and Borrowing
1401), and so onuc:ci will cost much less to entertain than gut:ci, whose
entertainment was a liturgy worth boasting of (D. 21.156; Wilson, Khoregia 24);
cf. XXIII.6n., XXV.8n. In Men. Sic. 1836 (cf. Theoc. 4.202) demesmen
take offence at the man who serves them a skinny bullock. V. J. Rosivach, The
System of Public Sacrice in Fourth-Century Athens (Atlanta 1994) 10 n. 4 and 134,
argues that the Mispcc,c is privately entertaining select demesmen, not
discharging a liturgy for the whole deme, because it is difcult to imagine how
a liturgist would be involved in slicing up and serving the meat at a public
sacrice. This is to take scc tcpctvci too literally.
It is unlikely that t:icv:c onuc:c (A) points to an original t:icv :c
(Needham). For, if t:icv :c is right, A and B have different and unrelated
corruptions. More likely t:icv (B) is right, and t:icv:c onuc:c is an
anticipatory error (see on V.9 sci cocicv s:.). The article is present at
XXV.8 :cu onuc:c, <:cu gp:tpc>, :cu gut:c, XXVIII.2 :cu
onuc:c (similarly XXIV.9 t:icv :cu gicu), but is absent at XXX.16
gp:tpc (<:cu> gp- Fischer) t:icv, and is dispensable (KG 1.604(d) and
the passages cited on XXV.8).
12 koi ovv ytv pitvc tittv: for ccvcv, IX.4n. By denying
himself an ccv, he condemns himself to dry bread. Cf. Men. fr. 390 gtiocc
nv sci ut:pic ,cpc:n (Ath. 171a tscuv ot sci ,cpc:nv :cv :c cc
cvcutvcv). For the spelling untv, II.2n. tittv go in is here equivalent
to return home, as XVI.10 (contrast XX.2, XXIV.11), Ar. V. 107, Th. 395,
Ra. 981, just as tttv is leave home (IX.2n.). There is no lacuna (Holland
13 koi oycptoi :Ji yuvoiki . . . ypyvvtiv: for lending of domestic items,
IV.11n. ypnvvtiv is the simplest remedy for ypcvvtiv (AB); but perhaps
ypnvvvci (Navarre 1920) should be preferred (V.10n.). Other proposals: ypcv
:ivi Casaubon, ypcv cootvi Salmasius (De Usuris Liber (Leiden 1638) 168), ypcv
unotvi Coray, ypcv tvi Ast, siypvci Kayser 1860 (before Herwerden 1871,
R. Hercher, Hermes 6 (1872) 58, Cobet 1874), ypnci Herwerden.
(:t o . . . (:t tyvicv (:t kivcv (:t pyovcv: three of
these four items (lamp-wick is the exception) are for culinary use. For salt
(IX.3n.) in a similar connection, H. Od. 17.455 co , cv t cscu ci
tti::ni coo cc ocin, [Theoc.] 27.61. For cummin, whose seeds were
used for seasoning, Hehn, Kulturpanzen (8n.) 20810, H. Gossen, K ummel,
RE Suppl. viii (1956) 2558, Olson and Sens on Archestr. 24.3, Dalby 1089.
The seeds were so small and cheap that cummin-sawing was the proverbial
equivalent of cheese-paring (Introd. Note, Gow on Theoc. 10.55, Arnott on
Alex. 253.3). The leaves of cpi,cvcv marjoram were used for seasoning:
Steier, Origanum, RE Suppl.vii (1940) 81318, A. C. Andrews, CPh 56 (1961)
7382, Arnott on Alex. 132.7, Olson and Sens on Archestr. 36.6, Dalby 207.
(:t o (:t :o:o (:t u(o:o: the three nal items are for
religious use.
cci is barley grainthrownby participants at a sacrice: P. Stengel, Hermes 29
(1894) 6279, 38 (1903) 3845, Opferbr auche der Griechen (Leipzig and Berlin 1910)
1316, L. Ziehen, Opfer, RE xviii.1 (1939) 6023, M. P. Nilsson, Geschichte
der griechischen Religion 1 (Munich
1967) 149, W. Burkert, GRBS 7 (1966) 1078,
Homo Necans 4, Greek Religion 56, Olson on Ar. Pax 9489. The Attic form is c-
(Meisterhans 27); Ionic co- (AB) arose from scribal familiarity with Homer.
:tuuc:c are not garlands (as usually translated) for participants in the
sacrice, but llets of wool for the horns of the sacricial animal, as XXI.7.
The uses of the word are exhaustively documented by J. Servais, AC 36 (1967)
41556 (this passage 422). For the custom see J. K ochling, De Coronarum apud
Antiquos Vi atque Vsu (Giessen 1914) 42, L. Deubner, ARW 30 (1933) 92, K.
Baus, Der Kranz in Antike und Christentum (Bonn 1940) 1415, A. Krug, Binden in
der griechischen Kunst: Untersuchungen zur Typologie (6.-1. Jahrh. v. Chr.) (H osel 1968)
3741, 1256, 137, M. Blech, Studien zum Kranz bei den Griechen (Berlin 1982) 289
n. 93, 3045, Burkert, Homo Necans 3, Greek Religion 56, F. T. van Straten, Hier` a
Kal a: Images of Animal Sacrice in Archaic and Classical Greece (Leiden etc. 1995) 24,
435, 1612. Illustration in P. Stengel, Die griechischen Kultusaltert umer (Munich
1920) Tafel iii, Fig. 11, Krug (above), Typentafeln i.11, iii.11e, B. A. Sparkes,
JHS 95 (1975) Plate xva, van Straten Fig. 17, N. Himmelmann, Tieropfer in der
griechischen Kunst (Opladen 1997) Abb. 31, 32, 37.
unuc:c are cakes or pellets of barley grain (cgi:c) treated with wine and
oil (2 Ar. Pax 1040, Phryn. PS 74.1112 de Borries, Phot. O 254 Theodoridis
= Suda O 544 = An.Bachm. i.258.1112) or honey (Hsch. O 852) for scattering
on the sacricial meats: L. Ziehen, ltcvc, RE xix.1 (1937) 2478, Opfer,
RE xviii.1 (1939) 586, J. Casabona, Recherches sur le vocabulaire des sacrices en grec
(Aix-en-Provence 1966) 1234, van Straten 1413, Olson on Ar. Pax 1040. The
regular formu- (Ar. Pax 1040, Men. Dysc. 440, Pherecr. 28.6, Pl.Com. 188.18,
Telecl. 35) is thrice attributed to Theophrastus (Piet. frr. 2.34, 18.3 P otscher
= 584a.36, 325 Fortenbaugh; fr. 97.3 Wimmer = 650.31 Fortenbaugh). The
form un- (AB) receives little or no support from inscriptional ucnuc:c
57.38 = F. Sokolowski, Lois sacrees de lAsie Mineure (Paris 1955) no. 50,
Miletus v bc), whose form and precise meaning (in spite of Wilamowitz (SPAW
1904, 6335), Casabona 124, Stein 1845) remain unclear. Scribal familiarity
with such forms as unn and untcc (adduced by Stein as further support
for unnuc:c) explains the corruption. u- is reported from b by Stefanis
(1994a) 88.
o ytiv :i :o ikpo :o:o c t:i :c tviou:c: cf. c (. . .)
gnci I.4, XVI.9, XXII.6; so t,cv (Kayser) for c t,tiv is needless.
:c0 tvicu:c0, here in the course of the year (KG 1.3867, Schwyzer 2.113),
is commoner with a numeral in the distributive sense yearly (Th. 1.138.5
tpctgtpt ttv:nscv:c :cv:c :c0 tvicu:c0, Pl. Criti. 118e, Min. 320c, Is.
5.35, D. 27.9, Hyp. Epit. 18, Arist. HA 542
30, [Arist.] Oec. 1352
35, Din. 1.43;
cf. VI.9n. :n nutpc).
[14] Epilogue
The Epilogue (deleted by Edmonds 1908) is narrower in focus than the sketch.
It lists personal economies, which do not impinge on others. There is no good
reason to believe (with Diels) that it reworks genuine material (see Stein 1867).
Features of vocabulary and style common to this and other epilogues are sci
:c ccv (XXIX), name of character (I, II), plural subject (epil. III n.), t:iv
with inn. (I, II), tvu (VIII).
koi :o cv ct . . . t:iv ictv: for sci . . . ot (repeated below) in spurious
passages, epil. III n. For :c ccv, I.6n. t:iv iotv is like t:i tcci in
epil. II, one may see (not pennypinchers like to see, Rusten).
:o kt icuvo: the form st is rst attested in [Arist.] Ath. 44.1 (u.l. in
HA 513
1, 516
28); later it becomes more common than stot/-c, likewise
rst (unless Aristopho 7.2 is earlier) in Arist. (HA 511
35, 513
1, 513
35, 516
[Arist.] Phgn. 809
26, 811
5, 67, 8, 9). Present icuutvc is far more natural,
after topu:icc, than perfect icutvc (AB).
t::o :v ypv :o i:io: cf. Luc. DMeretr. 14.2 :c uispcv tstvc
yi:cvicv :c utypi :cv unpcv. For t::c too small, XXIII.9; the turn
of phrase, IV.2 utic :c0 tcoc. For attitudes to short cloaks, IV.4n. uispcv
(AB) is an anticipatory error (see on IV.13 cpycv), aided by the phonetic
likeness of n and i (II.2, XIV.12, XVI.4, XVII.7, XXI.11, XXII.12, XXIII.8,
ikpv vu: regular word order in T. (uispc tvu CP 5.14.2, HP 1.9.5,
9.8.3) and elsewhere (LSJ tvu i.1, H. Thesleff, Studies on Intensication in Early
and Classical Greek (Helsingfors 1954) 6270, K. J. Dover, CQ 79 (1985) 3325
= Greek and the Greeks (Oxford 1987) 537, S. L. Radt, Mnemosyne 52 (1999)
4789 = Kleine Schriften (Leiden etc. 2002) 4545). So not tcvic (Klotz).
tv ypi ktipcvcu: LSJ ypc i.2 (similarly Hor. Ep. 1.18.7 tonsa cute). This
is the fashion of mourners (X. HG1.7.8), Spartans (Plu. 52e, Alc. 23.3, Lyc. 16.6,
Luc. Fug. 27), Stoics (Pers. 3.54, Juv. 2.15, Luc. Vit.Auct. 20, Herm. 12), Cynics
(D. L. 6.31), and athletes (Luc. DMeretr. 5.3, Philostr. Her. 10.9). As an economy,
one could let the hair grow long (Ar. Nu. 8356); here, like cloaks and asks,
hair is reduced to the minimum. Cf. V.6n.
:o cv :J \po ocucvcu: to be shoeless (vutcon:c) is often
a mark of poverty, parsimony, asceticism, or laconism (e.g. Ar. Nu. 103, 363,
Lys. 32.16, Pl. Smp. 203d, X. Mem. 1.6.2; A. A. Bryant, HSCPh 10 (1899) 579,
O. Lau, Schuster und Schusterhandwerk in der griechisch-r omischen Literatur und Kunst
(Bonn 1967) 1857, Stone, Costume 235). But there is more than simple shoe-
lessness here. They dispense with shoes at midday, when it is particularly
uncomfortable to walk barefoot, in order to save shoe leather. They are not
taking their shoes off for an afternoon siesta (Jebb), when comfort, not eco-
nomy, commends bare feet. In any case, shoes were not normally worn indoors
(e.g. Ar. V. 103, 2745, Au. 492, Ec. 26971; Bryant 5960). otcocuutvcu (AB)
putting on shoes at midday makes no sense. For the acc. :c utcv :n nu- (as
XXVI.4), KG 1.31415, Gow on Theoc. 1.15. So not sc:c utcv (Herwerden).
po :cu yvot cio:tivcvcu: the noun is spelt sv- at XVIII.6 (prob-
ably interpolated). ,v- begins to replace sv- about 400 bc (Meisterhans 745,
Threatte 1.5601). On fulling see H. Bl umner, Technologie und Terminologie der
Gewerbe und K unste bei Griechen und R omern 1 (Leipzig and Berlin
1912) 170
90, C. Singer, E. J. Holmyard, A. R. Hall, T. I. Williams (edd.), A History of
Technology 2 (Oxford 1956) 21417, R. J. Forbes, Studies in Ancient Technology 4
(Leiden 1956) 8197, K. D. White, Greek and Roman Technology (London 1984)
39, Olson on Ar. Ach. 845. The father of Theophrastus was said to have been
a fuller (D.L. 5.36). oic:tivcutvcu is a blend of asserting strongly, insisting,
with tpc :cu ,vcgt (cf. XXIX.4, LSJ b.2), and striving to ensure, with
ctc s:. (Goodwin 339, KG 2.3724, S. Amigues, Les subordonnees nales par
Ol02 en attique classique (Paris 1977) 2263; cf. XXI.4, X. An. 7.6.36 ctc
ot ,t unotvi :cv Lnvcv tctuici ,tvnt, tcv ccv t,c touvunv tpc
ouc oic:tivutvcv).
yJv: fullers earth (LSJ iv; creta fullonia Plin. Nat. 17.46, ,n uns:pi
Eup. 412, Cephisod. 6, ,n tuv:pi CP 2.4.3, Nicoch. 7), most commonly
Kimolian earth, a whitish clay (calcium montmorillonite,
or cimolite) from
the island of Kimolos (Lap. 62, Ar. Ra. 713, Dsc. 5.156, Plin. Nat. 35.1958), but
also kaolin fromSamos (Lap. 623), gypsumfromTymphaia in Epirus (Lap. 62,
64, Plin. Nat. 35.198), and others; Bl umner 176, Singer et al. 215, 355, Forbes
84, R. H. S. Robertson, CR 63 (1949) 512, E. R. Caley and J. F. C. Richards,
Theophrastus on Stones (Columbus 1956) 20813, D. E. Eichholz, Theophrastus, De
Lapidibus (Oxford 1965) 129, J. F. Healy, Pliny the Elder on Science and Technology
(Oxford 1999) 21920.
Not montmollionite (Dover on Ar. Ra. 71113).
Introductory note
Botupic (from the same root as otc) is behaviour which provokes repug-
nance. otupc/otupic are common terms of vilication in Aristophanes
and the orators, and are often found in company with words connoting shame-
lessness (vcion D. 8.68, 19.175, 21.107, 151, 25.27, [Arist.] Phgn. 810
vciotic D. 19.206, Ep. 3.18, Aeschin. 1.189, vciyuv:c Ar. Ach. 288, Pax
182 (with Porsons conjecture), Ra. 465, D. 43.39) and audacity (pc
D. 8.68, 21.2, 98, Aeschin. 1.189, :cunpc Ar. Pax 182, Ra. 465). The Botupc
is in this mould: indecent (2), disruptive, (3), crude (3), discourteous (4),
over-familiar (5), tactless (7), tasteless (8), and tiresome (9).
[1 ] Denition
Oo yotov . . . cicpooi: def. VII n. This is a long-winded expression.
oicio tiovj koi tcvtci:c: tcioi is too mild; better tciotuic
(Herwerden), which would tally with ucic in def. IV; vciotic (Diels
1883 before Naber, to whom Diels 1909 wrongly ascribes priority) leaves
ttcvtioi:c otiose. ttigcvn is nearer the mark (he regularly makes a specta-
cle of himself ); tv tugcvt (Wendland) is no improvement; ttigcn (Latte ap.
Steinmetz) is unappealing, ttiucvn (Herwerden) ruinous. On the inadequacy
of the denition see Stein 189.
2 :cic: <:i>: for <:i>(added by Herwerden before Cobet and Diels),
ov:(o yuvoiiv ttupoi vouptvc ctoi :o oicccv: Free,
freeborn, carries a strong emotional charge whenever it is desired to arouse
indignation (Dover, Greek Popular Morality 286). For this (of women), Lys. 3.23,
13.66, Pl. Lg. 874c, D. 19.196, 309, Aeschin. 2.4, Hyp. Lyc. 6, Lycurg. 40, Men.
Pk. 3756, Sam. 577. For vcuputvc, VI.2n., XVI.10n. (:tgcvc0v :cu
Lpucgpcoi:cu ad n.), Sittl, Geb arden 100.
3 koi tv t:poi kpc:tv :ov ci ci oov:oi koi up::tiv c0 \co
topciv ci cc: for applause (LSJ spc:tcii.2) and hissing, Sittl, Geb arden
1011, 556, 64, Pickard-Cambridge, DFA 2723, Csapo and Slater 290. Sim-
ilar exhibitionism: XIX.9, Ar. V. 131415 c o vtspc:ncv, tnv ,t Ocu-
gp:cu ucvcu

| co:c ot oitucivtv, c on otic.

The present subjunctive tccv:ci indicates a state of cessation. This aspect
of the present can be seen in the inn.: HP 9.11.6 tctci ucivcutvcv,
[A.] PV 11 gicvpctcu . . . tctci :pctcu, Hdt. 1.94.3 co tctci
(sc. i:cotinv), Th. 3.40.4 tctci :n pyn, Pl. Smp. 185d tcv . . . ci
ttni tvtu:i tycv:i tcuv ypcvcv tctci n , (contrast preceding
tc0ci ut :n u,,c), Isoc. 4.5 ypn tctci t,cv:c, [Arist.] Aud. 802
tctci uucivti :cv nycv. So, with present subj., [Pl.] Epin. 978d ti::cv
on :c0:c co:c c:cv un tcn:ci tcc utv vs:c, tcc ot nutpc,
X. Lac. 14.4 ttcuocsc:c c unottc:t tccv:ci cpuccv:t, D. 25.13 tcv
tcc :cic0:c tcini sci un tcn:ci, Hyp. Phil. 12 cv un tcn:ci :c tuon
ucp:upcv. For c:cv with present subj., V.7, VII.10, XXII.6, XXVI.4. Aorist
subj. tccv:ci (Schneider) denotes when they have ceased: CP 3.15.1, HP
3.8.7, 9.1.1, Sud. 25, 26, Vent. 18, Hdt. 4.111.2 (tttv), Pl. R. 583e, Arist. EE
19, HA 576
4, Metaph. 1047
3, Ph. 228
16, 267
1, 6, [Arist.] Pr. 868
(conj.), 23, 868
19, 938
30. For c:cv with aorist subj., c:cv ictnni imme-
diately below, IV.5, VII.4, XVI.11, XXII.8, XXIV.8 (II.4n. ttcv tcn:ci).
This sense is inferior. The aorist implies that he applauds as soon as the others
stop; the present, more appropriately, that he applauds in the intervals between
their applause. See also KG 1.1856, Goodwin 8793.
For omission of the article with tv t:pci, IV.2n. (contrast II.11, XIV.4 tv
:ci -); omission of antecedent to c0, V.3n. For tcptv, IV.5n. Although c
citci (AB
) is an unimaginative variation on preceding c cci, it may be
koi :ov io(yi :o o:pcv voko tpuytv, vo :cu koyvcu
ci(yi t:o:poJvoi: he lifts his head up (II.10n., XXV.2n.), to make the
belch more audible. Cf. XIX.5 tpctpu,,vtiv, Cic. Phil. 2.63 in coetu uero
populi Romani negotium publicum gerens, magister equitum, cui ructare turpe esset . . . . c
scnutvci is a regular expression, designating spectators in the theatre (Hege-
sipp.Com. 1.29), members of the Ecclesia (Ar. Pax 932, Ec. 94, D. 6.3, 8.30),
jurors in court (XXIX.5 (conj.), And. 1.139, D. 58.25), or some other ofcial
body (Th. 5.85). tpcsc- (Fraenkel and Groeneboom) is pedantic. Between
tcinni ut:c:pcgnvci (B) and u- t- (A) there is nothing to choose (II.3n.).
4 koi ycy :J ycp: this often indicates the time of day (forenoon,
LSJ ,cp iv; Millett, Encounters in the Agora 21112), but here it adds a
further important detail. Because the market-place is full there will be other
customers. By staying to eat his fruit at the counter he deprives them of room.
By diverting the shopkeeper with idle chatter he deprives themof his attention.
pctov po :o kpuo J :o p:o J :o kpcpuo: to the shops
selling . . . (II.7n.). Athenian myrtleberries, highly esteemed (Antiph. 177.4,
Phoenicid. 2.1; cf. CP 3.17.7, Ar. fr. 581.5, Eub. 74.5; Pellegrino 1878,
Dalby 227), are listed among :pc,nuc:c / :pc,ic (they are treated as
such here) by Pl. R. 372c, Diph. 80.1, Theopomp.Com. 68.
spcopuc are properly (i) fruits grown on the branches of trees (not on
upper branches (LSJ) but on outer surfaces, i.e. branches as opposed to stem
or trunk: Hes. Op. 2323 op0 | cspn utv :t gtpti cvcu, utn ot utic,
with West ad loc.) and (ii) the trees which bear them. Towards further den-
ing the range of this word, lexica (ancient and modern) give limited help. I
begin with fourth-century writers. Pl. Criti. 115b (the earliest attested use) and
D. 53.15 tell us nothing. HP 2.5.7 distinguishes spcopuc (suited to foothills)
from olives, gs, and vines (suited to low ground). It follows that 4.4.11
cuttcv . . . sci tcv sci :c cc spcopuc does not mean (what LSJ
take it to mean) vine and olive and the other spcopuc (beside vine and
olive) but vine and olive and spcopuc as well (KG 1.275, LSJ cc ii.8,
Bruhn, Anhang 182). The passage is interpreted rightly by S. Amigues (Bud e
ed., 1989), ainsi que les arbres fruitiers, wrongly by A. F. Hort (Loeb ed.,
1916), the other fruit-trees, and Gow on Theoc. 15.112. And it follows that
4.7.8 uttcu sci :cc spcopuc sci usc does not include vines and gs
among spcopuc (again Amigues is right, Hort wrong). Similarly (I assume)
X. Oec. 19.12 vines . . . gs . . . sci :cc spcopuc tv:c. CP 6.11.2 distin-
guishes spcopuc from gs (:cv spcopcv sci scv), as do Pl. Lg. 844de,
[Arist.] Pr. 930
9, 930
20, who class gs as ctcpc (for the distinction between
ctcpc and spcopuc see below). These passages tell us what spcopuc are
not: they are not grapes, olives, gs. Od. 5 :cv spcopcv sci ticv sci
uncv suggests that they are not pears and apples either. Here Hort (Loeb
ed., 1926) translates spcopuc as stone-fruits (apparently plums, peaches,
etc.). I see no warrant for this distinction. Olives, which are not spcopuc,
have stones. But the reverse of Od. 5 is suggested by HP 2.5.7 (cited above),
where olives, gs, and vines, distinguished from spcopuc, appear to be dis-
tinguished from all the fruit trees mentioned just before, and these are apple,
pear, pomegranate, myrtle, and almond.
Arist. HA 606
2 (similarly Hp. Aff. 61 (6.268 Littr e)) distinguishes between
spcopuc and ctcpc. Grapes, olives, and gs count as ctcpc. Later writers
distinguish ctcpc from spcopuc in respect of outer covering, the former
soft, the latter hard: Gp. (10th cent.) 10.74 (p. 309 Beckh) ctcpc t,t:ci
n yccon :cv scptcv tycuc, ccv ocpcsivc unc ttioic ocucsnvc
(peaches, apples, pears, damsons) sci cc un tyti tctv :i ucot. spc-
opuc ot sct:ci cc tctv stugc tyti, ccv pcici (L: pcic cett., Beckh)
ti:sic s:cvc (pomegranates, pistachio nuts, chestnuts) sci cc ucon
:cv scptcv tctv tyti, An.Ox. 3.357 (scholia on Tzetzes) Opgtu (282 Kern)
spcopuc tccv ctcpcv sct

Icnvc ot sci c gu:cup,isc uv:cutvci

spcopu gci :c sttnv tycv:c, ccv pcic spuc uu,oc sci t :i
cucicv (pomegranates, nuts, almonds etc.), ctcpc ot :c sttn c unc
ticu sci :c cucic (apples, pears etc.). These writers do not class apples and
pears as spcopuc. Others do (Plu. 683c, Art. 24.1, Ath. 24f25a).
In fact,
lexica and scholia dene spcopuc as all tree fruits (e.g. EM 288.25 tcv:c
gu:c0 scptcv tocoiucv, Suda A 1001 tv:t c :cv otvopcv scptci, 2 H.
Od. 14.12 :cv tv:cv otvopcv c scptci, Phryn. PS 36.1415 de Borries,
Phot. A 855 Theodoridis). Even ctcpc came to be applied to each and every
kind of fruit (Hsch. O 1077 ctcpc

