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2EAL3TRENGTH
2EAL!DVANTAGES
Picaicu unuci ihc uiicciion ol ihc NAR Smaii Giowih Piogiam Auvisoiy Giou
Daviu WluIa, 2uu0 CLn..nr
Bol IlccI, 2uu0 V.e-CLn..
]im Hamilion, 2uu: CLn..nr
Piincial Auihois: Kaicn-Icc Ryan, Daviu Golulcig, anu Bailaia McCann
Euiiois: Daviu Golulcig, Bailaia McCann, ]osch R. Molinaio, anu Hugh Moiiis
Giahic Dcsign: GO! Cicaiivc, IIC
Phoio cicuiis: Covci aciial imagc ly Alcx S. MacIcan/Ianusliucs, covci lanning imagc ly
Tim McCalc, USDA NRCS.
NAR Pio|cci Managci: Hugh Moiiis
Diiccioi, NAR Smaii Giowih Piogiams: ]osch R. Molinaio
Auuiiional smaii giowih inloimaiion liom NAR can lc lounu ai www.icalioi.oig/smaiigiowih
NAR`s Smaii Giowih Piogiam is an clcmcni ol ihc Communiiy Ouiicach Dcaiimcni which
hcls REAITOR

RR associaiions anu mcmlcis siicngihcn ihcii communiiy lcaucishi clloiis


ihiough ioolIiis, icchnical assisiancc, iiaining anu gianis.
Thc oinions cxicsscu in ihis ToolIii uo noi ncccssaiily icucci ihc oinions oi olicy ol ihc
Naiional Associaiion ol REAITORS

Naiional Associaiion ol REAITORS

, 2006
S M k K I K 9 I B I 9 9 L K l I 3
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Albert Einstein once saio: "lts not that ln so snart, its just that l stay with problens longer.
Smaii giowih is noi a shoii-icim challcngc, anu ihcic is no onc
singlc soluiion. Ii`s a long-icim ioccss - onc ihai REAITORS

musi siay involvcu in loi as long as wc scivc oui communiiics.


Communiiics wani io giow anu iosci ovci ihc long icim. Bui
ihai giowih, il ii uis a siiain on communiiy sciviccs, coulu aciually
icuucc iosciiiy anu qualiiy ol lilc. Thc challcngc is io maIc suic
giowih is in haimony wiih ihc icsouiccs availallc in ihc communiiy.
Thai`s whcic REAITORS

comc in.
REAITORS

unucisianu, cihas lciici ihan anyonc clsc, how


uilhculi ii can lc io achicvc lalanccu giowih ihai cnhanccs qualiiy
ol lilc. As iolcssionals, wc hcl luilu communiiics - wc wani io
liing ihc lcnchis ol housing io moic colc, anu wc naiuially wani
io cxanu oui lusincsscs. As icsiucnis ol ihc communiiics wc scivc,
wc also ica ihc icwaius whcn communiiics giow anu iosci.
Smaii giowih is a local issuc. Thc challcngcs aic uniquc io cvciy ciiy anu iown in Amciica. Whilc
somc aicas may havc aucquaic housing choiccs, ihcy may noi havc ihc iighi iiansoiiaiion oi
schooling oiions io maIc ihc communiiy viallc. On ihc oihci hanu, communiiics wiih gicai
schools anu salc ncighloihoous may lc oui ol icach loi low anu miuulc incomc lamilics.
To auuicss cvciy ascci ol smaii giowih, REAITORS

nccu a hosi ol ucxillc soluiions. Thai`s


whcic Sn. C.owL: A TooII. o. FEA1TOFS

SS can hcl. Chaici Onc ioviucs an ovcivicw ol ihc

issuc anu iis imoiiancc io REAITORS

. Chaici Two cxlains ihc iincilcs ol smaii giowih,


iis oiigins, anu cuiicni iicnus. Chaici Thicc ioviucs an in-ucih icvicw ol ioics covcicu.
Chaici Ioui covcis smaii giowih in iaciicc, incluuing lanning anu icgulaiion anu olicics.
Chaici Iivc auuicsscs how REAITORS

can gci moic involvcu in smaii giowih, incluuing


icsouiccs anu casc siuuics. Chaici Six ioviucs lcaus io moucl lcgislaiion.
I congiaiulaic anu ihanI NAR`s Smaii Giowih Piogiam Auvisoiy Giou who scni many houis
uiiing ihis incicuillc icsouicc iogcihci. I hoc you all will usc ihc inloimaiion in ihis guiuc io
lccomc moic involvcu in luiluing hcalihy, siiong communiiics - iouay anu in ihc ycais ahcau.
Ilcm+s M. Strrs, CKB, CKS, Kl
1JJ |rsi1rt
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l. lNIK9|UCIl9N: K|kLI9KS

kN| SMkKI K9IB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .I


ll. SMkKI K9IB lN |KlNCl|L| . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A. Thc Oiigins ol Smaii-Giowih Planning anu Dcvclomcni........................................................... i
B. Changing Dcmogiahics, Changing Aiiiiuucs, Changing MaiIcis..............................................S
C. Thc Piincilcs ol Smaii Giowih ....................................................................................................1S
Cicaic Rangc ol Housing Ooiiuniiics anu Choiccs ............................................................. 14
Cicaic WalIallc Ncighloihoous ............................................................................................... 1
Encouiagc Communiiy anu SiaIcholuci Collaloiaiion.......................................................... 1
Iosici Disiinciivc, Aiiiaciivc Communiiics wiih a Siiong Scnsc ol Placc ................................ 16
MaIc Dcvclomcni Dccisions Picuiciallc, Iaii anu Cosi Ellcciivc ......................................... 1S
Mix Ianu Uscs ............................................................................................................................ 1S
Picscivc Ocn Sacc, Iaimlanu, Naiuial Bcauiy anu Ciiiical Enviionmcnial Aicas ........... 20
Pioviuc a Vaiiciy ol Tiansoiiaiion Choiccs ............................................................................. 20
Siicngihcn anu Diicci Dcvclomcni Towaius Exisiing Communiiics .................................... 22
TaIc Auvaniagc ol Comaci Builuing Dcsign ........................................................................... 2S
lll. I9|lCS lN SMkKI K9IB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
A. Ocn Sacc.....................................................................................................................................2
B. Tiansoiiaiion ................................................................................................................................27
C. Rcviializing Ciiics anu Oluci Suluils ..........................................................................................S0
D. Schools anu Ncighloihoou Planning ..........................................................................................S2
E. Housing Alloiualiliiy..................................................................................................................... y S4
I. Pullic Hcalih...................................................................................................................................S6
G. Economic Piogicss anu Iiscal Piuucncc ......................................................................................SS
H. Smaii Giowih in a Ruial Sciiing...................................................................................................40
I+|l c| Ccrtrts
l\. SMkKI K9IB lN |KkCIlC| . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
A. Planning anu Rcgulaiion...............................................................................................................4
Communiiy-Bascu Planning: Choosing a Iuiuic ...................................................................... 4
Sccnaiio Planning: Cicaiing a Shaicu Vision loi ihc Iuiuic................................................... 47
Ncw Tools loi Iniciaciivc Planning ............................................................................................ 0
TaIing ihc IEED in Giccning ihc Ncighloihoou ...................................................................
Innovaiions in Zoning anu Dcvclomcni Coucs ...................................................................... 6
B. Smaii Giowih Policics....................................................................................................................6S
Picsciving Imoiiani Ianuscacs ...............................................................................................6S
Tiansoiiaiion Policy Oiions ................................................................................................... 66
Imioving Tiansoiiaiion Oiions ............................................................................................ 67
Rccognizing ihc Valuc ol Tiansoiiaiion Alicinaiivcs ............................................................. 69
Rcviializing Communiiics........................................................................................................... 7S
Cooiuinaicu Planning ................................................................................................................ 76
Communiiy Dcsign...................................................................................................................... 7S
Housing Alloiualiliiy.................................................................................................................. y 79
Schools ......................................................................................................................................... S1
Iiscal Piuucncc............................................................................................................................ SS
Giccn Builuing ............................................................................................................................ S4
Piohlcs: Ioui Siaics TaIing a Comichcnsivc Smaii Giowih Aioach................................ S6
C. Builuing Smaii ............................................................................................................................... i 91
Tiauiiional Ncighloihoou Dcvclomcni .................................................................................. i 91
Rcclaiming Suluilan Gicyhclus"............................................................................................. 94
Commcicial ComclacIs: Biinging Moucin Rciail io Ciiics anu Oluci Suluils ................... 9
Tiansii-Oiicnicu Dcvclomcni .................................................................................................. i 9S
Rcclaiming Inuusiiial Biownhclus........................................................................................... 101
Miliiaiy Basc Rcucvclomcni ................................................................................................... i 102
Ncw Towns in Ruial Aicas: Saving Ruial Sacc wiih Smaii Giowih...................................... 104
\. K|kLI9K

lN\9L\|M|NI lN SMkKI K9IB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IJI


REAITOR

RR Associaiions in Aciion ..................................................................................................109


Washingion REAITORS

` Qualiiy ol Iilc Camaign ............................................................. 109


Iloiiua Associaiion ol REAITORS

Smaii Giowih Council ................................................. 112


Ncw Mcxico Cusiomizcu Siaic Icgislaiion .............................................................................. 114
Vcniuia Couniy Coasial Associaiion ol REAITORS

anu HOME ......................................... 116


YoiI Ciiy Savvy: REAITORS

Gci io Know Thcii Homciown ................................................ 119
Sclling Ciiy Owncu Piociiics Elhcicnily SCOPE) in Baliimoic:
]oini Pio|cci Unlcashcs MaiIci Ioiccs on Tough Piollcm ................................................... 121
Michigan Ianu Usc Acaucmics: REAITORS

Icain io Pui ihc BiaIcs on Siawl .............. 124


Ncw YoiI Siaic Assocaiion ol REAITORS

Smaii Giowih Awaius Piogiam ........................ 127


REAITORS

in Aciion......................................................................................................................129
Kcn ]acIson, CCIM, CRS, GRI, Iloicncc, Souih Caiolina ..................................................... a 129
Iinua ClaiI, Ioii Woiih, Tcxas ................................................................................................ 1S2
Iinua Goouwin-Nichols, CRS, GRI, Vicc Mayoi, Ciiy ol Kissimmcc, Iloiiua ........................... a 1S4
Bicnua Ellswoiih, Mayoi, Ash Giovc, Missouii ....................................................................... 1S6
REAITOR

RR Aciion Guiuc .................................................................................................................1S7


Gciiing Involvcu: A REAITOR

RR `s Aciion Guiuc ..................................................................... 1S7


TaIing Aciion ............................................................................................................................ 1S9
Iinishing U.............................................................................................................................. 14S
\l. SkM|L| L|lSLkIl9N . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I1
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lntroouction to
Snart Crowth
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S
ince the eno oI Worlo War ll, the U.S. population has ooubleo to
3OO nillion people ano continues to grow by three nillion people
annually, aooing a new person every l3 seconos. This rapio population
growth, conpounoeo by oevelopnent patterns that encourage bigger
houses ano longer connutes, is Iorcing us to Iace an inportant question: How
shoulo our connunities grow?
Thc consiani inuux ol ncw colc ucmanus
ncw ucvclomcni, lui ihc loim ii iaIcs is
liIcly io lc ciiiical io ihc long-icim qualiiy ol
lilc anu cconomic sialiliiy ol oui iowns, ciiics
anu naiion. In icccni ycais oui mciio aicas
havc siawlcu ouiwaiu. Ii has lccn casici loi
ucvclocis io golllc u hclus anu loicsis
wiih ncw suluivisions whilc lcaving oluci
aicas io languish, wiih ucclining oulaiion,
uccaying inliasiiuciuic anu a sluming iax
lasc. As laims suiicnuci io lig-lox sioics anu
woous givc way io ashali, ihcic is mouniing
liusiiaiion ovci incicascu iialhc, uccicascu
ocn sacc, inaucquaic ullic sciviccs,
ovciciowucu schools, lacI ol alloiuallc
housing anu loss ol communiiy viialiiy. In
oui mosi cconomically viliani mciios, many
young lamilics lacc a ainlul choicc lciwccn
closc-in ncighloihoous ihai aic cxcnsivc
cvcn whcn ihcy aic lcss-ihan-ucsiiallc, anu
cvci moic-uisiani suluivisions ihai conucmn
ihcm io a lilc scni lchinu ihc whccl.
Thc aioach io lanning anu ucvclomcni
ihai has comc io lc Inown as smaii giowih
gicw oui ol an clloii ly olicy maIcis, ical
csiaic iolcssionals, lanncis anu uilan
ucsigncis, cnviionmcnialisis, Icy cmloycis
anu many oiuinaiy ciiizcns io hnu ways io
casc ihcsc icnsions. Ii is an aiicmi io hnu a
miuulc way lciwccn giowih-ai-any-cosi anu
ihc no-giowih" icaciion io ii. Thc iuca is io
involvc ciiizcns, ullic olhcials anu myiiau
siaIcholucis in woiIing iogcihci io lan
ahcau loi ucvclomcni accoiuing io a sci ol
common-scnsc iincilcs. Thc vision is ihai
communiiics gci lciici as ihcy giow, whilc
icmaining loih cconomically viallc anu
cnviionmcnially icsonsillc.
Thc Uilan Ianu Insiiiuic ucsciilcs smaii-
giowih iincilcs as a way io iucniily
a common giounu whcic ucvclocis,
cnviionmcnialisis, ullic olhcials, ciiizcns,
anu oihcis can all hnu accciallc ways io
accommouaic giowih." Usually ihis mcans
woiIing io sicci ucvclomcni io ihc mosi
suiiallc laccs anu oiganizc ii inio lciici-
connccicu, moic comaci loims. Wiih
cxccllcni ucsign anu loicihoughi, colc can
livc wcll on lcss lanu. In laci, ihcy can livc
lciici, lccausc ihcii communiiics will lc moic
walIallc anu gcncially moic convcnicni, anu
ihcii cnviionmcni will lc lcss ucgiaucu ly
milcs ol siii malls anu aiIing lois. Anu ihcsc
wcll-lanncu ncighloihoous holu ihcii valuc,
iaihci ihan lccoming almosi uisosallc, as so
many osi-wai suluils havc lccomc.
Though ihcy may lc alicu uillcicnily in
vaiious communiiics, smaii-giowih conccis
gcncially involvc:
W Using lanu moic clhcicnily,
W Picsciving ocn sacc anu ihc cnviionmcni,
W Cicaiing moic iiansoiiaiion oiions,
incluuing iail anu lus iiansii anu siucwalIs,
io casc iialhc,
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S

2
W Builuing moic aiiiaciivc, wcll-ucsigncu
ncighloihoous ihai allow loi walIing anu
communiiy iniciaciion,
W Incicasing ucnsiiy whcic aioiiaic io
maIc lciici usc ol inliasiiuciuic,
W Exanuing housing choiccs as wcll as
alloiuallc housing ooiiuniiics,
W Mixing housing, iciail anu cmloymcni
uscs in oiuci io cicaic comlcic ncighloi-
hoous whcic uaily nccus aic closc ai hanu.
Whilc lcw colc uisagicc wiih ihc inicni ol
ihcsc iincilcs, a hosi ol ingiaincu olicics
anu iaciiccs sianu in ihc way ol uiiing
ihcm io woiI. This incluucs cvciyihing
liom convcniional zoning io ioau ucsign io
iciailcis` inciiia. Wc`ll auuicss ihcsc anu oihci
challcngcs in ihis ioolIii.
K|kLI9KS

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REAITORS

aicciaic ihc incicasing inicicsi


in icsciving anu imioving communiiics`
qualiiy ol lilc anu auuicssing ihc challcngcs
ol giowih. As mcmlcis ol ihc communiiy, wc
shaic ihc samc conccins as oui ncighlois.
Anu as lusincss colc, wc aic wcll awaic
ol ihc imoiiancc io homcluycis anu all
ciiizcns ol salc ncighloihoous, clhcicni
iiansoiiaiion, acccssillc aiIs anu ocn
sacc anu clcan aii anu waici.
Unuci ihc Couc ol Eihics, all REAITORS

havc an olligaiion io imiovc ihcii


communiiics anu scll qualiiy ol lilc," says Tim
Calncn, who has scni moic ihan 2 ycais wiih
ihc Conncciicui Associaiion ol REAITORS

.
Hc ciics ihc Couc`s Picamllc:
UrJe. nII . Le InrJ. Uor . w.e u.I..n.or
nrJ w.JeI, nIIoneJ owre.L. JeerJ Le
u....nI nrJ .owL o .ee .r.u.or nrJ o
ou. ...I..n.or. FEA1TOFS

LouIJ .eor..e

Ln Le .re.e o Le rn.or nrJ . ...er


.equ..e Le L.Le nrJ be ue o Le InrJ nrJ
w.Je J...bu.or o InrJ owre.L.. TLe,
.equ..e Le .en.or o nJequne Lou.r, Le
bu.IJ.r o ur.or.r ..e, Le Je.eIoer
o .oJu..e .rJu..e nrJ n., nrJ Le
.ee..n.or o n LenILuI er...orer.
Noiing ihai ihc Couc uaics io 191S, Calncn
says, Evcn ihcn, ihcy wcic ihinIing aloui
lalanccu anu uivcigcni uscs ol lanu."
Bcyonu ihc Couc ol Eihics, ihcic aic sccihc
icasons REAITORS

may wani io auvocaic loi


smaii-giowih lanning anu ucvclomcni:
@ Cuality oI liIe. REAITORS

caic aloui ihc


qualiiy ol ihcii own communiiics, as wcll as
ihc qualiiy ol ihc communiiy in which ihcii
clicnis aic luying anu sclling homcs.
@ Problens oI excessive regulations.
Too many icgulaiions can uisioii ihc
ical csiaic maiIci anu maIc homcs
lcss alloiuallc, icuucing choicc in ihc
housing maiIcilacc.
@ Cpportunities Ior new housing narkets.
Tasics in housing iycs anu locaiions
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Smaii Giowih Amciica, a naiional
coaliiion ol oiganizaiions suoiiing
smaii-giowih iincilcs, iucniihcs
scvcial Icy ouicomcs ihai goou lanning
anu ucvclomcni shoulu iouucc:
W A scai ai ihc iallc loi cvciyonc wiih
a siaIc in ihc communiiy.
W Bioau choiccs among salc, convcnicni
anu aiiiaciivc ncighloihoous.
W Rcauy acccss io |ols, uaily ncccssiiics
anu lun, wiih lcss iimc in iialhc.
W Thiiving ciiics, suluils anu iowns.
W Pioicciion loi whai`s lcsi aloui ihc
laccs wc livc.
W Iowci cisonal cosis anu clhcicni
usc ol oui iax moncy.
W A shoi ai ihc Amciican uicam ol
ooiiuniiy loi all.
S M k K I K 9 I B I 9 9 L K l I 3
is uivcisilying iaiuly, lui mcciing ihis
ucmanu will icquiic ncw ihinIing in
lanning, zoning, ucsigning anu maiIciing
loi comaci, walIallc communiiics.
@ Future inventory oI hones. Whai gcis
luili iouay ucicimincs whai REAITORS

will lc sclling iomoiiow.


How siaic anu local govcinmcnis mcci
ihc challcngc ol iaiu giowih allccis ihc
vciy livclihoou ol REAITORS

anu ihc
viial inicicsis ol oui cusiomcis - Amciica`s
homcowncis, iociiy owncis anu icnanis.
Thc hnal scciions ol ihis ioolIii ucmonsiiaic
how REAITORS

aic alicauy maIing a


uillcicncc - ly cuucaiing ihcii communiiics
aloui giowih, ly iomoiing icviializcu
ncighloihoous, ly woiIing loi lciici
schools anu siiccis anu ihc olicics nccucu
io cicaic ihcm.
REAITORS

aic a osiiivc loicc in oui


communiiics lccausc wc unucisianu
ncighloihoous insiuc anu oui. Wc Inow
ihc housing maiIcis anu ihc imaci local
conuiiions will havc on housing valucs, choicc,
anu alloiualiliiy. As REAITORS

lccomc vocal
auvocaics loi loiwaiu-looIing lanning anu
ucvclomcni, wc osiiion ouisclvcs as lcaucis
in oui communiiics, hcling io losici cuucaicu
uiscussions anu cicaiivc soluiions. This ioolIii
will ioviuc ihc inloimaiion ncccssaiy loi
REAITORS

io lccomc involvcu. Ii uciails how


smaii giowih is imlcmcnicu anu ioviucs
iools loi incicasing ullic aiiiciaiion. Ii
shaics smaii-giowih succcss sioiics ol inuiviuual
REAITORS

anu associaiions all acioss ihc


couniiy. NAR`s goal in cicaiing ihis icsouicc is
io cnsuic ihai REAITORS

havc ihc Inowlcugc


ihcy nccu in oiuci io woiI on lchall ol ihc
qualiiy ol lilc in ihcii communiiics.
Snart Crowth
in Principle
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S M k K I K 9 I B I 9 9 L K l I 5
Ii was aiounu ihai iimc ihai ihc concci ol
smaii giowih" cmcigcu anu lcgan io gain
in oulaiiiy. Dcvclocu as a collaloiaiion
among Icy ihinIcis in ciiy lanning,
uilan ucsign, ical csiaic ucvclomcni,
cnviionmcnialism, iiansoiiaiion, lusincss,
govcinmcni anu oihci hclus, smaii giowih
woulu lc a ihiiu way. Giowing smaii" woulu
mcan, hisi, ihai iowns, ciiics anu mciio
icgions woulu acInowlcugc ihai giowih
anu changc aic a ncaily incviiallc laci ol
lilc. Ncxi, ii woulu mcan involving ciiizcns
in maIing a lan loi ihc luiuic woulu ihai
cnsuic a wiuc choicc in housing oiions
loi colc ol all incomcs anu agcs, ioicci
laimlanu anu naiuial aicas, icviializc, anu noi
unuciminc, ihc laccs wc hau alicauy luili,
anu ioviuc oiions loi how io gci aiounu,
anu avoiu unncccssaiy iiavcl. Thc hoc was
ihai ly uoing ihcsc ihings, communiiics woulu
gci lciici as ihcy giow. Oi, as Souih Caiolina
REAITOR

RR Kcn ]acIson succincily uis ii:


Smaii giowih is ucvclomcni ihai cnhanccs
oui qualiiy ol lilc."
Touay, many ciiics, iowns, anu icgions acioss
ihc naiion aic using smaii-giowih conccis
io auuicss local issucs anu maIc ucvclomcni
uccisions. Somc local uiscussions locus on
ihc iollcm ol iialhc congcsiion anu how
io managc ii. In oihci laccs, ihc ullic ays
aiicniion io ucvclomcni ovciiaIing laimlanu
anu oihci ocn sacc. Somc convcniional,
osi-wai suluils aic lulhlling ihcii ucsiic loi a
moic iiauiiional aiicin ol ucvclomcni ihai
cicaics cucsiiian-liicnuly communiiy ccnicis
wiih iciail, olhcc, anu a mix ol housing iycs,
liom aaiimcnis anu iownhouscs io sianu-
alonc houscs. Bclow aic a lcw cxamlcs ol how
smaii-giowih iucas aic lcing ui io woiI:
Preserving lano Ior open space. In icccni
ycais, voicis havc aiovcu lillions ol uollais
loi ocn sacc uichasc ihiough ncaily 60
siaic anu local lalloi mcasuics. Accoiuing io
ihc Tiusi loi Pullic Ianu`s IanuVoic uaialasc,
moic ihan 7S ciccni ol ihc conscivaiion
hnancc lalloi mcasuics ui io voicis lciwccn
1999 anu 200S wcic aiovcu, gcnciaiing
llk. Il 9ri]irs c| Sm+rtrcwtl
|l+rrir] +r1 |rlcpmrt
B
y the nio-lOs - 5O years aIter the eno oI Worlo War ll hao kickeo oII a
sustaineo boon in housing ano roao-builoing, - "growth hao becone
sonething oI a bao woro in nany connunities arouno the country.
Because it oIten seeneo unplanneo ano unIocuseo, growth ano
oevelopnent hao cone to be associateo with the oisappearance oI treasureo
lanoscapes, a rise in traIfc congestion, environnental oegraoation ano other
negative inplications Ior quality oI liIe. The worlo seeneo increasingly to be
oivioeo into "pro-growth ano "no-growth canps.
"Snart growth is oevelopnent that enhances our quality oI liIe.
- Kr !+t|scr, K|kLI9K