. . . supic ot n :cgun, sc:cypn:isc

ot sci tti :cv ccv spcopcv; similarly An.Ox. 3.357 (cited above) Opgtu
spcopuc tccv ctcpcv sct; Hp. Vict. 55 (6.5624 Littr e) counts nuts as
ctcpc). From none of these later uses do we learn anything germane to the
denition of spcopuc in Theophrastus.
:c spuc . . . n :c spcopuc means nuts . . . or spcopuc generally, and
is comparable to expressions like Ar. Nu. 413 tv Anvcici sci :c Lni
(KG 2.247, W. J. Verdenius, Mnemosyne 7 (1954) 38); similarly Ar. fr. 581.1
isuc, c:pu, ctcpcv (needlessly doubted; cf. Pellegrino 1801), cucum-
bers, grapes, ctcpc in general. Nuts are only one member of the class of
spcopuc, however we dene that class. The notion that spuc and spc-
opuc are synonymous is a fallacy, encouraged by too casual a reading of Ath.
52a. Athenaeus says that Attic writers and others used the name spucv for all
spcopuc (c A::isci sci c cci u,,pcgt scivc tv:c :c spcopuc
spuc t,cuiv), but that Epicharmus (fr. 148) used it only for the walnut. The
second part of this shows that by spcopuc he means spcopuc qua nuts.
Schweigh ausers supplement :c spcopuc <cc ucot ttc tycuiv>
gets the right idea (cf. GP 10.74 cited above, 2 Nic. Alex. 99e (p. 62 Geymonat)
tv:c :c stgn :cv spcopcv spuc t,t:ci), but is unnecessary. So
deletion of n :c spcopuc as a gloss on :c spuc (Ruge and Immisch 1897,
also A. Peretti, SIFC 9 (1931) 18991) or of :c spuc as a gloss on :c spcopuc
(Edmonds 1929) is misguided; as is :c <cc> spcopuc (Edmonds 1929),
an expression which T. uses (as shown above) in company only with trees or
fruits which are not spcopuc.
t:yko :poyyo:toi o :i ocv:i pcov: :pc,nuc:c
(also called :pc,ic) are foods that can be nibbled, such as fruits, normally
as a dessert (Arnott on Alex. 168.2, Olson on Ar. Pax 7712, Olson and Sens on
Matro 1.111 and Archestr. 60.6, Dalby 330). We need not suppose that (like the
Avciyuv:c at IX.4) he has pilfered them. For t:nsc cf. IX.4; tpcccv,
Introd. Note to VII.
5 koi kooi ct :v opiv:ov vco: :ivo: I assume that we have nished
with the shop and that a new scene begins here. tcpicv:cv (de) is more
For Athenaeus spcopuc include plum and damson (49de), sloe (49f), mulberry
(51d), and quince (81a).
pointed than tcpcv:cv (AB). He calls out the name of a passer-by rather than
addresses by name someone who is present in the shop. The next sentence
follows naturally from this. The people whom he sees (note cpcv) eagerly
making for some destination are likely to be in the street. Cf. Call. Del. 224
A:tpin o cvcuc:i tcptpycutvnv tsttv, and (for sctci . . . cvcuc:i)
Hdt. 3.14.7, X. An. 7.4.15, Cyr. 4.1.3, D. 21. 206, [Arist.] Mir. 841
20, Call. fr.
43.79, Arat. 374.
6 koi tccv:o c ci 6pv < . . .: the sentence is more likely to be
lacunose (o) than interpolated (Sakolowski). If he is playing a practical joke,
the supplement <ttpiutvci stt0ci> (o) does not fully bring this out. Jebb
detects a motif from comedy, and compares Ter. Ph. 8478 heus Geta! :: em tibi: |
num mirum aut nouomst reuocari, cursum quom institeris? (cf. 195, Ad. 320); but these
involve slaves. For ttocv:c . . . cpcv, XXV.4 cpcv tit:cv:c (article
omitted with plural part., VI.23n.); for tci (tcu AB), Pl. Euthphr. 15e v0v ,cp
ttoc tci (tcu T
); the corruption, XIII.6, XXIII.3. See also XXIV.10n.
7 koi \::yvoi ct tyyv ckyv iv:i o :c ciko:ypcu pcttv
koi uvyJvoi: cf. D. 21.88 ut,nv . . . cgt oisnv. For omission of article
with singular part., II.2n.; for the perfect (Schneider: n::cutvci AB), I.2n.
tpctcv uvnnvci (Cobet 1874), favoured by Stein and Rusten, is shown
to be unnecessary by the passages cited on IX.8. Cf. XX.4n.
8koi ovtv tou:i koi ooy:pco icoi: for ccvtv, IX.4n. tcu:ci
(I.2n.) is a sufcient correction of tcu:cv (AB) and need not be embellished
with <co:c> tcu:ci (Herwerden before Cobet 1874). Least of all do we
want the supplement of B. Hemmerdinger, BollClas 13 (1992) 1256. Same
constructionandcorruptionat V.8,cptiv co:ci (co:cv AB); cf. Ar. Ec. 226
co:c tcpccvc0iv. The meaning is buy cc for himself, not do his own
marketing (Jebb), which would require co:c (Furlanus) or ot co:c (Ruge).
He exhibits otupic not by doing his own shopping (IX.4n.), as Jebb supposes
(Jebb would never be seen carrying a parcel in the streets of Cambridge),
but by what he does next. He proposes to enliven the meal which he has
bought for himself by hiring girl pipers, and then he has the bad taste to show
the food to strangers in the street and invite them to share the meal (and by
implication the girls). The con:pi provided more than music, as can be
seen from XX.10 (hired from a tcpvccsc), Metag. 4.34 con:pioc, c
:t :yi:c | vopcv gcp:n,cv otc ,cvc:c uic0 tucv, Men. Pk. 340
co [,cp c co][n:p]i coo c tcpvioicv :piicv, PCG adesp. 1025.1 tv
:c [:pic]oci ci [tpc],tc[ ] con:piot, Theopomp. FGrH 115 f 290
G. Raverat, Period Piece: A Cambridge Childhood (1952) ch. 5. See below, p. 370.
ap. Demetr. Eloc. 240 :c tv :ci ltipcit con:pi<o>c
sci :c tcpvtc (cf.
f 213), Isoc. 7.48, Aeschin. 1.42, 75, Phylarch. FGrH81 f 42, Simon. AP 5.159
(Gow-Page, Hellenistic Epigrams 3300; Page, Further Greek Epigrams 928), and in
art (M. F. Kilmer, Greek Erotica on Attic Red-Figure Vases (London 1993), Index s.u.
ute-girl). She was in heavy demand, and formerly this raised the going rate
(Pl. Prtg. 347cd); now the :uvcuci controlled the price, and she went for
two drachmas ([Arist.] Ath. 50.2; cf. Hyp. Eux. 3). See also H. Herter, JbAC 3
(1960) 97, C. G. Starr, PP 33 (1978) 40110, J. Henderson, The Maculate Muse
(New York and Oxford
1991) 183, J. N. Davidson, Courtesans and Fishcakes: The
Consuming Passions of Classical Athens (London 1997) 812, A. J. Graham, JHS 118
(1998) 39, Hu on X. Smp. 2.1, Olson and Sens on Matro 6.2, Kapparis on [D.]
(Apollod.) 59.24. To change con:pioc to con:pioc (Cobet 1874), because
they usually perform singly (XIX.9, XX.10, Ar. V. 1219, 1368, Ra. 513, Pl. Smp.
176e X. Smp. 2.1, Men. Sam. 730), is naive. The speaker in Men. fr. 224.4 hires
several. Diels needlessly suggests that a different point (that when the guests
arrive he locks them out) has been lost in a lacuna at the end. AB, in fact,
have an abridged version of XXX.516 at the end (see the Introduction, p. 41).
But there is no reason to suppose that this has supplanted an original ending.
For a proposal to transfer XIX.710 to the end, see Introd. Note to XIX.
koi ctikvtiv ct :c ov:i :o oovyvo koi opokotv ti :o:o:
the inn. form otisvtiv (V.10n.) is well attested in literary texts (X. Cyr. 8.1.21,
D. 2.12, 24.48, 66, 68, Alex. 115.25, [Arist.] Xen. 979
23, D.S. 4.52.5, Plb.
9.31.6, 10.16.3), but is absent from Attic inscriptions (Threatte 2.6213). I see
no fault in tcpcsctv tti :c0:c, an invitation to share the food (:c0:c),
which implies an invitation to share the girls too. Emendation has produced
nothing better: cttp sccv Naber, <un>tcpcsctv nescioquis ap. Ruge;
tti :c:c Schwartz before Wachsmuth ap. Ruge, tti oc:c Navarre 1918,
Lti :c0:c Edmonds 1926.
9 koi ciyytoi pc:o po kcuptcv J upcoicv :i tktoi
ti: not tpc: (AB), which, with tpc and acc., cannot mean as he
stands at the door (Jebb), but tpc: (Schneider, before Ussing and Wend-
land), as Ar. Pax 1183 tpc:c (Lenting: tpc:c codd.) tpc :cv vopiv:c,
X. Oec. 10.10 tpc . . . :cv :cv tpc:ccv (Schneider: tpc:- codd.),
Pl.Com. 201.3 tpci:c:ci ucu tpc :c nuc Mcv:ic; cf. II.8n., VIII.10n.,
XXIII.7n. Both barbers shops and perfume-shops were traditional venues
for loungers and gossips. The former, Plu. 679a (cf. 716a) Otcgpc:c (fr. 76
Wimmer, 577 Fortenbaugh) ccivc uutcic tcicv tsti :c scuptc oic
:nv cicv :cv tpcscicv:cv, Lys. 23.3, Ar. Au. 1441, Pl. 338, Eup. 194,
My supplement. The form con:pic is not justied by the joke in D.L. 7.62. In our
passage, c corrupts con:pioc to -:pic.
Men. Sam. 510, Theopomp. FGrH 115 f 283b, Plb. 3.20.5, Plu. 509a, Nic. 30.1
(F. W. Nicolson, HSCPh 2 (1891) 423, Otto, Sprichw orter 350, Wycherley, Agora
iii 205); the latter, Ar. Eq. 1375, Eup. 222, Pherecr. 2, 70.13, Philem. 41.12,
D. 34.13 (Wycherley, Agora iii 2023, Whitehead on Hyp. Ath. 6); both together,
Lys. 24.20, D. 25.52, Phld. De Ira col. xxi.2830 p. 47 Wilke (p. 79 Indelli),
Pl. Am. 101113 (Wycherley, Agora iii 1856). For unspecied tp,c:npic as
places of talk, epil. VI, Isoc. 7.15, 18.9, Hyp. Eux. 21, Antiph. 251, Plu. Nic.
12.1. See further Wycherley, Market of Athens 34 = Stones of Athens 92,
Millett, Sale, credit and exchange 190, id. Encounters in the Agora 2256,
V. J. Hunter, Policing Athens (Princeton 1994) 989, S. Lewis, Barbers shops
and perfume shops: Symposia without wine, in A. Powell (ed.), The Greek
World (London and New York 1995) 43241, ead. News and Society in the Greek
Polis (London 1996) 1518. For the spelling uupctcicv (not -tctcv c),
VI.9n. (for upcv, IV.2n., V.6n.).
And (of d) at least Cantabr. (4 Wilson).
Introductory note
Ascipc describing a person appears rst here (if we discount X. Eq.Mag. 7.6,
ill-suited, with inn.), next in Herod. 6.80 cscipcv co tpttcv: tvci (one
must not be tactless Headlam); later instances are cited by Headlam ibid.,
and LSJ Rev.Suppl. scipic is used of personal behaviour by Pl. Smp. 182a
cpcv:t co:cv :nv scipicv sci oisicv; the converse toscipic by Men. Dysc.
1289 tpc tv:c tp,uc: t:i tpcs:isc:tpcv | toscipic (tact Arnott).
scipic is not doing a right thing at a wrong moment (Ussher, similarly
Ruge) but a failure to do what is proper, appropriate, just right (scipc, as
dened by Barrett on E. Hi. 3867; cf. J. R. Wilson, Kairos as due measure,
Glotta 58 (1980) 177204). The Ascipc is a man whose actions do not suit
the circumstances. Whether those actions are good or bad in themselves is
irrelevant. Most are unexceptionable. Timing is not at issue in 10. See further
Stein 1912.
[1 ] Denition
t:tui <ypvcu>: tti:tui hitting the mark, attainment takes a gen.
in [Pl.] Def. 413c toscipic ypcvcu tti:tui, tv ci ypn tctv :i n tcinci
(Ingenkamp 65), [Arist.] MM 1207
16 (:cv ,ccv), Eudem. fr. 56 Wehrli
(,cc0 tti:tui sci tc:tui); cf. Phld. Rh. i.204 col. xxiii.35 Sudhaus
toptti ,p ti[]iv c sc tsc:cv tti[:t]ti. It is used without gen. in
the sense attainment (sc. of success) by App. Pun. 105. Here without gen. it
makes no sense. Not accosting (Radermacher), a sense unattested though
conceivable, but here inept. The writer must have added ypcvcu, from [Pl.]
Def., where the choice of tti:tui may have been suggested by the expres-
sion scipc0 :u,yvtiv (S. El. 31, E. Hec. 593, Pl. Lg. 687a, [Men.] Mon.
394 J akel). But the imitation of [Pl.] Def. is maladroit, since tti:tui ypc-
vcu suits negative scipic less well than positive toscipic. Better tc:tui
(t- <scipc0> Schneider, <scipc0> t- N. Festa (SIFC 6 (1898) 470), t-
<ypcvcu> Navarre 1920). Other proposals: tv:tui M (def. V n.), conjec-
tured by Reiske 1749 (Briefe 360) and Dobree before Cobet 1874, tti:notui
Darvaris. See further Stein 1923.
tv cv: def. I n.
uco: cf. Isoc. 1.31 :c ,cp cscipcv tcv:cyc0 utnpcv. Pain reap-
pears in def. XIX, XX.
2 yccuvoi pctov vokcivcoi: for yctci, Arnott on
Alex. 208.1; omission of article with singular part. (as 4, 7, 8), II.2n. For
vcscivc0ci cf. IV.3.
3 koi po :jv oo:c tpovyv kotiv up::cuov: an amusing varia-
tion on the motif that women feign illness to put off lovers (Alex. 150.1011,
McKeown on Ov. Am. 1.8.734). For scutiv tpc, Sophil. 5.34, Theoc.
3.1 (tti Is. 3.14); for the scuc in general, XXVII.9, Headlam on Herod.
2.347, Arnott on Alex. 112.1.
4 koi ckyv oyk:o tyyy pctov kttoi oo:ov vocooi: the
man whom he approaches is adjudged to have forfeited a security deposit
(oisnv cgnsc:c t,,n) because the person for whom he stood surety has
defaulted. A surety (t,,un:n) was required by a non-citizen in both public
and private transactions, in particular to guarantee his appearance in court
(MacDowell, Law 76, 239, Millett, Lending and Borrowing 2278), and by a
citizen who contracted a debt to the state (MacDowell 167). There is no need
for cgnsc:i (Pauw), since the acc. is appropriately governed by stt0ci,
to which tpctcv is subordinated, as XIII.7 :cv :pc:n,cv tpctcv
co:cv vcotcci is take himon, take responsibility for him, in the sense
be surety for him. The verbhas the same sense andconstructionas t,,ucci,
and (with t,,n preceding) is used here for variation. The closest parallel
is Plb. 5.16.8 :cv ot Mt,ctcv Atcv:ic vtotc:c :cv ypnu:cv, L. took
on, guaranteed, M. for the money (required as t,,n), where the gen. is of
the same kind as e.g. Isoc. 17.14 lcicv co:cv tt:c :cv:cv oin,,unc:c
(KG 1.378 ); F. W. Walbank, Historical Commentary on Polybius 1 (Oxford 1957)
This rare use of the verb (in this specialised sense, with a personal object)
is a natural development from a basic sense accept, take on. The follow-
ing uses are relevant (I discard LSJs muddled classication):
(a) accept,
take upon oneself , assume responsibility for (what is not ones own), with
(i) impersonal acc., :nv ci:icv (case, cause, Pl. Hp.Mi. 365d; blame Men.
Sam. 482), :c tpti and :cv ottp :cv ypnu:cv c,cv (Isoc. 15.129),
faults or crimes (D. 19.36 tv: vcotycutvc sci ti co:cv tcicutvc :c
:c:cv cucp:nuc:c, 22.64, Din. 1.3, 106, Hyp. Phil. 10, Dem. 34), expenses
or debts (Hyp. Ath. 6 ccv . . . cgticuiv p,picv, 7 :c yptc, Plb. 21.14.3 :nv
nuiticv . . . :n ,t,tvnutvn co:c octvn), (ii) personal acc., Plu. Caes. 11.1
A sense not relevant here, missed by LSJ, is take up (a speech, after another has
nished), Plb. 18.37.1 vcotutvc . . . tgntv.
vcotcutvcu . . . :c0 Kpcu :cu ui:c ycttcu sci tcpci:n:cu
:cv ocvti:cv (Crassus takes on Caesars creditors, accepts responsibil-
ity for paying them); (b) accept, acknowledge (validity, reality), with
(i) impersonal acc., Is. 3.18, D. 46.7 tsucp:upicv, (ii) personal acc., [D.] (Apol-
lod.) 59.58 :cv tcoc (not uniquely take back, as LSJ, Carey, Kapparis),
(iii) inn., D. 24.170 :c0 out vcott ottp oucv tttpcyci . . .;;
(c) accept, undertake, guarantee (performance of some activity or fullment
of a promise), with (i) acc., S. fr. 314.1623 Radt tc0:cv . . . cv 1cc ouv
ttt s[]vtotc:c (mentioned and guaranteed), Plb. 4.65.6 :nv ttpi co:c
sc:cstunv . . . :c Ai:cc, 11.25.9 :c :pc:ic:ci :nv :cv ccvicv
tcociv, (ii) future inn., Hdt. 5.91.2 otcytipic tcpttiv :c Anvc, X.
Cyr. 6.1.17, D. 2.7, 33.22, (iii) acc. and fut. inn., X. Cyr. 6.1.45 t,c ci vcot-
ycuci ntiv tcu Aptcu ti:c:tpcv gicv (also 1.6.18), D. 35.7 n,cutvc
tcintiv co:cu tv:c ccttp otiyvt:c sci vtotyt:c Aspi:c co:ci
(sc. tcintiv co:c), 8 Acspi:cu :cu:cui vcotycutvcu uci tv: ttci
:c oiscic tcpc :cv otgcv :cv co:c0 (cf. 15), (iv) absolute, Leg.Gort. 9.24,
41 (act as a surety; R. F. Willetts, The Law Code of Gortyn (Berlin 1967) 47,
74), Th. 8.81.3 ti:t0ci . . . cv ucvc Anvcici, ti c co:c sc:tcv
co:ci vcotci:c (Tissaphernes said that he would only trust the Atheni-
ans if Alcibiades himself were to return safe and be a guarantor for him, sc.
that the Athenians would behave as desired). Both vocyc and vcocyn
are used in this specialised sense: Men. fr. 407 tpc :nv otgnv vocycv
:cv ypnu:cv (guarantor of the money), Plb. 5.27.4 vcocyn (guarantee,
referring to the use of vcotcci at 5.16.8), Hsch. L 150 t,,ci

c vcoc-
yci, Suda L 164 t,,n

n ttpi :ivc vcocyn (cf. EM 309.35 t,,un:n

vcotycutvc oisnv), LSJ s.uu.
co:cv was restored (for co:cv AB) by Casaubon (in commentary, not text)
before Needham.
5 koi op:up(ov optvoi :c pyo:c jcy ktkpivcu: for tcptvci,
V.3n. tpc,uc business, issue, often virtually case (XIII.3, XXIX.5), is reg-
ular with spivtiv (Antipho 3.o.1, D. 10.49, 21.7, 25.2, 56.48, Aeschin. 1.79, 186,
Hyp. Dem. 2).
A litigant chose his own witnesses. A witness gave evidence before the case
came to court, and then conrmed it in court. His function was to support
the litigant; an absent witness lets the litigant down. See Harrison 2.13647,
MacDowell, Law2427, S. C. Humphreys, Social relations onstage: Witnesses
in classical Athens, in Humphreys (ed.), The Discourse of Law = History and
Anthropology 1.2 (1985) 31369, Todd, The purpose of evidence in Athenian
courts, in P. Cartledge, P. Millett, S. Todd (edd.), Nomos: Essays in Athenian Law,
Politics and Society (1990) 1939, C. Carey, G&R 41 (1994) 176, 1834.
6 koi ktkyvc ti ycu :c yuvoiktcu yvcu ko:yycptv: plural ,uci
of a wedding, as XXII.4, is regular (V. Bers, Greek Poetic Syntax in the Classical Age
(New Haven and London 1984) 2834). :c0 ,uvcisticu ,tvcu is a poetical
expression (A. Th. 188, E. Med. 418, IT1298, Ph. 356, Mel.Des. 18 Page (TrGFSel
p. 124), fr. 111.1), rare in prose (Pl. R. 455c, 620a). In Luc. Symp. 40 a wedding
guest disparages marriage, and ,tc tti :c:ci t,tvt:c c cos tv scipci
t,cutvci. Women attended weddings (J. H. Oakley and R. H. Sinos, The
Wedding in Ancient Athens (Wisconsin 1993) 22, A.-M. V erilhac and C. Vial, Le
mariage grec du VI
si`ecle av. J.-C. ` a lepoque dAuguste (BCH Suppl. 32, 1998) 302).
7 koi tk okp 6cc Jkcv:o p:i opokotv ti tpo:cv: cp:i is regu-
larly placed after the part., e.g. CP 5.13.6 oitc:nsc:c cp:i, Isoc. 12.184
:cv tipnutvcv cp:i, D. 19.1 tcpcsc:c cp:i, Arist. Pol. 1280
20 :c tytv
cp:i, Rh. 1386
35 :c ,t,cvc:c cp:i.
8 ctivo ct ko: VI.9n.
pcytiv ovy:jv to cicv:o jcy tpok:i: he is acting in
the recognised capacity of go-between or broker: Poll. 7.1112 c ot :c
titpscui tpctvcv tpctp:cp, c Ativcpyc (fr. 34, p. 150 Conomis)
sci lcc (fr. 46 Thalheim) tpnstv

tpctcnv o co:cv Api:cgvn (fr.

874; propolae Pl. Aul. 512) sct, tpctcc0v:c ot l:cv (Lg. 954a), Auic
(fr. 116 Thalheim) ot :c:cu . . . tpctp:c . . . t,ti. Cf. Millett, Sale,
credit and exchange 188 n. 47.
9 koi kykc:o koi toyk:o v:ooi t pyJ cicov: for the
participles without article (as 11), VI.23n. The second part. amplies the
rst (VI.4n.) and casts the hearers in the role of ucn:ci, just as oiocv casts
the speaker in the role of oioscc. Cf. sctiv with gen., be a pupil of
(LSJ ii.4), like audire (LS ii.a.2, OLD 6). From Homer onwards vi:cci is
the regular term for rise to speak (XIII.2, XXVIII.5), and in Attic is often
combined with fut. part. (Ar. Th. 384 tcu vt:nv, Pl. Alc.1 106c, 116d,
X. An. 1.3.13, 7.6.8, Cyr. 8.1.6, Isoc. 6.2, D. Prooem. 38.3). These passages show
that oiocv (Coray) for oioscv (AB) is preferable to vc:c . . . oiostiv
(Cobet 1874). For the expression t pyn oiostiv, And. 1.8 (bis), 34, Lys.
7.3, 12.3, 32.3, Is. 2.2, 7.4.
10 koi pco ct tityJvoi j ct:o :i ytvoi oiyvt:oi ct
tooi: this could equally be an illustration of ttpitp,ic (XIII). But it is
also scipic, because such keen concern is not suitable in the circumstances
(given the others reluctance); cf. Introd. Note.
With tpcuc . . . ttiutnnvci cf. X. Mem. 2.8.6 c . . . tpcuuc-
:c:c ttiuttci, Cyr. 4.2.37 ttiutnn:t tpcuc (also Ar. Nu. 501 nv
ttiutn c sci tpcuc ucvvc). tpcuuc (AB) with inn. would be
unique (VI.8n.), and especially displeasing so soon after otivc in 8. The
balanced antithesis and homoeoteleuton ct:ci :i ,tvtci ciyvt:ci ot
ttitcci, uncharacteristic of Theophrastus, are reminiscent of Gorgias and
the orators. Cf. J. D. Denniston, Greek Prose Style (Oxford 1952) 703, 1356.
The rst middle aorist ttitcci is Herodotean (8 instances); in earlier Attic,
only Arist. EN 1163
19, [Arist.] Mir. 837
12 (oi- Arist. EE 1243
31, [Arist.] Oec.
5); also Call. Dian. 174 tc o ttcc. See V.2n., XXIII.4n.
11 koi cv:o koi vokcv:o Jktiv :kcv oi:(ov: it was illegal to
distrain on a defaulting debtor on days of public festival (D. 21.1011 with
MacDowell ad loc., Millett, Lending and Borrowing 276 n. 46). To disturba sacrice
and feast with a demand for payment of interest, while not illegal, is anti-social
(Millett 151).
The second part. amplies the rst (as 9), probably in the sense sacricing
and spending money (on the sacrice), rather than sacricing and consum-
ing (the sacrice), as it is taken by Casaubon (and by P. Stengel, Hermes 39
(1904) 616, and Rusten). vcistiv is found without object in the sense spend
(Th. 7.48.5, 8.45.5, Ar. Pl. 248, Pl. R. 552b); in the sense consume, only with
object (LSJ i.3, to which add E. Cycl. 308). The expense of a sacricial animal
and the accompanying feast might be high (IX.3n., XXI.7n.); and expense is
more pertinent than consumption.
With nstiv :cscv tci:ncv cf. XVIII.7 c:cv nsni :i ci:ncutvc tstc-
uc:c; double acc. (as here) XVIII.5 :cu cgticv:c co:ci p,picv . . .
tci:tv :cu :cscu. So we should resist the temptationto write sci <tpc>
- (like IX.2 tpc :c0:cv ttcvtcv ocvtitci, XVI.6 tpc :cv tn,n:nv
tcv tpc:cv, XXIV.7 stt0ci nstiv tpc co:cv), improving on c (i.e.
tpc) - (Casaubon).
12 koi o:iycuvcu cik:cu opt:o ciyytoi :i koi oo:c c:t o
c0:o yyo oov (yo:c: whipping was the regular punishment for
slaves (G. R. Morrow, Platos Law of Slavery in Relation to Greek Law (Urbana
1939) 6671, V. J. Hunter, Policing Athens (Princeton 1994) 15473). The expres-
sion tn,c cuvtiv is common: XXVII.9 tn,c tingc, Th. 5.50.4,
Ar. V. 1298, 1325, Pax 493, Ra. 673, 747, Ec. 324, Cratin. 92, Philyll. 9, Pl.
Hp.Ma. 292c, Mx. 236c, Isoc. 12.212, X. An. 4.6.15, Cyr. 1.3.16, 1.6.29, Lac.
6.2, 9.5, D. 21.1, 6, 37.37, 54.13, 14, 41, Hyp. Epit. 23, Men. Dysc. 205, Sam.
215, Timocl. 24.6, Diph. 42.32, PCG adesp. 1088.6. For co:c0 . . . tc,
13 koi opov cio:yi uykpctiv c:pov cucvov ciotoi: pre-
sumably he acts in an ofcial capacity (V.3n.). Here tcpcv indicates only
attendance, not support, by contrast with V.3 and [D.] (Apollod.) 59.48 (cited
there), where a dative of person expresses the party supported. This leaves it
open whether he has been called as supporter by one party or as the com-
mon arbitrator. u,spctiv is not (uniquely in this connection) absolute (LSJ
i.3); ugc:tpcu is the implied object. For the antithesis with oictci,
Isoc. 4.134 :cc:cu otcutv u,spctiv :i :cv tstivcu tpc,u:cv n tcitv
:citiv c:t sci :c oic :ynv co:ci ,t,tvnutvc :cpcyc uvoictiv
ttiytipc0utv, [Men.] Mon. 184 J akel oiut, un ,spcut ucycutvcu
14 koi pyytvc ooi t:pcu ycotcv:c: VI.3n. The fut. part.
was restored (for -utvc AB) by Lycius before Auberius and Casaubon.
Introductory note
The ltpitp,c tries too hard. He has no sense of proportionand does not know
when to stop. He exceeds his own capacities or the requirements of the case.
This kind of ttpitp,ic is not intermeddling with other folks affairs (LSJ),
a synonym of the more common tcutpc,ucvn, the meddlesomeness for
which Athenians were especially famous (Rusten). What he does he overdoes,
and when this affects others he may be called meddlesome; but to meddle with
others is not his aim, andnot all of his actions have others inview. Ofciousness
(Jebb, Edmonds) is a less satisfactory translation than overdoing it (Vellacott)
or overzealousness (Bennett and Hammond, Rusten).
[1 ] Denition
Ati: II.9n.
<\> tpitpyo: the art., added by B ucheler, is found instead of utti in
descendants of A (Torraca (1974) 96).
cti<tv v> tvoi: def. I n. The fut. indic., often retained here and in
denitions XXI and XXIII, is inappropriate.
pccy :i yov koi ptov t: tovco: well-intentioned
appropriation of words and actions (Rusten) is an honest translation, which
brings out the ineptitude of the expression; presumption in word or deed
(Jebb) and over-assumption of responsibility in word or deed (Edmonds) are
less inept and less accurate. The expression is similar in language and struc-
ture to the unsatisfactory def. I tpctcini tti ytpcv tptcv sci c,cv.
There is no convincing emendation: ttpitcini Ribbeck 1870, ttpi::c:n
Herwerden, tpctcvni Meerwaldt, tpct:ci Gaiser. See Stein 194.
The expression ut: tovcic appears in [Pl.] Def. 413b (giic . . . scivcvic
ut: tovcic), but is very common elsewhere (And. 1.9, Lys. 16.9, 19.11, Isoc.
1.44, al., Is. 2.2, al., Pl. Phdr. 241c, Lg. 695d, D. 18.199, al., Aeschin. 2.1, Hyp.
Ath. 2, Lycurg. fr. 28 Conomis, Men. fr. 107.2).
2 <cc> toyytoi vo:o j cuv(t:oi: for the general idea,
X. Cyr. 2.2.12 :c . . . tcintiv un scvci tiiv otiyvcuutvci. Here per-
haps the reverse of XXII.3 ttioctcv ,i,vcutvcv tv :ci onuci vc:c
ictni ts :c0 utcu tttv. There the Avtttpc gets up and leaves
when ttiocti are being promised in the Assembly. Here the ltpitp,c gets
up and promises something (such as an ttioci) which he cannot perform. For
ttc,,ttci in this connection, IG ii
351.1213 (330/29 bc), ttn[,]-
,[tic:c :]ci onuci ttiocti[v (cf. 212.1315 (347/6 bc), 345.1112 (332/1
bc)); A. Kuenzi, LllAO2l2 (Bern 1923) 3, 16, 59. The part. vc: (XII.9n.)
is added to a verb of speaking with formulaic regularity: e.g. E. Or. 885, 917,
Th. 6.41.1, Lys. 12.73, 74, 13.8, 9, X. An. 3.2.34, HG 2.3.24, D. 3.18, 8.52,
18.136, Aeschin. 1.110. To suppose that vc: is a variant for the corrupt
tv :ivi : below, and to substitute vc: (Ast) or v:cvc: (Diels)
for tv :ivi :, was ill judged. With un ouvnt:ci cf. E. IT 62, IA 1215
:c0:c ,cp ouvciut cv, LSJ i.1. An inn. (ouvnt:ci <tc:ttv> Schnei-
der, <tti:ttci> Naber) is not needed.
<cc> is reported from Par. supp. gr. 450 (46 Wilson) by Torraca (1974)
96, and from Vat. 102 (60 Wilson) by Stefanis (1994a) 119; <ccv> is attested
earlier in d.
3 koi 6ccycuvcu :c pyo:c cikocu tvoi tv:tvo ttyyJvoi: for
:c0 tp,uc:c, XII.5n. Not :cu (Ussing before Diels); the article indicates
that his business is at issue. tv:tivc is intrans., as E. fr. 340.2 (but not Or. 698,
cited by LSJ iii.1); cf. Pl. R. 536c uccv tv:tivutvc ttcv (LSJ ii.1), and
on VIII.7 tttv:tivtiv. This conjecture (tv :ivi : AB; for the corruption see
on XVIII.4 suistcv) gives exactly the right sense, which is not argumenta
contraria contentiosius proferens (Immisch1923), but he becomes too intense
(Rusten). When he ought to rest his case, because there is general agreement
that it is a fair one, he persists in arguing it (and alienates the judges, or
raises doubts in their minds). The same verb had already appeared in the
conjectures tv:tivti oisc: (Bernhard ap. Reiske (1783) 362) and tv:tivtiv
c: (Darvaris). Conjectures which introduce the idea of opposition ruin
the point: v:tv: Reiske 1749 (Briefe 360), tv:, v:i:, v:i:tivc
Reiske 1757, tvi:utvc Schneider, v:titc Naber, v:cvc: Diels, tvi
:ivi tv: Edmonds 1929.
4 koi to ct tovoykoi :ov oco ktpoi J o cvov:oi ci opv:t
tkitv: stpci is mix, dilute with water (LSJ i.1, Arnott on Alex. 232.2;
cf. XXX.5), preparatory to drinking (IV.6n.). Neut. pl. cc, referring loosely to
cups (this verb regularly takes cup and the like as object), is not demonstrably
objectionable. But ccv (c, Navarre 1920), sc. cvcv, a natural ellipse (Antiph.
25.3, Men. Sam. 673 stpvvu:ci, sc. cvc), could be right.
5 koi citpytiv :cu oycvcu koi c0 co yiyvokti: cf. X. Lac. 4.6
oictiv . . . :cu ucycutvcu, [Men.] Mon. 184 J akel oiut . . . ucycut-
vcu gicu. The more expressive oitip,tiv (elsewhere of solid or natural
obstructions: battlements H. Il. 12.424, river Hdt. 1.180.1, X. An. 3.1.2, ravine
Th. 3.107.3) suggests that he interposes himself as a physical barrier between
the combatants. sci (even strangers) is entirely apt, and deletion (Ast
before Cobet 1874, who also deletes :c with Ussing) and addition (sci
<ttci> Fraenkel and Groeneboom) are equally misguided. But for
co we should expect un (Navarre 1924), the neg. used in comparable expres-
sions at III.2 cv un ,i,vcsti, XI.5 ci un uvnn t:i, and always in relative
clauses (2, XII.10, XXX.20). For ,i,v- (,iv- AB), III.2n.
6 koi :poov \y(ooi, t:o j cvooi toptv c cptt:oi: to abandon
the main road, in the hope that a path will provide a short cut, is proverbially
unwise (App. Prov. iv.12 (CPG 1.437) coc0 tcpcn :nv :pctcv un n:ti,
Kassel and Austin on Ar. fr. 47). Cf. Enn. scen. 267 Jocelyn qui sibi semitam non
sapiunt alteri monstrant uiam.
I restore acc. :pctcv with n,ncci, as D.S. 30.5 :cv n,ncutvcv :c
vtti:cu . . . :pctc, Paus. 1.4.2 :nv :pctcv nv sci Mnoci tc:t
Lgi:n n,nc:c; similarly cocv n,tci H. Od. 10.263, Hdt. 9.15.1, E. fr.
943.1, Pl. Ep. 340c, X. An. 5.4.10, Cyr. 3.2.28, 4.2.14, PCG adesp. 171 c:i :n
coc0 | n,nt:ci ci :nv (:n Blaydes, :no Herwerden, wrongly) tti:
(presumably sc. cocv), Str. 5.4.2, al.; cocv n,tucvttiv H. Od. 6.261, al., Parm.
B 1.5, Theoc. 11.27. See also on XVI.3 :nv cocv . . . tcptunvci.
For t:c, IX.2n. c (Casaubon) for co (AB) is commended by S. Ai. 690 ctci
tcptu:tcv, Ant. 892 c tcptcuci, Pl. Phd. 67b, Ti. 21e, X. An. 3.5.17, Cyr.
1.1.5 (u.l. ctni), 7.2.29 (u.ll. ctni, ctcu), Hier. 2.8; for the corruption, XI.6n.
Of the examples of where for whither cited by KG 1.545 Anmerk. 4 some
are different, others corrupt. ni (also Casaubon) is less effective. Deliberative
subjunctive tcptn:ci (M, Edmonds 1929), where he is to go to, would imply
that he has a choice, and is therefore inappropriate. He has no choice but to go
where the path leads him, and he gets lost because he cannot discover where
it is leading.
7 koi :ov :po:yyov pctov tpo:Joi :t ti opo:::toi
koi : t:o :jv o0picv opoyytt: cf. Plu. Demetr. 28.5 t,t:ci ,c0v
utipsicv t:i cv:c :cv Anun:picv co:c0 tutci, tc:t utcuiv