N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S

6
moic ihan S26 lillion io icscivc lanu loi
iccicaiion, laiming oi cnviionmcnial hcalih.
Wiih lunus loi ouiiighi uichascs limiicu,
howcvci, ncw icchniqucs aic lcing ucvclocu
io hcl communiiics icscivc laimlanu anu
loicsis anu ioicci waicishcus anu wilulilc
haliiai. Thcsc can incluuc conscivaiion
cascmcnis, iianslci ol ucvclomcni iighis, anu
uichasc ol ucvclomcni iighis, clusiciing
ol ucvclomcni anu oihci mcihous, io lc
uiscusscu laici in ihis ioolIii.
Provioing transportation options. In
auuiiion io luiluing ncw ioaus, communiiics
aic woiIing io cooiuinaic ucvclomcni
wiih iiansoiiaiion io maIc ii casici io walI,
licyclc, oi iaIc iiansii, oi cvcn io icuucc
ihc nccu io iiavcl loi uaily nccus. Dozcns
ol communiiics aic invcsiing in ncw iiansii
scivicc, anu iiansii usagc has sicauily incicascu
sincc ihc miu-1990s. Pioviuing iiansoiiaiion
oiions can icmovc somc cais liom ihc
ioaus anu icuucc congcsiion, anu can also
ioviuc gicaici moliliiy loi ihosc wiihoui
cais. Tiansoiiaiion imiovcmcnis can lc as
simlc as ioviuing salci cucsiiian iouics
ly luiluing siucwalIs, oi as laigc as luiluing
mciiooliian iiansii sysicms ihai can incluuc
imiovcu lus scivicc, lighi iail, hcavy iail,
oi commuici iail. Many ma|oi mciiooliian
aicas, incluuing Dcnvci, Ailania, Minncaolis-
Si. Paul, Dallas, Sali IaIc Ciiy, Baliimoic,
anu San Dicgo havc ugiaucu ihcii iiansii
sysicms in icccni ycais. Thcsc alicinaiivc
moucs ol iiansoiiaiion woiI
aiiiculaily wcll whcic lanu
uscs aic mixcu anu ucnsiiics
aic high.
Revitalizing oowntowns
ano neighborhooos.
Though ihcy aic olicn
ncglccicu, uowniowns anu
oluci ncighloihoous aic
ccniially locaicu anu havc
inliasiiuciuic in lacc io
hanulc somc ol ihc ncw
ucvclomcni ihai has lccn
caiing u ocn sacc.
Biownhclus, which aic
alanuoncu oi unuciuscu
inuusiiial anu commcicial iociiics ihai
may lc coniaminaicu loimci gas siaiions,
vacani waichouscs, alanuoncu iail yaius), can
lc clcancu u anu ui lacI inio iouuciivc
commcicial oi icsiucniial usc. In icccni
ycais, ncw housing consiiuciion has mauc
a comclacI in many ma|oi ciiics - liom
Washingion, D.C., io Kansas Ciiy, Missouii, io
Poiilanu, Oicgon - alici uccaucs ol inaciiviiy.
REAITORS

noic a giowing iicnu ol young


singlcs anu coulcs as wcll as cmiy-ncsicis
sccIing convcnicni, closc-in ncighloihoous.
Reexanining local zoning cooes.
Zoning was cicaicu io ioicci icsiucniial
ncighloihoous liom ihc noxious aciiviiics
ol an cailici inuusiiial agc. Unloiiunaicly,
in many laccs iouay, ihc ciuuc iool ol
convcniional zoning has icsulicu in such
cxiicmc scaiaiion ol cvcn comaiillc
uscs - onc Iinu ol housing liom anoihci,
loi cxamlc, oi homcs liom schools anu
convcnicni shoing - ihai ii is imossillc
io luilu comlcic communiiics. Many
communiiics now aic auoiing ncw loims
ol zoning ihai allow loi ihc wiucsi iangc ol
housing: singlc-lamily homcs, aaiimcnis,
iownhouscs, conuominiums, anu mixcu-usc
ucvclomcni such as aaiimcnis ovci shos).
In ucsignaicu aicas, ihcy aic oncc again
allowing colc io livc ncai shos, icsiauianis
anu olhccs, ihcicly cicaiing moic oiions
loi moic colc. Ncw loim-lascu" coucs
S M k K I K 9 I B I 9 9 L K l I 7
woiiy lcss aloui scgicgaiing uscs, anu moic
aloui sccilying ihc Iinu ol ucvclomcni ihai
a communiiy wanis, sccuing aiovals loi
ucvclocis who can ioviuc ii. Communiiics
such as Ailingion, Viiginia, Emmaus,
Pcnnsylvania, anu Pcialuma, Caliloinia ihai
havc auoicu ihcsc ncw oiuinanccs usually
havc lounu lavoiallc uiuins in ihcii ical
csiaic maiIcis.
ReIorning regulations. Suluivision anu
ucvclomcni icgulaiions olicn icquiic
cxcnsivc, ovcily wiuc siiccis ihai cncouiagc
lasici iialhc anu uiscouiagc cucsiiians.
In auuiiion, school-luiluing lanncis
iyically icquiic laigc school siics wiih lig
aiIing lois, cnsuiing ihai schools will noi
lc ncsilcu wiihin walIallc ncighloihoous,
lui iaihci will lc luili on lusy ioaus ai
ihc cugc ol communiiics. Builuing coucs
ucsigncu io icgulaic ncw consiiuciion olicn
maIc ihc ichaliliiaiion ol oluci homcs
anu aaiimcnis cconomically unlcasillc.
Thcsc aic cxamlcs ol ihc uninicnucu
conscqucnccs ol icgulaiions ihai maIc ii
uilhculi io luilu communiiics in a smaii
way. Many communiiics aic iacIling ihcsc
iollcms ly changing ihc icgulaiions. Smaii
Builuing Coucs havc lccn auoicu in siaics
anu localiiics io cicaic moic aioiiaic
sianuaius loi oluci luiluings. Euucaiois aic
changing siic icgulaiions anu luiluing ucsign
icquiicmcnis io cimii ncw schools io lc
luili on small siics wiihin ncighloihoous.
Iocaliiics anu siaic highway ucaiimcnis aic
iiying uillcicni aioachcs, such as naiiowci
siiccis, iialhc calming, anu iounualouis io
slow iialhc anu maIc ncighloihoous salci.
Town centers in the suburbs. Many suluilan
aicas wcic luili wiihoui a uowniown," lui
as ihc oulaiion has incicascu, ihcic is a
giowing nccu anu maiIci loi giving ihcm
a local oini ihai also scivcs communiiics
nccus. Thcsc ncw high-ucnsiiy uowniowns aic
oing u wiih incicasing licqucncy aiounu
ihc Uniicu Siaics anu can incluuc olhccs,
sioics, anu homcs in a cucsiiian-liicnuly
uilan cnviionmcni.
Sm+rt ]rcwtl t+t|ls
scm |i] |tsticrs
How can ciiics anu suluils giow in
oulaiion whilc avoiuing ihc ncgaiivc
conscqucnccs loih ol auiomolilc-
uccnucni siawl anu ooily lanncu
ucnsiiy, whilc icsciving ihc homc
owncishi lcvcls anu iivaic sacc ihai
Amciicans chciish.
Can moic anu moic ol us livc ihc
goou lilc," lui wiihoui cicaiing a
nighimaic ol iialhc |ams, ihiow-
away lanuscacs anu cnviionmcnial
ucgiauaiion.
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S

8
Touay, ihough, loi ihc hisi iimc cvci,
houscholus ol singlc cisons ouinumlci ihosc
ol auulis wiih chiluicn ai homc incluuing
singlc aicnis), S2 ciccni ol ihc ioial vcisus
S1 ciccni. Maiiicu coulcs wiih Iius aic an
cvcn smallci scgmcni, 2S. ciccni. As icccnily
as 1970, coulcs wiih chiluicn accounicu
loi moic ihan 40 ciccni ol houscholus.
Thc cllcci on ical csiaic maiIcis is alallc,
Michacl Cailinci, an cconomisi wiih ihc
Naiional Associaiion ol Homc Builucis,
iolu ihc Ios Angclcs Timcs in Augusi, 200.
Singlcs, hc saiu, lacc a gicaici iioiiiy on
lcing closc io ihc aciion. Thcy aic noi woiiicu
aloui school uisiiicis oi sacc, so ihcy ui a
highci iioiiiy io lcing closc in. Thai`s lccn a
lacioi in loosiing ucmanu loi uilan oi closc-
in suluilan housing." Gcnciaiion Xcis, ihosc
loin lciwccn 196 anu 19S1, aic osioning
chiluliiih, anu giaviiaiing iowaiu ciiics in ihc
mcaniimc. Many aic looIing, noi loi ihcii
aicnis` housc in a suluivision on ihc mciio
liingc, lui loi ncighloihoous ihai comlinc
ihc convcnicncc anu viliancy ol uilan
ncighloihoous wiih ihc lamily-salc lcaiuics
iomiscu ly convcniional suluils.
In auuiiion, as laly-loom houscholus lccomc
cmiy ncsicis, ihc lasicsi giowing houscholu
iyc is coulcs wiihoui minoi chiluicn living
ai homc. By 2010, S6 million houscholus,
ncaily a ihiiu ol ihc ioial, will lc cmiy
ncsicis, anu ihc occuanis will livc moic ycais
in ihai siaic ihan any icvious gcnciaiion.
Ai ihc samc iimc, ihc changing naiuic ol
woiI anu ihc shili liom an inuusiiial io an
inloimaiion/scivicc cconomy is maIing
ncw aiiangcmcnis ossillc anu iclciallc.
Twcniy ycais ago ihcic was no maiIci loi
livc-woiI" uniis, whilc iouay ihc ucmanu
is siiong anu giowing. Piolcssionals anu
oihcis who incicasingly scnu ai lcasi somc
iimc woiIing in homc olhccs aic looIing
loi ncighloihoous ihai inicgiaic ihc collcc
sho, lunch sois anu lusincss sulics
anu sciviccs ihcy nccu. Many aicnis aic
iaising ihcii chiluicn singlc-hanuculy anu
woulu iaihci scnu iimc wiih ihc Iius ihan
commuiing io woiI. Somc oi io iun homc-
lascu lusincsscs, whilc oihcis |oin ihc
giowing ianIs ol iclccommuicis. Dcmanu
loi ncw housing in mosi laigc ccniial ciiics
has incicascu gicaily sincc ihc miu-1990s,
lucling ucmanu loi loli-siylc housing, livc-
woiI uniis, anu conuominiums, which
accounicu loi a iccoiu-high 1S ciccni ol all
homcs solu in 200.
kttitt1s k|ctt rcwtl +r1 |rlcpmrt
MaiIciing suivcys anu olls aic uocumcniing
ihcsc culiuial shilis anu changing iclcicnccs.
A Scicmlci, 2004 oll ly NAR anu Smaii
Giowih Amciica lounu ihc ioscci ol
lcngihcning commuics is lcauing moic
Amciicans io sccI walIallc ncighloihoous
closci io cmloymcni ccnicis - a icnci ol
smaii giowih communiiics.
llB. Cl+r]ir] |mc]r+plits, Cl+r]ir]
M+r|ts, Cl+r]ir] kttitt1s
N
any recent changes in planning ano oevelopnent arise Iron
oenographic trenos, cultural shiIts, ano changing narkets. The
classic suburban oevelopnent nooel that grew up in the post-war
l5Os was aineo at a housing narket ooninateo by new Ianilies
who were having chiloren as quickly as they coulo.
S M k K I K 9 I B I 9 9 L K l I
AsIcu io choosc lciwccn iwo communiiics,
six in icn ioscciivc homcluycis chosc
a ncighloihoou ihai ollcicu a shoiici
commuic, siucwalIs anu amcniiics liIc shos,
icsiauianis, liliaiics, schools anu ullic
iiansoiiaiion wiihin walIing uisiancc ovci a
siawling communiiy wiih laigci lois, limiicu
oiions loi walIing anu a longci commuic.
Thosc who aic in ihc maiIci io luy a homc
aic also moic liIcly io say ihcy wani io lc in oi
ncai a ciiy as ooscu io living in a laiihci oui
suluil oi iuial aica.
Ioi ihc uioscs ol ihc NAR/SGA suivcy, a
smaii giowih communiiy was ucsciilcu as a
mix ol aaiimcnis, conuos, iownhouscs, anu
uciachcu homcs on vaiious-sizcu lois wiih
siucwalIs anu laccs io sho, cai, icau, anu
go io school wiihin walIing uisiancc. Ii was
also ucsciilcu as a lacc wiih ncaily ullic
iiansoiiaiion anu a onc-way commuic ol lcss
ihan 4 minuics. A siawling communiiy was
ucsciilcu as a lacc wiih only singlc-lamily
uciachcu houscs on onc-acic lois wiihoui
siucwalIs, whcic laccs io sho, cai, icau, anu
go io school aic wiihin a lcw milcs. Pullic
iiansoiiaiion is uisiani oi unavailallc anu
a onc-way commuic is 4 minuics oi moic.
Alici hcaiing uciailcu ucsciiiions ol iwo
communiiics, Amciicans lavoicu ihc aiiiiluics
ol walIallc, smaii giowih communiiics ovci
siawling communiiics wiih longci commuics
ciccni io 4 ciccni.
Womcn anu minoiiiics aic cvcn moic liIcly
ihan oihci Amciicans io choosc a walIallc
ncighloihoou ihai has a shoiici commuic,
wiih 9 ciccni ol womcn, 7 ciccni
ol Hisanics anu 7S ciccni ol Aliican-
Amciicans sclcciing ihosc communiiics
ovci communiiics wiih liggci lois anu
longci commuics. This is signihcani lccausc
minoiiiics aic an incicasing aii ol ihc homc-
luying ullic.
NAR olls consisicnily show ihai colc aic
noi ooscu io giowih lui ihcy uo wani ii
managcu moic. Ioi ihc asi scvcial ycais,
ihc Naiional Associaiion ol REAITORS

has
conuucicu suivcys ihai show colc lavoi
giowih, lui noi ncccssaiily ai ihc cxcnsc ol
losing ocn sacc oi woiscning iialhc.
Suivcys in 2001 locuscu on ihcsc sccihc
ioics, ioviuing a lioauci scciium ol
colc`s vicws whilc iniiouucing somc
soluiions, incluuing a clcai call loi incicascu
ullic iiansoiiaiion. A 2002 suivcy,
conuucicu wiih ihc Naiional Associaiion
ol Homc Builucis, suggcsicu maiIci-lascu
inccniivcs wcic ihc iclciicu way ol achicving
smaii giowih as ooscu io icgulaiions.
9pr Sp+t Strr
Whcn asIcu how ihcy lcli aloui incicascu
icsiucniial anu commcicial giowih in ihc
Maich 2001 ocn sacc suivcy, voicis wcic
ihicc iimcs moic liIcly io suoii giowih
S7%) ihan io uisaiovc ol ii 11%).
Anu hall inuicaicu ihai ihcii osiiion on
giowih uccnucu on ihc siiuaiion anu
ciicumsiancc." Thc samc suivcy showcu
ihai somc wani giowih io lc managcu, lui
uncciiainiy aiiscs aiounu how much lanu
oi giowih managcmcni is ncccssaiy. An
ovciwhclming ma|oiiiy S2%) siaicu ihai
uccisions aloui lanu usc anu ocn sacc
Even in CaliIornia, where everyone has a love aIIair with the car, people want
options. They want to keep their car, but they oont want to be in it all oay.
- K+ Ktrricr, ]crrrmrt +||+irs 1irttcr |cr \rttr+ Cctrt Cc+st+l ksscti+ticr c| K|kLI9KS

lO
r + st|htirt rtm|r c| lcms +r+il+|l ir ctr
prit r+r]!
litl c| tl |cllcwir] st+tmrts 1c ct +]r
witl! l wisl.
K+t tl impcrt+rt c| tl |cllcwir] tcmmtrit
+mritis.
ctl1 ct |t + lcm ir + Sm+rt rcwtl
ri]l|crlcc1!
7O
6O
5O
4O
3O
2O
lO
lO 2O 3O 4O 5O O
3% nargin oI error
shoulu lc mauc ai ihc local lcvcl ly iown,
ciiy, oi couniy govcinmcnis. Moic ihan hall
ol ihc ullic 4%) saiu ii lclicvcs in moic
managcmcni ol giowih lccausc iollcms
associaicu wiih giowih nccu io lc auuicsscu."
Bui, a sizallc 42% uisagiccu, saying insicau
ihai giowih shoulu lc managcu lcss lccausc
ihcic aic alicauy ioo many govcinmcni
icgulaiions aloui how colc can usc
ihcii lanu." Whcic colc livc, as wcll as
gcnuci, hau somc lcaiing on ihcii oinion:
Thosc living in moic iuial aicas wanicu lcss
managcmcni S%) ihan uilan 42%) oi
suluilan SS%) uwcllcis, whilc ncaily iwo-
ihiius 61%) ol suluilan womcn lavoicu
moic managcmcni.
In ihc ocn sacc suivcy, iwo ol ihicc
icsonucnis saiu ihcy woiiy aloui loss ol
ocn sacc io commcicial anu icsiucniial
ucvclomcni. Howcvci, ihcy laccu uillcicni
valucs on uillcicni iycs ol ocn sacc.
In aicas unuci ucvclomcni icssuic, ihc
suivcy lounu S0 ciccni ol voicis suoii
icsciving laimlanu, naiuial aicas, siicam
coiiiuois, iiuc wilucincss, anu hisioiic siics,
lui lcwci S%) suoiicu icsciving lallow
hclus no longci uscu loi laiming. A siiong
ma|oiiiy also suoiicu cicaiing ocn saccs
wiih sccihc communiiy uioscs, such
as laygiounus 7% in lavoi), soccci anu
lasclall hclus 61%), anu ncighloihoou
aiIs 60%).
Amciicans clcaily suoii ihc uichasc
anu icscivaiion ol ocn sacc, ihough noi
ncccssaiily ai any cosi. In ihc 2001 ocn sacc
suivcy, 7% suoiicu local govcinmcnis anu
non-iohi gious liIc lanu iiusis io luy anu
icscivc ocn sacc. Howcvci, ihc ullic`s
cnihusiasm wancs as ihc iicc iag incicascs.
Suoii loi lanu uichasc anu icscivaiion
uiocu io 0% il ii woulu icquiic a S0
iociiy-iax incicasc anu lummcicu io S1%
il ii mcani a S100 iax hiIc.
Thc suivcys suggcsi ihc ullic lccls giowih
anu lanu sicwaiushi aic osiiivc aciiviiics, noi
muiually cxclusivc goals. Voicis aic iclling
us ihai ihcy lclicvc giowih can accommouaic
3% nargin oI error
Sou.e: NAF/NAHB 2uu2 oII o .eer Loebu,e..
ll
wisc sicwaiushi ol ihc lanu," noicu Poiilanu,
Oicgon REAITOR

RR Pai Kalan, NAR


Ticasuici ai ihc iimc ol ihc suivcy.
Ir+rspcrt+ticr Strr
Tialhc is ihc oihci chicl conccin whcn ii
comcs io giowih.
A NAR iiansoiiaiion suivcy in Ociolci
2001 showcu ihai iwo oui ol ihicc Amciicans
aic incicasingly conccincu aloui iialhc
congcsiion, wiih 62% saying iialhc congcsiion
is gciiing woisc anu 69% cxcciing ii io woiscn
in ihc ncxi hvc ycais. As loi somc ol ihc causcs,
64% llamcu lacI ol convcnicni anu acccssillc
alicinaiivc iiansoiiaiion, anu 60% saiu ioo
much commcicial anu icsiucniial ucvclomcni
has cicaicu moic iialhc. Whilc 46% agiccu
ihai lusincsscs anu homcs shoulu lc luili
closci iogcihci io shoiicn commuics anu limii
congcsiion, 1% uisagiccu.
Thc samc suivcy also showcu ihai ihc
ullic uchniicly wanis invcsimcni in ullic
iiansoiiaiion anu lclicvcs ihc govcinmcni
isn`i uoing cnough in ihis aica. Thc icsulis
lounu ihai mosi voicis aic uissaiishcu wiih
ihc way ihcii local govcinmcnis aic hanuling
iialhc congcsiion anu ullic iiansoiiaiion.
Ncaily 60% ianIcu ihcii local govcinmcni
laii" oi ooi" loi casing iialhc congcsiion
on local ioaus anu highways, anu moic ihan
0% saiu ihcii govcinmcnis aic uoing a
laii" oi ooi" |ol ioviuing iaciical anu
convcnicni ullic iiansoiiaiion.
In ihc 2001 iiansoiiaiion suivcy, mosi
commuicis saiu ihcy woulu lc willing io usc
mass iiansii insicau ol uiiving ihcmsclvcs io
woiI il ii wcic convcnicni, salc, anu availallc.
Aloui iwo oui ol ihicc colc saiu ihcy woulu
lc willing io usc cai ools oi iiuc shaics, 62%
saiu ihcy woulu lc willing io commuic ly iail
oi iiain, anu ncaily hall, 47%, saiu ihcy`u lc
willing io commuic ly lus.
Thcsc aiiiiuucs havc cisisicu. NAR`s 2004
smaii giowih suivcy showcu ihai hall ol
all Amciicans lclicvc imioving ullic
8O
lOO
6O
4O
2O
O
ctl1 ct | willir] tc tcmmtt tsir] pt|lit |ts, r+il cr
tr+ir, i| tl wr tcrrrirt, s+| +r1 +r+il+|l!
8O
lOO
6O
4O
2O
O
Bcw impcrt+rt w+s +tl isst ir |crmir] +ttitt1s +r1
cpiricrs +|ctt wlr rctrs tlcs tc lir!
3.4% nargin oI error
litl st+tmrt 1c ct mcst +]r witl!
3.l% nargin oI error
3.l% nargin oI error
Sou.e: NAF 2uu1 oII.
K+il/Ir+ir Bts
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S

l2
iiansoiiaiion is ihc lcsi oiion io solving
long-icim iialhc iollcms. Icss ihan 20%
lclicvcu ihai luiluing ncw ioaus is ihc answci.
Consisicnily, NAR suivcys show ihai imioving
ullic iiansoiiaiion anu ucvcloing
communiiics whcic colc uo noi havc io
uiivc long uisianccs aic moic oulai ihan
luiluing ncw ioaus.
Whaicvci ihc olicy mcchanism, Amciicans
ovciwhclmingly wani govcinmcni lunus
iaigcicu ai cxisiing communiiics lcloic
uiiing moncy inio ncw ucvclomcnis laiihci
liom ciiics anu oluci suluils. In ihc 2004
suivcy, ncaily ninc in icn colc S6%)
saiu ihcy wani imiovcmcnis in cxisiing
communiiics io icccivc iioiiiy lunuing
ovci inccniivcs loi ncw ucvclomcni in ihc
couniiysiuc 12%).
To hnu oui moic aloui NAR smaii giowih
olling, scc: www..enIo..o./oII.r
"Voters are telling us that they believe growth can acconnooate wise
stewaroship oI the lano.
|+t K+pl+r, |crtl+r1, 9r]cr K|kLI9K

+r1 NkK Ir+strr +t tl tim c| tl strr


S M k K I K 9 I B I 9 9 L K l I l3
llC. Il |rirtipls c| Sm+rt rcwtl
W
ith the narket Ior walkable, nixeo-use neighborhooos growing,
citizens beconing increasingly anxious about Iallout Iron poorly
planneo growth, ano increasing nunbers oI netro areas running
into linits to their fnancial ano environnental resources, how
shoulo our cities grow in the Iuture? The set oI principles that have cone be to
reIerreo to as snart growth arose Iron attenpts by thousanos oI governnent
oIfcials, planners, environnentalists, business thinkers, oevelopnent ano real
estate proIessionals ano oroinary citizens to answer that question.
Smaii giowih is lcss a sci ol icsciiiions
ihan ii is a way ol ihinIing aloui how io
maIc gicai communiiics wiih lasiing valuc.
To giow smaii" mcans involving ciiizcns
in choosing a luiuic ihai ioviucs housing
oiions loi colc ol all incomcs anu agcs,
ioiccis laimlanu anu ocn sacc, icviializcs
ncighloihoous anu ollcis a vaiiciy ol
convcnicni oiions loi gciiing aiounu. Thc
siaic ol Maiylanu, whosc 1997 Smaii Giowih
aci hclcu io oulaiizc ihc icim, iucniihcu
ihicc Icy goals: To sicci ucvclomcni
iowaiu lanu ucsignaicu ly local communiiics
as aioiiaic loi ncw giowih, io sicci
ucvclomcni away liom ucsignaicu naiuial
anu culiuial aicas, agiiculiuial lanus anu
cnviionmcnially scnsiiivc zoncs, anu io cnsuic
ihai ucvclomcni maIcs clhcicni usc ol lanu
anu ihc ioaus, scwcis, schools anu oihci
inliasiiuciuic wc all ay loi.
Nonc ol ihcsc goals can lc accomlishcu
unlcss ihc icsuliing ucvclomcni is acaling
io cuiicni - anu luiuic - icsiucnis. In laci,
maIing lciici communiiics ihai agc giacclully
is onc ol ihc lcsi aigumcnis loi alying
smaii giowih conccis. Ioi ihai icason, much
ol ihc innovaiion lcing uonc unuci ihc smaii-
giowih lannci is aimcu ai maIing laccs ihai
aic moic convcnicni, alloiuallc, lcauiilul anu
salc. Thc goal is io maIc ncighloihoous ihai
aic walIallc anu comlcic, wiih uaily nccus
closc ai hanu, anu ihai aic uisiinguishallc onc
liom anoihci, iaihci ihan having a onc-sizc-
his-all looI anu lccl.
You mighi hcai somc colc say ihai
smaii giowih mcans uillcicni ihings io
uillcicni colc." Thai`s iiuc in ihc scnsc
ihai siaic anu local communiiics aic licc io
imlcmcni ihcii smaii" lans as ihcy scc hi.
Ncvciihclcss, ihc ccniial iincilcs uiscusscu
lclow aic almosi univcisally iccognizcu
as uchning smaii giowih, anu ihcy havc
lccn cmliaccu noi only ly many ol ihc
naiion`s Icy conscivaiion, cnviionmcnial,
hisioiic icscivaiion, alloiuallc housing
anu lusincss oiganizaiions, lui also ly ihc
naiional associaiions ol lanncis, ucvclocis,
ical csiaic iolcssionals, local govcinmcni
olhcials anu lcucial agcncics. Ioi a aiiial
lisi ol cnuoising oiganizaiions visii www.
n..owL.o./r/n.re..n
TLe oIIow.r e.or . Je...eJ .o Le 1u
..r.Ie nJoeJ b, Le Sn. C.owL Newo.I, nr
nII.nre o o.e.rer, .oe.ornI, bu.re nrJ
oLe. ner.e Ln Ln.e eb.neJ n. .owL.
1en.r o.e nbou Le Sn. C.owL Newo.I n
www.n..owL.o.
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S

l4
I. Cr+t K+r] c| Bctsir]
9ppcrttritis +r1 Clcits
Pioviuing qualiiy housing loi colc ol
all incomc lcvcls is an inicgial comoncni
in any smaii giowih siiaicgy. Housing is a
ciiiical aii ol ihc way communiiics giow,
as ii is consiiiuics a signihcani shaic ol
ncw consiiuciion anu ucvclomcni. Moic
imoiianily, howcvci, ii is also a Icy lacioi
in ucicimining houscholus` acccss io
iiansoiiaiion, commuiing aiicins, acccss
io sciviccs anu cuucaiion, anu consumiion
ol cncigy anu oihci naiuial icsouiccs. By
using smaii giowih aioachcs io cicaic a
wiuci iangc ol housing choiccs, communiiics
can miiigaic ihc cnviionmcnial cosis ol
auio-uccnucni ucvclomcni, usc ihcii
inliasiiuciuic icsouiccs moic clhcicnily,
cnsuic a lciici |ols-housing lalancc, anu
gcnciaic a siiong lounuaiion ol suoii
loi ncighloihoou iiansii sios, commcicial
ccnicis, anu oihci sciviccs.
No singlc iyc ol housing can scivc ihc vaiicu
nccus ol iouay`s uivcisc houscholus. Smaii
giowih icicscnis an ooiiuniiy loi local
communiiics io incicasc housing choicc
noi only ly mouilying ihcii
lanu usc aiicins on ncwly-
ucvclocu lanu, lui also ly
incicasing housing suly in
cxisiing ncighloihoous anu
on lanu scivcu ly cxisiing
inliasiiuciuic. Inicgiaiing
singlc- anu mulii-lamily
siiuciuics in ncw housing
ucvclomcnis can suoii
a moic uivcisc oulaiion
anu allow moic cquiiallc
uisiiiluiion ol houscholus ol
all incomc lcvcls acioss ihc
icgion. Thc auuiiion ol uniis
- ihiough aiiachcu housing,
acccssoiy uniis, oi convcision
io mulii-lamily uwcllings - io
Sm+rt rcwtl Ntwcr|s Ir |rirtipls c| Sm+rt rcwtl
@ Cicaic Rangc ol Housing
Ooiiuniiics anu Choiccs
@ Cicaic WalIallc Ncighloihoous
@ Encouiagc Communiiy anu
SiaIcholuci Collaloiaiion
@ Iosici Disiinciivc, Aiiiaciivc
Communiiics wiih a Siiong
Scnsc ol Placc
@ MaIc Dcvclomcni Dccisions
Picuiciallc, Iaii anu Cosi Ellcciivc
@ Mix Ianu Uscs
@ Picscivc Ocn Sacc, Iaimlanu,
Naiuial Bcauiy anu Ciiiical
Enviionmcnial Aicas
@ Pioviuc a Vaiiciy ol Tiansoiiaiion
Choiccs
@ Siicngihcn anu Diicci Dcvclomcni
Towaius Exisiing Communiiics
@ TaIc Auvaniagc ol Comaci
Builuing Dcsign
S M k K I K 9 I B I 9 9 L K l I l5
cxisiing ncighloihoous cicaics ooiiuniiics
loi communiiics io slowly incicasc ucnsiiy
wiihoui iauically changing ihc lanuscac. Ncw
housing consiiuciion can lc an cconomic
siimulus loi cxisiing commcicial ccnicis ihai
aic cuiicnily viliani uuiing ihc woiI uay, lui
sullci liom a lacI ol looi iialhc anu consumcis
in cvcnings oi wccIcnus. Mosi imoiianily,
ioviuing a iangc ol housing choiccs allow
all houscholus io hnu ihcii nichc in a smaii
giowih communiiy - whcihci ii is a gaiucn
aaiimcni, a iow housc, oi a iiauiiional
suluilan homc - anu accommouaic giowih ai
ihc samc iimc.
1. Cr+t +l|+|l Ni]l|crlcc1s
WalIallc communiiics aic ucsiiallc laccs
io livc, woiI, lcain, woishi anu lay, anu
ihcicloic a Icy comoncni ol smaii giowih.
Thcii ucsiialiliiy comcs liom iwo laciois.
Iiisi, walIallc communiiics locaic wiihin an
casy anu salc walI ol goous such as housing,
olhccs, anu iciail) anu sciviccs such as
iiansoiiaiion, schools, liliaiics) ihai a
communiiy icsiucni oi cmloycc nccus on a
icgulai lasis. Scconu, ly uchniiion, walIallc
communiiics maIc cucsiiian aciiviiy ossillc,
ihus cxanuing iiansoiiaiion oiions, anu
cicaiing a siicciscac ihai lciici scivcs a
iangc ol uscis - cucsiiians, licyclisis, iiansii
iiucis, anu auiomolilcs. To losici walIaliliiy,
communiiics musi mix lanu uscs anu luilu
comacily, anu cnsuic salc anu inviiing
cucsiiian coiiiuois.
WalIallc communiiics aic noihing ncw.
Ouisiuc ol ihc lasi hall-ccniuiy, communiiics
woiluwiuc havc cicaicu ncighloihoous,
communiiics, iowns anu ciiics icmiscu
on cucsiiian acccss. Wiihin ihc lasi hliy
ycais ullic anu iivaic aciions olicn
cicaicu olsiaclcs io walIallc communiiics.
Convcniional lanu usc icgulaiion olicn
iohiliis ihc mixing ol lanu uscs, ihus
lcngihcning iiis anu maIing walIing a lcss
viallc alicinaiivc io oihci loims ol iiavcl. This
icgulaioiy lias againsi mixcu-usc ucvclomcni
is icinloiccu ly iivaic hnancing olicics ihai
vicw mixcu-usc ucvclomcni as iisIici ihan
singlc-usc ucvclomcni. Many communiiics
- aiiiculaily ihosc ihai aic uisciscu anu
laigcly auio-uccnucni - cmloy siicci anu
ucvclomcni ucsign iaciiccs ihai icuucc
cucsiiian aciiviiy.
As ihc cisonal anu socicial lcnchis ol
cucsiiian liicnuly communiiics aic icalizcu
- lcnchis which incluuc lowci iiansoiiaiion
cosis, gicaici social iniciaciion, imiovcu
cisonal anu cnviionmcnial hcalih, anu
cxanucu consumci choicc - many aic calling
uon ihc ullic anu iivaic sccioi io laciliiaic
ihc ucvclomcni ol walIallc laccs. Ianu
usc anu communiiy ucsign lay a ivoial iolc
in cncouiaging cucsiiian cnviionmcnis. By
luiluing laccs wiih muliilc ucsiinaiions
wiihin closc ioximiiy, whcic ihc siiccis anu
siucwalIs lalancc all loims ol iiansoiiaiion,
communiiics havc ihc lasic liamcwoiI loi
cncouiaging walIaliliiy.
. |rtctr+] Ccmmtrit +r1
St+|lcl1r Ccll+|cr+ticr
Giowih can cicaic gicai laccs io livc, woiI
anu lay - il ii icsonus io a communiiy`s
own scnsc ol how anu whcic ii wanis io giow.
Communiiics havc uillcicni nccus anu will
cmhasizc somc smaii giowih iincilcs
ovci oihcis: ihosc wiih iolusi cconomic
giowih may nccu io imiovc housing choiccs,
oihcis ihai havc sullcicu liom uisinvcsimcni
may cmhasizc inhll ucvclomcni, ncwci
communiiics wiih scaiaicu uscs may lc
looIing loi ihc scnsc ol lacc ioviucu ly
mixcu-usc iown ccnicis, anu siill oihcis wiih
ooi aii qualiiy may sccI iclicl ly ollciing
iiansoiiaiion choiccs. Thc common ihicau
among all, howcvci, is ihai ihc nccus ol cvciy
communiiy anu ihc iogiams io auuicss ihcm
aic lcsi uchncu ly ihc colc who livc anu
woiI ihcic.
Ciiizcn aiiiciaiion can lc iimc-consuming,
liusiiaiing anu cxcnsivc, lui cncouiaging
communiiy anu siaIcholuci collaloiaiion
can lcau io cicaiivc, sccuy icsoluiion ol
ucvclomcni issucs anu gicaici communiiy
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S