:cv o tittv tpc cp,nv

A,cvici un ucvc u :n
ti,,c cos scni;. For tpctcv, XII.4n. init. According to Ste-
fanis (1994a) 120 n. 87, no ms. has tcpc,,tt (-tti AB, -tti c
e), reported
as a u.l. by Lycius, ascribed to c by Giesecke, claimed as a conjecture by Bloch,
Hirschig, Foss 1858.
8 koi pctov :i o:pi titv :i \ (:yp jcy kotcti tv :i
coo:oi: this is tantamount to telling his father that it is bedtime. It does not
make him appear to matri suae . . . lenocinari (Casaubon).
9 koi oycptcv:c :c io:pc o j coti cvcv :i ookicvoi:
for the construction (t- ctc un + fut. indic.), KG 2.9, Goodwin 355.
uccsicutvci (A) was conjectured (when A was unknown) by C. Gesner
(before Stephanus) for sccticutvci (B). The latter also prompted scuuc-
:icutvci, conjectured by an anonymous predecessor of Casaubon (Introduc-
tion, p. 54 n. 172) and found in the margin of Leiden, B. P. G. 59 (17 Wilson)
(Torraca (1994a) xxxviiiix, Stefanis (1994a) 101 n. 74). For the medical sense
of uccsitci, I.4n.
(o ctoi citipov ovtiv t c:oi :ov kok tycv:o: the
expression ctci cuvtiv oittipcv recurs in D. 56.18, J. AJ 1.223,
2.125, 4.96, 9.126, Plu. Thes. 30.1, D.L. 7.36. Regularly cuvtiv oittipcv
(e.g. CP 4.16.3); also - ttpcv (LSJ ttpc i.1, Kassel and Austin on PCG adesp.
1032.23; add E. fr. 993, Alex. 18.1, 206.1) and tcttipcv (Th. 7.21.2).
to tc:ici is a brilliant conjecture. The verb is used in medical contexts
(Arist. Phys. 199
34 ttc:itv c ic:pc :c gpucscv, Macho 45 tttc:ist . . .
cttp ic:pc u . . . ot); also of watering animals (HP 4.3.6, Theoc. 1.121;
cf. Pl. Phdr. 247e :cu ttcu . . . vts:cp ttc:itv) or plants (X. Smp. 2.25). For
to, II.12, XX.9. to:pttici (AB) is attested in a medical sense treat (LSJ i.2,
J.-H. K uhn and U. Fleischer, Index Hippocraticus (G ottingen 19869) s.u.). But
conjectures which try to accommodate it produce clumsy phrasing: gnci for
gnc Schwartz, leaving to:pttici to be governed by o- -, unhappily; hence
<oiocvci>(<oc0vci>Coray) gnc . . . ti to:pttiti Reiske 1757, <oc0vci>
gnc . . . <:c0>to:pttici Terzaghi; Giesecke marks a lacuna after uccs-
icutvci. Not much better to:pttici tc:cv scsc tycv:i Ribbeck 1870,
much worse vcppitici Ussing, tti:pci Herwerden, oicttipcv oc0vci
<sci> vc:pctici Edmonds 1929. See also XX.9n.
scsc tytiv regularly means be unwell: XXII.6, HP 6.3.6, Ar. Ra. 58,
fr. 132, Men. Asp. 305, Georg. 52, Dysc. 730, 881, Philem.Jun. 2, Macho 70, Hp.
Morb. 1.8.21 (6.156 Littr e), Loc.Hom. 33 (6.324). Deletion of :cv scsc tycv:c
(Pasquali, Edmonds 1929, Terzaghi) is rash. It provides suitable variation after
:ci uccsicutvci, and the antithesis to . . . scsc has a hint of humour.
10 In non-verse epitaphs it was customary to inscribe on the tombstone of an
Athenian woman her own name and that of her father and his deme, and, if
she was married, the name of her husband and his deme, either in addition
to or instead of her father. Her mother was never named, her deme hardly
ever. The epithet ypn:c / ypn:n was sometimes added on the tombs of
slaves, very rarely of metics, never of Athenians. See E. L. Hicks, JHS 3 (1882)
1413, E. Loch, De Titulis Graecis Sepulcralibus (K onigsberg 1890) esp. 346,
W. Schulze, RhM 48 (1893) 2556 = Kleine Schriften (G ottingen
1966) 4201,
P. M. Fraser, Rhodian Funerary Monuments (Oxford 1977) 712, T. Vestergaard
et al., A typology of the women recorded on gravestones from Attica, AJAH
10 (1985 [1993]) 17890, Whitehead, Demes of Attica 789, Ch. Fragiadakis,
Die attischen Sklavennamen (Athens 1988) 158, Lane Fox 14950. There is no
indication whether this woman is Athenian or foreign. If she is foreign (Lane
Fox), the epitaph will appropriately record where she came from (tcoctn); so
that while it will lack the economy due to an Athenian woman (whose mother
would not be named), only the commendation of the whole family as ypn:ci
can be called extravagant. If, on the other hand, she is Athenian, her mother
is additionally superuous; so too is her place of origin, whether we take that
to refer to her deme or to Athens (see below on tcoctn). This is much more
amusing: he treats an Athenian woman and her family to an extravagance of
style suited only to foreigners and slaves. Steinmetz incautiously suggests that
he should have left the inscription to the dead womans relatives. We do not
know that she has any living relatives, or that he is not one himself.
tiypoi ti :o vJo: this is the usual construction (Th. 1.132.2 tti :cv
:pitcoc . . . tti,pcci, [D.] (Apollod.) 59.97, Plb. 8.31.4, D.S. 2.23.3),
not tti :ci uvnuc:i (Blaydes). Cf. XXI.9, XXII.2.
:c :t vcpo oo:J ko: for :t . . . sci, def. VI n. For the position of the
demonstrative, XIV.7 co:c0 :cv gicv, XXVIII.5 :cu cisticu co:c0 (KG
cco(: a term of general inquiry about origins, normally racial or civic.
Sometimes (what conrms that it is essentially general) it is given more precise
focus by the addition of words for race or city (Ar. Pax 186, Au. 108, Alex. 94.1
tcoctc :c ,tvc;, Ar. Th. 136 (A. fr. 61) tcoctc c ,vvi; :i t:pc;,
E. Cycl. 2767, IT246). In the fourth century, and perhaps even earlier, it came
to be used as equivalent to tcc (Pearson on S. fr. 453, Arnott on Alex. 94.1,
Olson on Ar. Ach. 7678). Here it suits the purpose of Theophrastus (see the
introductory comment on 10) that it should be applicable to an inquiry about
deme (for, with Hicks and against Lane Fox, I take it that it is so applicable)
no less than city or race. The spelling tc:- (AB) is attested by the papyrus
at Men. Asp. 241, and by the Marcianus of Ath. at Alex. 232.3 and (in effect)
177.3. It is condemned as un-Attic by Phryn. Ecl. 36, p. 63 Fischer. There is no
evidence that it was admissible in the fourth century. For differing views see
W. G. Rutherford, The New Phrynichus (London 1881) 12830 (against), Austin
and Sandbach on Men. Asp. 241 (in favour), Arnott on Alex. 94.1 (neutral).
11 koi vvoi ov titv po :cu tpit:yk:o :i Koi p:tpcv
cki ocko: cf. Men. fr. 96.13 cuvc ci . . . cucucsc sci
tpc:tpcv non tcsi (whence Alciphr. 4.18.1 cucc tcsi). For c:i
introducing direct speech, II.8n.
c ttpit:nsc:t is the standard expression (not recognised by LSJ) for the
spectators who stand around the edges of the law-court: Ar. Ach. 915, Antipho
6.14, Is. 5.20, D. 18.196, 19.309, 20.165, 25.98, 45.13, 54.41, Aeschin. 2.5,
3.56, 207, Hyp. Dem. 22, Din. 1.30, 66, 2.19; A. L. Boegehold and M. Crosby,
The Athenian Agora, xxviii: The Lawcourts at Athens (Princeton 1995) 1924, A. M.
Lanni, Spectator sport or serious politics? c ttpit:nsc:t and the Athenian
lawcourts, JHS 117 (1997) 1839, Whitehead on Hyp. Dem. 22. It is also used
of (foreign) spectators at meetings of the Ecclesia (Aeschin. 3.224, Din. 2.15,
3.1) and spectators at a performance by sophists (Isoc. 12.19).
Oaths might be sworn in court by witnesses (in homicide cases, always;
in other cases, only when requested by a litigant) or by litigants themselves
(Harrison 2.1503, MacDowell, Athenian Homicide Law in the Age of the Orators
(Manchester 1963) 90100, id., Law 119, J. Plescia, The Oath and Perjury in
Ancient Greece (Tallahassee 1970) 4057, Todd in P. Cartledge, P. Millett, S. Todd
(edd.), Nomos: Essays in Athenian Law, Politics and Society (Cambridge 1990) 35).
So perhaps the ltpitp,c, as litigant or witness, is speaking to the spectators
in court. A litigant might solicit the spectators sympathy (e.g. D. 18.196). But
a litigant or witness who informs them that he has often sworn oaths abuses
their interest and over-dramatises his role. Perhaps he implies (with a touch
of vanity and self-importance) that his oath is to be trusted, because his many
past oaths have never been found false. If so, the view is disputable: Phil. De
spec. leg. 2.8 (5.87 Cohn-Wendland) co ,cp ti:tc n tcucpsic :tsunpicv
ti:ic t:i tcpc :c to gpcvc0iv, Hieroc. in CA 1.20 tcu :cv
cpscv, :ci un tpcytipc co:ci sc:cypnci, v tini tocpstv ts :c0
un tinvci cuvvci. Cf. T. Hirzel, Der Eid (Leipzig 1902) 87 n. 2.
So the language suits (indeed suggests) a court. But it does not exclude scenes
other than a court: tpc :cu ttpit:nsc:c is a degree less explicit than tti
oisc:npicu (XXIX.5) would have been. Oaths were commonly sworn out
of court, and we may, if we choose, imagine an oath sworn in a public place
in connection with some private transaction. Then :cu ttpit:nsc:c will
refer to bystanders who, because they are addressed by the oath-taker, become,
as it were, his audience. tcpt:nsc:c (A), merely bystanders, is inferior
(D. 56.48 tcpt:ci, of spectators in court, is anomalous and should perhaps
be emended to ttpit:ci); contrast XXV.4, where it is apt. For the confusion,
Introductory note
Avcinic and vcin:c are frequently applied, in a spirit of criticism or
abuse, to an unperceptiveness which is conceived as being akin to stupidity: Th.
1.69.3, 1.82.1, 6.86.4, Isoc. 5.75, 7.9, 12.85, 112, 13.9, Pl. Lg. 962c, Thrasym.
85 b1, D. 5.15, 17.22, 18.43, 120, 128, 221, 21.153, 22.64, 24.182, 51.19, Ep.
3.8, 13, Aeschin. 2.43, Hyp. Lyc. 7, Arist. EN 1114
10, Ph. 218
26. Aristotle has
a specialised application: in the enjoyment of pleasure, where cgpcvn is
the mean and sccic is an excess, a deciency is vcinic insensibility
(EN 1104
24, 1107
48, 1108
202, 1109
35, 1119
111, EE 1221
2, 1923,
915, 1231
2639, 1234
9). Cf. Vogt on [Arist.] Phgn. 807
For Theophrastus, vcinic indicates a general unperceptiveness or lack
of sensitivity to present circumstances. The Avcin:c is sometimes obtuse
or stupid, sometimes forgetful, absent-minded, inattentive, always unfocused
and out of touch. This is behaviour which, in the emperor Claudius, Suetonius
labelled obliuionem et inconsiderantiam uel . . . ut:tcpicv et ticv
(Cl. 39.1).
[1 ] Denition
Stein suggests that the denition may owe something to Pl. Chrm. 160b cosc0v
tv:c . . . nuv sci :c ttpi :nv uynv sci :c ttpi :c cuc, :c :c0 :ycu :t
sci :n c:n:c scicgcivt:ci n:c:n pcou:n:c :t sci nuyic:n:c;.
There pcou:n is slowness in learning: cf. 159e t:iv . . . n utv toucic
:cytc ucvvtiv, n ot ouucic nuyni sci pcotc;. These passages are
echoed by [Pl.] Def. 415e ouucic pcou:n tv ucnti (Ingenkamp 96).
For such slowness in learning or perception cf. also Pl. Phdr. 239a n::cv . . .
pcou ,yivcu, Ar. Nu. 12930 tc cov ,tpcv cv stinucv sci pcou |
c,cv spicv yivocucu ucncuci;, Ariston fr. 14, VIII Wehrli c
:cyu uvnsc, gun t,c sci pcou sci oucin:c, D.S. 3.67.2
sicpitiv ucvvcv:c oic :nv :n uyn pcou:n:c un ovcci otcci
:nv univ. The notion of slowness in learning is foreign to Theophras-
tus. Slowness in perception would not be foreign. And one might claim
that the Avcin:c, by his speech and behaviour, shows that he is the
kind of man who is slow to take things in. But the denition is unsatis-
factory, since slowness to take things in does not dene his behaviour or
E:i c: the change of t:i ot sci (A: t:i sci B) to t:i ot (c) restores the
same beginning as X, XXIV, XXVIII, XXIX, perhaps unnecessarily. V has
L:iv (without ot) at XVII, XVIII, XIX, XX.
o poi titv: def. I n.
pocu:j uyJ: pcou:n <:i :n> Duport (:i def. I n.; but
uyn without art. in def. XXV, XXVIII).
tv yci koi ptiv: def. I n.
2 cyitvc :o (ci koi ktoicv ci(o tpo:v :ov opoko(-
tvcv T yyvt:oi;: ngci are counters used in abacus calculations. For
the abacus, A. Nagl, Die Rechentafel der Alten (SAWW 177, 1914), id., Abacus,
RE Suppl. iii (1918) 413, T. Heath, A History of Greek Mathematics (Oxford 1921)
1.4651, M. Lang, Herodotus and the abacus, Hesperia 26 (1957) 27187,
ead. The abacus and the calendar, ibid. 33 (1964) 14667, 34 (1965) 22447,
P. Keyser, Errors of calculation in Herodotus, CJ 81 (1986) 23042 (esp. 231),
Arnott on Alex. 15.3, G. Binder, Abacus, DNP 1 (1996) 34, 12.2 (2002) 8778.
For the language, XXIII.6 tvci :c ngcu . . . sci . . . tcinci sci otsc
:cv:c, XXIV.12 c,icutvc . . . :c ngcu oictvci (Sheppard: oictv
V) sci stgcicv tcincv:i s:., Hdt. 2.36.4 c,icv:ci ngcii, Ar. V. 656
c,ici gcc, un ngci tc ytipc, fr. 362 ngcc,icv (abacus), D.
18.229 co :iti ngcu (co ,p t:iv c :cv tpc,u:cv co:c c,iuc),
D.L. 1.59 :c ngci :c tti :cv c,iucv. Intrans. c,iutvc is unex-
ceptionable (X.4n.), and there is no call for - <:i> (Cobet 1874), prompted
by - :i :c (A), a careless slip. The subject of :i ,i,vt:ci; is :c stgcicv,
as Lys. 19.40, 43, D. 27.10, 11, 34.24; cf. XXIII.5, LSJ ,i,vcuci i.2a.
3 koi ckyv tyov koi :o:yv tiivoi ov tiotvc ti ypov
cpttoi: for resumptive :c:nv see on I.2 sci :c:ci s:.; for tiitvci
oisnv, with litigant as subject, LSJ titpycuci iii.2. No need for :c:n . . .
utcn (Blaydes), like Is. 5.31 utcn . . . :n tpc Atcypn oisn
tiitvci (LSJ titpycuci iii.4). For ti ,pcv, IV.2n.
4 koi topv tv :i t:poi vc ko:ottoi kotcov: tcpcv is as
a theatre-goer (IV.5n., VII.8n.), not while watching the play, which would
be incompatible with what follows. For tv :ci t:pci, XI.3n. It is easy to fall
asleep in the modern theatre, when attention ags. But this man falls asleep on
a stone bench, and is not woken even by the noise and jostle of the departing
audience. His solitary stupor in an empty theatre is a ne comic touch.
5 koi co oyov :J vuk:o [koi] ti kcv vi:tvc: sci, commonly
interpolated (10, VII.4n.), must be deleted, since :n vus:c (III.2, IV.11)
belongs not with tcc gc,cv but with tti cscv vi:utvc. Transposed
before :n vus:c (C. Salmasius, Plinianae Exercitationes in Caji Julii Solini Poly-
histora (Utrecht 1689) 431), it impossibly coordinates present part. with aorist.
tti cscv vi:utvc does not mean getting up from bed to go to the
lavatory (his neighbours dog does not bite him in his bedroom) but when he
gets up and is on his way to the lavatory (the dog bites himbecause he is clumsy
enough to wake it up, probably by blundering about in the street outside). The
present part. vi:utvc represents an imperfect indic. vi:c:c (KG 1.143
4, 200, Schwyzer 2.2778, 297; similarly 13 t,cv:c representing tt,t,
IV.7n.), regular in expressions of this kind: Pl. Phd. 116a vi:c:c ti csnu
:i c cucutvc (LSJ b.ii.1), X. HG 2.4.6 vi:cv:c ctci tot:c tsc:c
tc :cv ctcv, 7.1.16 ts ot :cv :iocv vi:cv:c ctci (Schneider:
ctcu codd.) tot:c tsc:c, where I take vi:cv:c ctci tot:c (they went
where they needed to go) to be a euphemism for nding a place to relieve
oneself (the translations which I have seen are either inexplicit or wrong).
Similarly Hp. Epid. 7.47.2 (5.416 Littr e) tti cscv vi:c:c, 7.84.5 (5.442)
tti cscv vc:. The verb vi:cci is even used on its own in the sense
(unnoticed by LSJ) go to the lavatory at Epid. 1.2 (2.608 Littr e), 3.1 (3.52); and
v:ci regularly denotes going to the lavatory in the sense evacuation
(Epid. 3.1 (3.40 Littr e), 6.7.1 (5.336), 7.3.2, 4.1 (5.368, 372), Coac. 2.14.262
(5.640), al., Mnesith. ap. Orib. 8.38.11 :nv v:civ tou tti :c0 scu
tcitci). Cf. J. A. L opez F erez, Eufemismos y vocabulario t ecnico en el
Corpus Hippocraticum, in F. de Martino and A. H. Sommerstein (edd.), Studi
sull Eufemismo (Bari 1999) 229. Other such euphemistic verbs are tctc:tv,
gcottiv, and English go (OED Suppl. Go 31.g); cf. J. N. Adams, The Latin
Sexual Vocabulary (London 1982) 242, L opez F erez 2234.
Although chamber pots might be used for defecation (Ar. Pax 1228, Ec. 371,
fr. 477, Eup. 240, Pl.Com. 124), it was normal to go outside (Ar. Nu. 138490),
even at night (Ach. 116870, Th. 4839, Ec. 31326). The Athenian lavatory (in
such houses as had one) was likely to be a pit in the courtyard or just outside it
(H. A. Thompson, Hesperia 28 (1959) 1012, E. J. Owens, CQ 33 (1983) 467;
cf. Eub. 52.25). Public lavatories are unknown at Athens before Roman times
(Thompson and Wycherley, Agora xiv 197). Since csc is a euphemism, like
oigpc (Poll. 10.45) and stool (OED 5), it would be unsafe to infer that a
lavatory might have a seat. Plu. Lyc. 20.6 tv tcycpnti cstcv:c tti
oigpcv refers to seats; but the anecdote has no evidential value. What may
be a portable lavatory seat has been found in fourth-century Olynthus (D. M.
Robinson and J. W. Graham, Excavations at Olynthus 8 (Baltimore 1938) 2056,
Pl. 55; cf. Robinson, ibid. 12 (1946) 17880).
scu (AB) should be changed to cscv (Schneider; scv e, Casaubon),
for conformity with Epid. 7.47.2, 84.5 (above), even though tti with gen.
may denote the goal of motion (LSJ a.i.3b). tc (d) scu goes against
the colloquial idiom. So too does :n vus:c <vc:c> c tti scu
(Diels; the same without supplement Pasquali), which is founded on the false
assumption that vi:utvc (om. A) is also omitted by B and is therefore
merely an addition in the later mss. Many have assumed a lacuna, unprof-
itably: vus:c <,uuvc>Herwerden, vi:utvc <oicucp:cv :n pc>
Fraenkel and Groeneboom, vi:utvc <tctcvcutvc> Wilamowitz
1902b, vi:utvc <sci :n coc0 tctcvcutvc> Koujeas, tti scu
vi:cci <sci ttcvicv vu:ci sci :nv pcv c,vcnc>Edmonds
1929, sc<nutvc> tti scu Stark.
oo :J :c yt:cvc kuvo cyyJvoi: not otc suvc :n :c0 ,ti:cvc
(AB). The neighbours dog can be expressed by: (i) n :c0 ,ti:cvc scv, like
XXII.5 :c :c0 sutpvn:cu :pcuc:c, XXVI.5 :c :cv onuc,c,cv ,tvc,
XXVII.13 :ci :cv tcioicv tcioc,c,ci; (ii) n scv n :c0 ,ti:cvc, like
XVIII.4 :nv ,uvcsc :nv co:c0, XXII.10 :ni ,uvcisi . . . :ni tcu:c0, XXX.7
:c utpc :c co:c0 (10n.; also, for the repeated article in similar structures,
XX.6n.); (iii) n scv :c0 ,ti:cvc, like II.3 :c :piycuc :n stgcn, VIII.8
:c tpcctc :cv tv :c tp,uciv; (iv) :c0 ,ti:cvc n scv, like XIII.10
:c0 . . . vopc . . . :c0vcuc, XVII.7, XXII.4, XXX.9, 15. Cf. KG. 1.617
18. Here (iv) :c0 ,ti:cvc :n suvc is ruled out by the position of otc.
I have preferred (i) :n :c0 ,ti:cvc suvc; but (ii) <:n> suvc :n :c0
,ti:cvc (Edmonds 1908) and (iii) :n suvc :c0 ,ti:cvc are acceptable.
Other proposals: otc suvc :c0 ,ti:cvc Schwartz, tti :cv :c0 ,ti:cvc
cscv vi:utvc otc :n suvc o- Kayser. For scv fem., V.8n.; guard-
dogs, IV.9n.
6 koi oov <:i>koi cti oo:o :c:c y:tv koi j cvooi toptv:
an object is needed for ccv, and <:i> (a few mss. (Torraca (1974) 97,
Stefanis (1994a) 101, 119), coni. J. M. Gesner) is good enough, and better
than <p,picv> (Petersen); cf. I.5, II.4, IV.6, VII.10, X.7, XV.4, XVIII.9,
XXIV.7, XXX.18 <:i>. The order tcti <:i>(Hartung) gains no support
from M, which has sci tcti :i coy topis<c>i. For tcti, IX.3n. For
resumptive demonstrative after participial clause (as 13), XXI.10, XXIII.9.
7 koi oyytv:c oo:i :i :t:tt:yk :i oo:c :v ov: cf.
XXII.9 oin,,tutvcu (Holland: oitit,utvcu V) co:ci, Th. 1.74.1 on-
ctv:c c:i, 1.116.3 tc,,ttv:cv c:i (also D. 50.17), 6.58.1 ,,ttv:c,
X. Cyr. 6.2.19 tc,,tcutvcv c:i, Aeschin. 1.43 tc,,ttv:c . . . co:c,
D.S. 19.6.1 tpcc,,ttv:c c:i. In the gen. absolute, when an indenite
personal subject is unexpressed, plural part. is regular (so XIX.8 toycutvcv
sci ttvocv:cv, XXX.18, 20), but sing. (as tc,,tcv:c AB) is anomalous
(KG 2.812, Schwyzer 2.4001, Headlam on Herod. 2.85, Diggle, Euripidea
221). Navarre 1924 cites Ariston fr. 14, ii Wehrli pcv c:picv sct:cv,
tttpc:ncv:c :i t:iv, unotv tcspivtci utypi cv ttni, where the
subject of tttpc:ncv:c is not indenite but is a specic person (implied
in c:picv), who becomes subject of the following ttni. He also cites
Arist. Econom., 6; if this is Oec. 1.6.4 (1345
9), otcotisvv:c refers to the
previously mentioned master of the house. tc,,ttv (Herwerden) has less
appeal; so too tc,,tcv:c <:ivc> (cd), which would anticipate the
structure of 13 t,cv:c :ivc. No objection, however, must be taken to the
tense of tc,,tcv:c.The present part. would represent imperfect indic.
tn,,tt (5n.). For the order co:c0 :cv gicv, XIII.10n.
vo opoyvy:oi: perhaps implying attendance at the tpcti as well
as the funeral: D. 43.64 :c:c sttti :c tpcnscc sci tcptvci :ni
tpctti :c0 :t:ttu:nsc:c sci tti :c uvnuc sccutv, Isoc. 19.31 coo
tttion :ttu:cv nutt :cv icv, cpcc :cu tci:c :cu nut:tpcu . . .
oicttcv:c ti A,ivcv v co:cv u,sc:cticv, coo ti :c0:cv :cv
scipcv tnv:ntv c0:c cuc sci yt:ic tytv c: tti utv :c
snoc cos nictv gistci s:. See D. C. Kurtz and J. Boardman, Greek
Burial Customs (London1971) 1436, R. Garland, The Greek Way of Death (London
1985) 2334. Contrast XVI.9.
titv AyoJi :yyi: here an interjection, without verb, as Men. Dysc.
422, Epit. 223, Kith. 40,
Sam. 297, PCG adesp. 1091.3, oracle ap. D. 43.66.
Not Heaven be praised! (Jebb), like Ter. An. 105 Chrysis uicina haec moritur. :: o
factum bene!, but Good luck to him! (Edmonds), like Men. Asp. 381 tcvnis
,cni :yni (Die, and good luck to you).
It is more commonly linked to a
verb (most often an imperative) and always has future reference: Ar. Au. 436,
675, Th. 283, Ec. 131, And. 1.120, Pl. Ti. 26e, Cri. 43d, Phlb. 57e, Smp. 177e,
Lg. 625c, 919d, X. HG 4.1.14, Cyr. 4.5.51, D. 3.18, Prooem. 32.4, Aeschin. 3.154,
Men. Asp. 381 (above), Dysc. 816, Sam. 116, Nicostr.Com. 18.3, PCG adesp.
1089.18, 1093.125; also in Athenian treaties and decrees (Th. 4.118.11, LSJ
:yn iii.4).
Cf. Cic. Diu. 1.102 maiores nostri . . . omnibus rebus agendis quod bonum
faustum felix fortunatumque esset praefabantur.
8 ctivo ct ko: VI.9n.
covov pypicv titvcv p:upo opootv: it was natu-
ral to have witnesses when making a loan or repayment (Ar. Nu. 1152, Ec. 448,
Lys. 17.2, Isoc. 21.7, Is. fr. 28 Thalheim, D. 30.1920, 34.30, 50.30). The payer
needs proof that he has paid. But for the recipient to call witnesses is obtuse:
he needs no proof that he has been paid. The verb tccuvcv, taking
For the correct distribution of parts see W. G. Arnott, ZPE 31 (1978) 2930.
Cf. M. Gronewald, ZPE 93 (1992) 17. But there is much to be said for tcvnis : :
,cni :yni (van Leeuwen, commended by Gronewald, ibid. 114 (1996) 60).
D. 18.266,cni . . . :yni uuticsc is a different construction(like 258:cic:ni
uuticsc :yni).
receipt, shows that this is a straightforward and uncontroversial transaction.
The Ati:c (XVIII.5) is equally perverse: he calls witnessses when he asks for
payment of interest (XVIII.5). Cf. E. Leisi, Der Zeuge im attischen Recht (Frauen-
feld 1907) 14350, J. H. Lipsius, Das attische Recht und Rechtsverfahren (Leipzig
190515) 872, F. Pringsheim, The Greek Law of Sale (Weimar 1950) 279, 85,
Dover on Ar. Nu. 777.
up:upc tcpcctv (Is. 3.19, D. 34.30, 47.67, 48.46, 56.13; Leisi 159)
means more than call (in) witnesses (Jebb, LSJ ii.1); rather, take as assistants,
supporters (LSJ ibid.). But, since the verbal repetition tccuvcv . . .
tcpcctv has no stylistic point, we might consider tcpcsctv (Lys. 1.46,
3.22, 7.20, Isoc. 19.12, Is. 3.2030 (7 instances), 9.13, D. 33.19, 43.70; cf. V.3,
LSJ ii.2, Leisi 159), attributing the mistake to the inuence of the preceding
verb (see on V.9 tcci:pioicv). Same confusion D. 34.32 (tcpcsctv S,
tcpcctv A).
9 koi ytivc 6v:c ytoi :i oici :i ikcu cok \ypotv: cf.
XXIII.8 :ci tcioi uytci c:i (uytci VI.4n., c:i XXIII.9n.), Ar. fr. 581.1
cti ot ytiucvc utcu isuc, c:pu, ctcpcv. For cucumbers, Olson on
Ar. Pax 9991002, Olson and Sens on Matro 4.1, Pellegrino 17980; shopping
by slaves, IX.4n.
10 koi :o oico tou:i ootiv voykov koi :pcytiv [koi] ti kcv
totv: he tires his childrenby making themwrestle withhimandrunagainst
him. tcu:ci is governed only by tccitiv, but it readily supplies :pcytiv
withthe notionagainst him. tcu:ci for tcu:c0(AB) is demandedby sense, not
by style. In respect of sense: to tire his children by making themwrestle and run
against eachother is not vcinic; therefore tcu:c (Stark) is alsowrong. It is
vcinic to make themwrestle and run against himself: he takes no account
of his greater strength. In respect of style, :c tcioic tcu:c0 would be like
XIX.5 :n ,uvcisc co:c0, XX.910 ncisicco:c0 . . . :cu gicu co:c0 . . .
:cv tcpi:cv co:c0, XXII.2 co:c0 :c cvcuc; similarly Ar. Nu. 515 :nv giv
co:c0, 905 :cv tc:tp co:c0, Pax 880 tucu:c0 :ci ttti, fr. 605.2 :ni stgcni
cu:c0, Men. Epit. 88990 :nv stgcnv . . . co:c0 (conjectural in Dysc. 26),
Mnesim. 3.3 :ci tici tcu:c0, Philem. 178.2 tcu:c0 :cv icv, PCG adesp.
1000.38 tucu:n :cv oicv . . . icv, D. 40.32. KG 1.620 cites further instances
in Hdt., and two in X. which are less certain, HG 7.1.44 :c:nv :nv ti:iv
tucu:c0 (:nv omitted by some mss., perhaps rightly: KG1.6289), 7.3.12 :cu
totp,t:c tcu:cv (in a sentence deleted by Nauck). This structure is, however,
less regular than :c tcu:c0 tcioic (VII.10 :cv co:c0 tcioicv, III.2, IV.3,
VI.6, X.8 (bis), XII.3, XXI.11, XXV.8, XXVII.12, XXVIII.4, XXX.16) and
:c tcioic :c tcu:c0 (XVIII.4 :nv ,uvcsc :nv co:c0, XXII.10, XXX.7);
KG 1.56970, 619. Hence :c t- <:c>tcu:c0 Edmonds 1908 and :c tcu:c0
tcioic Diels (Index s.u. tcu:c0); also :c tcioic [tcu:c0] Edmonds 1929, as
XVI.12, XXII.6, XXVII.13; cf. IX.5, XX.5, XXI.3, XXVII.3, XXX.6, 14.
Contrast (without art.) IX.5 tvci . . . co:c0, XII.12 co:c0 . . . tc, XXII.4
co:c0 u,c:tpc (KG 1.627). For the form tcu:-, I.2n.
Omission of sci (Casaubon; also c, but with :pcycv) is far better than
vc,stiv (Reiske 1749 (Briefe 360), 1757; reported from Par. supp. gr. 450
(46 Wilson) by Torraca 1974) with sci retained, which leaves the relation-
ship between the innitives less clear. For interpolation of sci, 5, VII.4n.
With vc,scv, it is clear that tccitiv . . . sci :pcytiv are coordinated
(for the order see on V.9 tcci:pioicv scvi:pcv tycv sci gcipi:npicv); so
t- sci :p- vc,scv (Pauwbefore Navarre 1920) is unwanted. Plural sctcu
(A) is possible (Od. 50, fr. 7 tit. ltpi sctcv, Pl. R. 537b, Lg. 944b, [Arist.] Pr.
4, al.) but not preferable.
11 koi tv ypi


okJv tov ci o ti :jv y:pov toov

po:cv ciJoi: why he should be making lentil soup in the country or
on his farm (II.12n.) rather than indoors is unclear; wherever he is, we do not
expect him to be making it for his children (to whom co:c would have to
refer). tv ,pci would have point if he was making it for people working on his
farm: cf. IV.3 :c tcp co:ci tp,ccutvci uic:c tv ,pci. Since lentils
were cheap (Pritchett 191; cf. XXX.18), gcsn was the poor mans soup (Ar.
Pl. 1004; Wilkins, Boastful Chef 1316, Dalby 194) and might appropriately be
served to farm-workers. So co:c might conceal a participle, to be taken with
tv ,pci. Alternatively, co:c (Casaubon),
suggesting that he has to make his
own soup, because, being in the country, he has no cook. co:<c uic:>c
(an unpublished conjecture of Stefanis) gives it further point. Or the text may
be lacunose, with sci tv ,pci the beginning of a lost sentence, in which the
soup had no part. Casaubon proposed deletion of tv ,pci in the copy of his
1599 edition in the British Library (see the Introduction, p. 54 n. 172).
The expression gcsnv ttiv recurs in Pherecr. 26.1, Ar. fr. 165, Stratt. 47.2,
Antiph. 171, Men. Karch. fr. 1 Arnott, Sandbach (226 Koerte), Timo SH 787,
Hp. Mul. 90 (8.218 Littr e). For ttiv, Olson and Sens on Matro 1.1023; salt,
IX.3n.; y:pc, X.5n. For the general sense, R. L. Stevenson, The Beach of
Fales a (a short story), She [a native] got round with the salt-box, which she
considered an extra European touch, and turned my stew into sea-water.
12 koi 0cv:c :c Ai: cf. XVII.4 0ti (sc. Zt), III.3 ti tcintitv c Ztu
0ocp ttcv. Contrast 0cv:c and 0cv:c (without :c0 Aic) CP 3.6.1,
3.22.2, 4.14.3, Sign. 51, Ar. V. 774, X. HG 1.1.16, Arist. SE 167
7, Mete. 358
30. Zeus as subject of 0tiv belongs to poetry or popular speech (H. Il.
Not in any ms. (C. Landi, SIFC 8 (1900) 92, Stefanis (1994a) 120 n. 87).
12.25, Od. 14.457, Hes. Op. 488, Alc. 338.1, Thgn. 256, Cratin. 131, Pherecr.
137.6, Ar. Nu. 127980, Men. Mis. 501, 556 Arnott (p. 353
Sandbach), PCG
adesp. 728, Theoc. 4.43, Herod. 7.46, PMG854); in prose the name is normally
absent (Hdt. 3.125.4 and Arist. Ph. 198
18 are exceptional). Occasionally, c tc
0ti (Hdt. 2.13.3, 3.117.4). See XXV.2n., A. B. Cook, Zeus ii (Cambridge 1925)
14, West on Hes. Op. 416.
titv Hc yt :v :pov 6ti, :t cj koi ci ci ycui :J
yJ: he says stars instead of earth, using a word which (for the purpose of
Theophrastuss joke) is the reverse of the right one, a verbal blunder like those
in 7 and 13. cti (Coray before Schneider, but Casaubon before both)
vcuiti (AB) is clearly right: similar corruption Eup. 176.1, Hp. Epid. 5.63.4
(5.242 Littr e),
Macho 185.
nou ctiv is a common expression: e.g. IV.2,
CP 6.5.2, 6.11.4, Ar. Th. 254, Pl. 1020, Pl. Hp.Ma. 299a, Arist. EE 1231
Because c cci must use the right word, tin (AB) must be replaced by
:n ,n (Schneider 1799, before J. G. Schweigh auser
ap. J. Schweigh auser,
Animadversiones in Athenaei Deipnosophistas 7 (Stuttgart 1805) 6823). ,n is shown
to be the right word by Hdt. 3.113.1 tcti . . . :n ycpn :n Apcin
ttticv c no, Cratin.Iun. 1.12 tvuut ot :n ,n c ,usu | cti . . .;
(cf. Antiph. 41.3 tocon . . . :nv ,nv), Cic. de Orat. 3.99 magis laudari quod
terram (Lambinus, Plin. Nat. 13.21, 17.38: ceram codd.) quam quod crocum olere
(sapere Plin.) uideatur, Mart. 3.65.7 gleba quod (sc. fragrat) aestiuo leuiter cum spargitur
imbre. See also (for the reason why rain makes the earth fragrant) CP 6.17.6,
[Arist.] Pr. 906
34, Plin. Nat. 17.39; contrast X. Cyn. 5.3. Cf. S. Lilja, The
Treatment of Odours in the Poetry of Antiquity (Helsinki 1972) 101, 167. tin is
wrong, because it is wine, not rain, which is associated with the smell of pitch
(resin): Ar. Ach. 190 ccui (sc. tcvoci) ti::n, Plu. 676b :ni :t ,cp ti::ni
Coray and Schneider proposed cti in their editions of 1799; but Coray had devised it
as early as 1791 (di Salvo 6771). Casaubon proposed it in the copy of his 1599 edition
in the British Library (see the Introduction, p. 54 n. 172). He rst wrote ,pcv cti (on
,pcv, later proposed by Blaydes, see below), then added (some of my transcription
is conjectural, since his hand is unclear) quid si dicamus, :cv c:pcv cti. Vt sit
sensus: odorem exhalari cum pluit quem ut sibi ingratum alius uocet odorem picis:
at iste stupidus appellat odorem siderum. No(ta) de pluuiae odore.
In the text of J. Jouanna (Bud e ed., 2000) sciin sc:tpp,n o,pc tcc
scscv ccutvc (Coray, before Jouanna: scsc tcc vcuicutvc codd.)