l6
unucisianuing ol ihc imoiiancc ol goou
lanning anu invcsimcni. Smaii giowih lans
anu olicics ucvclocu wiihoui siiong ciiizcn
involvcmcni will ai lcsi noi havc siaying
owci, ai woisi, ihcy will lc uscu io cicaic
unhcalihy, unucsiiallc communiiics. Whcn
colc lccl lcli oui ol imoiiani uccisions,
ihcy will lc lcss liIcly io lccomc cngagcu
whcn iough uccisions nccu io lc mauc.
Involving ihc communiiy caily anu olicn in
ihc lanning ioccss vasily imiovcs ullic
suoii loi smaii giowih anu olicn lcaus io
innovaiivc siiaicgics ihai hi ihc uniquc nccus
ol cach communiiy.
1. |cstr |istirttir, kttr+ttir Ccmmtritis
witl + Strcr] Srs c| |l+t
Smaii giowih cncouiagcs communiiics io ciali
a vision anu sci sianuaius loi ucvclomcni
anu consiiuciion which icsonu io
communiiy valucs ol aichiicciuial lcauiy anu
uisiinciivcncss, as wcll as cxanucu choiccs in
housing anu iiansoiiaiion. Ii sccIs io cicaic
inicicsiing, uniquc communiiics which icucci
ihc valucs anu culiuics ol ihc colc who
icsiuc ihcic, anu losici ihc iycs ol hysical
cnviionmcnis which suoii a moic cohcsivc
communiiy laliic. Smaii giowih iomoics
ucvclomcni which uscs naiuial anu man-
mauc lounuaiics anu lanumaiIs io cicaic a
scnsc ol uchncu ncighloihoous, iowns, anu
icgions. Ii cncouiagcs ihc consiiuciion anu
icscivaiion ol luiluings which iovc io lc
asscis io a communiiy ovci iimc, noi only
lccausc ol ihc sciviccs ioviucu wiihin, lui
lccausc ol ihc uniquc coniiiluiion ihcy maIc
on ihc ouisiuc io ihc looI anu lccl ol a ciiy.
Guiucu ly a vision ol how anu whcic io giow,
communiiics aic allc io iucniily anu uiilizc
ooiiuniiics io maIc ncw ucvclomcni
conloim io ihcii sianuaius ol uisiinciivcncss
anu lcauiy. Coniiaiy io ihc cuiicni mouc ol
ucvclomcni, smaii giowih cnsuics ihai ihc
valuc ol inhll anu giccnhclu ucvclomcni
is ucicimincu as much ly ihcii acccssililiiy
ly cai oi oihci mcans) as ihcii hysical
oiicniaiion io anu iclaiionshi wiih oihci
S M k K I K 9 I B I 9 9 L K l I l7
|rsit +r1 \ctr Ccmmtrit
Dcnsiiy ioviucs a vaiiciy ol lcnchis io
oui communiiics anu ciiics:
l. Density nakes walkable
neighborhooos. WalIallc ncighloihoous
havc ossillc icsiucniial anu non-
icsiucniial lanu uscs closc io cach oihci.
Shos, houscs, icsiauianis, schools, cic.
aic locaicu wiihin closc ioximiiy io cach
oihci, ioviuing colc ihc convcnicncc io
go oui io cai, walI io school, oi uichasc a
quaii ol milI wiihin a -10 minuic walI.
2. Density supports housing choice
ano aIIoroability. Highci ucnsiiy givcs
ucvclocis ihc ucxililiiy io inicgiaic
uivcisc housing iycs in a givcn
ucvclomcni, iimaiily ly cxanuing
allowallc housing iycs io incluuc loih
singlc anu muliilamily uniis. Onc common
icsuli ol highci ucnsiiy is cxanucu
housing choicc. Highci ucnsiiy mcans lcss
lanu ci unii, icuuccu siic icaiaiion,
anu lowci ci unii inliasiiuciuic cosis,
all laciois ihai icuucc ihc haiu cosis
ol consiiuciion. This gcncially allows
ucvclocis io ioviuc moic housing ai a
lowci cosi io ihc homcownci.
3. Density expanos transportation
choices. Highci ucnsiiy ucvclomcni
cxanus iiansoiiaiion choiccs ly maIing ii
casici io usc non-auiomolilc iiansoiiaiion
- walIing, licycling, lus oi iail, ly locaiing
aciiviiics closci iogcihci. Tiansoiiaiion
choicc givcs colc ihc liccuom io
sclcci liom a vaiiciy ol iiansoiiaiion
moucs as ihcy comlcic ihcii uaily iiavcl.
Tiansoiiaiion choicc maIcs ii ossillc loi
cisons io choosc ihc mcans ol iiavcl ihai
maIcs mosi scnsc loi ihcm.
4. Density helps nininize air pollution.
Sincc highci ucnsiiy communiiics can
ioviuc gicaici iiansoiiaiion choicc,
ii is olicn ihc casc ihai ihcii icsiucnis
uiivc lcss. Onc San Iiancisco siuuy lounu
ihai colc in comaci ncighloihoous
mauc 42-ciccni lcwci auio iiis ihan
ihcii couniciaiis in lcss comaci
ncighloihoous. Also, wiih aciiviiics closci
iogcihci, vchiclc iiis aic shoiici - wiih
lcss vchiclc milcs iiavclcu, lcss olluiion
is iouuccu.
5. Density enables protection
oI open space ano provision oI
parklano. Dcnsiiy allows communiiics
io accommouaic gicaici amounis ol
ucvclomcni on a givcn aiccls) ol
lanu. This comaci ucvclomcni iclicvcs
somc ol ihc icssuic io ucvclo ocn
saccs. As a icsuli, communiiics aic allc
io icscivc cxisiing ocn sacc, cicaic
inicinal ncighloihoou aiIs anu ioicci
cnviionmcnially-scnsiiivc lanus.
6. Density helps protect water quality.
As communiiics cmloy ucnsiiy io ioicci
ocn sacc, ihcy also achicvc waici qualiiy
lcnchis. Dcnsiiy ioiccis waici qualiiy ly
minimizing ihc imcivious suilacc ci
houscholu. This in iuin icuuccs sioim
waici iunoll.
7. Density reouces inIrastructure cost. Ii
is chcaci io scivc moic houscholus in a
smallci, ucnsci aica ihan io scivc ihc samc
numlci ol houscholus acioss a laigci,
uisciscu gcogiahic aica. Communiiics
aic iccognizing ihc icuunuancy ol aying
loi ncw inliasiiuciuic whcn cxisiing
inliasiiuciuic is unuciuiilizcu.
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S

l8
luiluings anu ocn sacc. By cicaiing high-
qualiiy communiiics wiih aichiicciuial anu
naiuial clcmcnis ihai icucci ihc inicicsis
ol all icsiucnis, ihcic is a gicaici liIclihoou
ihai luiluings anu ihcicloic cniiic
ncighloihoous) will iciain ihcii cconomic
viialiiy anu valuc ovci iimc. In so uoing, ihc
inliasiiuciuic anu naiuial icsouiccs uscu io
cicaic ihcsc aicas will ioviuc icsiucnis wiih
a uisiinciivc anu lcauiilul lacc ihai ihcy can
call homc" loi gcnciaiions io comc.
. M+| |rlcpmrt |tisicrs
|r1itt+|l, |+ir +r1 Ccst |||ttir
Ioi a communiiy io lc succcsslul in
imlcmcniing smaii giowih, ii musi lc
cmliaccu ly ihc iivaic sccioi. Only iivaic
caiial maiIcis can suly ihc laigc amounis
ol moncy nccucu io mcci ihc giowing
ucmanu loi smaii giowih ucvclomcnis.
Il invcsiois, lanIcis, ucvclocis, luilucis
anu oihcis uo noi cain a iohi, lcw smaii
giowih io|ccis will lc luili. Ioiiunaicly,
govcinmcni can hcl maIc smaii giowih
iohiallc io iivaic invcsiois anu ucvclocis.
Sincc ihc ucvclomcni inuusiiy is highly
icgulaicu, ihc valuc ol iociiy anu ihc
ucsiialiliiy ol a lacc is laigcly allccicu ly
govcinmcni invcsimcni in inliasiiuciuic anu
govcinmcni icgulaiion. Govcinmcnis ihai
maIc ihc iighi inliasiiuciuic anu icgulaioiy
uccisions will cicaic laii, icuiciallc anu cosi-
cllcciivc smaii giowih.
Dcsiic icgulaioiy anu hnancial laiiicis,
ucvclocis havc lccn succcsslul in cicaiing
cxamlcs ol smaii giowih. Thc ioccss io uo
so, howcvci, icquiics ihcm io gci vaiianccs
io ihc coucs - olicn a iimc-consuming, anu
ihcicloic cosily, icquiicmcni. Excuiiing ihc
aioval ioccss is ol aiiiculai imoiiancc
loi ucvclocis, loi whom ihc common
maniia, iimc is moncy" vciy aily alics.
Thc longci ii iaIcs io gci aioval loi
luiluing, ihc longci ihc ucvcloci`s caiial
icmains iicu u in ihc lanu anu noi caining
incomc. Ioi smaii giowih io uouiish, siaic
anu local govcinmcnis musi maIc an clloii
io maIc ucvclomcni uccisions aloui smaii
giowih moic iimcly, cosi-cllcciivc, anu
icuiciallc loi ucvclocis. By cicaiing a
lciiilc cnviionmcni loi innovaiivc, cucsiiian-
oiicnicu, mixcu-usc io|ccis, govcinmcni can
ioviuc lcaucishi loi smaii giowih ihai ihc
iivaic sccioi is suic io suoii.
. Mi\ L+r1 Uss
Smaii giowih suoiis ihc inicgiaiion ol
mixcu lanu uscs inio communiiics as a ciiiical
comoncni ol achicving lciici laccs io
livc. By uiiing uscs in closc ioximiiy io
onc anoihci, alicinaiivcs io uiiving, such as
walIing oi liIing, oncc again lccomc viallc.
Mixcu lanu uscs also ioviuc a moic uivcisc
anu sizallc oulaiion anu commcicial lasc
loi suoiiing viallc ullic iiansii. Ii can
cnhancc ihc viialiiy anu ciccivcu sccuiiiy ol
an aica ly incicasing ihc numlci anu aiiiiuuc
ol colc on ihc siicci. Ii
hcls siiccis, ullic saccs anu
cucsiiian-oiicnicu iciail again
lccomc laccs whcic colc
mcci, aiiiaciing cucsiiians lacI
onio ihc siicci anu hcling io
icviializc communiiy lilc.
Mixcu lanu uscs can convcy
sulsianiial hscal anu cconomic
lcnchis. Commcicial uscs in
closc ioximiiy io icsiucniial
aicas aic olicn icuccicu in
highci iociiy valucs, anu
ihcicloic hcl iaisc local iax
S M k K I K 9 I B I 9 9 L K l I l
Nyth #l: Density creates traIfc
congestion. In ihc alscncc ol oihci moucs
ol iiansoiiaiion - iail oi lus iiansii,
walIing, anu licycling - any ucvclomcni
will auu io ncighloihoou iiis anu
congcsiion. To couniciaci ihis iicnu,
communiiics nccu io incicasc ihc vialiliiy
ol non-auio moucs ol iiansoiiaiion. This
counicis congcsiion ly ioviuing oiions
loi colc io maIc iiis ciihci on looi, ly
licyclc oi iail anu lus iiansii, iaihci ihan
only ly cai. Dcnsiiy maIcs a wiuci iangc ol
iiansoiiaiion choiccs viallc. Thc lollowing
lcaiuics hcl incicasc non-auio iiavcl:
- SiucwalIs on loih siucs ol all siiccis.
- Pcucsiiian iouics ihai aic siiaighi,
uiicci, anu unimcucu.
- PaiIing lchinu siiuciuics anu
luiluings closci io ihc siucwalI.
- Winuows anu uoois ol luiluings
lacing ihc siicci anu siucwalI uiiccily,
ioviuing cycs on ihc siicci" ihai
cnhanccs salciy.
Nyth #2: Density clashes with existing
connunities. Ii is ossillc io inicgiaic
ucnsiiy inio a ncighloihoou so ihai ii uocs
noi cngcnuci ullic uisaioval. Onc
ooily ucsigncu ucnsc ucvclomcni can
lccomc a lighining iou loi communiiy
oosiiion io ucnsiiy in succcssivc
ycais. Ncw highci ucnsiiy ucvclomcni
shoulu hi inio ihc viciniiy inio which ii
is lcing iniiouuccu. Succcsslul ucnsc
ucvclomcnis will incoioiaic ullic
aiiiciaiion inio ihc ucsign anu aioval
ioccss io cnsuic ihai communiiy
goals aic mci. Raihci ihan incicasing
oosiiion, a wcll-iun ullic ioccss
will icsuli in lcss oosiiion anu moic
cciiainiy loi luilucis.
Nyth #3: Density-oriven oevelopnent
will cost nore in the long run. Many
|uiisuiciions aic conccincu aloui ihc hscal
imaci ol ncw ucvclomcni - aiiiculaily
icsiucniial ucvclomcni. Conccins aiisc
ihai ncw ucnsc ucvclomcnis will ovciiax
cxisiing icsouiccs - schools, ioaus - anu
cosi ihc communiiy much moic ihan
lowci ucnsiiy ucvclomcnis. In iiuih,
ucnsc ucvclomcnis hcl usc cxisiing
icsouiccs mosi clhcicnily anu cosi ihc
communiiy much lcss ihan ihc samc
numlci ol uniis accommouaicu in low-
ucnsiiy ucvclomcni.
Nyth #4: Density eats up privacy ano
green space. Wcll-ucsigncu ucnsc
icsiucniial ucvclomcnis incluuc ullic
anu iivaic saccs anu ioviuc icsiucnis
wiih ihc ooiiuniiy anu sacc io gaihci
anu socializc. Common ocn anu civic
saccs can incluuc lazas, small aiIs,
anu squaics wiihin a ucvclomcni. Piivaic
ocn sacc incluucs lalconics, couiiyaius,
oichcs, anu gaiucns connccicu io
icsiucnccs ihai ovcilooI oi aic au|accni io
ihc ullic icalm: Siiccis, allcys, anu aiIs.
Naking Density Work. To maIc ucnsiiy
woiI, io maIc ii accciallc anu cvcn
soughi alici, icquiics woiIing wiih ihc
communiiy io cicaic a wcll-ucsigncu,
wcll lanncu ucvclomcni. Planning anu
ucsigning as a icam can minimizc ihc
ciccivcu ncgaiivc imacis ol ucnsiiy, anu
maximizc osiiivc ouicomcs.
|rsitrl+t1 "mtls
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S

2O
iccciis. Busincsscs iccognizc ihc lcnchis
associaicu wiih aicas allc io aiiiaci moic
colc, as ihcic is incicascu cconomic
aciiviiy whcn ihcic aic moic colc in an
aica io sho. In iouay`s scivicc cconomy,
communiiics hnu ihai ly mixing lanu uscs,
ihcy maIc ihcii ncighloihoous aiiiaciivc io
woiIcis who incicasingly lalancc qualiiy ol
lilc ciiiciia wiih salaiy io uciciminc whcic
ihcy will sciilc. Smaii giowih ioviucs a mcans
loi communiiics io alici ihc lanning conicxi
which cuiicnily icnucis mixcu lanu uscs
illcgal in mosi ol ihc couniiy.
I. |rsrr 9pr Sp+t, |+rml+r1, N+ttr+l
B+tt +r1 Critit+l |rrircrmrt+l kr+s
Smaii giowih uscs ihc icim ocn sacc"
lioauly io mcan naiuial aicas loih in anu
suiiounuing localiiics ihai ioviuc imoiiani
communiiy sacc, haliiai loi lanis anu
animals, iccicaiional ooiiuniiics, laim
anu ianch lanu woiIing lanus), laccs ol
naiuial lcauiy anu ciiiical cnviionmcnial
aicas c.g. wcilanus). Ocn sacc icscivaiion
suoiis smaii giowih goals ly lolsiciing local
cconomics, icsciving ciiiical cnviionmcnial
aicas, imioving oui communiiy`s qualiiy ol
lilc, anu guiuing ncw giowih inio cxisiing
communiiics.
Thcic is giowing oliiical will io savc ihc
ocn saccs" ihai Amciicans iicasuic.
Voicis in 2000 ovciwhclmingly aiovcu
lalloi mcasuics io lunu ocn
sacc ioicciion clloiis. Thc
icasons loi such suoii aic
vaiicu anu aiiiiluiallc io ihc
lcnchis associaicu wiih ocn
sacc ioicciion. Pioicciion ol
ocn sacc ioviucs many hscal
lcnchis, incluuing incicasing
local iociiy valuc ihcicly
incicasing iociiy iax lascs),
ioviuing iouiism uollais, anu
uccicascs local iax incicascs
uuc io ihc savings ol icuucing
ihc consiiuciion ol ncw
inliasiiuciuic). Managcmcni ol
ihc qualiiy anu suly ol ocn
sacc also cnsuics ihai iimc laim anu ianch
lanus aic availallc, icvcnis uoou uamagc,
anu ioviucs a lcss cxcnsivc anu naiuial
alicinaiivc loi ioviuing clcan uiinIing waici.
Thc availaliliiy ol ocn sacc also ioviucs
signihcani cnviionmcnial qualiiy anu hcalih
lcnchis. Ocn sacc ioiccis animal anu
lani haliiai, laccs ol naiuial lcauiy, anu
woiIing lanus ly icmoving ihc ucvclomcni
icssuic anu icuiicciing ncw giowih
io cxisiing communiiics. Auuiiionally,
icscivaiion ol ocn sacc lcnchis ihc
cnviionmcni ly comlaiing aii olluiion,
aiicnuaiing noisc, coniiolling winu,
ioviuing ciosion coniiol, anu mouciaiing
icmciaiuics. Ocn sacc also ioiccis
suilacc anu giounu waici icsouiccs ly
hliciing iiash, ucliis, anu chcmical olluianis
lcloic ihcy cnici a waici sysicm.
. |rcri1 + \+rit c| Ir+rspcrt+ticr Clcits
Pioviuing colc wiih moic choiccs in
housing, shoing, communiiics, anu
iiansoiiaiion is a Icy aim ol smaii giowih.
Communiiics aic incicasingly sccIing
ihcsc choiccs - aiiiculaily a wiuci iangc
ol iiansoiiaiion oiions - in an clloii io
imiovc lclcagucicu iiansoiiaiion sysicms.
Tialhc congcsiion is woiscning acioss ihc
couniiy. Whcic in 19S2 6 ciccni ol iiavcl
occuiicu in uncongcsicu conuiiions, ly 1997
only S6 ciccni ol caI iiavcl occuiicu uiu so.
S M k K I K 9 I B I 9 9 L K l I 2l
In 1999 a sccial Picsiucniial Auvisoiy
Giou on Smaii Giowih ucvclocu
hvc guiuing iincilcs sccihcally loi
REAITORS

:
l. Provioe Housing Cpportunity
ano Choice: Homc owncishi is ihc
coincisionc ol ihc Amciican uicam anu
ucscivcs a iclciicu lacc in oui sysicm
ol valucs as ii coniiiluics io communiiy
icsonsililiiy, civic, cconomic, lusincss,
anu cmloymcni sialiliiy, anu lamily
sccuiiiy anu wcll-lcing. Thcsc ol|cciivcs
can lc mci ihiough maiIci-uiivcn
housing aioachcs ihai losici a wiuc
iangc ol uilan, suluilan, anu iuial
housing choiccs ai all iicc lcvcls io suii a
uivcisc oulaiion.
2. Builo Better Connunities: Rcal
csiaic ol all iycs uouiishcs lcsi in
livallc communiiics ihai ollci a high
qualiiy ol lilc ai a icasonallc cosi. Iivallc
communiiics ollci a vaiiciy ol alloiuallc
housing choiccs, goou schools, low
ciimc, qualiiy ullic sciviccs, clhcicni
iiansoiiaiion sysicms, amlc iccicaiion
anu aiI aicas, ocn sacc, siiong
cmloymcni lasc, anu an cconomically
viallc commcicial sccioi. To iomoic
ihcsc csscniial livallc communiiy
clcmcnis, giowih olicics shoulu
cncouiagc maiIci-uiivcn anu culiuially
uivcisc giowih aiicins ihai susiain anu
cnhancc a communiiy`s qualiiy ol lilc.
3. Protect the Environnent: To mainiain
a icgion`s qualiiy ol lilc anu io ioicci ihc
cnviionmcni, govcinmcnis ai all lcvcls
shoulu consiuci olicics anu iogiams
ihai aiu ihc coniiol ol olluiion, ioviuc
loi iogiams ihai cncouiagc icscivaiion
ol naiuial icsouiccs, signihcani lanus anu
iociiics ol hisioiic signihcancc, anu
luiihci cncouiagc, ihiough inccniivcs,
ihc ioicciion ol cnuangcicu sccics,
aquilcis, iivcis/siicams, agiiculiuial lanus,
wcilanus, sccnic visias, naiuial aicas, anu
ocn sacc. Govcinmcni musi iccognizc
ihc imoiiancc ol local uccision-maIing,
iivaic iociiy iighis, anu ihc valuc ol a
hcalihy cconomic sccioi.
4. Protect Private Property Rights:
Piivaic iociiy iighis aic lunuamcnial
io oui licc-maiIci cconomic sysicm
anu aic ioiccicu ly ihc ih anu 14ih
Amcnumcnis io ihc Uniicu Siaics
Consiiiuiion. Thc coniinucu siicngih ol
oui naiion`s cconomy uccnus on ihc
icscivaiion ol ihc iighi io liccly own, usc,
anu iianslci ical iociiy.
5. lnplenent Fair ano Reasonable
Public Sector Fiscal Neasures: To
suoii aucquaicly ihc inliasiiuciuic
nccus ol communiiics icsuliing liom
giowih, govcinmcnis ai all lcvcls
shoulu coociaic in ihc auoiion ol
lalanccu, laii, cquiiallc, anu inccniivc-
lascu aioachcs io hnancc anu ay
loi ihc ucvclomcni, cxansion, anu
mainicnancc ol ioaus, schools, waici, anu
scwci laciliiics. Rcvcnuc anu hnancing
mcchanisms csiallishcu io ay loi
ncccssaiy inliasiiuciuic cosis shoulu lc
shaicu iooiiionally ly ihosc scgmcnis
ol ihc oulaiion scivcu ly imiovcmcnis.
NkK |rirtipls |cr K|kLI9KS

+r1 Sm+rt rcwtl


N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S

22
In laci, accoiuing io ihc Tcxas Tiansoiiaiion
Insiiiuic, congcsiion ovci ihc lasi scvcial
ycais has woiscncu in ncaily cvciy ma|oi
mciiooliian aica in ihc Uniicu Siaics.
In icsonsc, communiiics aic lcginning io
imlcmcni ncw aioachcs io iiansoiiaiion
lanning, such as lciici cooiuinaiing lanu usc
anu iiansoiiaiion, incicasing ihc availaliliiy
ol high qualiiy iiansii scivicc, cicaiing
icuunuancy, icsilicncy anu conncciiviiy wiihin
ihcii ioau nciwoiIs, anu cnsuiing conncciiviiy
lciwccn cucsiiian, liIc, iiansii, anu ioau
laciliiics. In shoii, ihcy aic couling a mulii-
moual aioach io iiansoiiaiion wiih
suoiiivc ucvclomcni aiicins, io cicaic a
vaiiciy ol iiansoiiaiion oiions.
1. Strr]tlr +r1 |irtt |rlcpmrt
Icw+r1s |\istir] Ccmmtritis
Smaii giowih uiiccis ucvclomcni iowaius
cxisiing communiiics alicauy scivcu ly
inliasiiuciuic, sccIing io uiilizc ihc icsouiccs
ihai cxisiing ncighloihoous ollci, anu
conscivc ocn sacc anu iiiclaccallc
naiuial icsouiccs on ihc uilan liingc.
Dcvclomcni in cxisiing ncighloihoous
also icicscnis an aioach io giowih ihai
can lc moic cosi-cllcciivc, anu imiovcs ihc
qualiiy ol lilc loi iis icsiucnis. By cncouiaging
ucvclomcni in cxisiing communiiics,
communiiics lcnchi liom a siiongci iax
lasc, closci ioximiiy ol a iangc ol |ols
anu sciviccs, incicascu clhcicncy ol alicauy-
ucvclocu lanu anu inliasiiuciuic, icuuccu
ucvclomcni icssuic in cugc aicas ihcicly
icsciving moic ocn sacc, anu, in somc
cascs, siicngihcning iuial communiiics.
Thc casc ol giccnhclu ucvclomcni icmains
an olsiaclc io cncouiaging moic ucvclomcni
in cxisiing ncighloihoous. Dcvclomcni on
ihc liingc icmains aiiiaciivc io ucvclocis loi
iis casc ol acccss anu consiiuciion, lowci lanu
cosis, anu oicniial loi ucvclocis io asscmllc
S M k K I K 9 I B I 9 9 L K l I 23
laigci aiccls. Tyical zoning icquiicmcnis in
liingc aicas aic olicn casici io comly wiih,
as ihcic aic olicn lcw cxisiing luiluing iycs
ihai ncw consiiuciion musi comlcmcni, anu
a iclaiivc alscncc ol icsiucnis who may ol|cci
io ihc inconvcnicncc oi uisiuiion causcu ly
ncw consiiuciion.
Ncvciihclcss, ucvclocis anu communiiics
aic iccognizing ihc ooiiuniiics icscnicu
ly inhll ucvclomcni, as suggcsicu noi
only ly ucmogiahic shilis, lui also in
icsonsc io a giowing awaicncss ol ihc
hscal, cnviionmcnial, anu social cosis ol
ucvclomcni locuscu uisiooiiionaicly on
ihc uilan liingc. ]ouinals ihai iiacI ical csiaic
iicnus iouiincly ciic ihc invcsimcni acal
ol ihc 24-houi ciiy" loi cmiy ncsicis, young
iolcssionals, anu oihcis, anu ucvclocis aic
lcginning io icsonu. A 2001 icoii ly Uilan
Ianu Insiiiuic on uilan inhll housing siaics
ihai, in 1999, ihc incicasc in housing cimii
aciiviiy in ciiics iclaiivc io avciagc annual
hguics liom ihc icccuing uccauc cxcccucu
ihai ol ihc suluils, inuicaiing ihai inhll
ucvclomcni is ossillc anu iohiallc.
IJ. I+| k1r+rt+] c| Ccmp+tt
Btil1ir] |si]r
Smaii giowih ioviucs a mcans loi
communiiics io incoioiaic moic comaci
luiluing ucsign as an alicinaiivc io
convcniional, lanu-consumiivc ucvclomcni.
Comaci luiluing ucsign suggcsis ihai
communiiics lc ucsigncu in a way which
cimiis moic ocn sacc io icscivcu, anu
ihai luiluings can lc consiiucicu which maIc
moic clhcicni usc ol lanu anu icsouiccs.
By cncouiaging luiluings io giow vciiically
iaihci ihan hoiizonially, anu ly incoioiaiing
siiuciuicu iaihci ihan suilacc aiIing,
loi cxamlc, communiiics can icuucc ihc
looiiini ol ncw consiiuciion, anu icscivc
moic giccn sacc. Noi only is ihis aioach
moic clhcicni ly icquiiing lcss lanu loi
consiiuciion, ii also ioviucs anu ioiccis
moic ocn, unucvclocu lanu ihai woulu
cxisi oihciwisc io alsoil anu hlici iain waici,
icuucc uoouing anu sioim waici uiainagc
nccus, anu lowci ihc amouni ol olluiion
washing inio oui siicams, iivcis anu laIcs.
Comaci luiluing ucsign is ncccssaiy io
suoii wiuci iiansoiiaiion choiccs,
anu ioviucs cosi savings loi localiiics.
Communiiics sccIing io cncouiagc iiansii
usc io icuucc aii olluiion anu congcsiion
iccognizc ihai minimum lcvcls ol ucnsiiy
aic icquiicu io maIc ullic iiansii nciwoiIs
viallc. Iocal govcinmcnis hnu ihai on
a ci-unii lasis, ii is chcaci io ioviuc
anu mainiain sciviccs liIc waici, scwci,
clcciiiciiy, honc scivicc anu oihci uiiliiics
in moic comaci ncighloihoous ihan in
uisciscu communiiics.
Rcscaich lascu on ihcsc ucvclomcnis has
shown, loi cxamlc, ihai wcll-ucsigncu,
comaci Ncw Uilanisi communiiics ihai
incluuc a vaiiciy ol housc sizcs anu iycs
commanu a highci maiIci valuc on a ci
squaic looi lasis ihan uo ihosc in au|accni
convcniional suluilan ucvclomcnis.
Pcihas ihis is why incicasing numlcis ol
ihc ucvclomcni inuusiiy havc lccn allc io
succcsslully inicgiaic comaci ucsign inio
communiiy luiluing clloiis. This ucsiic
"[Snart growth isj Crowing in an econonically eIfcient nanner so that the
new aooition provioes a positive contribution to the greater whole oI the
built environnent.
- \irt r+l+m, |ctr1r +r1 1rlcpr c| tl +w+r1wirrir] sm+rt ]rcwtl tcmmtrit l9r r+r Cl+rlstcr, Scttl C+rclir+
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S

24
cuiicni zoning iaciiccs - such as ihosc ihai
icquiic minimum loi sizcs, oi iohilii mulii-
lamily oi aiiachcu housing - anu oihci laiiicis
- communiiy cicciions ol highci ucnsiiy"
ucvclomcni, olicn iccluuc comaci ucsign.
REAITORS

acioss ihc couniiy havc lccn


cuucaiing ihcmsclvcs anu ihcii communiiics
aloui ihc iincilcs ol smaii giowih. Rcau
aloui ihc Iloiiua Associaiion`s Smaii Giowih
TasI Ioicc anu ihc Michigan Ianu Usc
Acaucmy in Scciion V.
9NLl N| K|S9UKC|S
NAF Sn. C.owL Loene:
www.rcaltor.org/smartgrowth
Sn. C.owL Newo.I:
www.smartgrowth.org
Sn. C.owL Ae..n:
www.SmartGrowthAmcrica.org
Ae..nr PInrr.r Ao.n.or:
www.planning.org/sgrcadcr
Topics in
Snart Crowth

.

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Il risicr 1ririr] sm+rt ]rcwtl is tl+t tcmmtritis ]t |ttr
+s tl ]rcw wlil rm+irir] |ctl tcrcmit+ll ri+|l +r1
rrircrmrt+ll rspcrsi|l.

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S M k K I K 9 I B I 9 9 L K l I 25
lllk. 9pr Sp+t
A
s recently as a century ago, the tern "open space woulo have
sounoeo strange to nost Anericans. Though inoustrialization hao
brought a lot oI people to the rapioly growing cities, the U.S. was
largely a rural country. But as our nation has becone increasingly
urban, with nost people now living within the orbit oI a city, the concept oI
open space - the lano we choose not to builo upon - has growing salience.
Alihough vasi aicas ol ihc couniiy icmain
unucvclocu, ihis is liiilc comloii io icsiucnis
ol iaiuly sicauing mciio aicas, who scc
viallc laims, loicsis, coasial maishcs anu
oihci iicasuicu lanuscacs anu ccologically
scnsiiivc lanus ovciiaIcn oi maiicu ly ooily
lanncu ucvclomcni. Dcvclomcni in uilan
aicas is incicasing ai a lasici iaic ihan in
ihc asi anu laimlanu loss iosc uiamaiically
uuiing ihc 1990s. Whilc ihc ciccni ol U.S.
lanu ihai is ucvclocu is csiimaicu io lc
lciwccn hvc anu scvcn ciccni, ihc Amciican
Iaimlanu Tiusi csiimaics ihai 1 ciccni
ol all lanu ucvclocu in U.S. hisioiy was
ucvclocu in ihc mosi icccni hvc-ycai ciiou.
Bciwccn 1992 anu 1997, ihc naiion losi 1.2
million acics ol laim anu ianch lanu cach
ycai - 1 ciccni highci ihan ihc icvious
10 ycais.
Iionically, cvcn as wc havc lccomc a moic
uilan naiion, wc havc aciually lccomc
lcss conscicniious aloui lanning loi
ullic giccn sacc, aiiiculaily in iaiuly
ucvcloing suluils. In ihc laic 1S00s anu
caily 1900s, ciiy govcinmcnis anu vcnciallc
lanuscac aichiiccis liIc IicuciicI Iaw
Olmsicu - cicaioi ol Ncw YoiI`s Ccniial
PaiI anu Washingion D.C.`s Naiional Zoo
- mauc giccn sacc an inicgial aii ol ihc
ucvcloing lanuscac, anu ciiics laigc anu
small cicaicu ullic aiIs. Alici Woilu Wai
II, whcn Amciica`s giowih shilicu io ihc
suluils, lans olicn callcu loi ucvclocis
simly io lcavc a cciiain
ciccniagc ol lanu wiihin
ihcii io|ccis unucvclocu,
icsuliing in ocn sacc" ol
liiilc ical valuc oi ciccivcu
lcnchi. In icccni ycais, moic
colc aic icalizing ihai ihis
hahazaiu aioach is noi
in ihc ullic`s lcsi inicicsi
anu aic looIing loi ncw ways
io ioicci anu lan loi ocn
sacc ihai mccis local nccus
anu icscivcs ihc chaiacici
ol a lacc.
A lunuamcnial concci
ol smaii lanning is ihai
communiiics musi maIc
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S

26
9NLl N| K|S9UKC|S
T.u o. PubI. 1nrJ:
www.tpl.org
Ae..nr En.InrJ T.u:
www.aIt.org
1nrJ T.u AII.nre:
www.lta.org
P.oe o. PubI. Sne:
www.pps.org
a conscious choicc aloui whai lanu will lc
ucvclocu anu whai will icmain ocn, whcihci
as a aiI, icscivc, woiIing laim, wcilanu,
siicam lullci, wilulilc haliiai oi oihci lunciion.
In icccni ycais a giowing numlci ol siaics
anu localiiics havc aiovcu lonu anu oihci
hnancing io luy anu ioicci lanu. Though
oulai, ihcsc mcasuics iaicly ioviuc cnough
moncy loi all ihc lanu ihai communiiics may
hnu ncccssaiy oi ucsiiallc io ioicci. Ioi
ihai icason, communiiics acioss ihc couniiy
aic ucvcloing a iangc ol icchniqucs loi
ucsignaiing anu ioicciing naiuial anu ocn
aicas. Thcsc can incluuc maIing caiclul
uccisions aloui ihc cxansion ol inliasiiuciuic
io suoii ucvclomcni, oi uiawing aciual
lounuaiics loi uilan sciviccs. In somc cascs,
ihc ullic oi non-iohis may uichasc ihc
ucvclomcni iighis" on iociiy, iaihci
ihan ihc lanu iiscll, oi may allow ucvclocis
io uichasc ihosc iighis in cxchangc loi
highci ucnsiiy in a zonc ihai is ucsignaicu
loi ucvclomcni. Suluivisions may clusici"
homcs on smallci lois, lcaving laigc iiacis
unucvclocu. Thcsc anu oihci icchniqucs aic
ucsciilcu in uciail in Scciion IV, Smaii Giowih
in Piaciicc.
S M k K I K 9 I B I 9 9 L K l I 27
Whcn ii comcs io iiansoiiaiion, mosi
Amciicans havc liiilc choicc lui io uiivc
cvciywhcic loi cvciyihing ihcy uo. Wc lovc
ihc moliliiy cais can ioviuc, lui ihc nccu
io scnu giowing numlcis ol houis lchinu
ihc whccl is noi hacning ly choicc. Rush
houi iiavcl iimcs havc iiilcu ovci ihc asi
iwo uccaucs, whilc ihc avciagc annual uclay
ci cison incicascu liom scvcn houis in ihc
caily 19S0s io 26 houis in 200S, accoiuing
io ihc U.bnr Aob.I., SuJ, ly ihc Tcxas ,
Tiansoiiaiion Insiiiuic TTI).
A numlci ol laciois aic involvcu, lui ihcy lall
inio ihicc main caicgoiics:
@
Roao systen oesign
In ihc lasi lcw uccaucs, ioau nciwoiIs havc
lccn luili, noi as an iniciconnccicu giiu
sysicm ihai ollcis many iouics, lui accoiuing
io a hiciaichy ihai loiccs laigc volumcs ol
iialhc onio a lcw Icy coiiiuois. Suluivision
siiccis cnu in cul-uc-sacs iaihci ihan
conncciing, anu all iialhc musi lcavc ihiough
onc oi iwo cxiis, usually onio a collccioi siicci
ihai lcaus io a lusy aiiciial ioau. Thcsc samc
aiiciials, which caiiy all ihc aica`s commcicial
iialhc, lcau io liccways ihai aic ovciloaucu
wiih local iialhc, cvcn whcn ihcy osicnsilly
aic ucsigncu as inicisiaics" oi lyasscs".
@
Haphazaroly planneo oevelopnent
Many local govcinmcnis, aiiiculaily in iaiuly
giowing aicas, allow ucvclomcni io hacn in
lllB. Ir+rspcrt+ticr
T
raIfc congestion is one oI the biggest irritants oI nooern liIe in nost
Anerican connunities. ln NAR surveys, people consistently rank traIfc
congestion as one oI their top concerns. A substantial najority also say
that nerely laying nore pavenent is unlikely to solve the problen by
itselI. They intuitively realize what nany transportation ano planning experts
have cone to unoerstano in recent years: The unoerlying problen is not a
shortage oI pavenent, but rather the way we builo cities ano netro regions.
a way ihai ovciwhclms ioau sysicms. Aiiciials
lccomc cloggcu wiih cais cniciing anu lcaving
shoing ccnicis anu uiivc-ihioughs, cach
wiih ihcii own uiivcway anu laigc aiIing loi.
Anu lccausc ihc ucvclomcnis uon`i conncci
io cach oihci anu walIing anu licycling aic
hazaiuous, colc musi uiivc liom onc sioic
io anoihci. Unuci convcniional zoning, ihc
siiici scaiaiion ol sioics liom olhccs, olhccs
liom homcs, anu schools liom ncighloihoous
icvcnis luiluing mixcu-usc uisiiicis whcic
colc coulu accomlish many ihings wiih
lcwci, shoiici cai iiis oi ly walIing.
@
Lack oI alternatives
Mcanwhilc, many communiiics lacI
convcnicni ullic iiansoiiaiion sciviccs,
whcn ihcy havc iiansii ai all. In somc ways
ihis is a chicIcn-anu-cgg conunuium: Placcs
ucsigncu loi auiomolilc uccnucncc maIc
iiansii scivicc uilhculi oi imossillc io
ioviuc, lccausc ucsiinaiions aic ioo sicau
oui, anu walIing io anu liom sios oi siaiions
is uangcious oi uninviiing. Thcsc aicas aic ioo
sicau oui loi cconomical iail scivicc oi luscs
ihai comc olicn cnough io lc convcnicni. In
many ol ihc samc aicas, cucsiiians along ihc
high-sccu ioaus musi maIc uo wiih a uusiy
uiii iiacI ihiough ihc giass, anu colc iiuing
licyclcs lccl unwclcomc anu unsalc.
Wiih so many colc having io maIc long
commuics io hnu housing ihcy can alloiu,
ihc iising cosis ol gasolinc, insuiancc anu
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S

28
vchiclcs ihcmsclvcs is cicaiing iis own luiucn.
Amciicans now scnu ihicc iimcs moic on
iiansoiiaiion ihan ihcy uo on hcalih caic.
Accoiuing io ihc Suilacc Tiansoiiaiion
Policy Pio|cci STPP), U.S. iiansoiiaiion
cosis consumcu ncaily 20 ccnis ol cvciy
uollai scni in 2001, scconu only io housing,
which cosi aloui SS ccnis ol cvciy uollai.
An avciagc lamily ays S7,6SS annually loi
cais, insuiancc, gas, mainicnancc, anu oihci
cxcnscs, comaicu io aloui S1S,000 loi
housing anu S2,000 loi hcalih caic. Pcolc
who livc in isolaicu suluils ay moic loi
iiansoiiaiion, anu a highci ciccniagc
ol ihcii incomc io iiansoiiaiion, ihan
colc who livc in closc-in laccs wiih moic
oiions. Thc Ccnici loi Tiansii Oiicnicu
Dcvclomcni has cicaicu a Housing anu
Tiansoiiaiion Alloiualiliiy Inucx ihai
asscsscs ihis iclaiionshi in 42 ciiics.
Rcgaiulcss ol locaiion, low-incomc lamilics
lccl ihc iiansoiiaiion inch ihc mosi. Thc
ooicsi 20 ciccni ol Amciican houscholus
scnu moic ihan 40 ciccni ol ihcii incomc
on iiansoiiaiion, which olicn uis homc
"The elenents oI snart growth are all about livability ano transportation is
the thing that can nake an area least livable.
- |+t K+pl+r, K|kLI9K

, c| K+pl+r K+l |st+t rctp


S M k K I K 9 I B I 9 9 L K l I 2
owncishi oui ol icach anu limiis ihcii aliliiy
io imiovc ihcii hnancial siiuaiion.
Many communiiics havc lcgun io iccognizc
ihcsc inicilocIing issucs anu aic siaiiing io
lan how ihcy giow so ihai ucvclomcni,
ihc ioau nciwoiI anu iiansii scivicc aic
cooiuinaicu anu icinloicc cach oihci. Thcy
may coniinuc io invcsi in hxcs loi cxisiing
ioau loiilcnccIs. Bui loi long-icim congcsiion
iclicl ihcy aic woiIing io givc colc moic
oiions, so ihai ihcy may chosc a locaiion
wiihin a icgion ihai ollcis a shoiici commuic
oi lcwci cai iiis, oi a ncighloihoou whcic
uaily nccus aic closc ai hanu. Oi, ihcy may
choosc io uiivc loi somc iiis whilc iaIing a
iiain, lus oi licyclc loi oihcis.
Thc clcmcnis ol smaii giowih aic all
aloui livaliliiy," says REAITOR

Pai
Kalan ol Kalan Rcal Esiaic Giou, anu
iiansoiiaiion is ihc ihing ihai can maIc
an aica lcasi livallc." Communiiics acioss
ihc couniiy aic uiscovciing ihai imioving
iiansoiiaiion coiiiuois lcaus io incicascu
homc valucs anu incicascu cconomic
aciiviiy. Ioi cxamlc, in Washingion DC,
ihc Gicai Siiccis` iogiam imiovcs uilan
iiansoiiaiion coiiiuois sccihcally as an
cconomic ucvclomcni mcasuic. REAITOR

Iinua ClaiI in Ioii Woiih, Tcxas iclls hci


sioiy ol how cicaiing a comlcic siiccis`
hcl icviializc a commcicial uisiiici in hci
communiiy in Scciion V.
Onc ol ihc mosi oulai ways io uclivci
iiansoiiaiion choicc is io lcgin io luilu whai
is Inown as Tiansii-Oiicnicu Dcvclomcni"
TOD), which oiicnis ncw ucvclomcni
aiounu a convcnicni iiansii nouc. Oihci
communiiics aic woiIing haiu io imiovc
lus anu iiain scivicc anu cicaic communiiics
wiih comlcic siiccis` ihai aic salc anu
9NLl N| K|S9UKC|S
Cour., T.nro.n.or Ao.n.or:
www.ctaa.org
EeJe.nI H.Lwn, AJ.r..n.or:
www.Ihwa.dot.gov/csd
EeJe.nI T.nr. AJ.r..n.or:
www.Ita.dot.gov
Su.ne T.nro.n.or PoI., P.oe:
www.transact.org
Te:n T.nro.n.or Ir.ue:
www.tti.tamu.cdu
Cere. o. T.nr. O..ereJ De.eIoer:
www.rcconncctingamcrica.org/html/
TOD/
Nn.ornI CoIee S.ee ConI..or:
www.complctcstrccts.org
D... o CoIub.n` C.en S.ee .o.n:
www.grcatstrcctsdc.com/
comloiiallc loi walIing anu licycling. Scc
Scciion III loi moic inloimaiion aloui
iiansoiiaiion issucs anu olicics.
Whilc TTI`s 200S siuuy showcu ihai congcsiion
coniinucs io woiscn, ii also highlighicu ihai
ihc luiucn woulu lc lai gicaici wiihoui somc
cxisiing icmcuics. Thc siuuy looIcu ai ihc
cllcci ol ullic iiansoiiaiion, lus anu caiool
lancs, anu cciiain iniclligcni iiansoiiaiion
soluiions anu concluucu ihai ihcsc icmcuics
icuuccu ihc amouni ol annual congcsiion uclay
ly scvcial houis ci commuici. Accoiuing
io ihc Amciican Pullic Tiansoiiaiion
Associaiion, ullic iiansoiiaiion iiucishi has
incicascu 22 ciccni in ihc lasi six ycais.
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S

3O
In many ways, ihc uisinvcsimcni in
ncighloihoous is ihc ui siuc ol ihc
iolilciaiion ol suluilan suluivisions.
Thc ucaiiuic ol miuulc-class icsiucnis
anu iax uollais lcli schools anu sciviccs
io uciciioiaic, in somc aicas cicaiing a
conccniiaiion ol ovciiy` ihai cxaccilaicu
ciimc anu uiscngagcmcni. Comlcx iociiy
laws icvcnicu ciiics liom uoing anyihing
whcn iociiics lccamc vacani, aiiiaciing
uiug uscis anu moic ciimc. Siiici luiluing
coucs, oihci icgulaiions anu ihc comlcxiiy
ol icviializing olu siiuciuics Ici mosi
ucvclocis away.
Anu ihcn, somcihing uncxccicu hacncu
in ihc laic 1990s: Moic colc siaiicu moving
lacI inio Amciican ciiics. Bccausc incicascu
giowih in oluci aicas can hcl icuucc ucmanu
on ouilying aicas, ihis iicnu coulu hcl slow
ihc acc ol suluilan siawl.
Rcviializing oluci ncighloihoous hcls cuil
giowih in ouilying aicas ly maIing clhcicni
usc ol cxisiing asscis. Thc Uilan Ianu
Insiiiuic`s looI MaIing Smaii Giowih WoiI"
noics ihai icncwcu inicicsi in ihcsc aicas
auus also io ihc qualiiy ol lilc in mciiooliian
icgions in scvcial ways:
W Uilan locaiions aic highly acccssillc,
W Rcviializcu icsiucniial anu commcicial
ncighloihoous maIc uisiinciivc laccs,
lllC. Krit+litir] Citis +r1 9l1r St|tr|s
T
hroughout nuch oI the 2Oth century, the Uniteo States experienceo
unpreceoenteo nigration ano growth away Iron cities ano into suburbs.
Nillions oI Ianilies traoeo real ano perceiveo increases in crine,
pollution, ano congestion oI the cities Ior the allure oI larger lots, cheaper
houses ano less-troubleo schools oI the suburbs. With each passing year, the
oevelopnent went Iarther ano Iarther Iron the urban core, eating up Iarns ano
Iorests while nore ano nore builoings in ano arouno oowntown centers were
boaroeo up or barely useo.
W Thc usc ol cxisiing inliasiiuciuic caaciiy
mcans lcss consiiuciion ol ncw laciliiics,
W Thc icviializaiion ol cxisiing ouiuooi
asscis waicilionis, aiIs, hisioiic uisiiicis,
sccnic siiccis) ioviucs iccicaiional
ooiiuniiics,
W Imoiiani culiuial laciliiics anu civic
insiiiuiions, such as conccii halls,
muscums anu ihcaicis, gain suoii liom
a ucnsci oulaiion.
REAITORS

acioss ihc couniiy noic a iicnu


ol colc sccIing ihc convcnicncc ol closc-
in living anu lusincsscs icuiscovciing long-
loigoiicn iciail ooiiuniiics.
You can iaIc aicas ihai iouucc a hall-
million uollais a ycai in iociiy iax anu
iuin ihcm inio laccs ihai iouucc S20
million a ycai in iociiy iaxcs," says
commcicial REAITOR

anu ucvcloci
Rolcii Clcmcni III, who invcsis in
anu icviializcs uisiicsscu iociiics in
Chailcsion, S.C. Hc says his comany,
Clcmcni, Ciawloiu 8 Thoinhill, has lccn
nicInamcu siawl lusicis" ly oihcis in
ihc communiiy. Ioi cvciy onc acic ol
icucvclomcni, you mighi savc scvcn acics
ol giccnhclu." Clcmcni has hclcu convcii a
shuiicicu hosiial inio a lio-icch inculaioi
anu is in ihc ioccss ol convciiing aloui
S M k K I K 9 I B I 9 9 L K l I 3l
600 acics ol loimci inuusiiial iivcilioni
iociiy inio a Ncw-Uilanisi mixcu-usc
ucvclomcni siiauuling Chailcsion anu
Noiih Chailcsion.
Rcviializaiion anu inhll aic noi limiicu |usi
io housing. Alici lyassing uilan aicas
anu hisi-iing suluils loi ycais, iciailcis aic
icuiscovciing ihcsc aicas. Dozcns ol shos
anu icsiauianis havc ciocu u ihioughoui
Ailingion, Viiginia, csccially in aicas
convcnicnily locaicu along Washingion,
D.C.`s sulway linc. Thc Suci Sio 8 Sho
in Bosion`s Souih Bay Ccnici ianIs as ihc
comany`s io-giossing sioic, whilc ihc Wholc
Ioous chain ol giocciy sioics has ocncu
scvcial succcsslul locaiions in unuciuiilizcu
siics wiihin icucvcloing ncighloihoous. Ncw
iown ccnicis" aic cmciging in loimci siii
lazas liom Silvci Siing, Maiylanu io Wcsi
9NLl N| K|S9UKC|S
Be P.n.e o. IrII De.eIoer:
www.rcaltor.org/brownhcldrcdcvcl
U.bnr 1nrJ Ir.ue:
www.uli.org
AnII o An.r S.ee`: http://cnuinIo.
storcs.yahoo.nct/mainma.html
Vnnr P.oe..e Cnn.r:
www.vacantpropcrtics.org
"You can take areas that proouce a halI-nillion oollars a year in property tax
ano turn then into places that proouce $2O nillion a year in property taxes.
Kc|rt Clmrt lll, Ccmmrti+l K|kLI9K

+r1 1rlcpr
Dallas, Tcxas. Ciiics aic lcaining icchniqucs
io maIc ii casici io icucvclo anu icnovaic,
ly cicaiing sccial luiluing coucs, icvaming
vacani iociiy laws, anu maIing cimiiiing
casy loi ucvclocis.
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S