t:tt:ntv. The decisive parallel is Epid. 7.28.4 (5.400) sciin sc:tpp,n o,pc
tcc sci ctc sci sscouc


t:tt:ntv. Corays emendation, restoring

an expression found in Loc.Hom. 12, 47 (6.298, 346), Mul. 1.38, 50 (8.94, 108), is prefer-
able to scsc ccutvc (F. Z. Ermerins, Hippocratis et Aliorum Medicorum Veterum Reliquiae
1 (Utrecht 1859) 663, who, like Jouanna, was unaware of the priority of Coray).
Adduced by Porson, Tracts and Miscellaneous Criticisms (ed. T. Kidd, London 1815)
2767. He also commends :n ,n.
Earlier (1802) he had proposed :c :pcvcuitiv (del. c:i . . . tin), anticipating
others in this deletion.
tv:t tctigcui :c ,,tc sci :n pn:ivn otcui,vcui tcci :ci
cvci . . . co ,cp ucvcv tocoicv :ivc :c :cic0:c tpcoiociv s:., Plin.
Nat. 14.124 adspersu picis ut odor uino contingat (Lilja 11718); for other uses of
pitch, Olson on Ar. Ach. 190. The spelling tin is a further indication that
the word is corrupt: the mss. consistently give -::- for -- (about 30 instances;
exceptionally III.3 ccv A, XXIII.2 cni V), and Theophrastus has
the spelling ti::- in the botanical works (cf. Arnott, Orthographical variants
21014). Corruption was facilitated by the common phonetic confusion of n
and i (X.14n.). As soon as we recognise that :n ,n is right, we can see the
point of :cv c:pcv: he says stars because the rain falls from the sky, where
the stars are. Cf. William Blake, The Tyger, When the stars . . . watered heaven
with their tears. ,pcv (Casaubon before Blaydes)
for c:pcv ruins the
joke: to say elds for earth is no canard. The ood of conjectures does not
abate. I forbear to transcribe them.
For c:t with an adversative nuance when, whereas, H. Od. 12. 212
yt:ici, c ccv:t otnt:t ocu Aiocc, | oicvtt, c:t : cci ctc
vniscu cvpctci (P. Monteil, La phrase relative en grec ancien (Paris 1963)
279). For c:t on, KG 2.131, Denniston 21920. c:t on sci is regular in epic
(8 instances in Homer, also A.R. 4.1731) and later prose; in earlier prose, X.
HG 5.1.28. Here sci (om. A) is appropriate; it emphasizes the fact that the
relative clause contains an addition to the information contained in the main
clause (Denniston 294; cf. Barrett on E. Hi. 25860). c:i (AB) because gives
the wrong connection; same error XVII.9.
13 koi ycv: :ivc Hcu cti . . .;: a regular turn of phrase, e.g.
Ar. Pax 704 tc c:: cti ,t,tvnci . . .;, Isoc. 15.136 tccu cti . . .
ttpittt:cstvci . . .;, Lys. 21.8, X. Mem. 2.2.8, 4.2.33, Cyr. 8.2.16, D. 18.103,
50.62, Lib. Decl. 34.18; cf. (mostly with ocst) E. Hcld. 294, 832, Hi. 4625, S.
El. 266, Ph. 276, Herod. 3.42 (Headlamad loc.). Though phrased as a question,
this amounts to an awed exclamation (VIII.9n.). Casaubon cites Pl. Poen. 431
quantum Accheruntest mortuorum, a way of expressing an innite number (more
familiar ways of expressing this follow: 432 quantum aquaist in mari, 433 nubes
omnes quantumst, 434 stellae in caelo) and suggests that a proverbial expression
lies behind the question tccu cti . . . vtspc;. It is unsafe to infer that an
expression which is found only once, in a farcical passage of Plautus, was ever
common or proverbial; nor does the response of the Avcin:c require it to
have been.
See n. 72 above.
Fraenkel and Groeneboom (1901), H. Stadtm uller (LZB 54 (1903) 615), Meiser
(1911), Meerwaldt (1925), Terzaghi (1958), Stark (1960), Ussher (1960), Perrotta (1962),
P. Bernardini Marzolla (Maia 34 (1982) 1435), Stefanis (1997).
ko:o :o Hpo o ttvyvyoi vtkpc: the name Hpic was restored
(for tp AB) by J. Meursius, Eleusinia (Leiden 1619) 82 and Athenae Atticae
(Leiden 1624) 181, on the basis of Et.Gen. AB (= EM 437.1920) Hpic

( Hpici Meursius, Hpicci Sylburg) tci Anvni

oic :c :cu vtspcu

tsgtptci tst tti :c npic, c t:i :cu :gcu.
A gate of this name is
otherwise unknown. Archaeologists have recently proposed to identify it with
the remains of a gate in the north-west of the city wall, on the road to a large
cemetery: J. Travlos, Pictorial Dictionary of Ancient Athens (London 1971) 159 and
Fig. 219, Kurtz and Boardman (7n.) 945, with Map 4, Wycherley, Stones of
Athens 17, 2567. Whether or not this identication is right, and whether or
not Hpici is the right spelling, there is no good reason to doubt the existence
of a gate with some such name. Defence of the transmitted text of Et.Gen., as
indicating that any gate through which corpses were carried could be known
as Hpicv (A. P. Mattheou, Hpic

c tci Anvni, Horos 1 (1983) 718), is

unacceptable. It is reasonable to bring Theophrastus into line with Et.Gen.,
by the easy change of tp (AB) to Hpic (rather than Hpicic (Wachsmuth
ap. Immisch 1897), a less plausible form, and a less straightforward change
here than in Et.Gen.), another instance of n/i confusion (12n.), comparable
to XVI.4 (npcicv D ubner: tpccv V
, tp- V). If a Sacred Gate existed in the
fourth century, it will presumably have been the starting point of the tpc coc
to Eleusis. A gate of this name is attested only once, in Roman times, by Plu.
Sull. 14.5 :c (sc. :tyc) ut:cu :n ltipcsn tn sci :n ltpc ( Hpic A.
Milchh ofer in A. Baumeister, Denkm aler des klassischen Altertum i (Munich and
Leipzig 1884) 149). See further W. Judeich, Topographie von Athen (Munich
139. For ttvnvtyci, LSJ i.2.
po :c:cv titv Oci tci koi ci yvciv:c: there is no advantage in
tpc :c0:c (Wilamowitz 1902b). For cci . . . ,tvciv:c, Headlam on Herod.
I cite Et.Gen. from the note of Theodoridis on Phot. H 239.
Introductory note
The coon pleases himself: [Arist.] MM 1192
334 c ,cp coon
co:con :i t:iv, tc :c0 co:c co:ci ptstiv. He is self-centred, self-
willed, deaf to the advice or appeals of others. See the improved denition in
LSJ Rev.Suppl.; for the etymology, Frisk 1.1845, Chantraine 138.
The wordts the sea, traditionally unresponsive (E. Hi. 3045 cocot:tpc|
,i,vcu cn), or the torturers iron, wilful and remorseless ([A.] PV
64 ocucv:ivcu . . . gnvc coon ,vcv). Tragedy associates cootic
with, above all, Prometheus ([A.] PV 436, 964, 1012, 1034, 1037) and Medea
(E. Med. 104, 621, 1028). Socrates, in refusing to bring tearful children, rela-
tives and friends to court, denies that he shows cootic, but he fears that his
refusal will provoke the jurors to be cocot:tpci towards him (Pl. Ap. 34cd).
The Aeginetans obstinately refused to admit that they were in the wrong: c0:t
uvt,ivcscv:c nv :t cocot:tpci (Hdt. 6.92.2). A fathers refusal to treat
with a suitor prompts the expostulation Hpsti, cocoic (Men. Mis. 688
Arnott, 287 Sandbach). Later comedy avoids coco-: apart from this passage
of Menander, only Antiph. 293.4, Eub. 25.1. Cf. [Men.] Sent. Pap. XVIII col.
3.13 (p. 23 J akel).
The coon is apt to lack sense or sensitivity (S. OT 54950 t :ci vcuiti
s:nuc :nv cocoicv | tvci :i :c0 vc0 ycpi, cos cpc gpcvt, Ant. 1028
cocoic :ci scic:n: cgisvti, E. Med. 2234 coo :cv nivt c:i
coon ,t,c | tispc tci:ci t:iv ucic 0tc, Pl. Plt. 294c cvp-
ctcv coon sci ucn; def. IV n.); to be proud or conceited (Ar. Ra.
1020 Aiyt, tcv uno cooc tuvuvcutvc ycttcivt, Isoc. 6.98 :c
cocotici sci :c tuvc:niv, D. 61.14 tti utv :n tpcc:n:c :cttivcv, tti
ot :n tuvc:n:c cococv; cf. Arist. Rh. 1367
38, 1406
3); self-opinionated
(Hp. Aer. 24.6 (2.90 Littr e) coot :t sci ioic,vcucvc); a misanthrope (Hp.
Medic. 1 (9.206) coon . . . sci uivpctc; cf. X. Cyn. 6.25, the coon
scv opposed to the givpctc); in manner, neither mild (Gorg. 82 b 6 :c
tpccv ttitist contrasted with :c c0cot oiscicv; cf. D. 61.14, cited above)
nor good tempered (Gorg. loc. cit. cooti tpc :c uugtpcv contrasted with
tocp,n:ci tpc :c tpttcv; cf. Eub. 25); in looks, sullen or cloudy (supctc
Isoc. 1.15, uvvtgn [Arist.] Phgn. 811
345, 812
Aristotle (EE 1221
8, 278) places cootic at the opposite end of the scale
to ptstic obsequiousness (Introd. Note to V). The coon lives without
regard for others, on whom he looks down (EE 1233
356 c . . . unotv tpc
t:tpcv cv <c>sc:cgpcvn:isc coon). Such a description suits less
the Aoon of Theophrastus than the Yttpngcvc (XXIV), or the coon
of Ariston of Keos (fr. 14, 1 Wehrli; cf. W. Kn ogel, Der Peripatetiker Ariston von
Keos bei Philodem(Leipzig 1933) 268). Elsewhere, without calling himcoon,
Aristotle describes the man who is the opposite of the cptsc: he is surly
and quarrelsome, oscc and otpi, objects to everything and does not
care what pain he causes (EN 1108
2930, 1126
1416). This is more like the
Aoon of Theophrastus. Yet again, the cptsc will consort with anyone,
the coon (like the Yttpngcvc) avoids company and conversation ([Arist.]
MM 1192
305, quoted on def. V).
The Aoon of Theophrastus is unsociable and uncooperative, a surly
grumbler. The word has not lost its original sense. But the social context
has changed. What comes over, in one setting, as uncompromising self-will
comes over, in the Athenian street, as pettiness and bad temper. It is undesir-
able to translate cootic here as surliness (Jebb, Edmonds) or grouchiness
[1 ] Denition
tnvtic cuiic tv c,ci does not ring true. tnvn (for the etymology,
Heubeck on H. Od. 23.97) properly implies the harshness which goes with
inexorability: so, for example, H. Il. 1.340 (Agamemnon, inthe eyes of Achilles),
Pl. Lg. 950b (refusal to allow emigration or immigration) c,picv sci tnvt
gcivci: cv :c cci vpctci, Theoc. 22.169 snn:c sci tnvtt.
Similarly the noun tnvtic: rst in A.R. 2.1202 (Aietes ccniiv tnvtiniiv
cpnptv), in prose not before Muson. fr. 33 Hense ap. Stob. 4.7.16 (it is tnvtic
not to be seen by subordinates as sc:ccs:isc placable) and Periander
(Hercher, Epist. Gr. 408) cited by D.L. 1.100 (the tnvticof a son alienated from
his father). The Aoon, althoughhe is prone to say no, is not inexorable (in7
he gives in, with however ill a grace). tnvtic better describes the Yttpngcvc
(XXIV), as Stein observes. For cuiic, def. II n., also [Arist.] MM 1192
(Introd. Note ad n.). Finally, tv c,ci, apt indef. XXVIII, is not apt here, since
the Aoon reveals himself not only in speech. Schneider (before Darvaris)
deleted tv c,ci. We expect, rather, tv c,ci <sci tv tptiv>(Zell before
Meier 1834/5) or <sci tptiv> (Hartung before Herwerden); see def. I n.
The denition is cited by Moschopoulos, 2 S. OT 549 (p. 38 Longo) t,cui
ot tvci :nv cooticv tnvticv cuiic tv c,ci.
2 tpo:yti O ctvo c t:iv;: cf. XXVIII.2.
3 koi pcoycptuti j v:ipctitv: cf. X. Mem. 3.13.1 cp,icutvcu . . .
tc:t :ivc c:i tpctitcv :ivc yciptiv cos v:itpctppnn, [Arist.] MM
305 (Introd. Note ad n.), V.2n., XXIV.6n., Oakley on Liv. 9.6.12.
4 <koi> ov :i j ytiv :c ovcuvci cu v ccc:c
tpo:v : topkti: refusal to name a price breaks the unwritten rules of
bargaining or haggling (X.7n., Millett, Sale, credit and exchange 194; cf.
Herod. 7.648). For the contrast between tctv and tcoiocci, X.7n. For
potential opt. in indirect question, KG 2.2345, Schwyzer 2.3278, Goodwin
681. For topisti, X. Oec. 2.3 tccv cv tpc tcv cti, c cspc:t, tgn,
toptv :c c s:nuc:c tccutvc; (LSJ v.1).
5 koi

:c :ii koi cuiv ti :o tcp:: it is generally assumed that
this refers to the custom of sending presents of food to friends after a feast
(XVII.2 tc:ticv:c utpioc :c0 gicu, Ar. Ach. 104950 tttut :i ci
vuugic :cu:i sptc | ts :cv ,ucv, Men. Sam. 4034 ttuc ot ,tcci
sc:cscc :c gici | :c scioicv, Ephipp. 15.11 tv:c spt nuv t:i.::
tc:tp tttut :i;, X. HG 4.3.14, Plu. Ages. 17.5, Arat. 15.1, Them. 5.1;
P. Stengel, Die griechischen Kultusaltert umer (Munich
1920) 106, F. T. van Straten,
Hier` a Kal a: Images of Animal Sacrice in Archaic and Classical Greece (Leiden etc.
1995) 153). In this connection ttuttiv is regular (cf. XXX.19); and :iucv might
be suitable, as indicating the senders esteem for the recipient (X. Cyr. 8.2.4
t:iuc ot :cv cist:cv tc :n :pcttn ctc:t :ivc ttcivttit . . . ti ot sci
tpctttci :ivc cci:c :cv gicv otc tccv, sci :c:ci tttuttv
tc :pcttn

sci v0v ,cp t:i c cv cpci ttutcutvc tc :n citc

:pcttn, :c:cu tv:t uccv tpcttcui, vcuicv:t co:cu tv:iucu
tvci, Hier. 8.3 c . . . :iun:c). Hence Those who send himpresents with
their compliments at feast-tide (Jebb), If people honor him by sending him
some of the food on a festival day (Rusten). But there are two difculties. First,
the text does not mention food or presents, and ttuttiv calls out for an object
(ttutcui <ocpc>or <utpioc>Navarre 1920). Second, ti :c tcp: does
not mean at or on the festivals but to or for the festivals (XXVII.4n.), and the
article shows that this means the famous public festivals. Perhaps we should
be thinking not of food-parcels for uninvited guests but rather of contributions
made to public festivals, in the form of liturgies, such as the tribal banquet
at the Panathenaea and City Dionysia (XXIII.6n., P. Schmitt Pantel, La cite
au banquet (Paris 1992) 12131, Parker, Athenian Religion 103); cf. Lys. 32.212,
expenditure ti Aicvic and ti :c cc tcp:c sci uic, D. 1.20 cu-
vtiv (sc. ypnuc:c) ti :c tcp:, XXVII.4n. But the point of :c :iuci is
then unclear, and ttutcuiv still needs an object. Perhaps the text is lacunose.
titv :i cok v yvci:c cictvo

: the words appear to be lacunose,

and we do not know what sense to look for. No suggestion carries any con-
viction: ,- <:c> otoc,utvc Needham, ,tci:c oiocutvcv Bernhard 1748
(ap. Reiske (1783) 275), ,tci:c oiocutvcu Reiske 1748 (Briefe 230; cf. 360),
,tci:c otocutvcu Reiske 1757, tci:c (or , tci:c) o- Coray, otyci:c o- Dar-
varis (before Petersen and Mey), ,- nocutvci Kayser, ,tci:c :cv oiocutvcv
Herwerden, ,tci:c :cv oiocutvcv Cobet 1874, ,t otci:c oiocutvcv
Giesecke, ,- <v:i>oiocutvc Diels, <tpcsc> o- Navarre 1920 (<tpcsc
:c> 1924), <tpcsc> ,- <:c> o- Edmonds 1923, :i for c:i M. Schmidt,
cootv for cos Ussher. Jackson (Marginalia Scaenica 233) proposed oiocutvc <:c
tcoiocutvc>, citing Eust. Il. 62.4 (1.99.56 van der Valk) octiv . . . gniv,
tscuic oncon, co unv tcoctiv, oncvc:i scuic, and supposing (as
Coray had supposed) an allusion to the remark of Demosthenes that Philip
had no right to give, only to give back, Halonnesus to Athens: Aeschin. 3.83
tn,cptut uncuvtiv, ti oiociv cuntcoioci, ttpi uccv oic-
gtpcutvc. Ath. 223d224b cites the comedians who picked up this mot: Alex.
7, 212, Anaxil. 8, Antiph. 167 (Konstantakos 1401), Timocl. 12. In this case
the Aoon would be claiming that gifts offered were not true gifts, because
they were given reluctantly or properly belonged to the recipient, not to the
giver. It is not clear (Jackson does not explain; nor does Steinmetz, who accepts
the conjecture) how such a claim would be suited to context or character.
6 koi cok tytiv uyyvoyv c0:t :i


oo:ov kcuo c0:t

:i ov:i c0:t :i tv:i: perhaps cos <cv> tytiv (VI.9n.). tccv:i
(push away) does not aptly describe an involuntary action, nor can it
coexist with the following ccv:i. The sentence closely resembles Sen.
Ben. 6.9.1 num quid est iniquius homine qui eum odit a quo in turba calcatus
aut respersus aut quo nollet impulsus est? It would be appropriate to replace
tccv:i by a word corresponding to respersus. But no suitable word has
been found: not putccv:i (Foss 1858),
since active use with acc. of per-
son is barely justied by H. Od. 6.59 (tuc:c) ptputcutvc (whence ptput-
cutvc, of things not persons, Hp. Mochl. 33 (4.374 Littr e), Mul. 1.66,
2.110, 186 (8.140, 236, 368)); nor :pccv:i (Reiske 1757), tcicv:i (Coray),
t:cv:i (Darvaris), ypccv:i (Ast), :icv:i or :iuncv:i (Meier 1834/5),
ttiyccv:i (Hartung), pcticv:i (F. Haase ap. Meier 1863). Better than
these would be tnccv:i, even though the verb is not attested before
Josephus. Whatever the verb, it will require reexive co:cv (I.2n.).
It is perverse to retain tccv:i and either delete c0:t :ci ccv:i (Schnei-
der; similarly Diels, claiming for tccv:i an unattested sense push off the
pavement) or emend ccv:i (cpcv:i Groeneboom 1917, ccv:i Navarre
1920, <poc>ccv:i P. Groeneboom, Mnemosyne 51 (1923) 3656, itccv:i
Edmonds 1929). There is no obvious fault in ccv:i. The verb is used, in the
middle, of people ina crowdpushing against eachother, jostling (Theoc. 15.73
ct0v cttp 0t; LSJ iii.2, Olson on Ar. Ach. 24). Here too we may imagine
that the involuntary push is caused by the pressure of the crowd. Petersen,
Not in any ms. (Landi, SIFC 8 (1900) 91).
deleting c0:t :ci ccv:i, substituted ccv:i for tccv:i. For tuv:i cf.
Theoc. 15.52 un ut tc:nni.
7 koi oi ct tpovcv kttov:i titvtyktv to k:.: for tpcvc, I.5n.;
titvt,stv, XVII.9, XXIII.6, MacDowell on D. 21.101. For ttc (titcv AB),
ui koi :c:c :o pypicv: cf. XXIII.2 cc (sc. ypnuc:c) . . .
tcctst, Antipho Soph. 87 b 54 tccutvcv :c p,picv, Men. Epit. 437
:i :cc0:cv p,picv tcti;, Theoc. 10.45 tct:c yco:c c uic,
Sen. Ben. 6.4.6 cum daret . . . perdere se credidit, non donare.
8 koi pc:oo tv :Ji 6ci: see on XIX.3 tpct:ciuc:c.
9 koi [votvoi] cok v octvoi cuv ypvcv covo: the duplication
vcutvci . . . otcutvci (endure to wait for) is insufferable (such jingles
as V.5 stt0ci sctci, XXX.10 tsoc0vci t0vci, adduced by Immisch
1923, are irrelevant). It is unclear whether otcutvci (if right) means put
up with (as III.3, VII.10, XXVII.7) or wait for or even a fusion of the
two (something like he has little time for anybody). For otcutvtiv wait for
a person (in a neutral sense, as opposed to waiting for attackers) LSJ ii.1
cites only X. An. 4.1.21 oic :c0:c t coy ottutvcv. In this sense vcutvtiv
would be regular: [Pl.] Sis. 387b nut ot sci yt t tcuv ypcvcv vt-
utivcutv, Th. 1.90.5, 3.97.2, X. HG 6.5.12, Oec. 7.2, 12.2, An. 5.8.14, Cyr.
3.3.23, 8.1.44, D.19.163, Arist. HA 597
12, Men. fr. 666. Instead of delet-
ing (Reiske 1749 (Briefe 361) and 1757), we might substitute vcutvci for
otcutvci (for cv otc- Pasquali). But if vcutvci is original, it is not easy
to explain why it was ousted by otcutvci; if otcutvci is original, vcut-
vci may be explained as a gloss. At all events, we want inn. -utvci,
not opt. -utivci (Casaubon): see 10, VI.9n. For the spelling cotvc, II.2n.
10 koi c0:t ioi c0:t pJiv titv c0:t py(ooi v ttJoi: for singing
at the symposium, Ar. V. 1219ff., Nu. 1354ff., Pl. Prt. 347ce, X. Smp. 7.1, Amips.
21, Eup. 395; recitation of (tragic) speeches, XXVII.2 pnti . . . t,cv tcpc
tc:cv, Ar. Nu. 1371 tt Lopitiocu pniv :iv ,
Aeschin. 1.168 c tv :ci
tc:ci sicpici sci t,ci pnti :iv, Ephipp. 16.3 pnti :t sc:c ottvcv
Otcocpc uci t,ci. For pniv t,tiv of tragic recitation, also Ar. Ach. 416,
V. 580, Men. Epit. 1125, Herod. 3.301 (pni, speech from tragedy, also Ar.
tt R omer: ni R, nitv fere cett.: n, Borthwick, ns Sommerstein. Borthwicks
conjecture (ap. Dover, and CR 21 (1971) 31820) is not supported by XXVII.2,
where c,cv is merely a corruption or conjecture for t,cv in Pal. gr. 149 (57 Wil-
son) (Torraca (1994b) 612). In favour of tt , C. Austin, CR 20 (1970) 21; of ni ,
R. Renehan, Studies in Greek Texts (G ottingen 1976) 8892.
Ra. 151, Pl. Grg. 506b, D. 18.267); of reciting speeches in epic, Pl. R. 393b; of
speech-making in general, A. Su. 615, Ag. 1322, E. Tel. 149.201 Austin, Ar. V.
1095, PCG adesp. 1008.8. Cf. Cic. Tusc. 1.4 (Themistocles) cum in epulis recusasset
lyram, est habitus indoctior. For dancing, VI.3n.
Indic. ntnt(v) (AB) must be replaced not by opt. ttnci (Casaubon) or
ttntitv (Petersen) but by inn., ttnci (ed. pr.) rather than tnci (o);
XVI.9n., XXIV.6n.
11 ctivo ct koi :c tc j ttytoi: not offer thanks to the gods, as
S. OC 1024 (LSJ i), is the only meaning which suits the context. The words
cannot mean to ask for nothing even from the gods (Rusten).
Diels surmised that the sketch is incomplete, since otivc ot sci (VI.9n.,
VII.6n.) might be thought to promise more than :c tc un tttytci,
and he associated the loss of the ending with the division in the manuscript
tradition after this sketch. He may be right. On the other hand, if 9 and
10 belong to this sketch, changing as they do the grammatical structure, a
resumptive otivc ot sci is at least explicable.
Introductory note
In its earliest usage otiiociucv designates a man of conventional piety: X.
Ag. 11.8 citi ot otiiociucv nv, vcuicv :cu utv scc cv:c c0tc
toociucvc, :cu ot tostc :t:ttu:nsc:c non ucscpicu, Cyr. 3.3.58
tnpytv co:c c K0pc tcicvc :cv vcuicutvcv

c ot tctc tv:t
uvttnyncv ut,ni :ni gcvni

tv :ci :cic:ci ,cp on c otiiociucvt

n::cv :cu vpctcu gcc0v:ci, Arist. Pol. 1314
2 (one of
the requirements of an effective ruler) :c tpc :cu tcu gcivtci
ti tcuocv:c oicgtpcv:c