32
Ovci ihc lasi lcw uccaucs wc havc giauually
losi ihc iiauiiional ncighloihoou school, ihc
lcauiilul iwo-sioiy luiluing ihai hi inio iis
suiiounuings, wiih a laygiounu liggci ihan
ihc aiIing loi, ihai mosi Iius coulu salcly walI
io. Tiauiiional ncighloihoou schools havc
lccn alanuoncu oi ihicaicncu ly onc-sizc-
his-all sianuaiuizaiion ihai lavois luiluing ncw
ovci mainiaining oluci schools. Many siaics
lollow a iwo-ihiius" iulc: whcn ihc cosi io
icluilish an olu school is ai lcasi iwo ihiius ol
ihc cosi io luilu a ncw laciliiy, uisiiicis icccivc
siaic lunuing only il ihcy luilu ncw. Poicniial
icnovaiion is luiihci icsiiicicu ly inucxillc
luiluing coucs, olicn imossillc loi oluci
schools io mcci anu uuaicu so licqucnily
ihai cvcn ncw luiluings can quicIly lccomc
non-comliani. High acicagc icquiicmcnis,
auvocaicu uniil icccnily ly ihc Council ol
Euucaiional Iaciliiy Planncis Inicinaiional
CEIPI), havc loiccu communiiics io movc
schools oui ol ncighloihoous io ihc cugc
ol iown, swallowing laims anu ocn lanu io
accommouaic cxccssivc siic sizc icquiicmcnis.
AcInowlcuging ihai many ol iis iccommcnucu
sizc icquiicmcnis wcic ailiiiaiily laigc, CEIPI
icccnily amcnucu iis guiuclincs.)
Iaigc, ncw schools luili in a icviously
unucvclocu aica olicn aci as a magnci loi
ncw icsiucniial ucvclomcni, uiawing colc
anu icsouiccs away liom cxisiing schools
anu ncighloihoous. Bccausc school uisiiicis
anu local govcinmcnis uo ihcii lanning in
isolaiion liom onc anoihci, ihc ncw giowih
olicn iaIcs local olhcials ly suiiisc, causing
lll|. Stlccls +r1 Ni]l|crlcc1 |l+rrir]
E
very REALTCR

knows the inportance oI schools to quality oI liIe ano


property values. Nost citizens know this, too. Yet very Iew jurisoictions in
the country cooroinate planning Ior growth ano oevelopnent with the
local school systen, ano very Iew oistricts Iully consioer the inpact oI the
oesign, location ano operation oI schools on neighborhooos ano towns.
ihcm io sciamllc io luilu ihc ioaus, waici
mains, scwci lincs anu oihci sciviccs io suoii
ii. This uncooiuinaicu lanning is onc icason
many suluilan schools ocn wiih classioom
iiailcis aiIcu ouisiuc, ihc ciiiics say. Iaigc,
uiivc-io schools ihai can`i hi comloiially in
ncighloihoous lail io scivc as ihc ncighloihoou
icsouicc anu local oini ihai ihcy mighi. Raihci
ihan a ncighloihoou assci, iouay`s auio-oiicnicu
schools aic sccn as such iialhc gcnciaiois ihai
icsiucnis aciually hghi io Icc ihcm oui.
Whcn schools aic luili on ihc cugc ol iown,
moic iax moncy musi lc scni io cxicnu
inliasiiuciuic anu ioaus anu lus moic Iius
longci uisianccs liom homc io school. Ioi
cxamlc, ihough Mainc losi 27,000 siuucnis
lciwccn 1970 anu 199, school lusing cosis
in ihc siaic iosc liom SS.7 million io ovci S4
million. Ioi ihc ncighloihoou ihai has losi iis
school, iociiy valucs icnu io uio sulsianiially
as icsiucnis ciccivc uisinvcsimcni in ihcii
communiiy. A 1999 siuuy iouuccu ly Casc
Wcsicin Rcscivc Univcisiiy anu Piiccwaicihousc
showcu ihai uisiuiing ncighloihoou schools
icuuccs iociiy valucs ly 9.9 ciccni.
A lacI ol caiclul, cooiuinaicu lanning
lciwccn school uisiiicis anu local
|uiisuiciions cxaccilaics iollcms. School
uisiiicis aic olicn cxcmi liom local
lanning uccisions, lcauing io isolaicu
school luiluing anu siic sclcciion choiccs,
mauc wiihoui inui liom ihc communiiics
schools aic suoscu io scivc. Zoning anu
ucvclomcni coucs ihai scqucsici shos,
S M k K I K 9 I B I 9 9 L K l I 33
|ols, anu housing liom schools cicaic gulls
lciwccn uaily ucsiinaiions. Thcsc schools aic
olicn in aicas wiih wiuc, mulii-lanc ioaus ihai
cncouiagc high sccu iialhc anu hazaiuous
iniciscciions, cul-uc-sacs anu winuing
suluivision ioaus wiih lcw cniianccs anu
cxiis, anu missing anu incomlcic siucwalIs.
This maIcs walIing oi liIing uangcious anu
conlusing, il noi imossillc, so Iius uccnu
on auulis loi iiansoiiaiion.
In laci, many |uiisuiciions aciivcly uiscouiagc
Iius liom walIing io moucin schools. In
suluilan DcKall Couniy, Gcoigia, 7 ciccni
ol school iincials iaic ihc aica aiounu ihcii
schools mouciaicly io cxiicmcly uangcious loi
Iius on looi oi licyclc, accoiuing io a suivcy
ly ihc couniy hcalih ucaiimcni. Ncighloiing
Gwinncii Couniy aciually has siicu schools on
highways in commcicial anu lighi inuusiiial
zoncs in oiuci io lcich a highci icsalc iicc
shoulu ihc school lall inio uisusc. Inuccu, ihc
hcnomcnon ol luiluing sicau-oui schools
in unwalIallc cnviionmcnis is so common ii
now has a namc: school siawl".
As a icsuli, lcwci chiluicn walI oi licyclc io
school. As icccnily as 1969 ioughly hall ol all
siuucnis walIcu oi liIcu io school. In 2001
ihc numlci was closci io onc in 10. A siuuy
in Souih Caiolina uiscovcicu ihai chiluicn
aic loui iimcs as liIcly io walI io schools luili
lcloic 19SS ihan io ihosc luili alici ihai ycai.
Thc icoii aiiiiluicu ihc changc laigcly io
ihc incicasingly icmoic anu cucsiiian-hosiilc
sciiings ol ncwci schools. Pullic hcalih olhcials
now iccognizc ihc cosis, in ihc chiluhoou
olcsiiy ciucmic. Ai ihc samc iimc, ihc iisc in
iush-houi iialhc associaicu wiih school iiis
has lccn iucniihcu ly ihc U.S. Enviionmcnial
Pioicciion Agcncy as a Icy coniiiluioi io aii
qualiiy iollcms in a numlci ol ciiics.
Now, smaii giowih auvocaics, ullic hcalih
olhcials, hisioiic icscivaiionisis, anu
auvocaics loi small anu communiiy schools aic
all woiIing iogcihci io changc ihc way schools
aic luili anu icnovaicu.
Smallci schools havc lowci uiooui iaics
anu lcss violcncc, scvcial siuuics inuicaic.
Siuucnis ai small schools aiicnu moic icgulaily,
havc highci giaucs, anu aic moic liIcly io
aiiiciaic in alici-school cniichmcni aciiviiics.
Moic auulis volunicci ai schools in ihc ccnici
ol ihcii ncighloihoous ihan ai ihosc on ihc
cugc ol iown. In laci, aiiiciaiion in civic
aciiviiics ucclincs ly 10 ciccni wiih cvciy
10 minuics scni in iialhc, accoiuing io
icscaichci Rolcii Puinam, auihoi ol Bowling
Alonc". Euucaiois naiionwiuc conhim ihai
smallci, ccniial schools aci as anchois anu
magncis loi communiiics. Schools uisiiicis anu
siaics aic iaIing a scconu looI ai icviializing
hisioiic olu school luiluings, anu many
communiiics aic iaIing auvaniagc ol a ncw
lcucial Salc Rouics io School" iogiam ihai
invcsi iiansoiiaiion uollais in maIing ii salc
loi Iius io walI anu licyclc io school. Ioi moic
inloimaiion, scc NAR`s Pullic Schools ToolIii
loi REAITORS

.
9NLl N| K|S9UKC|S
NAF` PubI. SLooI TooII. o. FEA1TOFS

SS :
www.rcaltor.org/pubschoolstoolkit
Sne Foue o SLooI P.o.n:
www.saIcroutcstoschools.org
VL, JoLrr, Cnr` VnII o SLooI`:
www.nationaltrust.org/issucs/
schoolsRpt.pdI
Cour.I o EJun.ornI En.I.,
PInrre. Ire.rn.ornI: www.ccIpi.org
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S

34
Housing is bccoming morc costly and lcss
availablc to incrcasing numbcrs oI pcoplc.
W Ioi ihc lasi scvcial ycais, icnis havc
lccn iising lasici ihan wagcs. Ai ihc
samc iimc, woiIcis caining ihc mcuian
wagc ol S14 can`i alloiu io icni a iwo-
lcuioom aaiimcni in mosi maiIcis,
anu 11 ol ihc 20 lasicsi-giowing |ols
ay lcss ihan S20,000.
W Thc suly ol low- anu mouciaicly-
iiccu icnials has lccn shiinIing sincc
ihc miu-19S0s, anu ncw aaiimcnis aic
incicasingly cxcnsivc.
W Mcanwhilc, alloiualiliiy iollcms aic
ciccing u ihc wagc scalc, accoiuing
io ihc ]oini Ccnici loi Housing Siuuics
ai Haivaiu Univcisiiy. Thc numlci
ol houscholus caining lciwccn SS2-
0,000 ci ycai who musi scnu S0
ciccni oi moic ol ihcii incomcs on
housing incicascu 40 ciccni lciwccn
1997 anu 2001.
lll|. Bctsir] k||cr1+|ilit
C
ne oI the central goals oI snart growth principles is to expano
the range oI choice in housing, both in style ano location. The
ioea is that hones Ior the people who live, work ano play in our
netropolitan regions shoulo be both aIIoroable ano accessible
to jobs ano essential services. Across the region, each jurisoiction shoulo
acconnooate owner-occupieo, rental ano low-incone housing in a nix that
ooesnt oisaovantage any connunity.
Mosi REAITORS

aic lamiliai wiih ihc hiasc,


Diivc uniil you qualily." Whai ihcy mcan, ol
couisc, is ihai lamilics in scaich ol ihcii iccc
ol ihc Amciican Dicam incicasingly musi uiivc
laiihci anu laiihci inio ihc hinicilanu io hnu
homcs wiih moiigagcs ihcy can alloiu. This
simlc cquaiion is lascu on ihc laci ihai laigc-
scalc housing ucvclomcnis aic olicn ucsigncu
loi a singlc incomc liacIci. Whilc many ol
ihc suluivisions ollci vciy similai uciachcu
homcs, ihc iicc uillcicncc is lascu mainly on
ihcii uisiancc liom convcnicni ciiy anu iown
ccnicis. Such homogcnous ucvclomcni has
limiicu ihc choiccs ocn io lamilics.
MaiIci suivcys anu ical-lilc cxciicncc shows
ihai many colc woulu glauly luy oi icni
in closci-in aicas, anu woulu lc hay wiih a
iownhousc, aaiimcni oi a housc on a smallci
loi in a wcll-ucsigncu ncighloihoou - il ihcy
coulu alloiu ii. Yci uniil icccnily ihc maiIci has
noi ollcicu many ol ihcsc oiions, anu closc-in
housing has lccomc iohiliiivcly cxcnsivc.
Pooily lanncu giowih anu unlaii zoning
iaciiccs anu coucs havc mcani icuuccu vaiiciy,
iising cosis, anu limiicu choiccs in ihc housing
maiIci. Thc icgulaioiy iaciiccs olicn iclciicu
io as cxclusionaiy zoning" manuaic laigc
loi anu housc sizcs oi loiliu smallci, icnial,
oi mulii-unii luiluings, csscniially icsiiiciing
ucvclomcni io onc-sizc-his-all, high-cosi
housing. Exisiing ncighloihoous convcnicni
io amcniiics aic lcing convciicu io wcll-io-uo
cnclavcs, anu ihc high-uollai housing luili
on ihc suluilan liingc ncai ncw olhcc anu
commcicial camuscs ollcis ioo lcw alloiuallc
oiions. Thc incicasc in avciagc homc sizc has
S M k K I K 9 I B I 9 9 L K l I 35
also mauc alloiualiliiy moic uilhculi io achicvc,
ihc avciagc homc sizc wcni liom 1,00 squaic
lcci in 1970 io moic ihan 2,400 squaic lcci in
200. This gcniiihcaiion anu ihc isolaiion ol |ol
ccnicis lai liom ihc homcs acccssillc io many
lamilics llocIs woiIcis liom ooiiuniiics
iomiscu ly ucvclomcni. Oihci icgulaiions
anu iax coucs ihai ucici mainicnancc ol icnial
uniis, llocI ihc icucvclomcni ol vacani
iociiy, anu cncouiagc ncw consiiuciion
ovci icscivaiion all lai ihc uIcc anu
iclaccmcni ol icnial housing.
Thc iollcm is mosi acuic loi ihosc on ihc
lowcsi cnu ol ihc wagc scalc. Alloiualiliiy
issucs aic csccially iough loi ihc couniiy`s
lasicsi-giowing minoiiiy, Hisanics, whosc
owncishi iaics coniinuc io lag lchinu ihosc
ol ihc gcncial oulaiion, as uo ihosc ol
Aliican-Amciicans. In 200, ihc Naiional Iow
Incomc Housing Coaliiion icoiicu ihai ihcic
was noi a localc in ihc Uniicu Siaics whcic a
lull-iimc, minimum-wagc cainci coulu alloiu
laii-maiIci icni loi a iwo-lcuioom aaiimcni.
Anu ihc U.S. Dcaiimcni ol Housing anu
Uilan Dcvclomcni HUD) icoiis ihai
aioximaicly .4 million houscholus in ihc
Uniicu Siaics - an all-iimc high - lacc woisi-casc
housing nccus, uchncu as living in scvcicly
inaucquaic housing oi aying moic ihan hall
ol ihcii incomc loi housing.
In |ol ccnicis, housing oiions aic noi lcing
luili ai iicc iangcs commcnsuiaic wiih ihc
salaiics ol ihosc who woiI ncaily, luiucning
loih cmloyccs anu lusincsscs. Busincsscs
in icgions lacIing woiIloicc housing closc
io icliallc iiansii havc iioullc aiiiaciing
cmloyccs, csccially low-wagc anu cniiy-lcvcl
woiIcis liIc icccni collcgc giauuaics anu
scivicc siall:
W Thc cmloyci-lcu Silicon Vallcy
Icaucishi Giou SVIG) icoiis ihai
cvcn high-wagc Bay Aica icch hims
ianI ihc cosi ol housing hisi anu iialhc
congcsiion ihiiu as io conccins in
iciaining a highly sIillcu woiIloicc."
W Thc Ailania Ncighloihoou Dcvclomcni
Paiincishi lounu ihai in ihc 1990s, much
ol ihc ncw housing luili in ihc 10-couniy
icgion was high-cnu, ucsiic ihc laci
ihai iwo-ihiius ol |ols ay no moic ihan
S40,000. As a icsuli, Ailania`s Icy |ols
ccnicis havc a shoiilall ol 1S,000 homcs
loi ihosc caining lcss ihan SS,000.
W Mciioolis 2020 olscivcs ihai in Chicago`s
Nacivillc suluil, a high iooiiion ol
ncw singlc lamily homcs aic alloiuallc
only io woiIcis wiih a houscholu incomc
ovci SS0,000, whilc a high iooiiion
ol |ols cicaicu ]ihcic| in ihc 1990s aiu
SS0,000 oi lcss."
Many communiiics aic lcginning io iccognizc
ihc sciiousncss ol ihis iollcm anu ihc nccu
io housc hichghicis anu olicc olhccis,
icachcis anu liliaiians, anu nuiscs, anu homc
hcalih aiucs. Rcccni giauuaics, young coulcs,
anu gianuaicnis all nccu alloiuallc housing.
Thcy aic siaiiing io cncouiagc uivcisc housing
oiions such as gianny uais,` mixcu-incomc
ucvclomcnis, anu io|ccis io icucvclo
unuscu luiluings. Thcy aic also icquiiing
anu icwaiuing ucvclocis ihai incoioiaic
alloiuallc uniis inio ihcii io|ccis.
Ciiics, iowns, anu suluils can cmloy smaii
giowih iincilcs io luilu homcs ihai scivc all
mcmlcis ol ihc communiiy, accommouaiing
ncw oulaiions anu hcling cuiicni icsiucnis
hnu whai ihcy wani. Sounu giowih managcmcni
olicics ioviuc moic alloiuallc housing ihan
iiauiiional lanu usc olicics, accoiuing io a
icoii ly ihc BiooIings Insiiiuiion.
9NLl N| K|S9UKC|S
NAF` Hou.r Oo.ur., P.o.n:
www.rcaltor.org/housingopportunity
Jo.r Cere. o. Hou.r SuJ.e, Hn..n.J
Ur..e..,: www.jchs.harvard.cdu
AnI.r Le Cne o. A.:eJ Iroe,
A.:eJ Ue Cour..e`: www.
smartgrowthamcrica.org/AtlantaAIIord
abilityRcport.pdI
Aee.r Ou. Nn.or` Hou.r CLnIIere`:
www.mhc.gov/MHCRcport.pdI
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S

36
Physical lnactivity. Only aloui onc-quaiici
ol Amciicans gci ihc iccommcnucu amouni
ol cxcicisc, whilc aioximaicly 40 ciccni ol
Amciicans aic cniiicly scucniaiy. Tiauiiional
siawling ucvclomcni aiicins uiscouiagc,
iaihci ihan cncouiagc, cvciyuay hysical aciiviiy.
Pcolc who livc in sicau oui, siawling aicas
aic lcss liIcly io havc casy ooiiuniiics io gci
hysical aciiviiy in ihc couisc ol a uay. Thcy may
livc in housing suluivisions ihai aic isolaicu
liom sioics, schools, oi oihci ucsiinaiions ihai
ihcy oi ihcii chiluicn may wani io icach on looi.
Ncighloihoou siiccis may conncci only
io lusy high-sccu aiiciial ioaus ihai aic
unlcasani oi cvcn unsalc loi walIing oi
liIing. Tiansii scivicc may lc inlicqucni
oi ioo lai away. Anu ihc many laccs ihcy
nccu io visii in a uay may lc many milcs
aaii, lui wiih convcnicni aiIing |usi sics
liom ihc lioni uooi. Thai mcans ihc mosi
olvious anu iaciical way io gci cvciyihing
uonc is via auiomolilc. In laci, as a icsuli
ol ihcsc changcs io oui lanuscac, ihc
numlci ol iiis ihai U.S. auulis mauc on
looi lummcicu 42 ciccni lciwccn 197
anu 199, whilc ihc annual numlci ol milcs
uiivcn ci cison incicascu loui iimcs lasici
ihan ihc oulaiion. This lacI ol aciiviiy has
coniiiluicu io ihc olcsiiy ciucmic anu is a
lacioi in moic ihan 200,000 ucaihs a ycai.
Ioiiunaicly, smaii giowih ucvclomcni hcls
icvcisc ihc iicnu. Accoiuing io ullic hcalih
lll|. |t|lit B+ltl
S
preao-out oevelopnent was in part born out oI a public health
novenent to separate where people liveo Iron the Iactories then
connon in cities. "Caroen cities oI suburban housing oevelopnents
were also seen as an antioote to overcrowoeo cities where oisease
spreao too easily. Now, both oI these threats have virtually oisappeareo, ano
we are coping with a new set oI health problens that are aggravateo by
spreao-out, auto-orienteo oevelopnent.
icscaich, colc who livc in ncighloihoous
wiih a mix ol shos anu lusincsscs wiihin casy
walIing uisiancc havc a S ciccni lowci iisI ol
olcsiiy, anu colc in walIallc ncighloihoous
- anu ihosc who iaIc iiansii icgulaily - aic
moic liIcly io mcci minimum hysical aciiviiy
sianuaius. Thc Ccnicis loi Discasc Coniiol
anu Picvcniion anu ihc Naiional Insiiiuics
ol Mcuicinc aic loih now iccommcnuing
cncouiaging such aciivc living` ihiough
changcs io ihc luili cnviionmcni.
Air ano Water Pollution. Rcccni siuuics havc
ucmonsiiaicu ihai colc in moic siawling
laccs licaihc moic olluicu aii, anu ihai
ihc ucgicc ol ihc siawl uiiccily coiiclaics
io ihc scvciiiy ol ihc olluiion. Thc icason
is ihai siawling ucvclomcni icquiics moic
uiiving, which cicaics moic cmissions. In
laci, ihc uillcicncc in ozonc lcvcls lciwccn
ihc mosi siawling anu lcasi siawling mciio
aicas is 41 aiis ci lillion: cnough io shili
a mciio aica liom couc giccn" aii qualiiy
io an unhcalihy couc icu." ]ihis is liom ihc
hisi Mcasuiing Siawl" icoii conuucicu ly
Rciu Ewing loi SGA|.
Rcscaich shows ihai ihc moic wc uiivc, ihc
moic smog anu ozonc wc cicaic, anu ihc
moic ihcsc lyiouucis ol uiiving coniiiluic
io iising iaics ol asihma in Amciican chiluicn
anu in auulis. In laci, uuiing a ciiou ol
iaiu suluilanizaiion lciwccn 19S0 anu
199, chiluicn`s asihma iaics uoullcu, anu
S M k K I K 9 I B I 9 9 L K l I 37
onc in icn Amciicans now sullcis liom ihc
conuiiion. Oihci olluianis cmiiicu ly cais,
such as lcnzcnc anu aiiiculaic maiici, lciici
Inown as sooi, aic associaicu wiih incicascu
iisI ol lung anu oihci canccis, aiiiculaily loi
ihosc who livc ncai ma|oi ioauways. Ninciy
ciccni ol ioial cancci iisI in ihc Ios Angclcs
Basin is aiiiiluiallc io ioxic aii olluianis
cmiiicu ly molilc souiccs. Scc: Souih Coasi
Aii Managcmcni Disiiici Muliilc Aii Toxics
Exosuic Siuuy MATES-II) ai www.aqmu.gov
Siawling ucvclomcni also ucgiaucs waici
qualiiy, mainly ly cicaiing moic imcivious
suilacc" so iainwaici laucn wiih auiomolilc
oil, iiash anu oihci olluianis iushcs inio
ncaily siicams.
Smaii giowih soluiions can hcl auuicss loih
aii anu waici qualiiy, anu somc |uiisuiciions
aic cncouiaging smaii giowih ucvclomcnis
as a way io mcci aii qualiiy sianuaius.
TraIfc SaIety. Tialhc ciashcs aic a lcauing
causc ol ucaih anu in|uiy in ihc Uniicu Siaics,
Iilling aloui 42,000 colc cvciy ycai, anu
colc living in siawling aicas aic moic liIcly
io uic ciihci as moioiisis oi as cucsiiians.
Siawling ucvclomcnis iyically incluuc
high-sccu ioaus ihai aic moic hazaiuous loi
colc on looi anu licyclc, whilc smaii giowih
ncighloihoous cncouiagc slowci iialhc anu
incluuc siucwalIs anu oihci csscniial laciliiics
loi salc walIing anu licycling.
Siuuics hnu ihai ihc mosi siawling
mciiooliian aicas, luili wiih ihc longcsi
uisianccs lciwccn ucsiinaiions, anu ihc mosi
cai-ccniiic ioau ucsigns, havc ihc highcsi
iialhc in|uiy anu laialiiy iaics anu aic ihc
mosi uangcious loi walIcis, cyclisis, and
uiivcis. Ioi cxamlc, in ihc naiion`s mosi
siawling icgion, Rivcisiuc, Caliloinia, 1S ol
cvciy 100,000 icsiucnis uic cach ycai in iialhc
ciashcs. Thc cighi lcasi siawling mciio aicas
all havc iialhc laialiiy iaics ol lcwci ihan S
ucaihs ci 100,000.
Smaii giowih hcls auuicss iialhc salciy
ly cicaiing comlcic siiccis" ihai woiI
loi cvciyonc who is using ihcm, anu ly
iciiohiiing siiccis wiih iialhc calming"
mcasuics ihai slow iialhc. Pcihas moic
imoiianily ihcy allow moic colc io gci oui
ol ihcii cais - anu siuuics show ihai ihc moic
colc oui walIing anu licycling, ihc salci
ihc siiccis.
9NLl N| K|S9UKC|S
A..e 1...r b, De.r:
www.activclivingbydcsign.org
Aenu..r Le HenIL Ee o S.nwI:
www.smartgrowthamcrica.org/
hcalthrcport.html
Aenr S.ee 2uu: T.n nrJ
PeJe..nr Sne,: www.transact.org/
rcport.asp?id=235
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S

38
lll. |tcrcmit |rc]rss +r1 |ist+l |rt1rt
A
nericans are paying $84 nillion a oay ($3l billion annually) to live
in connunities that are laio-out ineIfciently, accoroing to the 2OO5
book, Sprawl Costs: Econonic lnpacts oI Uncheckeo Developnent,
the culnination oI a lO-year research eIIort at Rutgers University ano
the Brookings lnstitution. "We are all paying a staggering price Ior sprawling
oevelopnent in this country, ano that price will only go up as gas prices
increase, writes coauthor Robert Burchell. "Sprawling connunities neeo
longer public roaos, increase the cost oI new water ano sewer hookups by
2O percent to 4O percent, inpose higher costs on police ano fre oepartnents
ano schools, ano nore. These costs are passeo on to businesses ano resioents
through higher taxes ano Iees ano sonetines through Iewer public services.
Ano in nost cases, sprawling oevelopnents oo not generate enough property
taxes to cover these aooeo costs.
Shiliing |usi 2 ciccni ol low-ucnsiiy
ucvclomcni io moic comaci giowih woulu
savc Amciican iaxaycis lillions ol uollais,
accoiuing io S.nwI Co. Ioi cxamlc, wc
woulu savc:
W S2.6 lillion ovci 2 ycais liom 2000 -
202) lccausc 4.6 million lcwci waici anu
scwci hooIus woulu lc nccucu loi singlc-
lamily, uciachcu homcs,
W S110 lillion ovci 2 ycais in ioau
consiiuciion cosis lccausc ihc nccu loi
local ioaus woulu lc icuuccu ly 1SS,000
lanc milcs,
W S24 million/uay in cosis associaicu wiih ihc
auiomolilc lccausc Amciicans woulu uiivc
6 million lcwci milcs cach uay calculaicu
whcn gasolinc was lcss ihan S2 a gallon.)
In Novcmlci, 2002, Icucial Rcscivc govcinoi
Euwaiu Giamlich ciicu anoihci siuuy ly ihc
Rcscaich Insiiiuic loi Housing Amciica in
iclling a Icu-sonsoicu conlcicncc ihai smaii
giowih siiaicgics coulu savc S20 lillion in
inliasiiuciuic cosis ovci ihc ncxi 2 ycais.
"Fix it frst. Evcn as wc`ic ovci-invcsiing
in sulsiuizing ncw siawl ucvclomcni,
wc`ic uiamaiically unuci-invcsiing in
mainicnancc, icaii anu ugiauing ol
inliasiiuciuic in cxisiing aicas. This is
cconomically unsusiainallc in ihc long haul,
noics Piolcssoi Buichcll. As iising gas iiccs
squcczc iaxaycis anu luugcis iighicn loi
siaic anu local govcinmcnis, moic anu moic
olhcials - in siaics liom Massachusciis io
Pcnnsylvania io Tcnncsscc - aic alanuoning
iiauiiional sulsiuics loi siawl ucvclomcni
anu auoiing a Iix ii Iiisi" olicy. Whcic
ihcy aic unuciiaIing ncw caiial io|ccis,
ihcy aic insisiing ihai haiu-won inliasiiuciuic
invcsimcnis go as lai as ossillc. Thcy`ic
invcsiing in scnsillc cconomic ucvclomcni,
icaiing loi luiuic giowih, anu iocily
accouniing loi anu ucloying ihc scaicc
icsouiccs ihcy osscss.
Preserving ano expanoing the tax base.
Whcn cconomic viialiiy ucaiis cxisiing aicas
loi siawling ncw localcs, icmaining iaxaycis
sullci a uoullc whammy ol ucclining sciviccs
anu iising iax iaics, cvcn as icsiucnis ol
ihc iccciving aicas scc ihcii iaxcs iisc io
accommouaic ncw giowih. By cmhasizing
siiaicgics such as ihc icviializaiion ol
ucicsscu aicas, ihc icusc ol aging luiluings,
icucvclomcni ol uying siii ccnicis anu
S M k K I K 9 I B I 9 9 L K l I 3
ucvclomcni ol vacani anu alanuoncu
iociiics, communiiics can luilu ihc iax
lasc loi ihc lcnchi ol loih ciiy anu suluil
uwcllcis. A iimc cxamlc is ihc clcanu anu
usc ol liownhclu" inuusiiial siics. Accoiuing
io onc csiimaic, cvciy acic ol liownhclu ihai
is icucvclocu savcs 4. acics ol ocn sacc
]Picsiucni Bush uuiing signing ccicmony loi
Biownhclus Aci, 2002|.
Strengthening regional econonies. Smaii
giowih is ciiiical io ihc long-icim cconomic
susiainaliliiy ol mciiooliian icgions. Whcn
cmloycis can`i icciuii a icliallc woiIloicc
lccausc ol giucling commuics, whcn woiIing
aicnis can`i hnu housing ihai uis ihcm
wiihin icach ol loih |ols anu ihcii chiluicn,
whcn Icy inuusiiics aic scaiicicu ianuomly
so ihai ihcy havc all ihc uisauvaniagcs anu
nonc ol ihc imoiiani lcnchis ol aggicgaiion,
whcn qualiiy ol lilc lcgins io ciouc - colc
anu lusincsscs lcavc anu cconomics ucclinc.
Bcyonu ihai, howcvci, ihcic is giowing
icscaich ucmonsiiaiing ihai iouuciiviiy
anu ovciall cconomic ciloimancc aic
imiovcu whcn smaii giowih clcvaics icgions`
cmloymcni ucnsiiy, imiovcs iiansoiiaiion
clhcicncy, anu icuuccs ciiy-suluil gas in
cconomic hcalih.
Connunity character, quality oI liIe ano
the "creative class. Richaiu Iloiiua, auihoi
ol Thc Risc ol ihc Cicaiivc Class," ollcis yci
anoihci aigumcni in lavoi ol ihc Iinus ol
communiiics smaii giowih aims io iouucc.
Accoiuing io Iloiiua, mciiooliian icgions
ihai aic mosily lacclcss siawl lacIing in
viliani ccnicis ol uilaniiy aic comciing
ooily in ihc changing cconomy. In a 200S
aiiiclc loi Washingion Monihly, hc wioic:
A, .een.L rJ ob.Ie, JenrJ.r .en..e
wo.Ie. ..n.r o e.n.r I.rJ o Ine Le,
n.o.: Ine wLe.e Le, nr rJ ro u n ob`
bu Io o oo.ur..e, nrJ wLe.e Le, nr rJ
n...no., ner..e - n..e ouJoo. o.,
ro u nJ.u; ne-nrJ-nIIe., .ee-Ie.eI`
uIu.e, ro Le ,Lor,. TLe, nIo eeI Ine o
Jeo.nL. J..e..,, oerre o rewoe., nrJ
.uIn.r uIu.nI .re.In,. ArJ Le nL .,
uL .e.ornI qunI..e erJ o be eI-.e.ro..r. A
.e.or w.L nr, .en..e .rJu..e nrJ .en..e-
In wo.Ie. w.II Lu n.n o.e o boL, wL.Ie
Le Io.r .e.or - weII, Le, Ioe Le.`
9NLl N| K|S9UKC|S
Sn. C.owL . Sn. Bu.re: http://
sgusa.convio.nct/sitc/PagcScrvcr?pagc
namc=smart_busincss
Vo.Io.e De.eIoer nrJ Sn. C.owL:
http://www.Iundcrsnctwork.org/inIo-
url_nocat2778/inIo-url_nocat_show.
htm?doc_id=51633
Ir.e.r .r n Bee. Euu.e: http://
www.brookings.cdu/urban/
publications/200403_smartgrowth.htm
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S

4O
Amciica is a naiion wiih an unqucnchallc
ihiisi loi ucvcloing lanu. Anu ihc ma|oiiiy ol
ihai giowih is in ihc cvci-cxanuing suluils.
Planncis, icscaichcis, ucvclocis anu cvcn ihc
siaunchcsi conscivaiionisis conccuc ihai ihcic
is no way io sicm ihc ucmanu loi suluilan
anu cxuilan giowih. So ihc loiiom linc is - il
ii is a loicgonc conclusion ihai giowih in ihc
U.S. will coniinuc io occui laiihci anu laiihci
liom ccniial ciiics - whai can lc uonc io maIc
suic ihai giowih is smaii, noi siawl.
Thc Uilan Ianu Insiiiuic UII) has ullishcu
Tcn Piincilcs loi Smaii Giowih on ihc
Suluilan Iiingc io ouilinc clcai, aiiainallc
mcihous loi solving ihc siawl iiuulc whilc
luiluing ihc lcsi uilanism ossillc.
Michacl PawluIicwicz, UII`s Diiccioi ol
Enviionmcni 8 Policy Euucaiion, uiiccicu ihc
icam ihai comilcu ihc icoii ihai ocns wiih
ihc siaggciing laci ihai acioss ihc couniiy,
lanu is lcing ucvclocu lasici ihan cvci
lcloic: moic ihan iwo million acics ol ocn
sacc is convciicu cach ycai."
Wc Inow ihcic will lc a loi ol giowih in ihc
U.S. Accoiuing io ihc Ccnsus Buicau, wc`ll
giow ly 0 million colc in ihc ncxi 20 ycais,"
PawluIicwicz saiu. Evcn ihough wc woulu liIc
ihosc colc io livc in ciiics oi closc-in suluils,
ihc laci is mosi ol ihc oulaiion giowih will
coniinuc in ihc laiihci suluils.
PawluIicwicz also noicu ihai cvcn ihough
colc will coniinuc moving io ihc liingc,
ihis naiion can luilu wiih lciici ucvclomcni
aiicins io avoiu ihc iollcms ihai siawl
ucvclomcni ol ihc asi 0 ycais has givcn us.
Siawl has cicaicu iialhc |ams, ucgiaucu ihc
cnviionmcni anu misuscu lanu.
Wc havc io movc iowaiu comaci noucs
ol ucvclomcni," hc saiu. As wc iucniily
aioiiaic siics loi ihcsc ucvclomcni noucs
wc musi also maIc suic wc iucniily anu ioicci
lanu loi iccicaiion, agiiculiuic anu haliiai
conscivaiion. Wc havc io maIc suic ihai
ucvclomcni anu ihc ioicciion ol naiuial
aicas anu icsouicc aicas go hanu in hanu."
PawluIicwicz saiu iiansii-oiicnicu
ucvclomcni can lc a owcilul iool loi smaii
giowih - lui communiiics musi lc suic io
cooiuinaic iiansoiiaiion invcsimcnis wiih
lanning loi smaiici lanu usc. Hc also siicsscu
ihc imoiiancc ol iomoiing comaci,
walIallc anu mixcu-usc communiiics whcic
cvciyonc has iiansoiiaiion choiccs incluuing
walIing, ullic iiansoiiaiion anu uiiving.
Rolcii Iang, uiiccioi ol ihc Mciiooliian
Insiiiuic ai Viiginia Tcch anu aii ol ihc
icscaich icam loi ihc Tcn Piincilcs ullicaiion,
saiu suluilia nccus io locus on smaii giowih
iincilcs such as luiluing comaci muliilamily
suluivisions ihai conscivc lanu.
Whcn icsciving giccn sacc, ii musi lc
inicgiaicu inio an ovciall lan. Much ol
suluilia`s giccn aicas aic chocu u in icccs
anu uon`i ically auu u io a haliiai," hc saiu.
Tyical cxuilia is comiiscu ol muliilamily
homcs au|accni io iciail anu scaiaicu ly a
cucsiiian-unliicnuly lcncc oi laigc loi singlc
lamily homcs luili chocI-a-llocI."
lllB. Sm+rt rcwtl ir + Ktr+l Sttir]
A
oapteo Iron the Urban Lano lnstitute, as publisheo in "Solving the
Problen oI Sprawl: lO Principles Ior Snart Crowth on the Suburban
Fringe in Cn Connon Crouno Nagazine, Winter 2OO6.
S M k K I K 9 I B I 9 9 L K l I 4l
Iang saiu a convcniional suluivision luili
wiihoui using smaii giowih iincilcs iyically
has vciy limiicu conncciiviiy ihai aluis iciail
anu is olicn scaiaicu ly a wall. Hc noicu ihc
iiony ihai a icsiucni in a suluivision housc
closcsi io iciail aciually has ihc laiihcsi iii
lccausc hc musi winu ihiough ihc suluivision
io icach way oui anu ovci io ii.
Wiihoui smaii giowih iincilcs, ihc cyclc is
chca - ucvclocis comc in anu luilu chocI-
a-llocI anu conscivaiion iincilcs aic noi
uscu. Ii`s noi an cnuuiing loim," hc saiu.
PawluIicwicz saiu local lanu-usc olicy
musi havc a vision loi an aioiiaic anu
susiainallc luiuic anu ihcn oiganizc olicics,
coucs anu icgulaiions io maIc ii casy anu
iohiallc loi ihc iivaic sccioi io imlcmcni
ihai vision.
Evciylouy llamcs ucvclocis loi siawl anu
whilc ihcy aic noi wiihoui lauli, mosi ol whai
ihcy ucvclo is in Iccing wiih ullic zoning
coucs anu lanu-usc icgulaiions," PawluIicwicz
saiu. In mosi suluils, siawl is casy anu
iohiallc io luilu. Iocal govcinmcnis aic
mosily icsonsillc loi icgulaiing lanu usc.
Thcii olicics maIc ii uilhculi io luilu
mixcu-usc communiiics oi usc lciici uilan-
ucsign iaciiccs liIc uiiing luiluings closc
io ihc siicci oi io naiiow ihc siiccis io maIc
ihcm salci loi cucsiiians. Thc coucs anu
icgulaiions musi lc changcu so ihai ii is casy
anu iohiallc io uo ihc iighi ihing, ihc smaii
ihing. Thc siawl ihai wc scc in ihc U.S. is, in
laci, ihc imlcmcniaiion ol ullic olicy."
lO Principles Ior Snart Crowth
on the Suburban Fringe
@ Crcatc a Sharcd Vision Ior thc
Futurc.and Stick to It
A succcsslul visioning ioccss is iooicu in a
communiiy`s lanuowncis, ucvclocis, clccicu
olhcials, cnviionmcnial gious, ciiizcn aciivisi
gious anu local lusincss. Tcmiaiions will
cmcigc ihai iun counici io ihc vision in
ihc loim ol acaling shoii-icim cconomic
ucvclomcni ooiiuniiics. Il a way cannoi
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S

42
lc lounu io maIc ihc ioosal cnhancc ihc
vision, ii shoulu lc ic|ccicu.
@ IdcntiIy and Sustain Grccn InIrastructurc
Giccn inliasiiuciuic is a nciwoiI ol haliiai,
aiIs, giccnways, conscivaiion cascmcnis
anu woiIing lanus susiaining naiivc sccics,
naiuial ccological ioccsscs, lus aii anu
waici icsouiccs. Bciwccn 19S2 anu 1997,
ihc amouni ol uilanizcu lanu in ihc U.S.
incicascu ly 47 ciccni whilc ihc naiion`s
oulaiion gicw ly only 17 ciccni.
Consiuciing ihosc numlcis, ii lccomcs
olvious ihai giccn inliasiiuciuic is a
communiiy`s naiuial lilc-suoii sysicm anu
musi lc siiaicgically lanncu anu managcu as
caiclully as luili inliasiiuciuic.
@ Rcmcmbcr that thc Right Dcsign in thc
Wrong Placc Is Not Smart Growth
Tiauiiional ucsign - wiih iis lacI allcys,
lioni oichcs anu saccs whcic Iius lay
anu ncighlois congicgaic - is ciiiical, lui
noi ihc only comoncni ol smaii giowih.
Dcsign musi lc inicgiaicu wiih local climaic,
lanu conuiiions, iiansoiiaiion laciliiics
anu cconomically viallc ucvclomcni ihai
icscivcs ocn sacc anu naiuial icsouiccs,
inliasiiuciuic ihai scivcs cxisiing anu ncw
icsiucnis, comaci ucvclomcni such as ncw
iown ccnicis, anu oihci laciois ihai iaIc a
holisiic aioach io siaming oui siawl.
@ Protcct Environmcntal Systcms and
Conscrvc Rcsourccs. TaIc auvaniagc ol
luiluing oiicniaiion, icvailing winus anu iicc
covci loi cooling. Managc ihc cllcci ol ihc
sun`s iays loi cnhancing oi limiiing hcaiing.
Conscivc waici ly using conscivaiion-ucsigncu
alianccs anu lumling hxiuics, haivcsicu
giaywaici, iccyclcu waici anu naiuial non-
icu) uiainagc sysicms anu civious aving
io icchaigc aquilcis.
@Providc Divcrsc Housing Typcs and
Opportunitics. Diicci giowih io walIallc
mixcu-usc suluivisions ihai ollci moic
uivcisc housing iycs such as: icnial anu
owncishi ol singlc-lamily houscs wiih yaius,
iownhouscs anu mulii-lamily aaiimcni
luiluings io mcci ihc vaiicu lilcsiylcs ol
colc living in ihc suluils.
@Build Ccntcrs oI Conccntratcd Mixcd Uscs.
Susiainallc uilanizcu liingc ucvclomcni
has a convcnicni mix ihai mccis colc`s
uaily nccus: homcs, schools, sioics, sciviccs
anu amcniiics. A conccniiaiion ol mixcu uscs
on ihc liingc ioviucs a ciiiical mass anu a
scnsc ol lacc ihai givcs communiiics a siiong
iucniiiy anu a hcaii. Mixcu-usc io|ccis cicaic
a ucsiinaiion wiih housing, cmloymcni, iciail
anu ullic sciviccs. Succcsslul communiiics
incluuc a lull iangc ol uscs anu aciiviiics:
olhcc, iciail, cniciiainmcni, hoicls, housing
anu civic insiiiuiions.
@ Usc Multiplc Conncctions to Enhancc
Mobility and Circulation. Tialhc congcsiion
is a lig iollcm in convcniional suluils
lccausc clusicis ol icsiucniial suluivisions
wiih only onc cniiy anu onc cxii conccniiaic
ihc iialhc onio anu oll aiiciial ioaus, which
quicIly lccomc cloggcu lccausc ol ihc lacI
ol conncciiviiy anu alicinaiivc iouics. To
avoiu lccoming a lacclcss collcciion ol
uisaggicgaicu suluivisions, a nciwoiI mauc
u ol vchiculai, cucsiiian, cycling, aiI anu
ocn-sacc conncciions musi lc lanncu.
Communiiics shoulu cicaic a icmlaic loi
a siicci giiu wiih a hiciaichy ol connccicu
siiccis io guiuc ucvclomcni anu iomoic
conncciiviiy.
@ Dclivcr Sustainablc Transportation Choiccs.
Smaii Giowih communiiics ioviuc a iangc ol
iiansoiiaiion choiccs, lui io lc susiainallc,
ihcsc alicinaiivcs musi lc luili in iaihci ihan
auucu laici io a cai-lascu culiuic. Siagcu
ucvclomcni ol ical csiaic anu iiansoiiaiion
laciliiics cnsuics ihai a iangc ol oiions will lc
availallc io iiavclcis - walIing, cycling, iiansii,
caiooling, iclccommuiing anu uiiving - anu
ihai cach will lc aucquaicly suoiicu.
@ Prcscrvc thc Community's Charactcr.
Amciica`s commcicial lanuscac, laigcly
uuc io ihc iolilciaiion ol chain sioics anu
lianchiscs, has uciciioiaicu liom ihc uniquc
io uniloim, liom siylizcu io sianuaiuizcu.
S M k K I K 9 I B I 9 9 L K l I 43
Naiional lianchiscs anu chain sioics can
changc ihcii sianuaiu luiluing ucsigns
io hi local chaiacici, lui only uo so in
communiiics savvy cnough io ic|cci oll ihc
shcll aichiicciuic anu ucmanu cusiomizcu,
siic-sccihc ucsign ihai auuicsscs local hisioiic
icscivaiion, siic lanning anu vcinaculai
aichiicciuial conccins.
@Makc It Easy to Do thc Right Thing.
Onc ma|oi laiiici io lciici ucvclomcni
on ihc liingc is local icgulaiion. Mosi local
zoning anu suluivision icgulaiions maIc ii
casici anu lasici io luilu convcniional low-
ucnsiiy, auio-uccnucni ucvclomcnis ihan
unuciiaIc Smaii Giowih on ihc suluilan
liingc. Dcvclocis luilu siawling io|ccis
lccausc ihcy aic casici anu chcaci io
consiiuci. Iocal olhcials shoulu maIc local
icgulaiions moic ucxillc io cncouiagc mixcu
uscs, naiiowci siiccis, comaci ucvclomcni
anu oihci smaii iaciiccs.
Snart Crowth
in Practice
1
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S M k K I K 9 I B I 9 9 L K l I 45
l\k. |l+rrir] +r1 K]tl+ticr
CcmmtritB+s1 |l+rrir]: Clccsir] + |tttr
Iiom ihc Bosion Tca Paiiy io moucin uay
ullic hcaiings, ihc Uniicu Siaics has a gicai
iiauiiion ol ullic involvcmcni. Thc naiion`s
ucmociaiic iucals wcic loin oui ol liusiiaiion
ly ciiizcns who lcli ihcii voiccs wcic noi
lcing hcaiu, anu moic ihan 22 ycais laici,
ullic aiiiciaiion icmains ihc hallmaiI ol
Amciica`s ucmociacy.
In many ways, smaii giowih gicw oui ol a
scnsc among many ciiizcns ihai ihcy wcic
noi lcing hcaiu on qucsiions ol giowih
anu ucvclomcni. By ihc laic 1970s, a no-
giowih scniimcni was oulai in many aicas
whcic ciiizcns hau lcaincu io hghi highway
consiiuciion, uilan icncwal, siawling
ucvclomcni anu oihci giowih-ai-any-
cosi changcs io ihcii communiiics. Onc
imcius lchinu smaii giowih is io cnallc
ciiizcns anu ihcii clccicu icicscniaiivcs io
lan ahcau loi giowih anu changc anu io
choosc a luiuic ol ihcii own maIing, iaihci
ihan hghi llinuly oi icsign ihcmsclvcs io a
ucclining qualiiy ol lilc.
Paii ol ihc smaii giowih movcmcni is a
icaciion io a lacI ol coniiol," says Daviu
WluIa, a loimci lanu-usc lannci anu now
ihc iincial ol WluIa Rcal Esiaic ouisiuc
ol Bosion. Raihci ihan oosc any anu all
ucvclomcni, ciiizcns who shaic a vision anu a
lan can locus on ihc gicaici goou" loi ihcii
communiiy, hc auus.
This scciion
locuscs on ihc
giowing iangc ol
innovaiivc ways io
cngagc mcmlcis
ol a communiiy
in choosing
ihcii luiuic.
Wc`ll cxaminc
icchniqucs loi
hcling colc
ucvclo lig-
iciuic visions
loi iowns, ciiics
anu mciio aicas,
as wcll as ways io
iuin ihosc visions
inio concicic
lans using ucsign
woiIshos, callcu
Ln..ee, ihai
incoioiaic ihc
conccins anu iucas
ol ciiizcns in ical-
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S

46
l+t is |t|lit |+rtitip+ticr!
Evciy communiiy has uillcicni nccus anu
iioiiiics, liom imioving iiansoiiaiion
anu housing choiccs io cicaiing cconomic
icucvclomcni oi a lciici scnsc ol communiiy.
Thc colc lcsi allc io uchnc ihosc nccus anu
iioiiiics aic ihosc who livc in a communiiy oi
who holu a siaIc in ii, such as lusincss owncis
anu lanu owncis.
Boih ciiizcns anu lanncis cxcci a iciuin
on ihcii invcsimcni in a ullic ioccss. Ioi
ciiizcns, ihc iimaiy invcsimcni is iimc, anu
ihcy wani io scnu ii wiscly. Il ihcy gci involvcu
in ihc lanning ioccss, ihcy wani ihcii
involvcmcni io lc mcaninglul anu io havc
somc imaci on ihc hnal icsuli. Planncis, who
commii iimc anu moncy, nccu ihc lanning
ioccss io lc lunciional whilc insiilling iiusi in
ihc ullic ihai ihc ioccss woiIs.
Thc Inicinaiional Associaiion loi Pullic
Paiiiciaiion has csiallishcu scvcn coic valucs
ihai shoulu lc cmliaccu whcn sccIing ullic
involvcmcni:
@ Thc ullic shoulu havc a say in uccisions
aloui aciions ihai allcci ihcii livcs.
@ Pullic aiiiciaiion incluucs ihc iomisc ihai
ihc ullic`s coniiiluiion will inuucncc ihc
uccision.
@ All aiiicianis shoulu lc allc io
communicaic ihcii inicicsis in ihc ioccss.
@ Oiganizcis musi sccI oui anu laciliiaic ihc
involvcmcni ol ihosc oicniially allccicu.
@ Paiiicianis shoulu lc involvcu in uchning
how ihcy aiiiciaic.
@ Paiiicianis musi icccivc ihc inloimaiion
ihcy nccu io aiiiciaic in a mcaninglul way.
@ Thc ullic aiiiciaiion ioccss
communicaics io aiiicianis how ihcii
inui allccicu ihc uccision.
Uss c| "risicrir]
In a ucsciiiion ol vaiious ullic involvcmcni
icchniqucs loi iiansoiiaiion uccision-maIing,
ihc Icucial Highway Auminisiiaiion IHWA)
noics ihai visioning is mosi cllcciivc in ihc
caily siagcs ol csiallishing oi icvising olicics
lccausc ii ucmonsiiaics ocnncss io ncw iucas
anu conccis suggcsicu ly ihc ullic. Anu,
loi maximum imaci, ii shoulu havc ihc aciivc
suoii ol clccicu olhcials, agcncy hcaus, anu
communiiy gious. In summaiy, IHWA says
visioning is usclul:
W io sci ihc siagc loi shoii-iangc lanning
aciiviiics
W io sci ncw uiicciions in olicy
W io icvicw cxisiing olicy
W whcn inicgiaiion lciwccn issucs is icquiicu
W whcn a wiuc vaiiciy ol iucas shoulu lc hcaiu
W whcn a iangc ol oicniial soluiions is nccucu
S M k K I K 9 I B I 9 9 L K l I 47
|rrisicr Ut+l
Sincc ihc laic 1990s a highly unusual lanning clloii callcu Envision Uiah has involvcu
ihousanus ol ciiizcns in maIing uccisions aloui how anu whcic ihcii siaic will locus
iis giowih. A iincial movci lchinu ihis unuciiaIing has lccn Rolcii Giow, a now-
iciiicu lusincssman who sccs ciiizcn-ccnicicu lanning as viial noi only io ihc siaic`s
cconomic luiuic, lui also io icsciving oiions loi his chiluicn anu gianuchiluicn.
In 1997, Giow, loimci icsiucni ol Gcncva Siccl, agiccu io lc ihc hisi Chaii loi
Envision Uiah, a ullic-iivaic aiincishi cicaicu io ucvclo a giowih siiaicgy loi
Uiah. As a mcmlci ol ihc auvisoiy loaiu loi Uiah`s Dcaiimcni ol Communiiy 8
Economic Dcvclomcni, hc hau sccn all ihc io|cciions aloui ihc siaic`s giowih, anu
hc Incw Uiah was noi icaicu io shac ii in a way ihai woulu icscivc ihc siaic`s
siunning lcauiy anu high qualiiy ol lilc.
Whilc his homc siaic is laigcly iuial, ihc vasi ma|oiiiy ol iis oulaiion - anu mosi ol
ihc io|ccicu luiuic giowih - is conccniiaicu in an cnviionmcnially scnsiiivc coiiiuoi
along ihc Wasaich Mouniains, siiciching 100 milcs io ihc noiih anu souih ol Sali
IaIc Ciiy. Thc oulaiion ol ihis slivci ol Uiah is cxccicu io swcll liom 1.6 million
in 2000 io million ly 200.
Thc mouniains, laIcs anu ucsciis ol Uiah, S0 ciccni ol which is lcucial iociiy, limii
ihc amouni ol lanu availallc loi communiiics io cxanu. Planncis csiimaic ihai aloui
1,000 squaic milcs ol ucvcloallc lanu icmains in ihc Gicaici Wasaich Aica. Giow anu
oihci Uiah lcaucis woiiicu ihai, wiihoui somc immcuiaic aciion, ihc aica woulu soon
lc ovciwhclmcu ly iialhc iollcms anu giowing cisonal anu social cosis.
iimc icvisions ol lans anu uiawings. Wc`ll
also cxloic somc ol ihc icchnological anu
analyiical iools lcing ucvclocu io maIc
ihcsc clloiis casici anu moic acccssillc.
Str+ric |l+rrir]:
Cr+tir] + Sl+r1 \isicr |cr tl |tttr
In icccni ycais a numlci ol laccs havc
ucvclocu long-iangc lluciinis loi luiuic
giowih anu changc, olicn wiih a hoiizon
siiciching 20 ycais, lascu on locuscu, ullic
convcisaiions aloui ihc iiauc-olls anu icnsions
involvcu in communiiy changc. This ioccss
ol cialiing a vision can lc uonc ai ihc ciiy,
icgional, oi siaic lcvcl.
Thcsc clloiis aic usually lcu ly a govcinmcni
agcncy, lui noi always. As ihc lollowing
cxamlcs liom Uiah anu Washingion, D.C.
show, non-govcinmcnial coaliiions can also
lcau ihc way. Iniiial inui liom ihc gcncial
ullic anu sccihcally iucniihcu siaIcholucis
- such as lusincss owncis, laimcis, conscivaiion
gious, cic. - is soliciicu ihiough ullic oinion
suivcys anu qucsiionnaiics, lui much ol ihc ical
woiI hacns in hanus-on woiIshos. Usually,
ihc ioccss gcnciaics iwo oi moic sccnaiios,
showing a iangc ol oiions loi ucnsiiy in vaiious
laccs, iiansoiiaiion invcsimcnis anu ihc liIc.
Thc ullic is givcn an ooiiuniiy io cxicss a
iclcicncc loi onc ol ihc sccnaiios, which may
lc auoicu as ihc shaicu vision io guiuc luiuic
lanning anu ucvclomcni.
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S

48
Icu ly a coaliiion ol lusincss, civic anu govcinmcni lcaucis, Envision Uiah lcgan ly
lisicning io colc, ihousanus ol ihcm. Ciiizcns wcic inviicu io a sciics ol moic ihan
10 ullic woiIshos whcic, ihiough innovaiivc lanning iools, ihcy wcic allc io show
how ihcy wanicu io shac luiuic lanu usc, iiansoiiaiion anu ocn sacc icscivaiion.
Thcn, Envision Uiah inviicu cvciy houscholu in ihc icgion io comlcic a suivcy on ihc
icgion`s luiuic. Uliimaicly, ncaily 17,00 Gicaici Wasaich Aica icsiucnis hllcu oui anu
iciuincu ihc Envision Uiah giowih suivcy. Ncaily 2,000 icsiucnis aiicnucu onc ol 0
iown mcciings.
In ihc cnu, ciiizcns saiu ihcy wanicu moic invcsimcni in ullic iiansii anu alloiuallc
housing, moic icliancc on cycling anu walIing, moic icscivaiion ol ocn saccs
anu moic iown-liIc ucvclomcni along Icy iiansoiiaiion sincs. Thc choscn Qualiiy
Giowih Siiaicgy ucaiis uiamaiically liom cuiicni iicnus, consciving 171 squaic milcs
ol lanu ihai oihciwisc woulu lc ucvclocu, ollciing cxanucu choiccs in housing anu
ncighloihoou iycs, icuucing vchiclc cmissions anu iialhc congcsiion, anu saving S4.
lillion on iiansoiiaiion, waici, scwci anu uiiliiy inliasiiuciuic.
Envision Uiah`s clloiis havc gaincu suoii liom ihc siaic, local govcinmcnis,
ucvclocis, conscivaiionisis, anu ihc gcncial ullic. Sincc ]anuaiy 1997, Envision
Uiah has sccn uiamaiic shilis in ullic oinion icgaiuing lanning loi qualiiy giowih.
Thc siaic lcgislaiuic asscu ihc Qualiiy Giowih Aci csiallishing a Qualiiy Giowih
Commission, a icgion-wiuc iail iiansii sysicm is u anu iunning, wiih lans loi luiuic
cxansion, anu ucvclocis aic luiluing ncw anu innovaiivc io|ccis incoioiaiing
Envision Uiah`s Qualiiy Giowih Siiaicgics.
9NLlN| K|S9UKC|S
Er...or UnL n www.cnvisionutah.org
AuL o Le nrnI,. o. Er...or UnL wn e.o.eJ b, Le Inrr.r . o E.eoree-CnILo.e,
wL.L Ln .re e.o.eJ ..In. .oIe o. SouLe.r CnI.o.r.n, ouLe.r 1ou..nrn o-Kn..rn,
nrJ oLe. n.en. Eo. n IooI n Loe nrJ oLe. .oe, ee www.Ircgo.com/projccts.html
S M k K I K 9 I B I 9 9 L K l I 4
Mtrc +slir]tcr, |.C. ]ts + K+lit Clt|
In Icliuaiy, 200, aloui S00 uccision-
maIcis liom 21 |uiisuiciions in ihc
Washingion, D.C. icgion laycu Rcaliiy
ChccI,` a onc-uay cxcicisc sonsoicu
ly ihc Uilan Ianu Insiiiuic`s UII)
Washingion uisiiici council.
Dcsigncu io losici collcciivc ihinIing
aloui ihc icgion`s giowih, ihc cvcni
lioughi iogcihci a uivcisc giou ol
siaIcholucis, incluuing oliiicians,
ucvclocis, cnviionmcnialisis, anu
lusincss anu civic lcaucis. Using giani
mas anu Icgo

llocIs io icicscni
ucnsiiics ol |ols anu housing, aiiicianis
woiIcu iogcihci io cicaic scvcial
sccnaiios loi accommouaiing ihc 2 million
auuiiional icsiucnis anu 1.6 million ncw
|ols cxccicu ly 202. Thc local lcaucis
lioughi iogcihci loi Rcaliiy ChccI`
wcic asIcu io cicaic a sci ol iincilcs
govcining giowih in ihc icgion anu io
ucvclo sccnaiios loi whcic ihai giowih
shoulu go. Paiiicianis icauily achicvcu
conscnsus on Icy iincilcs:
W Picscivc anu ioicci naiuial aicas anu
giccn sacc,
W Cicaic ncw ucvclomcni ncai iiansii,
W Mainiain a lalancc ol |ols anu housing,
anu
W Iocus ncw ucvclomcni lacI inio ihc
uilan coic.
Dcvcloing sccnaiios ihai coulu lc
imlcmcnicu wiihoui ovciwhclming
oliiical icsisiancc iovcu lai moic
uilhculi. Mosi agiccu ihai cciiain aicas
ncai iiansii siaiions, in cxisiing iown
ccnicis anu suluilan cugc ciiics, shoulu
lc iaigcis loi giowih, lui many local
olhcials ihoughi ii woulu lc haiu io
win accciancc ol ihc ncccssaiy lcvcls.
Ii`s casy io ui a Icgo on a ma," saiu
Gciiy Connolly, who chaiis ihc Iaiilax
Couniy, Viiginia, Boaiu ol Sucivisois,
lui ihc olicy imlicaiions ol uiiing
ihai Icgo ihcic as ooscu io somcwhcic
clsc aic vciy iolounu. As a icgion anu
as inuiviuual |uiisuiciions, wc`vc goi oui
woiI cui oui loi us."
Alici ihc cxcicisc, ihc UII anu ihc
D.C. icgion`s Smaii Giowih Alliancc
ullcu iogcihci ihc icsulis inio a icoii
anu scvcn-minuic DVD ihai aic lcing
uscu io hcl locus ullic uiscussions
aloui ihc icgional imlicaiions ol local
lanning anu ucvclomcni uccisions.
A similai cxcicisc was lanncu loi ihc
siaic ol Maiylanu.
Eo. o.e or Le VnL.ror e.o FenI.,
CLeI, ee www.rcalitychcckwashington.org/
Eo. Le .euI o n ..In. e:e..e .r 1o
AreIe, ... www.uli-la.org/rcalitychcck
|lctcs tctrts c| Ur|+r L+r1 lrstittt
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S