n::cv :t ,cp gcc0v:ci :c tctv :i

tcpvcucv otc :cv :cic:cv, tcv otiiociucvc vcuiciv tvci :cv
cpycv:c sci gpcv:itiv :cv tcv. When Aristotle adds that the ruler must
appear in this guise cvtu t:tpic, he hints at the danger inherent in
god-fearing, that it may readily turn into religious mania, paranoia, and
Although otiiociucv and cognates continued to be used in a neutral or
favourable sense (e.g. Zaleucus ap. Stob. 4.2.19 (2.125 Hense) otiiociucvcv
ociucvc :cpc, D.S. 1.70.8 otiiociucvicv sci tcgin icv, Phld. Piet.
col. 40, 11356, p. 184 Obbink), from the time of Theophrastus onwards
unfavourable associations prevailed: e.g. Piet. fr. 8.89 P otscher (584d.910
Fortenbaugh) ,vcc0iv ot c :nv tcu:tticv tic,c,cv:t ti :c uic,
ctc cuc :c:ni tucv scscv tin,c,cv, otiiociucvicv, :pugnv, s:.,
Plb. 6.56.78 sci uci ocst :c tcpc :c cci vpctci cvtioicutvcv,
:c0:c uvtytiv :c Pcucicv tp,uc:c, t,c ot :nv otiiociucvicv, 9.19.1
:n tnvn tstitcn otiiociucvnc, 12.24.5 tvutvicv sci :tp:cv
sci ucv tivcv sci unonv otiiociucvic ,tvvc0 sci :tpc:tic
,uvciscocu t:i tnpn, D.S. 1.83.8 tv :c :cv cycv uyc tv:t:nstv n
tpc :c cic :c0:c otiiociucvic. A Peripatetic treatise (Stob. 2.7.25 (2.147
Wachsmuth)) denes totticas the meanbetweenotiiociucvicandtc:n.
Menander wrote a Atiiociucv. The man so called sees an omen in the snap-
ping of a shoe-strap (fr. 106), just as in 6 he sees one in a sack of grain nibbled
by a mouse. In both cases superstition is answered by the voice of rationality. In
Plutarchs overheated tirade ltpi otiiociucvic (164e171e) the otiiociucv
is a man who believes that the gods cause only harm and pain, and (much as
in Theophrastus) sees the supernatural on every hand (165d c ot tcu otoic
tv:c otoit, ,nv c::cv tpc copcvcv sc:c gc snocvc ictnv
cvtipcv). Other diatribes which have points of resemblance to our sketch are
Hp. Morb.Sacr. 1 (15n.) and Pl. Lg. 909a910e (4n.).
The Atiiociucv is obsessed by two fears: of the supernatural and of impu-
rity. If a weasel crosses his path (3), or a snake appears in his house (4), or a
mouse nibbles a sack of grain (6), or an owl disturbs his walk (8), or he has a
dream (11), or sees a madman or epileptic (15), he senses a threat and takes
measures to avert it. He forties himself in the morning against the impurities
of the day (2); constantly purges his house (7); keeps clear of birth and death
(9); in an emergency calls in professional puriers (14). He shows little interest
in the major gods (Athena receives a passing nod in 8), none in communal
religion. He stands in particular awe of Hekate and the crossroads (5, 7, 14),
cultivates the new-fangled divinities Sabazios and Hermaphroditos (4, 10),
institutes private worship at home (4, 10), and enrols in fringe sects (12).
His actions and his attitudes, taken one by one, would probably not have
seemed abnormal to the ordinary Athenian. What sets him apart is the obses-
siveness and compulsiveness of his behaviour. This is pointed up by a neat
stylistic device. His actions come in twos or threes, or alternatives are avail-
able: three separate stages of purication, one of them perhaps from three
springs (2); alternative ways of coping with the weasel, one of them with three
stones (3); alternative snakes and different reactions to them (4); three stages
in his worship of the stones (5); three places to avoid (9); two separate days
for worshipping his Hermaphrodites (he has more than one), and a tricolon
of offerings (10); a trio of experts consulted, and the question is to which god,
or alternatively goddess, he should pray (11); alternative partners for his visit
to the Orphic priests (12); two ways of treating an unpleasant sight at the
crossroads, the second with alternatives (14); alternative unwelcome sights
H. Bolkestein, Theophrastos Charakter der Deisidaimonia als religionsgeschichtliche
Urkunde (Giessen 1929), and W. R. Halliday, The Superstitious Man of
Theophrastus, Folk-Lore 41 (1930) 12153, offer detailed comment on the
sketch. More briey, C. J. Babick, De Deisidaemonia Veterum Quaestiones (Leipzig
1891) 419, E. R. Dodds, G&R2 (1933) 1012 (cf. The Greeks and the Irrational 253),
H. J. Rose, Euphrosyne i (1957) 1569, Parker, Miasma 211, 307, Lane Fox 1514.
For more general or theoretical comment, John Smith, A Short Discourse
of Superstition, Select Discourses (London 1660) 2337, E. Riess, Aberglaube,
RE i.1 (1893) 2993, id. Ancient superstition, TAPhA 26 (1895) 4055, A.
Gardner, Superstition, in J. Hastings (ed.), Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics 12
(Edinburgh 1921) 1202, P. J. Koets, Atiiociucvic: A Contribution to the Knowl-
edge of the Religious Terminology in Greek (Purmerend 1929), D. Kaufmann-B uhler,
s.u. Eusebeia, in T. Klauser et al. (edd.), Reallexicon f ur Antike und Christentum 6
(Stuttgart 1966) 104951, S. Calderone, Superstitio, ANRW i.2 (1972) 377
96, D. Grodzynski, Superstitio, REA 76 (1974) 3660, P. A. Meijer in H. S.
Versnel (ed.), Faith, Hope, and Worship: Aspects of Religious Mentality in the Ancient
World (Leiden 1981) 25962, H. S. Versnel, Deisidaimonia, OCD
(1996) 441,
D. B. Martin, Hellenistic superstition: the problems of dening a vice, in P.
Bilde et al. (edd.), Conventional Values of the Hellenistic Greeks (Aarhus 1997) 11027.
[1 ] Denition
Stein suggests that this is based on the Stoic denition of otiiociucvic as
gcc tcv n ociucvcv (SVF 3 fr. 408; cf. 409 gcc :c0 ociucvicu, 411
gcc ociucvcv). Both denitions are merely banal paraphrases of the word,
ours a little less tautologous than the Stoic, and there is no compelling reason
to associate them. Cf. Hsch. A 544 otiiociucv . . . otic ttpi tc, Suda A
368 otiiociucvic

totic ttpi :c tcv, otiic. For otiic see XXV.

Ati: II.9n.
ctitv <v>tvoi: def. I n. Omission of cv is intolerable (KG 1.2256).
:o coivicv: not so much the supernatural (Jebb), das Geisterreich
(Immisch), gli spiriti (Pasquali), as (more neutrally) the divine. See Bolkestein
1113, Steinmetz 2.1827.
2 o <:piv> kpyvv cvitvc :o ytpo: puricatory water was
often derived from more than one source. Three sources: Men. Phasm. 29
31 Arnott (546 Sandbach) ttpiuc:cv c ,uvcst tv ssci | sci

tc spcuvcv :picv | 0oc:i ttpippcv(ci), SHA Heliog. 7.7

(Orestes) se apud tria umina . . . puricauit. Five: Emp. 31 b 143 c utv ,cp
Luttocsn spnvcv tc ttv:t :cucv:c, gniv, :tipti ycsci otv
tcppt:tci (cf. E. K. Borthwick, Eranos 99 (2001) 724). Six: PMag. 1 (ivv
ad) 2345 (1.14 Preisendanz) tcsucv t 0ocp tn,ccv tc tn,cv.
Seven: A.R. 3.860 tt:c utv tvcii ctcutvn oo:tiv, 2 Theoc. Proleg.
p. 2.1516 Wendel tv tt:c tc:cuc ts uic tn,n ptcuiv tcccci.
Fourteen: Suda A 3298 tc oi tt:c suu:cv

ts ut:cgcpc :cv tti gcvci

sccipcutvcv. A hundred: Ov. Met. 13.953. See E. Rohde, Psyche (transl. W. B.
Hillis, London 1925) 589, Parker, Miasma 226. Comparable ritual washing in
the morning: Prop. 3.10.13, Hor. S. 2.3.2902, Verg. A. 8.6870, Pers. 2.1516,
Juv. 6.5234.
tc <:picv> spnvcv (for ttiypcvnv V) modies the conjectures tc
spcuvcv :picv (Cobet, Mnemosyne 4 (1876) 292; Petersen had already proposed
tc :picv spcuvcv for tc tpc0 below), tc , spcuvcv (Diels, Hermes 15
(1880) 175, ignored by him in 1909, although it had been commended by
It should also be restored (in spite of Hindenlang 67) at HP 1.3.2 tvic ,cp <cv>
c ttc::tiv octit (rather than <cv> octit (Amigues); cf. 7.15.3 tcc o
cv :i c ci, CP 1.13.2 tstvc o cv :i c . . . tcpntitv) and 1.7.2 octit
(Heinsius: octi codd.) o <cv>. . . tvci. Cf. CP 1.12.3 ticvc ot sci (scv Einarson)
:c:ni octitv (-tv <cv> Wimmer) c c,c.
Babick (above, p. 350) 4), and tti , spnvcv (E. K. Borthwick, Eranos 64
(1966) 1068). The choicer prep. is tc, brachylogy for water from (0oc:i
tc Men. loc. cit.), as in ttpippcvutvc tc tpc0 which follows; similarly
H. Od. 6.224 ts tc:cuc0 ypcc vit:c, 10.361 c ts :pitcoc, Hdt. 3.23.2
t n (sc. spnvn) cucutvci, Aristobul. FGrH 139 f 6 g n (sc. spnvn) . . .
ttpippvcci gci :cv npcc (LSJ tcvic ii.1 ad n.). No support for tti
comes from tti (tc Schneider) c::n in 13 (spurious), or from H. II.
22.153 tt co:cv (sc. tn,cv), in a different context, with a purely local sense.
For confusion of tc and tti, 14, V.10n. I prefer spnvcv to spcuvcv, both
because it better accounts for -ypcvnv (anagrammatism, like XIV.13 -nvtyci
B, -tynvci A) and because Theophrastus (in other works) has 8 instances of
spnvn, none of spcuvc. The numeral is less certain. Three is commoninmagic
and ritual (Pease on Verg. A. 4.510, Gowon Theoc. 2.43; 3n., 15n.). Three in
connection with washing or purication: Eratosth. 30 Powell, Chaerem. FGrH
618 f 6 (p. 151.1819), Tib. 1.5.11, Verg. A. 6.229, Ov. Met. 7.18990, 261, Fast.
4.315, 5.435 (u.l.), Juv. 6.5234; cf. Plin. Nat. 28.46 (water from three wells as
a cure for fever). It is commended by Men. loc. cit. And <:picv> spnvcv is
an explicable omission (parablepsy; or , was overlooked). Same word order
(prep., numeral, noun) XXVI.5 ts ocotsc tctcv (numeral precedes noun
again at II.2, 3, VI.9, XXIII.5, 6, XXVII.7, XXX.13); but spnvcv <:picv>is
equally possible, like 3 icu :pt. Since, however, three was not canonical,
a different number may be concealed in the corruption.
There had been earlier attempts (before Cobet and Diels) to import spring-
water: tti spnvnv Siebenkees, tc spnvn Schneider 1799, tti spnvn or
tti (or tc) spcuvcv (or ytpvicv) Meier 1834/5, tti tpcv spnvcv Hanow
1860, tt Lvvtcspcvcu Hanow 1861 (before Edmonds 1908), tti spnvni
Jebb (before Madvig). Other conjectures aim to restore (what is not needed)
a reference to a specic pollution which has prompted the purications: t
:i typcvtv Jebb, ttiocv scpcvnv Usener (the mere sight of a crow was not
an ill omen: Thompson, Glossary of Greek Birds 172, West on Hes. Op. 747),
ttpi:uycv vtspci Herwerden, ttti <tv:cgicv tv> ypci nv Zingerle 1893,
ttii,cv npicu Ilberg, ttiypcti <cuc:i> Meiser, :pi,cv tvctcv-
E. Maa (ZVS 50 (1922) 223), ttiypciv <scpc>Immisch 1923, <tti :ci
un> ttiypcnvci Holland 1923, tti:uycv tsgcpci Bolkestein (tti:uycv
tsscuioni Weinreich ap. Bolkestein), t :i ypcvvni Ussher, ttiypcti ucvcv
J. S. Morrison (CR 15 (1965) 289). Others introduce a reference to the Choes:
<ttti> tti Xccv nv Foss 1834, tti Xccv tcu <,tvcutvc> Foss 1858,
tti Xccv tpci Fraenkel and Groeneboom (borrowing from t:i tpci non
Petersen). This is inappropriate (Bolkestein 1315); in any case, at the Choes
is not tti Xccv but :c Xcui (Ar. Ach. 1211, XXII.2n.). The curious conjec-
ture tti ,pcvnv (A. P. Vasiliadis, EEThess 18 (1979) 338) had been published
anonymously in 1798 (Ast, Schneider 1818, Foss 1858).
It was customary to wash hands before a prayer, libation, or sacrice (H. Il.
1.449, 6.2667, 9.1714, 16.230, 24.3025, Od. 2.261, 3.4406, 4.750, 12.336,
Hes. Op. 7245, S. OC 46970, E. El. 7914; Ginouv` es, Balaneutik`e 31113,
Parker, Miasma 1920). Here (where nothing so specic lies ahead) he washes
out of an obsessive desire for a general religious purity or to fortify him-
self against impurities which may be encountered later. See also on XIX.5
koi tpippovtvc o itpc: cf. Men. Phasm. 31 (56) (cited on tc
<:picv> spnvcv init.), Sam. 157 ttpippcvutvc (before a wedding). The
prex ttpi- indicates literal encirclement by lustral water; but (as with other
ttpi-compounds inlustral contexts) the literal sense may be lost, sothat the pre-
x merely suggests the ritual nature of the washing or purication (F. Pster,
Katharsis, RE Suppl. vi (1935) 14951, Parker, Miasma 2256). tc tpc0
is (with water) from a temple, a brachylogy illustrated on tc <:picv>
spnvcv above, not from (with) holy water (scilicet 0oc:c Schneider). The
water comes from the ttpippcv:npicv, a font in the entrance to the temple:
Bolkestein 14, Halliday (Introd. Note) 1289, L. Ziehen, ltpippcv:npic, RE
xix.1 (1937) 8567, Ginouv` es, Balaneutik`e 3078, Parker, Miasma 19, Burkert,
Greek Religion 77, S. G. Cole, The use of water in Greek sanctuaries, in R.
H agg et al. (edd.), Early Greek Cult Practice (Stockholm 1988) 1615 (esp. 162). To
join tc tpc0 with ogvnv (Navarre, Edmonds) is linguistically unobjection-
able (see on IX.4 ti :cv cucv); but there is no reason why a temple should
provide the laurel.
cvyv ti :o :o oov: cf. Sophr. 4.24 tt . . . ogvcv tcp
:c cc. Laurel, used in purication, also had protective powers: Zen. iii.12
(CPG 1.61) tigpucscv n ogvn, Gp. 11.2.5 tvc cv ni ogvn tstcocv
ociucvt (cf. 11.2.7), D.L. 4.57 (Bion) socv ogvn ottp pnv tnstv, Plin.
Nat. 15.135 Tiberium principem tonante caelo coronari ea solitum ferunt contra fulminum
metus. See C. Boetticher, Der Baumkultus der Hellenen (Berlin 1856) 352, 360,
J. Murr, Die Panzenwelt in der griechischen Mythologie (Innsbruck 1890) 928,
Rohde, Psyche 198 n. 95, M. B. Ogle, Laurel in ancient religion and folk-lore,
AJPh 31 (1910) 287311, E. Hoffmann-Krayer (ed.), Handw orterbuch des deutschen
Aberglaubens (hereafter HdA) 5 (1932/3) s.u. Lorbeer 134951, Gow on Theoc.
2.1, Parker, Miasma 2289, I. Opie and M. Tatem, A Dictionary of Superstitions
(Oxford 1989) 14, A. Kerkhecker, Callimachus Book of Iambi (Oxford 1999) 91
n. 37, J. H. Hordern, CQ 52 (2002) 169. The Pythia chewed laurel. At the
Choes buckthorn was chewed in the morning to keep away ghosts (Rohde loc.
cit., Parker 231, Burkert, Homo Necans 218, Greek Religion 238). The Atiiociucv
does not chew the laurel, but merely puts it in his mouth. To suggest (Halliday
129) that in the absence of a pocket this is merely a convenient way of carrying
it, just as it is a convenient way of carrying small coins (VI.9n.), is to forfeit
something of the avour of his action.
c0:o :jv \pov tpio:tv: this shows that these puricatory activities
are performed in the morning. They will be part of a daily ritual, a necessary
preparation for each and every day. c0:c is resumptive, after the participles,
only when he has done that, as in 8 (LSJ i.7, KG2.83 Anmerk. 5, 84 Anmerk.
6, 7). :nv nutpcv during the day is acc. of duration, like XXX.14 :cv unvc
ccv and :cv Avt:npicvc unvc (KG 1.314, Schwyzer 2.6970), as opposed
to the morning, when the puricatory rituals were performed. We do not want
<cnv> :nv nutpcv (Herwerden), which appears in 10.
3 Prometheus introduced the art of interpreting tvcoicu uuccu ([A.] PV
487); cf. Ar. Au. 721, X. Mem. 1.1.24, Ap. 13. An encounter on leaving home
was always a potential omen: Ar. Ra. 196 cuci scscociucv, :ci uvt:uycv
ticv;. For various animals to be avoided on the road, Hor. Carm. 3.27.15,
J. C. Lawson, Modern Greek Folklore and Ancient Greek Religion: A Study in Survivals
(Cambridge 1910) 3068.
koi :jv 6cv, tov opocpyi yoJ, j p:tpcv cptuJvoi: since
T. always places tv (or ti) at the head of a clause, punctuate (as Duport, and
perhaps he alone) with a comma after :nv cocv. Same word order (conditional
clause interposed between accus. and verb) XX.10 :c:nv (co:nv V), tcv
sttciv, c tc ut:tii. For cocv . . . tcptunvci, XXII.9 :nv ssci
cscot tcptunvci (XIII.6n.), Pl. R. 328e, 506c, Lg. 810e, Isoc. 1.5, 19, X. HG
4.2.8, Mem. 3.13.6, 4.2.23, An. 4.7.27, 6.6.38, Cyr. 1.3.14, 5.2.22, Men. Epit.
55960, Philem. 77.56 (KG 1.31213, Schwyzer 2.69).
The ,cn has been identied as weasel, ferret, marten, or domesticated
polecat: O. Keller, Die antike Tierwelt 1 (Leipzig 1909) 16471, Gow on Theoc.
15.28, id. CQ 17 (1967) 1957, D. Engels, Classical Cats: The Rise and Fall of the
Sacred Cat (London and New York 1999) 6670. It caught mice (Ar. Pax 7956,
Babr. 27.4; cf. Ar. V. 1182, Arist. HA 609
2830). Being malodorous (Ar. Ach.
2556, Pl. 693) and thievish (Semon. 7.55, Ar. V. 363, Pax 1151, Th. 559, Ec. 924,
Herod. 7.8990, Plu. 519d, Luc. Pisc. 34), it was no pet. See further Lawson
(above) 3278, E. K. Borthwick, CQ 18 (1968) 2006, S. Benton, CR 19 (1969)
2603. The view (Keller, Gow) that there were few cats in classical Athens (so
that the ,cn was the primary mouser) is no longer tenable. See (in addition
to Benton and Engels) H. Lloyd-Jones, Females of the Species: Semonides on Women
(London 1975) 767, D. Woysch-M eautis, La representation des animaux et des etres
fabuleux sur les monuments funeraires grecs de lepoque archaque ` a la n du IV
si`ecle av.
J.-C. (Lausanne 1982) 657, Hopkinson on Call. Cer. 110.
For the ,cn in this connection, Ar. Ec. 7912 (it is ominous) ti . . . oiititv
,cn, Pythag.Symb. (F. W. A. Mullach, Fr.Philos.Gr. 1 (Paris 1860) 510.4) mustela
e transuerso offensa redeundum, proverbial ,cnv tyti, of bad luck (Diogenian.
iii.84 (CPG 1.230)), W. Congreve, Love for Love II.i I stumbld coming down
stairs and met a weasel; bad omens those. See T. S. Duncan, The weasel in
religion, myth and superstition, WUS 12 (1924) 3366 (esp. 548), Halliday
(Introd. Note) 132, HdA 9 (1938/41) s.u. Wiesel 578600, Opie and Tatem
(on 2 ogvnv) 431.
tcpcopuni (c
, Sylburg) runs past (across the road) is the most natural
correction for ttpiopuni (V); cf. Plu. 519d ccv ,cn tcpcopcucn
cpcuiv ts utcu (Borthwick, Eranos 64 (1966) 1089); confusion of tcpc- and
ttpi-, IV.13n. Not ottp- (Pauw), which would mean run beyond, not run
to <v> cityi :i: until someone traverses it, sc. :nv cocv (Pl. Lg.
822a cocv . . . oittpyt:ci, X. Cyr. 4.3.22 cocv . . . oittv), the groundbetween
him and where the animal passed. This person will take on himself the harm
portended (Halliday 1323). With tc and subj. Theophrastus always has cv:
II.5, XVIII.9 (conj.), XX.4, XXX.10, and many instances in the other works
(M uller (1874) 62); tc without cv is found only in poetry and later prose (KG
2.44950, Schwyzer 2.650, Goodwin 620), in Attic inscriptions not before
the second century bc (Meisterhans 251). It was added here by Fischer, not
Cobet; other instances of its omission, 1n., 9n., XVIII.6, and on VI.9 cos
tcocsiutiv. For tpc:tpcv . . . tc (cv), LSJ tpc:tpc a.iv.
J cu :pt otp :J 6cc cioyi: for three in magic and ritual,
2n.; three stones, Petr. 131.5 ter . . . lapillos conicere in sinum, Col. Arb. 23.2,
Pall. 4.10.2 (Maced.Cons. AP 5.244(245).3, cited in this connection by G. A.
Longman, CR 5 (1955) 19, is more convincingly explained by A. Keaveney
and J. A. Madden, JHS 98 (1978) 1601, and Madden, Macedonius Consul: The
Epigrams (Hildesheim etc. 1995) ad loc.); Ben Jonson, Volpone IV.i A rat had
gnawn my spur-leathers; notwithstanding, / I put on new, and did go forth;
but rst / I threw three beans over the threshold. Perhaps the action erected
a sort of barrier between himself and the omen . . . it was a rite de separation
(Halliday 133); cf. Latte, Steinkult, RE iii.2a (1929) 2300, HdA 8 (1936/7) s.u.
Stein 3848. This is a unique instance of oictiv in a literal sense throw
across (unnoticed by LSJ i.1 and Chadwick, Lexicographica Graeca 878). For
the gen. coc0, XIX.10 (Pauw proposed acc. in both places), M uller (1878) 14,
LSJ ottp a. i.2.
4 koi tov cyi 6iv tv :Ji cikoi: for a snake in the house taken as a prodigy,
Ter. Ph. 707 (not Pl. Am. 1108, traditional myth), Cic. Diu. 2.62, Liv. 1.56.4
(Ogilvie ad loc.), Suda - 43 :c ciscsctiscv cicviuc

c:i ccv, ti tv :ni

:t,ni tgvn ,cn n cgi, :cot nucivti, cf. Oi 163 (4.627 Adler); L. Hopf,
Thierorakel und Orakelthiere (Stuttgart 1888) 18294, Halliday 1346 (id., Greek
Divination (London 1913) 167), HdA7 (19356) s.u. Schlange 111496. For ttv,
II.4n. If tv (V) were right, it could not be followed by tcv . . . tcv ot; style
would dictate tcv tcpticv oni cgiv tv :ni cisici (Foss 1834) or tcv oni c- tv
:- ci- t-. Less economical than ttv is c:cv (Cobet 1874).
tov optov oicv kotv: for the ellipse of the verb cf. Sign. 17 sci
tpcu c:cv tcci pcci gcvciv cpvit . . . 0ocp nucivcuiv

tcv ot
ut:pici, ,ccv cii sci c:c, tcv ot tcci ottpcni, coyucv iyupcv.
There is no need for tcv <utv>(Bloch before Ussing); VI.9n., Denniston 165.
The tcptic, sacred to Asclepius (Ael. NA 8.12), was handled in the cult of
Sabazios (D. 18.260 :cu cgti :cu tcptic icv sci ottp :n stgcn
cicpcv sci ccv toc cc ). Formerly taken to be Elaphe longissima, other-
wise known as Coluber longissimus or Aesculapii or auescens (Keller, Tierwelt 2.299,
Gossen-Steier, Schlange (Arten), RE ii.1a (1921) 54851, L. Bodson, lLPA
Z0lA: Contribution ` a letude de la place de lanimal dans la religion grecque ancienne
(Brussels 1978) 756, C. H unem order, Schlange, DNP 11 (2001) 180), it has
recently been identied with Elaphe quatuorlineata (L. Bodson, AC 50 (1981) 57
78; cf. E. N. Arnold and J. A. Burton, A Field Guide to the Reptiles and Amphibians
of Britain and Europe (London 1978) 1989, Pl. 36).
On Sabazios, in general: Eisele in Roscher, Lex.Myth. 4 (190915) 232
64, Schaefer, Sabazios, RE i.2a (1920) 154051, M. P. Nilsson, Geschichte der
griechischen Religion i (Munich
1967) 836, 2 (
1974) 65867, S. E. Johnson, The
present state of Sabazios research, ANRW ii, 17.3 (1984) 15831613, Burkert,
Greek Religion 179, H. S. Versnel, Ter Unus: Isis, Dionysos, Hermes: Three Studies
in Henotheism (Leiden etc. 1990) 11418, E. N. Lane, Corpus Cultus Iouis Sabazii,
ii: The Other Monuments and Literary Evidence (Leiden 1985) 4651, iii: Conclusions
(1989) esp. 4, Parker, Athenian Religion 159, 194, R. Gicheva, LIMC viii.1 (1997)
106871, S. A. Takacs, Sabazios, DNP 10 (2001) 11802. On Sabazios and
snakes, M. W. de Visser, Die nicht menschengestaltigen G otter der Griechen (Leiden
1903) 1667, Eisele 2523, A. B. Cook, Zeus i (Cambridge 1914) 3924, Dodds,
The Greeks and the Irrational 2756, Nilsson, GGR 2.660, M. L. West, The Orphic
Poems (Oxford 1983) 97, Johnson 15878, J. N. Bremmer, ZPE 55 (1984) 2689,
W. Burkert, Ancient Mystery Cults (Cambridge Mass. and London 1987) 106.
V has the spelling ccici at XXVII.8; here coicv, a corruption
illustrated (not a spelling supported) by Harp. p. 271.4 Dindorf (2 1 Keaney)
u.l., Apul. Met. 8.25, Dessau, Inscr.Lat.Sel. (1892) 2189 (iii ad), Goetz, Corpus
Gloss. Lat. 3 (1892) 290.
tov ct itpov tv:oo \picv tou icpooi: a dangerous so-called holy
snake is mentioned by Arist. HA 607
303 (t:i ot :i cgioicv uispcv, c scc0i
:ivt tpcv, c c tvu ut,ci cgti gt,cuiv

,ivt:ci ot :c ut,i:cv
tnyuccv, sci ocu iotv

c:i o cv osni, tou ntt:ci :c ssci; cf.

[Arist.] Mir. 845
1632) and is perhaps to be identied with the nttocv
(Gossen-Steier 5523, Bodson, lLPA Z0lA 72 n. 100). Bodson (ibid. and 89
n. 224) wrongly claims that here Theophrastus uses the epithet holy not to
designate a particular species but as a general designation for a snake which
belongs to a god (2
Ar. Lys. 759 calls the snake of Athena which guards the
Acropolis holy). By this token the tcptic is a holy snake. The epithet must
designate a specic snake (presumably the one mentioned by Aristotle), to
balance the tcptic.
The appearance of the snake in the house is taken to be the manifestation
of a hero. Heroes are commonly associated with snakes (Plu. Cleom. 39.3 c
tccici ui:c :cv cicv :cv opscv:c :c npci uvcisticcv, anon.
in Eup. 259.1234 tvocv ut: cgtc[v | c] npct c,pcgc0v:ci). A snake
which appeared on the Greek ships before the battle of Salamis was identied
as the local hero Kychreus (Paus. 1.36.1). See F. Deneken in Roscher, Lex.Myth.
i (188690) 246670, Rohde, Psyche 137, de Visser 1689, Lawson (3n.) 2745,
E. K uster, Die Schlange in der griechischen Kunst und Religion (Giessen 1913) 131
3, Hartmann, Schlange (Mythologie, Kult), RE ii.1a (1921) 50814, J. E.
Harrison, Prolegomena to the Study of Greek Religion (Cambridge
1922) 32531,
Nilsson, GGR i.198.9, Gow-Page on Call. AP 9.336 (Hellenistic Epigrams 1317
20), Bodson, lLPAZ0lA6892, Burkert, Greek Religion 195, 206, E. Kearns, The
Heroes of Attica (BICS Suppl. 57, 1989) 53; for the iconography, E. Mitropoulou,
Deities and Heroes in the Form of Snakes (Athens 1977). Plato condemned the
establishment of domestic shrines (tp) in response to visions and dreams (Lg.
909e910e). On domestic npcic see J. S. Rusten, HSCPh 87 (1983) 28997.
For the corruption of npcicv to tpccv (V
, tp- V), X.14n.
5 koi :v iopv ov :v tv :o :picci opiov tk :J ykcu toicv
ko:oytv: stones were often anointed as a mark of sanctity: Paus. 10.24.6
(the Delphians daily anoint the stone which Cronos swallowed by mistake
for Zeus), Luc. Alex. 30 (of Rutilianus, 2nd cent. ad) ti ucvcv niuutvcv
tcu icv n t:tgcvcutvcv tci:c tpctit:cv tou sci tpcsuvcv
sci tti tcu tcpt:c sci toycutvc sci :,cc tcp co:c0 ci:cv (cf.
Cont. 22, Deor.Conc. 12), Apul. Fl. 1 (among sights which detain superstitious
travellers) lapis unguine delibutus (cf. Apol. 56.6), Clem.Al. Strom. 7.26.2 tcv cv
sci tv:c icv :c on t,cutvcv itcpcv tpcsuvc0v:t, Arn. 1.39.1 si
quando conspexeram lubricatum lapidem et ex oliui unguine sordidatum, tamquam inesset
uis praesens adulabar, adfabar et benecia poscebam nihil sentiente de trunco. Similarly
statues: Call. AP 5.146.12 (Gow-Page, Hellenistic Epigrams 11212), Cic. Verr.
2.4.77 (cited on 10 ,cpci s:.), Babr. 48.4, Min.Fel. 3.1, Philostr. Her.
2.1; cf. XXI.10. This may be relevant to H. Od. 3.4068 (Nestors judgement
seat). See Frazer on Paus. 10.24.6, A. E. Crawley, Anointing, Encycl.Rel.Eth. 1
(1908) 5534, R. B. Onians, The Origins of European Thought (Cambridge 1951)
For worship of stones, more generally, X. Mem. 1.1.14 (it is a mark of madness)
icu sci c :c :uycv:c sci npic ttci, Lucr. 5.11989, Prop. 1.4.24.
See further Reisch, Ap,ci ici, RE ii.1 (1895) 7238, de Visser (4n. ad n.)
55107 (esp. 1027), G. Hock, Griechische Weihegebr auche (W urzburg 1905) 33
6, P. Gardner, Stones (Greek and Roman), Encycl.Rel.Eth. 11 (1920) 86971,
Bolkestein (Introd. Note) 213, Latte, Steinkult, RE iii.2a (1929) 22952305,
HdA 8 (1936/7) s.u. Stein 396401, Nilsson, GGR 1.2017, Burkert, Greek
Religion 72, id. Structure and History in Greek Mythology and Ritual (Berkeley etc.
1979) 402, C. A. Faraone, Talismans and Trojan Horses: Guardian Statues in Ancient
Greek Myth and Ritual (New York and London 1992) 56, U. Kron, Heilige
Steine, in H. Froning et al. (edd.), Kotinos: Festschrift f ur Erika Simon (Mainz 1992)
5670, K. Dowden, European Paganism: The Realities of Cult from Antiquity to the
Middle Ages (London and New York 2000) 348, 5865.
For superstitions associated with crossroads (as 14), J. A. MacCulloch,
Cross-Roads, Encycl.Rel.Eth. 4 (1911) 3305, HdA 5 (1932/3) s.u. Kreuzweg
51629, Th. Hopfner, Tpicoc, REvii.1a (1939) 1616, M. Puhvel, The mys-
tery of the cross-roads, Folk-Lore 87 (1976) 16777, id. The Crossroads in Folklore
and Myth (New York etc. 1989), S. I. Johnston, ZPE 88 (1981) 21724. Worship
of stones at crossroads: Tib. 1.1.1112 nam ueneror, seu stipes habet desertus in agris
| seu uetus in triuio orida serta lapis (O. Weinreich, Hermes 56 (1921) 33745).
Both MacCulloch and Johnston unsafely infer that the stones in our passage
are Herms. The latter cites Anyt. AP 9.314.12 (Gow-Page, Hellenistic Epigrams
7301) Lpuc :cio t:csc . . . tv :picoci. There is little other evidence
associating Herms and crossroads (Eitrem, Hermai, RE viii.1 (1912) 7001).
koi ti yvo:o tov koi pckuv(o o::toi: although it is
broadly true that kneeling down to pray is unusual (Burkert, Greek Religion
75; cf. Sittl, Geb arden 1779), the posture is well attested in literature and art
(A. Delatte, Le baiser, lagenouillement et le prosternement de ladoration
(tpcsvni) chez les Grecs, BAB 37 (1951) 42350 (433 on this passage),
F. T. van Straten, Did the Greeks kneel before their Gods?, BABesch 49 (1974)
15889, E. Mitropoulou, Kneeling Worshippers in Greek and Oriental Literature and
Art (Athens 1975), S. Pulleyn, Prayer in Greek Religion (Oxford 1997) 190). Here it
is natural, since the stones are on the ground. The verb tpcsuvtv connotes
worship, often with no indication what form the worship takes. It is often
associated with kneeling or prostration, especially when applied to the wor-
ship paid by orientals to their rulers (e.g. Hdt. 7.136.1 tpcsuvttiv citc
tpctit:cv:c, E. Or. 1507; E. Hall, Inventing the Barbarian: Greek Self-Denition
through Tragedy (Oxford 1989) 967). Sometimes it connotes a reverential kiss,
and this may be offered in a kneeling or prostrate posture, when the cir-
cumstances call for it (S. Ph. 1408 tpcsc ycvc; cf. H. Od. 4.522 svti
ct:cutvc nv tc:pioc, 5. 463 = 13.354; Fraenkel on A. Ag. 503). What it
does not connote here (or perhaps anywhere before the Roman period) is the
gesture of a kiss . . . made by raising a hand to ones lips (Burkert, Greek Religion
75; similarly Sittl, Geb arden 1813, Neil on Ar. Eq. 156, W. Kroll, Ku, RE
Suppl. v (1931) 51819). If he kisses the stones, as well he may, he uses his lips.
Full and excellent discussion of tpcsvni in Bolkestein 2139 and Delatte;
see also van Straten, esp. 159, Pulleyn 1914.
6 koi tov okcv :ov cio:pyyi: cf. Clem.Al. Strom. 7.24.15
tisc:c :civuv otiiociucvt . . . tv:c nutc n,c0v:ci tvci :c
uucivcv:c sci scscv c:ic

cv u0 . . . oic:p,ni cscv (Porson:

usnicv cod.) s:. (PCG adesp. 141) . . . :i ot sci cuuc:cv ti c u0, gniv c
Bicv (fr. 31 Kindstrand), :cv cscv oit:pc,tv, coy topcv c:i g,ni; :c0:c
,cp nv cuuc:cv ti, cttp Apsticc tcicv tvtytipti, :cv u0v c 0c
sc:tgc,tv. Astory of mice eating iron and gold was recorded by Theophrastus
(Phot. Bibl. 528a 336 = fr. 174.8 Wimmer, 359a.524 Fortenbaugh; Plin. Nat.
8.222 =359c Fortenbaugh). Shields gnawed by mice portended the Social War
(Cic. Diu. 1.99, 2.59, Plin. Nat. 8.221). Other mouse-portents: Hopf (4n. init.)
646, N. W. Thomas, Animals (Mouse), Encycl.Rel.Eth. 1 (1908) 5234, Lawson
(3n.) 328, Pease on Cic. Diu. 1.99, Steier, Maus, RExiv.2 (1930) 24058, HdA
6 (1934/5) s.u. Maus 3160, Faraone (5n.) 423, C. H unem order, Maus,
DNP 7 (1999) 1058.
cgi:c groats, of wheat or (mostly, by the fourth century) barley (L. A.
Moritz, CQ43 (1949) 11317, R. Renehan, Greek Lexicographical Notes (G ottingen
1975) 234, Pellegrino 12930, Sens and Olson on Archestr. 5.7, Dalby 467),
are carried and stored in a csc (Hdt. 3.46.2, Ar. Ec. 81920, Pl. 763,
Stone, Costume 24950; see also on V.5 tttsu). The expression cscv
gi:cv (cd: -:nv V) is like Pl. Tht. 161a c,cv :ivc cscv, P.Cair.Zen.
59069 (iii bc) 7 ocpscotcv usicv, 1819 csc ocpscotcv :pc,cv,
H. Od. 2.340 tici cvcic (3.51, al., ottc, 5.265, al., sc), X. HG 1.7.11
:t0yc gi:cv, Cyr. 2.4.18 cucci i:cu, Crobyl. 2 sgnv . . . :ivc | :cv
tycpi:cv, Timocl. 35 sgnv | tpucv itvi:cv (KG 1.333(e), Schwyzer
2.129); also Hor. Ep. 1.7.30 (the uulpecula [nitedula Bentley] creeps) in cumeram
frumenti. For an alternative correction gi:n<pc>v (Cobet 1856, 1874) cf.
Antiph. 64 ,,tcv gi:npcv (u.l. -npicv), Herod. 7.713 :i . . . gi:npcv
some breadwinner.
The appropriate verb is oic:p,ni (Hirschig before Cobet 1856): PCG
adesp. 141 (above), Arist. Rh. 1401
16 (mice) oic:pc,cv:t :c vtup, Ael. NA
17.17 (mice who are able) oic:pc,tv . . . sci ionpcv, Herod. 3.76 (mice) :cv
ionpcv :pc,cuiv, and ucsc:pc as a nickname for mouse (Hdn. 1.46,
2.37, Hsch. O 850, 2 H. Il. 2.755); Chadwick, Lexicographica Graeca 28790.
oicg,ni (V) is a verb applied by T. to grubs eating through fruit (HP 4.14.10,
7.13.3, CP 5.10.1), frost through earth (CP 3.20.7), salt through plants (CP
6.10.1); to mice only by Str. 13.1.48 (eating leather), Plu. Marc. 28.3, Sull. 7.5
(gold). Cobet proposed -:pc,- for -gc,- in these last two passages.
po :ov tyyy:jv tov tpo:v : ypj citv: the tn,n:n was an
ofcial adviser on problems of pollution and purication (Wyse on Is. 8.39,
F. Jacoby, Atthis (Oxford 1949) 851, J. H. Oliver, The Athenian Expounders of
the Sacred and Ancestral Law (Baltimore 1950) 2452, 135, H. Bloch, AJPh 74
(1953) 40718, Nilsson, GGR 1.6367, D. M. MacDowell, Athenian Homicide
Law (Manchester 1963) 1116, R. S. J. Garland, ABSA 79 (1984) 823, 11415,
Parker, Athenian Religion 220, A. Chaniotis, Exegetai, DNP 4 (1998) 339). The
language is comparable to Pl. Euthphr. 4c ttucutvcv :c0 tn,n:c0 c:i yptin
tcitv (about an apprehended murderer), Is. 8.39 :cv tn,n:nv tpcutvc
(about funeral expenses), D. 47.68 ncv c :cu tn,n:c vc tiotinv c:i ut
ypn tcitv ttpi :c:cv (about a death). The use of recognisably formulaic
language increases the comedy. The ofcial is not consulted about a recognised
subject, such as death, but about a mouse. Stein (199 n. 3) maintains that the
exegete consulted here is not ofcial. The denite article suggests that he is.
Furthermore, Aquack always treats his patients seriously (Koets (Introd. Note
ad n.) 35 n. 4).
koi tov ckpvy:oi oo:i tkccvoi :i kuccyi tippoi: the
verb of speech tcspivn:ci is treated as equivalent to a verb of command
(KG 2.67, Schwyzer 2.3745, Goodwin 99). For tsoc0vci give out (for
repair, or the like), XVIII.6 (u:icv), with inn. XXII.8 and XXX.10 (ciu-
:icv t0vci), Pl. Prm. 127a ycivcv :ivc ycst tsoiocv:c stuci (LSJ i.3).
The inn. ttippci is nal-consecutive (KG 2.1617, Schwyzer 2.3623,
Goodwin 770); cf. V.10, XXI.8. ttippt:tiv is not attested before the rst
century ad, and then mainly in the sense sew on. For the sense sew up LSJ
and Rev.Suppl. cite Gal. 18(2).579 K uhn (leather) and Hsch. K85 (fawnskin), to
which add App. BC 2.99 (a wound; tc- Mendelssohn), Ael. NA 4.32 (incised
tail). tcppci (Casaubon fromtc,pci cd) has a better pedigree and is
an easy change (tc/tti 2n.). This compound denotes not so much sew up
again (LSJ) as sew up (so as to close up) completely: Hdt. 1.123.4 :c0 c,c0
:nv ,c:tpc, Aeschin. 2.21 :c 1iittcu :cuc, Plu. 526cd u:ttiv sci
tcppt:tiv cttp cv:icv, vc :t,tiv sci gu::tiv :c tintv
ovn:ci, 997a ,tpvcv cuuc:c sci ssvcv. This would suit here. But per-
haps ttippt:tiv may connote (even more suitably) repair (by sewing), on
the analogy of ttistutiv repair. For the simple verb, Herod. 7.89 cscv
pci (get a bag stitched, middle imper.). For the rational response of the
exegete, Men. fr. 106 (Introd. Note).
sucotni must replace su:c- (V). sc is untanned hide, s0:c
tanned hide; so kneeder of (untanned) hide is tanner (like upcotn).
suco-, sometimes transmitted (Ar. Ec. 420, D. 25.38, IG i
645, ii
sometimes guaranteed by metre (Ar. Au. 490, Pl. 514 Bentley; Ec. 420 codd.),
should probably be restored at CP 3.17.5, 5.15.2, HP 3.18.5, Pl. Grg. 517e, Plu.
Num. 17.3, Luc. Vit.Auct. 11, 20. See also Headlamon Herod. 3.68, E. H. R uedi,
Vom Lcvcoisc zum cv:ctcn. Eine Studie zu den verbalen Rektionskom-
posita auf -c/-n (diss. Zurich 1969) 170.
j pcytiv :c:ci c:pcoci tkooi: the middle verb
is used absolutely (make sacrices of atonement or expiation: LSJ i.2,
J. Casabona, Recherches sur le vocabulaire des sacrices en Grec (Aix-en-Provence 1966)
97) in HP 5.9.8, Plu. Alex. 50.5, D.C. 41.14.6; with dat. of the divinity to whom
atonement is made, E. fr. 912.1213 (TrGFSel p. 169) :ivi ot (Grotius: :ivc on
codd.) ucspcv tsucutvcu (-ci codd.) | toptv ucycv vtcucv, Str.
6.2.11 :c :t sc:cycvici tc sci :c cc::ici. Cf. [Arist.] Ath. 54.6
tsuc:c expiatory sacrices, with Rhodes ad loc. For the verb in general,
J. Gibert, HSCPh 101 (2003) 159206 (this passage, 169 n. 32). Bernhard pro-
posed tscci (for ts- V) in his edition of Synesius, De febribus (Amster-
damand Leiden 1749) 243. No other conjecture warrants a moments thought
(tsc- Lycius before Gale, tss- or tsti- Schwartz, tstic- Immisch
tc:pctti (V), even if we take it to combine the notions of turning back
home (LSJ ii.4) and turning a deaf ear to advice (LSJ ii.2), is much less suitable
in this context than tc:pctcici (Wyttenbach on Plu. 149d), whether taken
as neuter (so Wyttenbach took it), like D.H. 5.54.3 tc:pctcici :ii . . .
tcpci:tci . . . ociucvc, Plu. 290d tc:pctcicv sci sccpicv, 369e
tiv . . . tc:pctcic, 497d tc tc:pctcic cui, or as masc., like
Plu. 159f cos Asntici cutv, cos tc:pctcici. For gods as tc:pc-
tcici, Jessen, Atc:pctcic, RE ii.1 (1895) 18990, Parker, Miasma 220, id.
Apotropaioi (theoi), DNP1 (1996) 899, Hu on X. Smp. 4.33. Neuter is perhaps
more natural, since masc. tc:pctcici unqualied is not attested elsewhere
than Plu. 159f cited above; the usual expression is tc t- (Pl. Lg. 854b, D.H.
10.2.6, D.S. 17.116.4, Paus. 2.11.1) or :c t- (X. HG3.3.4, Smp. 4.33, Hp. Vict.
4.89 (6.652 Littr e), Plu. 149d, 709a, Alciphr. 3.17.3). tc:pct (Bolkestein
cl. Plu. Marc. 28 :c tsti (Reiske: tsyti codd.) sci tc:pct, in con-
nection with the gold-nibbling mice mentioned above) would be acceptable
with the simple verb cci but is not well suited to the compound.
7 koi ukvo ct :jv cikov kopoi ctiv, Ek:y kov toyoyjv
ytycvvoi: Hekate (he suspects) has been conjured by magic to attack his
house, which must therefore be puried of her presence. See Halliday (Introd.
Note) 1467, Parker, Miasma 2224, Lane Fox 153.
For sccpci (and 14 ttpisccpci) Cobet 1858 was perhaps right to restore
the older form -npci, which is transmitted at HP 9.7.4 (also by the papyrus
at [Arist.] Ath. 1). -cp- is rst attested in an Attic inscription of 347/6 bc
(Meisterhans 182, Threatte 2.532) and is transmitted at HP 4.11.6, 4.13.5, CP
1.17.10 (also Antipho 6.37, X. Oec. 18.8, An. 5.7.35 pars codd., Din. 2.5). Cf. LSJ
sccipc, KB 2.451, Veitch 3445, O. Lautensach, Die Aoriste bei den attischen
Tragikern und Komikern (G ottingen 1911) 21314.
ttc,c,n is introduction of Hekate by magic (the misinterpretation in
LSJ i.4b is corrected in the Rev.Suppl.); cf. Pl. R. 364c tv :t :ivc typcv
tnunvci ttni . . . ti ttc,c,c :iiv sci sc:cotuci, Lg. 933d tcv
ot sc:cottiv n ttc,c,c n :iiv ttcioc n :cv :cic:cv gcpucsticv
c:iivc0v (Barrett, Hipp. p. 439: cv:ivcvc0v codd.) ocni cucic tvci t-
:cv:i, Luc. Merc.Cond. 40, E. Hi. 318 (uicuc) t ttcs:c0 tnucvn typcv
:ivc, Hsch. 0 265 oic gcpuscv ticci :ivt tt,tiv :nv Ls:nv :c
cisici (Salmasius: :ni Ls:ni :c cisic cod.: :nv Ls:nv t :c cisic
Schmidt); cf. TrGF adesp. 375 t tvutvcv gv:cuc gct | ycvic
Ls:n scucv totc. See also Parker, Miasma 348, J. H. Hordern, CQ 52
(2002) 169.
8 kv yokt occv:c oo:c < > :op::toi: ,c0 is the Little
Owl, Athene noctua (Thompson, Glossary of Greek Birds 7680, J. Pollard, Birds in
Greek Life and Myth (London 1977) 39, Dunbar on Ar. Au. 301). The lost verb
will have referred not to its apparition, which was often a good omen (e.g.
Ar. V. 1086, Halliday (Introd. Note) 134, id. Greek Divination 166, Thompson
78), but to its cry, which might be an ill omen (Men. fr. 844.11 cv ,c0
vcsp,ni otociscutv; Thompson 78); cf. HdA 2 (1929/30) s.u. Eule 10739.
Supplements: <vcsp,ci>Foss 1858, <ici>Diels (cl. Poll. 5.90, where
otiv uel sim. should be read), <ttispcci> Headlam (on Herod. 7.129,
together with the even less appealing <ttiytci>), <cu0ci> coi-
cv:c Bury, <u:ci> Edmonds 1908. Much better scsscici tcp-
icv:c (Cobet 1874), which introduces a choice verb, properly to be spelt
sisscci (E. Tichy, Onomatopoetische Verbalbildungen des Griechischen (Vienna
1983) 265, Henderson on Ar. Lys. 7601, Dunbar on Au. 261), and attempts
to account for the omission (the two words reduced to scicv:c, thence
coicv:c). But tcpicv:c has no advantage, in terms of palaeography or
sense, over coicv:c (commonly, onits own, walk, e.g. And. 1.38, Lys. 13.71,
Ar. Ach. 848, Nu. 415, Au. 492, Ec. 277, Pl. 952, Pl. R. 515c, Men. Dysc. 150;
cf. XVIII.8, XXIV.4 (conj.), Ign. 36; XXIV.2n., Olson on Ar. Ach. 3934).
Better, therefore, <sisscci> coicv:c co:c0 (for the word order,
II.6) or (palaeography aside) coicv:c co:c0 <sisscci>. There are
many other proposals giving inferior sense: e.g. :cp::cv:ci [sci] Bolkestein
(,c0 . . . :cp::n:ci Badham ap. Petersen), <vct:cv:ci> H. van
Ijzeren (Mnemosyne 58 (1930) 414).
to Ayv kpt::ov opttv c0:o: the apparition of the Little
Owl, Athenas bird (Thompson 80, C. Meillier, La chouette et Ath ena, REA
72 (1970) 530, L. Bodson, AC42 (1973) 223, Dunbar on Ar. Au. 516), prompts
him to cry Athena is really/rather powerful, an unusual expression, appar-
ently the type of comparative illustrated by KG 2.3057 (more sketchily by
H. Thesleff, Studies on Intensication in Early and Classical Greek (Helsinki 1954)
1224), e.g. Hdt. 3.53.1 sc:tgcivt:c tvci vct:tpc rather dull-witted,
3.129.2 (c tc0) iyupc:tpc t:pgn quite violently twisted, Th. 3.55.2
cootv tstpttt:tpcv nothing really remarkable; cf. VIII.2n. (scivc:tpcv).
A. Ag. 60 c spticv . . . Zt and A. fr. 10 spticvt (= c tci) may suggest
that there is something formulaic in this use of spticv. Memnon, FGrH 434
f 1(7) ap. Phot. Bibl. 226a Hpcsn sppcv (Doric for spticv), ttust,
H. is stronger (than you), S., alludes to Sophr. 59 Hpcsn :tc0 sppcv n,
so that the object of comparison is readily inferred. If we look for an object
of comparison here, the context supplies nothing obvious: rival divinities
(Jebb), this omen (Ussher, similarly Bolkestein; cf. H. Herter, Kleine Schriften
(Munich 1975) 4950), the owl (E. K. Borthwick (Hermes 97 (1969) 3901, with
a far-fetched explanation). On the other hand, to translate mighty Athena!
(Rusten) is to ignore the comparative altogether. spti::c, supposedly com-
parable with di meliora (Meineke, Vindiciarum Aristophanearum Liber (Leipzig
1865) 129, before Jahn, Philologus 28 (1869) 7, who also proposed spt::cv),
lacks analogy. It is needless to transpose c0:c (2n.) to precede tcpttv
(Darvaris before Ast). For the form ttc, V.2n.
9 koi c0:t tiJvoi v(o:i c0: ti vtkpov c0: ti tyo ttv ttJoi:
for birth and death as sources of pollution, Parker, Miasma ch. 2; birth, M.
Dillon, Girls and Women in Classical Greek Religion (London and New York 2002)
2524. They are coupled at e.g. E. IT 382 (nv :i) cytic n vtspc0 i,ni
ytpcv, fr. 472.1617 (TrGFSel p. 116) gt,c | ,tvtiv :t pc:cv sci vtspc-
nsc, Men. Asp. 21618, D.L. 8.33 (Pythagoras); Parker 33 n. 2. To visit the
house of a dead friend or relative was a social duty (XIV.7n.), and a vessel of
water at the door offered immediate purication (Ginouv` es, Balaneutik`e 2401,
Parker 35). For avoidance of tombs (as E. fr. 472, cited above), West on Hes.
Op. 750, Parker 389. Perhaps <cv> ttnci (VI.9n.).
o :o j iovtoi upcv oo:i Joi tvoi: for c . . . gnci
see on X.13 c t,tiv. It is wrong to save gnc (V) by deleting
(R. Schoell ap. Immisch 1897) or by changing it to cuc (Meineke), which
requires present part. (XIX.5n.).
10 koi :o :t:pi ct koi :o tcoi: for the terminology used in express-
ing days of the month see A. E. Samuel, Greek and Roman Chronology (Munich
1972) 5961, J. D. Mikalson, The Sacred and Civil Calendar of the Athenian Year
(Princeton 1975) 810, West on Hes. Op. 765828 (pp. 34950). The 4th
and the 7th are sacred days (Hes. Op. 770 tvn :t:p :t sci tocun tpcv
nucp). The 4th was the birthday of Hermes and Aphrodite, the 7th of Apollo
(W. Schmidt, Geburtstag im Altertum (Giessen 1908) 8894, 1012, Mikalson
1619, West on Hes. loc. cit., Arnott on Alex. 260.1, W. B uhler, Zenobii Athoi
Proverbia 5 (G ottingen 1999) 384). The 4th (as sacred to Hermes and Aphrodite)
is appropriate for the worship of Hermaphroditos. The 7th is less obviously
appropriate. In the belief (insecurely founded) that Hermes birthday might
be celebrated on the 27th, Unger 1886 proposed :c tocu<ci tti :c
tis>i, to be rejected because (i) in the third decad of the month the count
was normally (perhaps always) backwards from the end of the month, (ii) even
if a forward count were allowable the normal expression would be not tti
:c tisi but ut: tisoc. Immisch 1897 proposed tocuci <givcv:c>,
equivalent to :t:poi givcv:c, adducing Op. 7979, which prescribes avoid-
ance of grief on the fourth day from the beginning and end of the month:
ttgcc ot uuci | :t:po tcci givcv:c :cutvcu :t | c,tc
(c,ti West) uuccptv. The festivities may then be seen as apotropaic:
a lavish display of good cheer averts the harm to which (so the scholiast on
Hesiod claims) distressing activities are conducive. But, with a backward count
in the third decad, tocun givcv:c would be the 24th; even with a forward
count, :t:p (sc. :cutvcu) sci tocun givcv:c would be a cumbrous
way of saying what can can be said straightforwardly (as Hesiod said it) with
:t:pc :cutvcu sci givcv:c. I assume that Theophrastus species 4th
and 7th precisely because these days are associated with the public worship
of major gods. The Atiiociucv chooses them for the private worship of his
own outlandish and very minor deity. At all events, tocui (V) periods of
7 days must be replaced by tocuci 7th of every month, like Herod. 3.53
:c tocuc.
pc:o cvcv ttiv :c tvccv: newwine boiled down to a proportion of
its original volume was called ipcicv (sometimes merely tnuc, e.g. Pl.Com.
163) and was used by doctors (Nic. Alex. 153, the medical writers passim) and
as a condiment by cooks (Alex. 132.8, 179.6, 193.4, Antiph. 140.1). It was (or
could be made) sweet (Ar. V. 878 v:i ipcicu uti:c uispcv . . . tcpcutic
adding a little honey as in ipcicv, Gal. 11.6489 K uhn ,usu (sc. cvc) . . .
:c ipcicv, Poll. 6.16 ipcicv . . . :cv ts ,tscu nnutvcv ,usv). Here it
must be intended for use in a sacrice: perhaps to sweeten the barley grain,
which was customarily mixed with wine or honey (see on X.13 unuc:c).
:c tvocv recurs in IV.7. XXX.11.
ycpoi uppvo, iovo:v, ovo: asyndetic tricolon (11, V.10n.).
Myrtle-garlands, frankincense, and cakes form a natural trio, since all are
used in ceremonies of worship or sacrice. Myrtle-garlands: Boetticher (on
2 ogvnv) 44555, Murr (ibid.) 8491, M. Blech, Studien zum Kranz bei den
Griechen (Berlin 1982) 31821, MacDowell on D. 21.17, Dalby 227. Myrtle,
commonly associated with Aphrodite (Blech 2501, P. G. Maxwell-Stuart,
WS 6 (1972) 14561, Pellegrino 1878), is particularly appropriate here, in
the worship of Hermaphrodites. For the spelling uupp- (uup- V), Threatte
1.5212 (cf. 5347), Arnott, Orthographical variants 209. Frankincense:
S. Lilja, The Treatment of Odours in the Poetry of Antiquity (Helsinki 1972) 3157,
Arnott on Alex. 252.3, Sens and Olson on Archestr. 60.45, Dalby 1501.
Cakes: E. Kearns, Cakes in Greek sacrice regulations, in R. H agg (ed.),
Ancient Greek Cult Practice from the Epigraphical Evidence (Stockholm 1994) 6570,
Dalby 68, 288. Myrtle-garlands and frankincense together: Ar. V. 8602
t0p :i ttvt,s:c | sci uuppivc sci :cv icvc:cv tvoctv, | ctc cv
tocutc tpc:c :c tc (cf. Pl. Aul. 3856). Cakes and frankincense:
Men. Dysc. 44950 c icvc:c tott | sci :c tctcvcv, PCG adesp. 820.1
ci:, icvc:cv, tctcvc(Meineke: ucvccodd.)