5O
Nw Iccls |cr lrtr+ttir |l+rrir]
Planning by charrette:
An intensive ond coIIoborotive
pIonning worhshop
Incicasingly oulai loi high-imaci io|ccis,
chaiiciics aic accclciaicu ucsign woiIshos
ihai liing all aiiics iogcihci in onc lacc loi
loui oi moic consccuiivc uays io collaloiaic
on ucvclomcni lans. Thc loium allows
cvciyonc liom aichiicci io ical csiaic maiIcici
io ncighloi io auuicss ihcii nccus anu
conccins in ihc ucsign ioccss.
Uniil a lcw ycais ago, ihc woiu chaiiciic was
an olscuic icim ol aii wiihin ihc aichiicciuic
iolcssion. Alihough ii siill is noi a houscholu
woiu, ihc chaiiciic - an inicnsivc, mulii-aiiy
lanning anu ucsign woiIsho - sccms io o
u whcicvci ihcic aic iough calls io lc mauc
aloui ucvclomcni oi icucvclomcni. In ihc
wccIs alici Huiiicanc Kaiiina, ihc Congicss loi
ihc Ncw Uilanism oiganizcu a hugc chaiiciic in
Biloxi, Mississii io hcl 11 iowns lan loi ihcii
icluiluing, wiih numcious lollow-on chaiiciics
wiihin ihc iowns ihcmsclvcs. IiIcwisc, many
communiiics ihioughoui Iouisiana havc iclicu
on chaiiciics io IicI-siaii ihcii lanning.
A chaiiciic is a lanning woiIsho ihai allows
a muliiuiscilinaiy icam - incluuing lanning
anu ucsign iaciiiioncis, ical csiaic anu
iciail cxciis, ucvclocis, local govcinmcni
olhcials - io consuli wiih icsiucnis anu oihci
siaIcholucis as ihcy ucvclo lans anu ucsigns
loi a aiiiculai aica. Chaiiciic-lascu lanning
occuis wiihin a comicsscu iimc liamc,
iyically scvcial uays. By involving a lull iangc
ol cxciis anu siaIcholucis ai ihc ouisci,
chaiiciics can hcl lanncis aniiciaic anu
auai io a iangc ol oicniial iilalls, whcihci
icchnical oi oliiical. In auuiiion, a chaiiciic
iomoics |oini owncishi ol ihc soluiion anu
aiicmis io uillusc iiauiiional conlioniaiion
lciwccn icsiucnis anu ucvclocis.
Chaiiciics aic as much an cuucaiional cvcni as
a lanning cxcicisc. Thc icsuli is ihai cvciyonc
- liom Icy uccision-maIci io ciiizcn - lccomcs
awaic ol ihc comlcxiiics ol ucvclomcni anu
ucsign issucs, anu cvciyonc woiIs iogcihci io
iiy io accommouaic ihcm. Bui ciiizcns anu
siaIcholucis uon`i havc io iaIc a wccI oll liom
woiI io aiiiciaic. Thc ucsign icam woiIs
coniinuously uuiing ihc Ln..ee, lui all oihcis ee
comc iogcihci ai sccihc iimcs loi giou
scssion oi in small woiIing gious. Ai ihc samc
iimc, anyonc is licc io chccI on ihc iogicss ol
ihc uiawings, uiscussions, anu cnvisioning lans
ihioughoui ihc chaiiciic. In ihis way, icsiucnis
anu local olhcials can aiiiciaic mcaninglully,
lui wiihoui giving u ihcii nighis oi Saiuiuays
loi wccIs on cnu.
Dcsigncu io incoioiaic colc`s uniquc
ialcnis, chaiiciics luilu somcihing ihai no
onc cison coulu achicvc alonc. Thcy aic
lcsi uscu in siiuaiions wiih ical io|ccis
whcn ucvclomcni is immincni. Chaiiciics
can lc aiiiculaily usclul in conicniious
siiuaiions ihai icquiic conuici icsoluiion
lccausc ihcy liing iogcihci uccision maIcis
loi a conccniiaicu ciiou ol iimc io cicaic
a uciailcu, lcasillc agiccmcni ihai can
oihciwisc iaIc monihs io achicvc.
UnliIc many ullic mcciings, a chaiiciic is
cxciily laciliiaicu so cvciyonc is hcaiu anu
no onc uominaics. Comicsscu woiI scssions
aic also uscu io iomoic cicaiivc iollcm
solving ly accclciaiing uccision-maIing anu
icuucing unconsiiuciivc ncgoiiaiion iaciics.
Anoihci uniquc iiaii ol chaiiciics is a sciics
ol lcculacI loos ihai cnallc ucsign iucas io
lc cicaicu liom a ullic vision anu icscnicu
wiihin houis loi luiihci icvicw, ciiiiquc, anu
ichncmcni. Ioi aiiicianis, lcculacI losicis
a holisiic unucisianuing ol comlcx iollcms
anu illusiiaics ihc imaci ol ihcii involvcmcni.
Ioi lanncis, ihcsc loos loim a lounuaiional
lan ihai icuccis all viial vicwoinis. This icsulis
in iiuc luy-in liom cvciyonc involvcu, which
incicascs suoii anu uccicascs ihc liIclihoou
ol challcngcs iioi io imlcmcniaiion.
A[ter the charrcttc: ImpIementotion
Pullic involvcmcni anu ucsign aic noi ovci
whcn ihc chaiiciic is comlcic. Ncxi, ihc
imlcmcniaiion hasc lcgins, ihc ucsign icam
maIcs any hnal ichncmcnis, anu ihc lans aic
S M k K I K 9 I B I 9 9 L K l I 5l
AIter three proposals to oevelop the parking lots arouno rail transit station
crasheo ano burneo, local oIfcials turneo to the collaborative charrette
process to create a plan that everyone coulo enbrace.
Bcloic ihc luiluing ol inicisiaic
highway I-6S0, Walnui CiccI, Caliloinia,
was icuominanily lungalow anu
ianch homcs ncsilcu among walnui
oichaius. Thc aiiival ol a ma|oi highway
inicichangc, au|accni io ihc Plcasani
Hill siaiion ol ihc Bay Aica Raiu Tiansii
BART), lcgan io changc whai was oncc
a quici agiiculiuial vallcy inio a icgional
iiansoiiaiion hul.
In ihc caily 19S0s, Coniia Cosia Couniy
auoicu a sccihc lan loi ihc 140-acic
aica aiounu ihc siaiion ihai callcu loi a
high-ucnsiiy mix ol housing, olhccs anu
shos. In ihc 19S0s anu caily 1990s ihc
aica cxciicnccu sulsianiial giowih,
wiih ihc auuiiion ol 2,400 housing uniis,
hoicls anu olhccs. Whcn ihc iiansii agcncy
anu local olhcials ucciucu io aci on a
longsianuing lan io ucvclo ihc 1S acics
ol aiIing lois immcuiaicly au|accni io ihc
siaiion, ciiizcns lalIcu. Thicc sulscqucni
ucvclomcni ioosals laicu no lciici.
Ciiizcns lclicvcu ihc lans woulu cicaic a
iialhc nighimaic, anu ihai ihcy wcic givcn
limiicu ooiiuniiics io ioviuc inui on
ihc ucvclomcni ioosals anu whcn ihcy
wcic cngagcu ihcic wcic ioo lcw oiions
on ihc iallc. Thcy uug in anu loughi ihc
ucvclomcni io a sianusiill.
In 1999, alici a lailcu aiicmi io lan a
icgional cniciiainmcni comlcx on ihc
iociiy, Couniy Sucivisoi Donna Gcilci
k11rssir] Ir+|ht lssts witl + Cl+rrtt
A version oI this piece, by Bill Lennertz oI the National Charrette lnstitute, frst appeareo
in "Choosing Cur Connunitys Future available at www.snartgrowthanerica.org
iooscu a ullic ucsign woiIsho - a
chaiiciic - io lan a io|cci loi ihc siic.
A consuliani icam ol lanncis, aichiiccis,
iiansoiiaiion cnginccis, anu cconomisis
hclu an iniiial ullic mcciing six wccIs
lcloic ihc siaii ol ihc chaiiciic io inloim
ihc ullic aloui ihc chaiiciic ioccss anu
io solicii ihcii iucas loi ihc ncighloihoou.
Duiing ihc mcciing, ciiizcns woiIcu in
small gious io uiscuss how ihc io|cci
iclaicu io ihc aica anu whai a vision loi
ihc ucvclocu siic mighi looI liIc. Thc
consulianis ihcn iooI ihis inui anu
comlincu ii wiih oihci ciiiical inloimaiion
such as maiIci ucmanu, hnancing
icquiicmcnis anu siic consiiainis io
ucvclo icliminaiy conccis loi ihc siic.
A monih laici, ihc consuliani icam
lcgan a six-uay chaiiciic ihai was ocn
io inicicsicu ciiizcns anu incluucu
siaIcholuci mcciings wiih ncighlois, a
icchnical auvisoiy commiiicc, licyclc anu
cucsiiian gious, BART icicscniaiivcs
anu oihcis.
Thc iimaiy oini ol conicniion loi
ihc ncighloihoou was iialhc. Ovci ihc
ycais, colc waichcu as iialhc on Ticai
Boulcvaiu lccamc woisc anu woisc.
Thc mosi vocal ncighlois uisiiusicu ihc
cxisiing iialhc siuuics lccausc ihcy wcic
lascu on ihc couniy`s iwo-ycai-olu iialhc
counis, which ihcy vicwcu as ouiuaicu.
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S

52
icscnicu io ihc ullic ai a chaiiciic lollow-
u mcciing - a ciiiical comoncni ol ihc
ovciall ioccss.
As somconc who has lccn involvcu in many
chaiiciics, REAITOR

WluIa says, Thcy`ic


wonucilul iools, csccially whilc ihcy lasi,
lui ihc aliciglow can lauc quicIly. Thc
chaiiciic ioccss has io havc a lollow-u
icauy io go immcuiaicly."
Public Cpinion Surveys
Pullic oinion suivcys, oi olls, aic a usclul
icchniquc whcn uccision maIcis nccu io
lcain moic aloui ullic scniimcnis - whcic
ihc ullic sianus on Icy issucs anu whai ihcii
iioiiiics aic going loiwaiu. Thcy can also lc
uscu io asscss changing vicws ovci iimc.
Suivcys can lc loimal oi inloimal anu
can lc conuucicu ai any iimc, ihiough
qucsiionnaiics, iclchonc inicivicws, oi in
cison. Ioimal suivcys aic ucvclocu anu
auminisicicu in a scicniihc way, using a
limiicu ianuom samlc choscn io siaiisiically
icicscni a laigci giou. Dcsigncu io ioviuc
a comosiic vicw ol a laigci oulaiion,
k11rssir] Ir+|ht lssts witl + Cl+rrtt tcrtirt1
On ihc scconu uay ol ihc chaiiciic, ihc
ncighloihoou lcaucishi cmhasizcu
ihc iollcm wiih ihc valiuiiy ol ihc
iialhc counis. Thc chaiiciic managci
anu couniy lanncis ihcn ucciucu ai
ihai momcni io oiuci ncw counis io
lcgin ihc ncxi uay. This quicI aciion was
an imoiiani licaIihiough lccausc ii
valiuaicu ciiizcn conccins ihai icviously
hau lccn liushcu asiuc.
Siill, aiiicianis hau ucc uoulis. No
maiici how wcll you ucsign ii," ihcy
insisicu, ihc iialhc will only gci woisc."
Thc ucsign icam iccognizcu ihai ihc
io|cci coulu noi movc loiwaiu wiihoui
a concicic answci io ihis ol|cciion so
ihcy schcuulcu an au hoc iiansoiiaiion
mcciing loi ihc ncxi cvcning ol ihc
chaiiciic. Wiih 60 colc in aiicnuancc,
ihc consulianis icvicwcu ihc giowih
iicnus in ihc couniy anu ucmonsiiaicu
ihai ihc ucvclomcni iooscu loi ihc
siic liIcly woulu lc luili somcwhcic clsc
wiihin ihc couniy il noi ai ihis sccihc
locaiion. Thcy also showcu ihai luiluing
in ihc convcniional sicau-oui lashion
woulu maIc ihc ovciall iialhc iollcm
in ihc couniy lai woisc. Bccausc ol iis
ioximiiy io ihc ma|oi iiansoiiaiion
acccss oinis, ihc siaiion aica was ihc lcsi
lacc loi ihis ucvclomcni, ihcy saiu. In
auuiiion, ihc ncw iialhc analysis lounu
ihai ihc alicinaiivcs unuci consiuciaiion
in ihc chaiiciic woulu auu only % moic
iialhc io Ticai Boulcvaiu. Oncc ihc
iialhc issuc was auuicsscu io cvciyonc`s
saiislaciion, ihc chaiiciic was allc io
iocccu io ihc cicaiion ol a ucsign
soluiion loi ihc iociiy.
Thc ucsign icam woiIcu wiih all ol ihc
inui liom ihcsc mcciings anu ucvclocu
alicinaiivc conccis, which wcic ichncu
liom luiihci inui, icscnicu again, anu
ichncu siill luiihci in scvcial cyclcs. In ihc
couisc ol ihc six-uay ioccss a lan cmcigcu
ihai woulu guiuc ihc looI anu lccl ol ihc
io|cci, insiallaiion ol walIways anu aiIs,
siicci anu iiansii ciiculaiion, anu moic. Thc
icsuliing conscnsus vision cnucu ihc six-ycai
ucaulocI. In 2002, ihc loaiu ol Couniy
Sucivisois unanimously aiovcu ihc lan
wiih no onc scaIing in oosiiion.
9NLl N| K|S9UKC|S
TLe Nn.ornI CLn..ee Ir.ue:
www.charrcttcinstitutc.org
S M k K I K 9 I B I 9 9 L K l I 53
Visual PreIerence Survey
In a Visual Piclcicncc Suivcy, aiiicianis aic asIcu io vicw a sciics ol imagcs anu
ianI ihcm on a scalc liom -10 io +10, +10 lcing highly accciallc on ihc onc hanu
io -10 lcing highly unaccciallc on ihc oihci in icsonsc io ihc qucsiion: How
shoulu wc luilu ncw ucvclomcnis in ihc luiuic." In ihc cxamlc lclow, ihc imagc
on ihc lcli icccivcu an avciagc scoic ol -4 anu ihc imagc on ihc iighi icccivcu an
avciagc scoic ol +. (See ne :.)
loimal suivcys aic lcsi uscu whcn an cniiiy
sccIs io mcasuic ihc lcvcl ol suoii loi a
aiiiculai iniiiaiivc, lan, oi io|cci. Inloimal
suivcys - such as onlinc olls - olicn involvc
laigci numlcis ol colc, lui ihc icsonscs
aic scll-sclccicu anu cannoi lc cxiiaolaicu
io a laigci oulaiion. Thcy aic lcsi uscu io
sulcmcni ullic mcciings, such as Ln..ee
anu visioning scssions.
NAR poIIing ossistonce [or stote
ond IocoI ossociotions
REAITOR

RR Pai Kalan, loimci chaii ol NAR`s


Smaii Giowih Auvisoiy Giou, says shc hnus
suivcys anu olls hcllul anu vciy cllcciivc."
Shc also noics ihai NAR uocs icgulai suivcys
anu olls aloui smaii giowih anu says, NAR
can assisi siaic oi local REAITOR

RR associaiions
wiih unuciiaIing similai olls, which can lc
incicuilly cllcciivc." Icain moic aloui NAR`s
olling assisiancc iogiam ai: www.icalioi.
oig/olling
Evaluating projects ano plans: Using
scorecaros, auoits ano jurieo awaros
Ovci ihc lasi scvcial ycais a numlci ol
siaics, municialiiics anu non-govcinmcnial
oiganizaiions havc ucvclocu a iangc ol
iools io iaic ihc ucgicc io which olicics,
coucs anu io|cci ucsigns auvancc ihc goals
ol smaiici giowih. Many ol ihcsc iaIc ihc
loim ol scoiccaius, which awaiu lciici giaucs
oi oinis loi cach clcmcni ol ihc locally
auoicu iincilcs.
Oihcis aic iools loi auuiiing ihc coucs anu
olicics ihai local govcinmcnis havc in lacc,
in oiuci io iucniily ihosc ihai iomoic oi
imcuc iogicss iowaiu goals ouilincu in
comichcnsivc lans anu olicy ucclaiaiions.
Thc qucsiions anu answcis in a scoiccaiu
oi auuii can hcl shac ihc uiscussion ol a
communiiy`s ucvclomcni goals, anu ihcy
scivc as loih an cuucaiional iool anu an
asscssmcni iool. (Cor.rueJ ne :0)
Cctrts k. Nlssr ksscti+ts, lrt.
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S

54
Slcw M + |itttr:
\ist+l +i1s |cr 1tisicrm+|ir]
Visual PreIerence Surveys
A visual preIerence survey allows
responoents to view photographs oI
oiIIerent neighborhooo Ieatures ano
rate then. The survey is oIten
aoninistereo in public Ioruns as a set
oI slioes, but it also can be presenteo
on a written ballot or in a web-baseo
Iornat. Participants oIten view ano
conpare two photographs oI oiIIerent
houses, streetscapes, or other scenes.
Visual preIerence surveys can clearly
illustrate preIerreo architectural styles,
builoing setbacks, the site layout oI a
new oevelopnent, size ano scope oI
proposeo transportation Iacilities, new
lanoscaping possibilities, the potential
appearance oI a revitalizeo oowntown
corrioor, ano other oesign elenents.
The inIornation can help oecision-
nakers get a clear sense oI how
policies ano regulations help or hurt in
creating the kino oI places their
constituents respono to nost positively.
(See box on page 53.)
Conputer-aioeo lnaging
Constantly evolving conputer-aioeo
inaging allows Ior the creation oI
two-oinensional views ano three-
oinensional nooels to showcase
a potential project beIore it is built,
aooing or renoving certain Ieatures.
When planners ano architectural frns
use conputer generateo-inages or
nooels in a public Iorun, it allows the
public to see a realistic view oI what a
new oevelopnent night look like, oIten
enabling nore constructive public input.
The inages at the right were oevelopeo
by Urban Aovantage to help connunity
nenbers see how their connunity
can change.
S M k K I K 9 I B I 9 9 L K l I 55
Sincc iis iniiouuciion a lcw ycais ago, ihc
IEED iaiing sysicm ucvclocu ly ihc U.S.
Giccn Builuing Council USGBC) has
gaincu wiuc accciancc as a way loih io
icach lcsi iaciiccs in icsouicc-clhcicni
luiluing ucsign, anu io iccognizc ihc
luilucis anu luiluings ihai usc ihcm.
Unuci IEED, io|ccis can cain Cciiihcu,
Silvci, Golu, oi Plaiinum siaius ly mcciing
iigoious ciiiciia in scvcial caicgoiics:
susiainallc siics, waici clhcicncy, cncigy
anu aimoshcic, inuooi cnviionmcnial
qualiiy, maiciials anu icsouiccs, anu
innovaiion in ucsign.
Ciiiics ol ihc IEED sysicm havc aigucu ihai
ii givcs ioo liiilc wcighi io ihc luiluing`s
conicxi. Ioi cxamlc, a lianu-ncw
olhcc luiluing in a coinhclu icachallc
only ly cai coulu iaic highci loi cncigy
savings ihan a icnovaicu in-iown luiluing
acccssillc ly sulway, looi, liIc, anu cai.
Ai ihc samc iimc, acInowlcugcs uilan
ucsignci Doug Iaii, ihc USGBC coulu
ciiiicizc Ncw Uilanisi anu smaii giowih
auvocaics loi ncighloihoou ucsigns ihai
lall shoii on minimizing sioim-waici iunoll,
nighi-sIy lighiing, oi ihc hcai-islanu cllcci.
Wc wanicu io scc il wc coulu woiI
iogcihci io comc u wiih a iaiing sysicm
loi giccn, smaii-giowih ncighloihoous,"
saiu Iaii, a Chicago Ncw Uilanisi anu
giccn aichiicci icsonsillc loi scvcial
IEED-iaicu luiluings himscll. Iaii has
lccn icicscniing ihc Congicss loi ihc
Ncw Uilanism CNU) in a ihicc-way
lanning clloii among CNU, ihc USGBC,
anu ihc Naiuial Rcsouiccs Dclcnsc
I+|ir] tl L||| ir rrir] tl Ni]l|crlcc1
Council NRDC), which has cxciiisc in
loih smaii giowih anu cnviionmcnial
ucsign. Thc collaloiaiion iouuccu
a 1-mcmlci ancl ol cxciis ihai is
csiallishing iaiing ciiiciia loi whai is
lcing callcu IEED-ND, loi ncighloihoou
ucvclomcni. Thc iogiam will lc iloicu
in ihc lall ol 2006, commcnis anu icvisions
will lc mauc in 2007, anu ihc lull iogiam
is cxccicu io lc launchcu in 200S.
Iaii sccs ihc ND ucsignaiion as auuing ai
lcasi iwo ncw iaiing caicgoiics: locaiion
anu linIagc. Ioi locaiion you woulu
asI: Is ii lcaliog ucvclomcni oi in a
iclciicu giowih aica. Is ihcic a lan
loi iiansii oi oihci inliasiiuciuic. Thc
oihci ]linIagc| auuicsscs ncighloihoou
aiicins - cucsiiian linIagcs, having
somcihing io walI io."
Thc uiali iaiing sysicm awaius oini
noi only loi hysical ucsign, lui also
loi cconomic anu social goals, such as
incluuing alloiuallc housing ncai |ols.
Thosc goals havc an cnviionmcnial
comoncni, in ihai housing closc io |ols
anu ullic iiansoiiaiion can icuucc
ihc aii anu cncigy imacis ol long cai
commuics. Bui ihc conicxi - Is ihcic ioo
much oi ioo liiilc low-incomc housing
ncaily. Whai aic local nccus. - is liIcly io
vaiy so wiucly ihai sianuaiu-sciiing coulu
lc vciy uilhculi, Bcnhclu saiu.
9NLlN| K|S9UKC|S
TLe U.S. C.eer Bu.IJ.r: www.usgbc.org/
DisplayPagc.aspx?CMSPagcID=148
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S