:c0: cvncuci (F. Citti,

Eikasmos 3 (1992) 1757), Luc. Sacr. 12 icvc:cv n tctcvcv, Ael. VH 11.5
c :t icvc:c sci :c tctcvc, Alciphr. 2.33.1 tctcvcv . . . icvc:c0
ycvopcu, Iamb. VP 54 tctcvc sci ci:c sci snpic sci icvc:cv (cf.
Antiph. 162.4, where <tctcvcv> is a likely supplement; also 204.23). All
three together: Porph. VP 36 gi:ci :t sci tctvci sci icvc:ci sci
uuppivni :cu tcu ticscutvc. Further instances of tctcvc in sacri-
ces: Ar. Th. 285, Pl. 660, 680. These passages establish that icvc:cv,
tctcvc (Foss 1834) is the right emendation of icvc:cv tivcsc (V). For
the many senses of the noun tivc see Pritchett 2503. None satises here.
Not holy picture (Edmonds), strop (for the sacricial knife?) (Ussher; cf. HP
5.5.1). And icvc:c0 (Coray) tivcsc, whether interpreted as plate (for this
sense, Olson and Sens on Matro 1.467) or lump or tablet (E. K. Borthwick,
Eranos 64 (1966) 11011) of frankincense, introduces an impossible asyndeton
(we should need uuppivc <sci>- t-). No other conjecture (:pcsc Meier
1834/5, uicsc Petersen, uivocsc M unsterberg 1894) deserves a moments
Here all three items will be used to honour the Hermaphrodite statues:
cf. Theopomp. FGrH 115 f 344 ap. Porph. Abst. 2.16.4 :cv ot Ktcpycv
gvci tti:ttv sci tcuocic tiv tv :c tpcnscui ypcvci, sc:c unvc
tsc:cv :c vcuunvici :tgcvc0v:c sci gciopvcv:c :cv Lpunv sci :nv
Ls:nv sci :c citc :cv tpcv, on :cu tpc,cvcu sc:cittv, sci :iucv
icvc:c sci ci:c sci tctvci, Cic. Verr. 2.4.77 quid hoc tota Sicilia est
clarius quam omnes Segestae matronas et uirgines conuenisse, cum Diana exportaretur ex
oppido, unxisse unguentis, complesse coronis et oribus, ture, odoribus incensis usque ad agri
nes prosecutas esse?
koi titov to: a regular pleonasm (Hdt. 4.34.2, 5.51.1, S. El. 802, E.
Hcld. 698, Andr. 876, Cratin. 329, Is. 8.21, Ar. Pl. 231, 1088, Arist. Resp. 478
also Sign. 17 tctitt:cutvc); KG2.5834. tpici (Schoell ap. Immisch 1897)
for tc is unwanted.
:tovcv :cu Epopcc:cu yv :jv \pov: it was customary to gar-
land statues: E. Hi. 734, Men. Dysc. 51 :c tnicv Nugc :tg[cvc]0cv,
Georg. 8 tcu :tgcvcuutvcu, Theopomp. (above) :tgcvc0v:c . . . :cv
Lpunv, Timae. FGrH 566 f 158, Call. Del. 307, Strat. AP 12.8.8 t:tgvcc
tc, Paus. 1.27.1 (Hermes garlanded with myrtle); Boetticher (on 2
ogvnv) 44555, E. Kuhnert, De Cura Statuarum apud Graecos (Berlin 1883)
5962, 6971, Hock (5n.) 51, J. K ochling, De Coronarum apud Antiquos Vi
atque Vsu (Giessen 1914) 12, 37, K. Baus, Der Kranz in Antike und Christentum
(Bonn 1940) 1923, 301, A.-J. Festugi` ere, Personal Religion among the Greeks
(Berkeley and Los Angeles 1954) 144 n. 15,
Blech (above on ,cpci s:.)
While :tgcvc0v is the simple and obvious correction of :tgcvcv (V),
he garlands the Hermaphrodites all day long reads oddly. Perhaps it is the
very oddity which is in point. Or perhaps, after the mention of garlands,
frankincense, cakes and wine, a bare reference to the use of garlands may
be taken to imply an associated use of the other items. To take :tgcvc0v
in a wider sense, embracing the practice of surrounding statues to be wor-
shipped with a protective circle of grains or larger pieces of incense, etc.,
before lighting it to ensure the complete purication of the holy object
(Borthwick, Eranos 64 (1966) 111) founders on the absence of any evidence
that such a practice existed and of any hint that these Hermaphrodites need
to be puried. The text may be lacunose. If so, there is no attraction in
supplements such as these: <ttci> :tgcvc0v <:t> Hartung, <ttci
sci 0ci> :tgcvcv Foss 1858, <ttci> :tgcvcv M unsterberg 1894,
<ttci sci tti0ci> Immisch 1897, <0ci> :tgcvcv Edmonds 1908,
<tiv> :tgcvcv Navarre 1920. Better :tgcvc0v :cu Lpucgpcoi:cu
<sci gciopvtiv>, like Theopomp. (above) :tgcvc0v:c sci gciopvcv:c
:cv Lpunv. Alternatively <oic:ttv> :tgcvcv (Diels), a verb elsewhere
combined with cnv :nv nutpcv (Th. 7.38.3, D.S. 20.86.3, Str. 15.1.60,
61, Plu. fr. 26 Sandbach), or <oic:ttci tticv sci> (Edmonds 1929);
or <sc:c:pitiv>, also found with cnv :nv nutpcv (Men. Epit. 2701,
D.H. 5.72.2, D.C. 59.24.5, Lib. Decl. 32.15). There is no advantage in :cu
Lpucgpcoi:cu <cuc> (Schneider), since it is at least as natural to gar-
land statues as altars, and a plurality of statues of H. is neither more nor less
surprising than a plurality of altars.
This is the rst literary attestation of the name Lpucgpcoi:c. Aristo-
phanes (fr. 325), Pherecrates (fr. 184), and Apollophanes (fr. 6) named him
Agpcoi:c: Phot. A 3404 Theodoridis Agpcoi:c

c Lpucgpcoi:c. tcpc-
tnici ot :c:ci sci cci ociucvt

Opvn, lpictc, Aicsc, Itvt-

:ui, Tycv, Ii,cv, Kcvicc, Kvvtic sci t:tpci, cv sci Api:cgvn
utuvn:ci Hpciv (mention of Pherecr. and Apolloph. follows), Hsch. A 8773

Otcgpc:c utv :cv Lpucgpcoi:cv gniv. This last passage

protects the name against emendation here: Lpuc tvcoicu Naber, Lpuc
pcoivci Diels, Lpuc gpcvtv or gpcvc oic:pitiv Steinmetz. The earliest
attestationis a votive inscription(init. iv bc) [1]cvc Lpucgpc[oi]:ci tocutvn
(J. Kirchner and S. Dow, MDAI(A) 62 (1937) 78; for the spelling, Threatte 1.51),
On p. 9 for the same Theophrastus read Theopompus. Ruhnkens change of
Otctcutc to Otcgpc:c in Porph. loc. cit. is wrong ( J. Bernays, Theophrastos
Schrift uber Fr ommigkeit (Berlin 1866) 6970, W. P otscher, Theophrastos lLPl LYLBLlA
(Leiden 1964) 44).
probably from the base of a statue of H. The name is also found in an
inscription (iii bc) on a private altar from Cos alongside other minor deities,
Aicu Autpc 0pcv Xcpi:cv Nuugcv lpitcu lcvc Lpucgpcoi:[cu]
(G. Pugliese Carratelli in Miscellanea di Studi Alessandrini in memoria di Augusto
Rostagni (Turin1963) 1625, L. Robert, REG80 (1967) 521), andinaninscription
(ii bc) apparently listing sculptures of gods andother mythological gures which
stood in an Athenian gymnasium (D. Clay, Hesperia 46 (1977) 25967). Other
attestation, before the imperial period, is sparse: title of a play by Posidippus (iii
bc); Titin. 112 Ribbeck (ii bc); anon. AP 9.317.5 (Gow-Page, Hellenistic Epigrams
3894); lines 1520 of an inscribed elegiac poem (iii bc?) from Halicarnassus
(S. Isager, ZPE123 (1998) 123, R. MerkelbachandJ. Stauber, Steinepigramme aus
dem griechischen Osten 1 (Stuttgart and Leipzig 1998) 3945, H. Lloyd-Jones, ZPE
124 (1999) 114, 127 (1999) 635), D.S. 4.6.5 (rst to give his parents as Hermes
and Aphrodite). But we may include (and cautiously use as further evidence
for garlanding of statues of H. in the fourth century) Alciphr. 2.35.1 tipticvnv
t vcv ttcc nitiv t Lpucgpcoi:cu (tpuc 1ciopicu Meineke, implau-
sibly) :c0 (Lobeck: :ci codd.) Acttsntv :c:nv vcncuc (Kirchner
and Dow loc. cit.).
( Lpu)cgpcoi:c is the Athenian version of a bisexual god worshipped
in Cyprus: Hsch. A 8773 (continuing the above) c ot :c ttpi Aucc0v:c
,t,pcgc lcicv (FGrH 757 f 1) ti cvopc :nv tcv tynuc:ici tv Ktpci
t,ti, Macr. 3.8.23 apud Caluum (fr. 7 Bl ansdorf, Courtney) <H>aterianus
adrmat legendum pollentemque deum Venerem, non deam. signum etiam eius est Cypri
barbatum, corpore et (Seru. auct. ad Verg. A. 2.632: sed codd.) ueste muliebri, cum scep-
tro ac statura (natura Seru.) uirili, et putant eandem marem ac feminam esse. Aristophanes
eam Agpcoi:cv appellat. . . . Philochorus (FGrH 328 f 184) quoque in Atthide eandem
adrmat esse Lunam et ei sacricium facere uiros cum ueste muliebri, mulieres cum uirili,
quod eadem et mas aestimatur et femina. He will probably have arrived in Athens, like
other foreign gods, towards the end of the fth century (Jacoby iii b ii 445 n. 8,
on Philoch. f 184). See further P. Herrmann in Roscher, Lex.Myth. i.2 (188690)
231442, Jessen, Hermaphroditos, RE viii.1 (1912) 71421, H. Herter, De Dis
Atticis Priapi Similibus (Bonn 1926) 5861, M. Delcourt, Hermaphrodite (transl.
J. Nicholson, London 1961) esp. 279, 4650, A. Ajootian, LIMC v (1990)
1.26885, 2.1908, ead. The Only Happy Couple: Hermaphrodites and Gen-
der, in A. O. Koloski-Ostrow and C. L. Lyons (edd.), Naked Truths: Women,
Sexuality, and Gender in Classical Art and Archaeology (London and New York 1997)
22042, Parker, Athenian Religion 345, M. Robinson, CQ 49 (1999) 21417,
L. Brisson, Sexual Ambivalence: Androgyny and Hermaphroditism in Graeco-Roman
Antiquity (transl. J. Lloyd, Berkeley etc. 2002) 4260.
The earliest surviving image of H. is a fragment (late 4th cent.), found in
the Athenian agora, of a clay mould for a terracotta gurine. The gurine
would have stood about 30 cm. high, and would probably have been the type
of H. known as vcupcutvc, a female lifting her dress to reveal male genitals
(D. B. Thompson, Hesperia 21 (1952) 145, 162 (no. 50), Pl. 37; Ajootian (1990)
1.274 no. 36, (1997) 2213). The existence of the mould presupposes both a
prototype and a series of gurines, as well as a demand for such renderings of
H. already in the 4th cent. bc (Ajoutian (1990) 1.283). The Atiiociucv has
more than one statue (or gurine); presumably many. This may be, like his
day-long attention to them, a symptom of his obsession.
11 koi :ov tvvicv cyi: III.2n.
cpttoi po :cu vtipckp:o, po :cu v:ti, po :cu
pvickcu: the accumulation of nouns in the tricolon (10, V.10n.) reects
his obsessiveness. Professional dream-interpreters do not sufce; he consults
seers and bird-watchers too. Dream-interpretation, invented by Prometheus
([A.] PV4856), appears rst inHomer (Il. 1.623, 5.14950). Other early prac-
titioners are attested by Magn. 4 (cvtipcspi:ciiv, vc:ci), Hdt. 5.56.2,
E. Hec. 879. Antiphon, a contemporary of Socrates (Dodds, The Greeks and
the Irrational 132 n. 100), wrote ltpi spitc cvtipcv (DK 87 b 7881). By
the end of the fth century professionals took fees: Ar. V. 523, Dem. Phal.,
FGrH 228 f 45a = 104 Stork et al. ap. W. W. Fortenbaugh and E. Sch utrumpf
(edd.), Demetrius of Phalerum: Text, Translation and Discussion (New Brunswick and
London 2000) (on a grandson of Aristides). For the uv:i (in this context,
one who divines from sources other than dreams and birds) and cpvicsctc
(also XIX.7), Ziehen, Mv:i, RExiv.2 (1930) 134555, Burkert, Greek Religion
11114, M. Casevitz, REG 105 (1992) 118. But the Atiiociucv is not con-
cerned to have his dreaminterpreted; he assumes that it bodes ill, and wishes to
discover which god to propitiate. For the variety of measures taken in response
to bad dreams see Halliday (Introd. Note) 13740, Parker, Miasma 220 n. 71.
For further bibliography on dream interpretation, Arnott on Alex. 274.12,
tpo:(ov :vi tv J ti t0ytoi ct: a traditional style of question, often
put to gods and oracles. So Hdt. 1.67.2 tttipc:cv :ivc cv tcv cutvci
s:. (H. W. Parke and D. E. W. Wormell, The Delphic Oracle: ii, The Oracular
Responses (Oxford 1956) no. 32, J. Fontenrose, The Delphic Oracle: Its Responses and
Operations (Berkeley etc. 1978) Q89), E. fr. 912.12 (TrGFSel p. 169) :ivi ot (:ivcon
codd.) ucspcv tsucutvcu s:., X. An. 3.1.6 ttnpt:c :cv Atcc:ivi cv
tcv cv sci toycutvc . . . ctin (Parke-Wormell no. 172, Fontenrose H11),
Vect. 6.3 tttpc:cv :ivc tcv tpctcicutvci s:., D. 43.66 tttpc:ci . . .
c:ci tci cuiv n toycutvci s:. (Parke-Wormell no. 283, Fontenrose
H29), SIG
1161 (Dodona iv-iii bc) :cpt Niscsp:[ti]c :ivi tcv cuc
s:. (Parke, The Oracles of Zeus (Oxford 1967) 268 no. 15), CIG ii, 1837b (IG
xii Suppl. 200) 1920 (Pharos, dated early ii bc by L. Robert, BCH 59 (1935)
489513) tpc:cv ot :cv t]cv :ivi tcv (malim tci Boeckh) n tci cv [
(Parke-Wormell no. 429, Fontenrose H56); further examples from Dodona in
Parke, Appendix i (e.g. 260 no. 3 (late v bc) :ivi sc []tcv n npccv cv[:]t
sci toy[c]utvci s:.).
:ivi tcv n tci is protected against emendation by the inscription from
Pharos cited above. But for this inscription, it would have been plausible to
restore symmetry by writing tci (which has been wrongly reported from
not, however, tcv (Foss 1858, before Edmonds 1929), or tci<vcv>
(Edmonds 1946), exclusively poetical forms. Symmetrical pairing of gods and
goddesses is traditional and formulaic: H. Il. 8.5 (=19.101, h.Ap. 311) tv:t :t
tci tcci :t tcivci, 8.20 (= Od. 8.341) tci tcci :t tcivci, A. Th. 87 tci
tci :t, 94 tcv n tcv, Pl. Smp. 219c uc tc, uc t (D. 19.67, Anaxandr.
2.23 uc :cu tcu sci :c t, D. 42.6 vn :cu tcu sci :c t), Ti. 27c
tc :t sci t, Epin. 980c :cu tc :t sci :c t, X. An. 6.6.17 tcu
sci t, D. 54.41 :cu tcu sci :c tc ctcv:c sci tc, Antiph. 81.3
tcv :t sci tcivcv, 204.2 :c tc sci :c tc, Men. Sam. 399400 :c
tc . . . sci :c tc, Schwyzer, Dial.Gr.Ex.Epigr.Pot. 794 (v bc) tc vt
tci]v sci tc tci. Similarly si(ue) deus si(ue) dea (J. Alvar, Numen 32 (1985)
23673, Oakley on Liv. 7.26.4). See also E. Kemmer, Die polare Ausdrucksweise in
der griechischen Literatur (W urzburg 1903) 144, F. Jacobi, lANTL2 OLOl (Halle
1930), K. Ziegler, Pantheion, RE xviii.2.1 (1949) 697729 (esp. 699700),
D. Fehling, Die Wiederholungsguren und ihr Gebrauch bei den Griechen vor Gorgias
(Berlin 1969) 267, Wankel on D. 18.1 (:c tc . . . tci sci tci), J. Wills,
Repetition in Latin Poetry (Oxford 1996) 27980, Pulleyn (5n.) 10910. But :ivi
tcv (not tci) is the norm in oracular inquiries, and the asymmetry is of a
kind not uncommon in poetry (E. Hec. 1634 :i | tcv n ociucv, El. 1234
:ivt ociucvt n tcv; Diggle, Euripidea 17). To delete n tci (Darvaris, with
tci, before Diels, with tcv) or replace it with n tiv <n> (Diels) ruins his
fussy punctiliousness.
12 koi :ttytvc po :cu Optc:tt:o ko:o Jvo cpttoi:
cf. XXVII.8 :tcutvc :ci ccici, LSJ iii.1.a. Here, since the visits are
monthly, not to be initiated but (something like) to be consecrated, to be
a participant in the rites (to take the sacrament, W. K. C. Guthrie, Orpheus
and Greek Religion (London 1935) 202, admirably; so too M. L. West, The Orphic
Poems (Oxford 1983) 21). And not when he is about to be initiated . . . he visits
the priests every month (Edmonds, Ussher), as if he were attending church
conrmation classes.
The Opgtc:tt:ci are itinerant mystery priests offering cathartic ritu-
als and the like, pilloried in Pl. R. 364e5a icv ot cucocv tcptycv-
:ci Mcucicu sci Opgtc, tnvn :t sci Mcucv ts,cvcv . . . sc
Cantabr. (4 Wilson) uniquely has tc n tc (Stefanis (1994a) 80 n. 29).
untcc0iv, tticv:t co ucvcv ioic:c c sci tcti c cpc ti
:t sci sccpuci oisnu:cv oic uicv sci tcioic nocvcv tii utv t:i
civ, tii ot sci :ttu:nciv, on :tt:c scc0iv, c :cv tst scscv
tccuiv nuc, un cv:c ot otivc ttpiutvti. See I. M. Linforth, The
Arts of Orpheus (Berkeley and Los Angeles 1941) 7785, 1014, West loc. cit.,
Burkert, Greek Religion 297, id. Ancient Mystery Cults (Cambridge Mass. 1987)
33, Parker, Miasma 299307, Athenian Religion 162. The noun appears next in