56
On ihc lollowing agc wc ollci an allicviaicu
vcision ol onc samlc scoiccaiu loi illusiiaiivc
uioscs.
Cnly weeks beIore Katrina laio waste
to key sections oI his historic town,
CulIport Nayor Brent Warr hao cone
into oIfce with a pronise to overhaul
the citys zoning ano oevelopnent
practices. Even he oiont realize what
a oranatic revision that woulo be.
AIter the storn, Warr recognizeo
quickly that the conventional zoning
ano other cooes - which calleo
Ior strict separation oI uses, oeep
setbacks ano auto-orienteo streets -
were unlikely to recreate the hunan-
scale Ieel oI the citys walkable, one-
oI-a-kino historic Iabric.
Two nonths aIter the storn, when the
Nississippi Renewal Forun brought
llO New Urbanist oesigners ano
planners to the coast Ior eight oays,
Warr was there oay ano night, sharing
his ioeas ano vision ano absorbing
all that he coulo Iron the visiting
experts. At the eno, he hao a large
part oI his answer, a new approach
to guioing oevelopnent known as
Iorn-baseo cooes.
"lts the best way we know to get
sonething like the traoitional look
ano Ieel, says Warr.
Ano conventional zoning, as critics
woulo have it, is the best way to
continue stanping out the typical,
asphalt-heavy oevelopnent patterns
the CulI Coast was seeing beIore the
storn. While the city is likely to nake
the cooe an optional overlay, he is
confoent it will be useo. "lo lay 7O
to 8O percent ooos that Iorn-baseo
cooes will shape a lot oI what gets
built or rebuilt in CulIport.
lrrcr+ticrs ir lcrir] +r1
|rlcpmrt Cc1s
AJneJ .o Ce.r Le CoJe F.L: Eo.-bneJ
oJe n, be Le Ie, o uu.e our., Inr`
b, Dn..J CoIJbe., .r On Common Giounu r
Magazinc, S..r 2uu0.
The critique oI conventional zoning
Convcniional zoning - iclciicu io as
Eucliucan" alici ihc Suicmc Couii casc
ihai lcgalizcu ii, TLe V.IIne o EuI.J .. AbIe.
FenI, - uiviucs ihc noimal lunciions ol ihc
ciiy inio uisiiicis icsiiicicu ly usc. In ihc
lcginning, zoning was iaiionalizcu as a way io
scaiaic homcs liom smoIcsiacIs, siocIyaius
anu oihci noxious uscs. Touay, ciiiics say,
ii olicn is uscu io scaiaic comaiillc uscs
liom onc anoihci. Noi only aic houscs
loiliuucn io locaic ncai shos, lui cvcn
9NLl N| K|S9UKC|S
U.S. EPA` Sn. C.owL So.en.J web .e:
www.cpa.gov/smartgrowth/scorccards/
indcx.htm
S M k K I K 9 I B I 9 9 L K l I 57
Thc lollowing scoiccaiu shows how a
communiiy can cvaluaic whcihci ncw
ucvclomcni will lc an ovciall lcnchi. Ii
was auaicu liom a iool uscu ly ihc siaic
ol Maiylanu io |uugc whcihci lans anu
ioosals mcci sianuaius unuci ihc siaic`s
Smaii Giowih iogiam.
Thc ciiiciia icucci ihc ihicc goals
ol sicciing ucvclomcni own.J lanu
ucsignaicu locally as aioiiaic loi
ucvclomcni anu nwn, .o ucsignaicu
agiiculiuial, ocn sacc, culiuial anu
cnviionmcnially scnsiiivc aicas, anu
cnsuiing ihai ucvclomcni maIcs e.er
ue ol lanu. Each ciiiciion can lc iaicu as
ooi", goou", vciy goou" oi cxccllcni".
Location
Thc io|cci locaiion icinloiccs anu
logically cxicnus cxisiing anu lanncu
ucvclomcni.
Thc io|cci icucvclos a liownhclu
siic oi a siic/locaiion iccciving
siaic oi local assisiancc io suoii
icucvclomcni.
Public Services ano lnIrastructure
Thc ioosal uscs cxisiing oi lanncu
waici anu scwci lincs.
Thc ioosal aligns wiih cxisiing anu
lanncu school caaciiy.
Thc ioosal uscs cxisiing oi lanncu
ioau caaciiy, wiihoui ovciiaxing ii.
Thc ioosal maIcs usc ol cxisiing oi
lanncu ullic iiansoiiaiion scivicc.
Conpactness ano EIfciency
Thc ucnsiiy is aioiiaic io ihc
locaiion loi cxamlc, 10 uniis/acic
k SkM|L| SC9K|CkK|
Bcw 1c ct |rcw wlr its "sm+rt ]rcwtl!
loi lus scivicc, 20 oi moic loi aicas
au|accni io iail siaiions)
Siic aica ucvoicu io aiIing is
minimizcu, anu any suilacc aiIing is
lchinu oi lcsiuc luiluings.
Dcvclomcni is clusicicu io ioviuc
ihc samc oi highci ucnsiiy wiih laigc
aicas ol ocn sacc.
Diversity oI Use
Thc io|cci ioviucs a mix ol lanu uscs
oi loi singlc usc io|ccis, auus io ihc
uivcisiiy ol uscs wiihin 1/2 milc.
Dillcicni uscs oi iycs aic hysically
mixcu in ihc io|cci oi wiihin
ihc au|accni 1/4 milc iauius)
ncighloihoou.
Housing Diversity
Thc io|cci ioviucs uillcicni housing
iycs anu/oi incicascs ihc uivcisiiy ol
housing oiions in ihc immcuiaic 1/4
milc) ncighloihoou.
Thc io|cci ioviucs a vaiiciy ol
housing iiccs alloiuallc io uillcicni
incomc lcvcls anu/oi incicascs ihc
uivcisiiy ol housing iiccs in ihc
immcuiaic 1/4 milc) ncighloihoou.
Housing iycs anu/oi iicc lcvcls
aic hysically mixcu in ihc io|cci
oi wiihin ihc immcuiaic au|accni
ncighloihoou.
Ai lcasi 10% ol ihc icsiucniial uniis
ioviucu aic alloiuallc io ihosc
maIing lcss ihcn mcuian incomc, oi
aic ai a iicc lcvcl oi iyc ihai mccis
an cxliciily siaicu housing goal ol ihc
local govcinmcni.
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S

58
Transportation & Accessibility
Iicqucnily visiicu uscs aic wiihin a hall-
milc ol ihc iooscu io|cci, anu aic
casily acccssillc io cucsiiians. Uscs
incluuc giocciy, oihci iciail, icsiauianis,
school oi uay caic, aiI, ullic sacc oi
iccicaiion/cniciiainmcni, |ols ccnici,
oihci sciviccs, such osi olhcc.
Thc io|cci ioviucs iwo oi moic
iiansoiiaiion oiions c.g. walI, liIc,
lus, iail) in auuiiion io ihc cai ihai
aic icauily availallc io ihc ma|oiiiy ol
colc using ihc io|cci.
Thc io|cci ioau sysicm connccis io
anu logically cxicnus cxicinal siicci
anu iiansoiiaiion sysicms ai muliilc
locaiions.
Thc io|cci is locaicu on an cxisiing
iniciconnccicu siicci sysicm, oi
ioviucs an inicinal siicci sysicm ihai
is iniciconnccicu.
Thc iooscu oi cxisiing siicciscac
anu aiIing ucsigns aic salc anu
cucsiiian liicnuly.
Connunity Character ano Design
Builuings aic oiicnicu io mainiain
oi csiallish a consisicni cugc liom
ihc siicci.
Builuing cxiciioi ucsigns aic visually
inicicsiing, cucsiiian liicnuly anu
csiallish oi auu io aica ucsign chaiacici.
Pullic saccs communiiy ccnicis,
iccicaiional laciliiics, aiIs, lazas,
ocn sacc) aic ioviucu anu
acccssillc.
Pio|cci mainiains oi ichaliliiaics
cxisiing siiuciuics loi coniinuing usc.
Environnental Protection
Thc io|cci ucsign anu locaiion is
liIcly io lcnchi icgional aii qualiiy
icuuccs ihc numlci anu/oi lcngih ol
vchiclc iiis ovci convcniional, auio-
oiicnicu ucvclomcni).
Thc io|cci uscs giccn luiluing"
ucsign icchniqucs loi siic sclcciion,
consiiuciion anu ociaiion iaciiccs,
cncigy anu waici usc clhcicncy, anu
ioviucs hcalihy luiluing saccs.
Thc io|cci avoius ucvclomcni on
wcilanus, siicams, shoiclincs anu
iclaicu lullci aicas.
Thc io|cci avoius ucvclomcni on
slocs siccci ihan 1% oi on unsiallc
soils liIcly io ciouc, on uooulains,
oi on haliiai loi ihicaicncu oi
cnuangcicu sccics.
Thc io|cci uscs ucsign icchniqucs
such as clusiciing anu vciiical
ucvclomcni io avoiu scnsiiivc
cnviionmcnial lcaiuics, minimizc
ucvclomcni aica anu/oi maximizc
aicas ol coniiguous ocn sacc on siic.
Thc io|cci iclicvcs ucvclomcni
icssuic on naiuial icsouiccs on
oi oll siic ihiough usc ol iianslci
ol ucvclomcni iighis, long-icim
ioicciion siiaicgics oi oihci mcans.
Stakeholoer Participation ano
Connunity Developnent
Inclusivc ciiizcn anu siaIcholuci
aiiiciaiion lcgins caily anu is
conuucicu ihioughoui ihc io|cci
aioval ioccss.
Thc iooscu io|cci mccis iucniihcu
communiiy anu aica nccus anu lans.
Thc iooscu io|cci osiiivcly
imacis cmloymcni ooiiuniiics in
ihc communiiy.
Thc io|cci hcls io cicaic oi mainiain
a lalancc ol housing anu |ols wiihin a
-milc iauius.
S M k K I K 9 I B I 9 9 L K l I 5
uillcicni housing iycs aic scgicgaicu liom
cach oihci, so ihai laigc houscs aic scaiaic
liom small houscs, sianu-alonc houscs aic
scgicgaicu liom aaiimcnis anu iownhouscs,
anu so on. Thc iauical scaiaiion ol uscs
icquiics a cai iii loi cvciy aciiviiy, anu so
zoning anu ucvclomcni coucs ucmanu wiuc
ioaus anu on-siic aiIing loi cvciy luiluing.
Convcniional zoning coulu lc icgaiucu as
ihc DNA ol siawl.
Planncis anu aichiiccis havc lcgun io auuicss
ihc shoiicomings ol Eucliuian zoning wiih a
vaiiciy ol innovaiivc sysicms, incluuing loim-
lascu coucs, ovcilay uisiiicis, anu sccial
ichaliliiaiion coucs.
Cooing Ior character:
Forn-baseo cooes
As an alicinaiivc, lanncis anu ucsigncis
looIing io mcci ihc giowing ucmanu loi
moic walIallc, iiauiiional iown ccnicis anu
ncighloihoous havc lccn ucvcloing loim-
lascu coucs. Convcniional zoning locuscs on
isolaiing uscs anu coniiolling ucnsiiy, whilc
saying vciy liiilc aloui how a communiiy
shoulu looI anu lccl. Ioim-lascu coucs
icgaiu usc as only onc lacioi in maIing an
acaling communiiy. Ioim-lascu coucs
icgulaic usc io an cxicni, lui iimaiily sccily
ihc loim ol luiluings ihai aic aioiiaic
io a givcn siicci oi ncighloihoou. This can
allow a lacc io cvolvc ovci iimc, lui wiihoui
iauically aliciing ihc chaiacici. ThinI ol ihc
waichousc uisiiicis ihai havc moihcu inio
iicnuy aiis uisiiicis wiih siicci-lcvcl shos
anu gallciics anu lolis alovc," says Pcici Kaiz,
icsiucni ol ihc Ioim-Bascu Coucs Insiiiuic
www.loimlascucoucs.oig). Thc loim ol
ihc luiluings hasn`i changcu much, lui
ihc inicinal uscs havc all changcu. Unuci
usc-lascu zoning, such a changc woulu lc
consiucicu uiasiic, lccausc ihc lanu-usc
caicgoiy has gonc liom inuusiiial, ai onc cnu
ol ihc scciium, io icsiucniial, ai ihc oihci,
alihough io ihc avciagc onlooIci, ihc lacc
looIs iciiy much ihc samc." A loim-lascu
couc coulu hcl io cncouiagc such auaiaiion
ly icmoving many ol ihc icgulaioiy huiulcs io
lc clcaicu.
Whilc convcniional zoning iclics on hugc
looIs ol icxi, loim-lascu coucs maIc usc
ol giahics anu illusiiaiions along wiih icxi
io inuicaic whai Iinu ol lacc is cnvisioncu
- whcihci a iown ccnici, a ncighloihoou wiih
a walI io shoing uisiiici, a slccy villagc oi
a lusiling ccniial lusincss uisiiici. Anu whilc
zoning coucs olicn cxisi inuccnucni ol, anu
somciimcs in oosiiion io, a communiiy`s
lans anu vision, loim-lascu coucs aic
ucsigncu io lc a lluciini loi maIing a shaicu
vision loi a lacc a icaliiy.
Inuccu, lccausc such coucs, anu ihc ioccss
ihai iouuccs ihcm, havc ihc oicniial io
icuucc ihc icgulaioiy hcau-langing anu au
hoc uccision maIing, ihcy aic giowing in
oulaiiiy, says Paul Ciawloiu, a Caliloinia
lannci who now has hclcu io wiiic 22
ol ihcm. A vcician ol a couniy lanning
ucaiimcni anu auihoi ol S0 convcniional
zoning lans lcloic iuining io loim-lascu
coucs, Ciawloiu ucvclocu Caliloinia s hisi
couc loi Sonoma in 1999. Whcn a communiiy
is clcai aloui whai Iinu ol ucvclomcni
his anu whai uocsn`i, ii maIcs ihc uccision-
maIing moic icuiciallc loi cvciyonc
involvcu," says Ciawloiu.
A loi ol communiiics aic icwiiiing ihcii
gcncial lans wiih high-minucu goals ol
susiainaliliiy, walIaliliiy, ci ccicia, lui ihcy`ic
noi icwiiiing ihcii zoning oiuinanccs," says
Pcici Kaiz, loimci uiiccioi ol ihc Congicss loi
ihc Ncw Uilanism. Il you Inow whai ii is you
wani io scc luili, anu you Inow whai ii looIs
liIc, loim-lascu coucs maIc ii casy."
Though loim-lascu coucs gcncially aic a
icccni hcnomcnon, ihc moucin iaIc on ihcm
cmcigcu 2 ycais ago, whcn Anuis Duany
anu Elizalcih Plaici-ZylciI ucsigncu Scasiuc,
Iloiiua. Thc huslanu-wilc icam wanicu ihc ncw
iown io havc ihc loim anu comloiiallc lunciion
ol a iiauiiional Souihcin iown, lui ihcy uiu noi
wani ii io havc ihc ovcily masici lanncu looI
ol a lacc ucsigncu ly a singlc aichiicci. Duany
himscll says hc goi ihc iuca liom iaciiccs ihai
wcic common in ihc siiccicai suluils anu ncw
iowns luili inio ihc 1920s.
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S

6O
PIonning bosed on the tronsect`
In oiuci io aly a loim-lascu couc, a
communiiy hisi has io ucciuc ihiough a
lanning cxcicisc whai Iinu ol lacc ihcy`ic
couing loi. Thai is, lanncis ucciuc whcic on
ihc scalc liom mosi iuial io mosi inicnsivcly
uilan cach aica lalls. In uoing so, mosi icly on
somc vcision ol ihc iuial -io- uilan .nre, a
concci loiiowcu liom ccological siuuics ihai
caicgoiizc wilulilc haliiai.
Thc iianscci ucsciilcs a iangc ol human
haliiai, liom iuial hamlci, io ihc laigci
villagc, io ihc moic comlcx iown anu
hnally ihc ucnscsi uilan ccnici. By hisioiic
convcniion anu lunciion, cach cnviionmcni
has iis own sianuaius loi ihc clcmcnis ol
human sciilcmcni: luiluing, siicci, loi, lanu
usc, amouni anu chaiacici ol ullic anu ocn
sacc, cic. Townhouscs, loi cxamlc, mighi
lc oui ol lacc in a iuial hamlci, lui ihcy aic
aioiiaic, anu cvcn ncccssaiy, in a iown
ccnici. In lcciuics on ihc ioic, Duany liIcns
ii io looiwcai: Thc shocs you woulu wcai io
mucI siallcs woulu noi lc aioiiaic io wcai
io a llacI-iic lall.
Thcsc cnviionmcnial lcaiuics can, anu uo,
vaiy liom icgion io icgion anu ciiy io ciiy.
Ioi ihai icason, lanncis caliliaic" ihc couc
lascu on ihc chaiaciciisiics ol ihc lacc whcic
ihcy`ic woiIing, ly going inio ihc hclu anu
mcasuiing, say, ihc usual scilacIs ol houscs
oi siicci wiuihs anu oihci lcaiuics ol ihc
local laccs ihai ihc communiiy woulu liIc io
cmulaic. Thcsc aic ihcn incoioiaicu inio ihc
sianuaius loi cach iianscci zonc, oi T-zonc.
Iucally, ihc ioaus ihai cui acioss many iianscci
zoncs woulu changc ucsigns io icucci cach
cnviionmcni, says Sanuy Soilicn, who wiiics
loim-lascu coucs loi Duany-Plaici ZylciI.
In iuial zoncs a ioau mighi lc a high-sccu
highway, lccausc ihcic aicn`i colc walIing,
shoing oi chiluicn laying. As ii gcis io
iown ihc ucsign nccus io icucci ihc sccu
you wani colc io uiivc. Thai may mcan
naiiowing ihc lancs, on-siicci aiIing anu
iounualouis. Ruial aicas uon`i havc cuils anu
siucwalIs, lui siiccis in iown uo."
Venturo, CoIi[ornio
Vcniuia, Caliloinia is hnalizing a couc loi
a uowniown uisiiici ihai is cxccicu io lc
onc ol loui aicas wiih loim-lascu ovcilays,
says William Iulion, a Vcniuia council
mcmlci anu a lcauing cxcii on lanning
in Caliloinia. In a mixcu-usc uisiiici, ihis
gcis us oui ol micio-managing whai gocs on
insiuc luiluings," hc says. Tiauiiionally a slow-
accu oil- anu agiiculiuic- oiicnicu iown,
sci lciwccn ihc occan anu ihc mouniains,
Vcniuia has lccomc a lavoicu lanuing lacc
loi Sania Bailaia commuicis, wiih giowih
icnsions mouniing as a icsuli. Thc ciiy has
ucciucu io managc giowih ly sicciing ii io
Cou.e, o Dunr, PIne.-Z,be.I nrJ Conr,
S M k K I K 9 I B I 9 9 L K l I 6l
ihc loui ucsignaicu highci-ucnsiiy zoncs
anu aying caiclul aiicniion io uilan ucsign
ihiough loim-lascu coucs, Iulion saiu.
In auaiing ihcii aioach, Vcniuia can
looI io ihc cxciicncc ol Pcialuma, Calil.,
ihc hisi io auoi ihc SmaiiCouc ly Duany
Plaici-ZylciI 8 Co. Thai Bay Aica iown
auoicu ihc couc in |usi ninc monihs, alici
a scvcn-ycai clloii io comlcic anu auoi
a moic convcniional, usc-lascu lan anu
zoning oiuinancc loi icucvcloing 400 acics
ol iis uowniown. Ioi ihc ciiizcns who hau
lccn ushing mighiily loi a way io couc ihcii
vision loi ihc aica, ihc couc was a gouscnu,
saiu MiIc Mooic, ihc ciiy`s communiiy
ucvclomcni uiiccioi. Bui imlcmcniaiion
has lccn a liiilc siicIy, hc saiu, in aii
lccausc ol ihc hasic wiih which ii was
auoicu.
Vorhing out the bugs
Icsson numlci onc is ihai ii is haiu io
maIc a loim-lascu couc woiI as an ovcilay
on iiauiiional zoning il you uon`i amcnu
ihc ciiywiuc zoning oiuinancc io au|usi ihc
ioccss io accommouaic ii, loih Mooic anu
Ciawloiu, who woiIcu on ihc coucs, agiccu.
Onc ol ihc ihings wc wcic iiying io uo wiih
ihis couc is avoiu maIing colc go ihiough
muliilc ioccsscs, vaiianccs, ci ccicia, io
luilu somcihing ihai oihciwisc mccis ihc lan
anu ihc couc," Mooic says.
Whilc ii is iclaiivcly casy io wiiic a loim-lascu
couc loi an unucvclocu giccnhclu siic oi io
hll ihc gas in csiallishcu aiicin, ii is much
moic uilhculi io wiiic as a guiuc io iiansiiion
liom, say, a low-ucnsiiy siii iciail oi lighi
inuusiiial uisiiici io a walIallc ncighloihoou.
Thai can icquiic an almosi aiccl-ly-aiccl
asscssmcni, Ciawloiu says, which can iaIc iimc
anu moncy, lui ihc icsuli also can lc woiih
ihc invcsimcni.
CoIi[ornio in the vonguord o[ on expIosion`
Momcnium loi zoning icloim is luiluing, says
Iulion. Wc`ic on ihc vcigc ol an cxlosion,"
Iulion icuicis. In ihc ncxi coulc ol ycais
wc`ll scc uozcns ol loim-lascu coucs auoicu.
Ii may sccm iionic ihai Caliloinia, in many
ways ihc moihcilanu ol auiomolilc-oiicnicu
ucsign, is llazing ihc iiail in couing loi mixcu-
usc uisiiicis.
Ii is lccausc ol ihc icliancc on ihc
auiomolilc ihai Caliloinia is hguiing oui
moic quicIly ihan oihci laccs ihai ihis isn`i
woiIing anymoic," says Ciawloiu. Bccausc
ol ihc siaic`s issucs wiih iiansoiiaiion, aii
qualiiy anu housing alloiualiliiy, lanncis
siaicwiuc aic looIing loi ways io accommouaic
incicascu ucnsiiy anu moic comaci uilan
loim in ways ihai aic accciallc, il noi
iclciicu, ly ciiizcns. Thc loim-lascu
coucs aic liIcly io lc moic succcsslul ai
imlcmcniing ihai vision ihan convcniional
zoning coucs."
Thai communiiics liom ihc Dcc Souih io
ihc oncc-wilu Wcsi aic looIing io loim-lascu
coucs shows ihai somcihing lig is alooi, says
Soilicn. This is a sca changc in lanu usc,
alici 0 oi 60 ycais ol noi luiluing ihis way.
Thcic will lc a lcaining cuivc ai all lcvcls so
wc will all siiugglc iogcihci io hguic ii oui
anu maIc ii lciici. Thai`s whai maIcs ihis lun
anu cxciiing."
Cther innovations in
oevelopnent cooes
Ioim-lascu coucs aic |usi onc ol scvcial
icchniqucs ucsigncu io ovcicoming ihc
shoiicomings ol iiauiiional zoning. Many
communiiics aic auaiing ihcii convcniional
zoning iulcs, as wcll as suluivision anu
oihci ucvclomcni coucs io cncouiagc
ucvclomcni ol walIallc, mixcu-usc
ncighloihoous anu oihci smaii giowih
goals. Hcic`s a samlc ol somc ol ihc oihci
innovaiivc aioachcs:
AIIowing new Ii[e [or oId buiIdings
Rchabilitation Subcodc - Ncw ]crscy
Thc Rchaliliiaiion Sulcouc is a
comichcnsivc sci ol couc icquiicmcnis
loi cxisiing luiluings. Ii is a sianu-alonc
sulchaici coniaining all ihc icchnical
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S

62
icquiicmcnis ihai aly io a ichaliliiaiion
io|cci. Thc Rchaliliiaiion Sulcouc is
aii ol Ncw ]ciscy`s Uniloim Consiiuciion
Couc. Rcau moic aloui Ncw ]ciscy`s
comichcnsivc smaii giowih iogiam laici
in ihis scciion.
See: www.ne.r.u/Jn/oJe/.eLnb/.rJe:.LI
Mixed-use overIoy districts
South Salt Lakc City Municipal Codc -
Salt Lakc City, Utah
Thc uiosc ol ihc Tiansii Oiicnicu
Dcvclomcni TOD) Ovcilay Disiiici is
io cncouiagc iociiy owncis io ucvclo
ihcii iociiy using iiansii oiicnicu ucsign
iincilcs ihiough ihc usc ol inccniivcs whilc
icsciving iighis unuci ihc cxisiing uisiiici
ucsignaiion. Alihough ihc unucilying zoning
icmains in lacc, ihc TOD Disiiici ucsignaiion
cncouiagcs mixcu-usc ucvclomcni closc io
TRAX lighi iail) anu iiansii sysicms whilc
cnhancing anu comlcmcniing cxisiing anu
au|accni ucvclomcni.
See: www.er...orunL.o./I.b.n.,/eJ.n/ne./
Jo/SouL SnI 1nIe .or.r o.J.rnre.Jo
9NLl N| K|S9UKC|S
NAF` Zor.r Feo. Hn Beur:
Eo.-BneJ CoJe`: www.rcaltor.org/
Iormbascdcodcs
TLe Sn. C.owL Newo.I` oerJ.u
o .rro.n..e .or.r nrJ oLe. Je.eIoer
oJe: www.smartgrowth.org/library/ :
byldrtypc.asp?typ=5&rcs=1152
TLe 1onI Co.e.rer Co..or` Sn.
C.owL Zor.r CoJe: A Feou.e Cu.Je`:
http://www2.lgc.org/bookstorc/dctail.
cIm?itcmId=34
o. n b..e n Lee: www.lgc.org/Irccpub/
land_usc/Iactshccts/Iorm_bascd_
codcs.html
A un., .e..or o Le Sn.CoJe,
n o.-bneJ oJe Je.eIoeJ b, Le New
U.bnr. . DPZ: www.tndtownpapcr.
com/Volumc5/smartcodc.htm
TLe Eo.-bneJ CoJe Ir.ue: www.
Iormbascdcodcs.org
S M k K I K 9 I B I 9 9 L K l I 63
l\B. Sm+rt rcwtl |clitis
lrtrc1ttticr
Whilc ihc iivaic sccioi uocs mosi ol ihc
luiluing in ihc Uniicu Siaics, govcinmcni
olicics lay a owcilul iolc in shaing ihc
loim ii iaIcs. Policy is ihc ciiiical linI lciwccn
lanning anu ihc hysical icaliiy ol a luili
communiiy. Many a visionaiy lan oi iooscu
ucvclomcni io|cci has languishcu, lailcu oi
iuincu oui woisc ihan in ii oihciwisc mighi
havc lccausc olicics ai ihc lcucial, siaic oi
local lcvcl wcic noi in sync. IiIcwisc, smaii,
ucxillc anu innovaiivc olicy aioachcs
unucilic many ol ihc succcss sioiics lounu
clscwhcic in ihis iool Iii.
Wiihoui aiicmiing io lc comichcnsivc, ihc
lollowing agcs ollci a samling ol somc ol ihc
mosi iomising olicy icloims anu innovaiion.
Whilc ihcic is somc uiscussion ol lcucial
olicy, ihc cmhasis is on ihc local anu siaic
olicics ovci which cngagcu anu assionaic
REAITORS

aic mosi liIcly io havc inuucncc.


Thcy aic oiganizcu accoiuing io ihcii ccniial
goal - such as icsciving ocn sacc oi
cncouiaging alloiuallc housing - lui mosi aic
aimcu ai woiIing in conccii wiih oihci olicics
io achicvc muliilc lcnchis. Thai is ihc naiuic
ol ihc smaii-giowih aioach.
|rsrrir] lmpcrt+rt L+r1st+ps
Public Purchase oI Lano
Thc mosi uiicci way loi a communiiy io
icscivc ocn sacc is loi ihc govcinmcni io
uichasc lanu ouiiighi. This icchniquc has
lccn oliiically oulai ai ihc siaic anu local
lcvcl wiih voicis aioving lillions ol uollais
ihiough hunuicus ol lalloi mcasuics in loih
uilan anu iuial communiiics. Accoiuing io
ihc Tiusi loi Pullic Ianu`s IanuVoic uaialasc,
moic ihan 7S ciccni ol ihc conscivaiion
hnancc lalloi mcasuics ui io voicis lciwccn
1999 anu 200S wcic aiovcu, gcnciaiing
moic ihan S26 lillion.
Thc siaic ol Iloiiua has ihc woilu`s laigcsi
conscivaiion lanu acquisiiion iogiam ]Iene ee
.Jebn.|. Sincc 1999, ihc Iloiiua Ioicvci iogiam .
has acquiicu moic ihan hvc million acics ol
lanu. In 199S, 7S ciccni ol Iloiiua voicis
aiovcu a changc io ihc siaic consiiiuiion ihai
gavc ihc siaic Icgislaiuic auihoiiiy io cnaci
Iloiiua Ioicvci, which is lunucu ly lonus
lacIcu ly ihc siaic`s ical csiaic iianslci iax.
Oihci siaics, incluuing Maiylanu, Dclawaic,
Ncw ]ciscy, anu Rhouc Islanu also uichasc lanu
ihiough siaicwiuc iogiams. Souih Caiolina has
k p+ir c| llp|tl m+rt+ls
Thc U.S. EPA has sonsoicu
ullicaiion ol iwo oulai olicy
manuals, cach ol which ollcis 100
olicics loi imlcmcniing ihc 10
iincilcs cnuoiscu ly ihc Smaii
Giowih NciwoiI. Boih csscniial looIs
aic licc:
Cetting to Smort Crowth:
100 PoIicies [or ImpIementotion
Downloau a PDI vcision ai: www.
smartgrowth.org/pdI/gcttosg.pdI
Cetting to Smort Crowth II:
100 More PoIicies [or ImpIementotion
Downloau a PDI vcision ai: www.
smartgrowth.org/pdI/gcttosg2.pdI
Rcqucsi a haiu coy ly c-mailing
smaiigiowihCca.gov oi call EPA`s
Dcvclomcni, Communiiy, anu
Enviionmcni Division ai 202-66-2S7S.
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S

64
csiallishcu a Conscivaiion Ianu BanI. Ai ihc
local lcvcl, scvcn Massachusciis communiiics
auoicu ihc Communiiy Picscivaiion Aci in
2002. Ii allows communiiics io iaisc iociiy
iaxcs u io S ciccni io uichasc ocn sacc,
icscivc hisioiic luiluings, anu ucvclo
alloiuallc housing. Thc samc ycai, voicis in
DaIoia Couniy, Minncsoia, suoiicu a S20
million lonu iclcicnuum io icscivc ocn
sacc anu laimlanu.
Clustering Ior Cpen Space
Clusici ucvclomcni siiuaics houscs closci
iogcihci io incicasc ucnsiiy on somc oiiion
ol a ucvclomcni siic, whilc lcaving oihci
oiiions licc ol luiluings. Usually icquiiing
a changc in zoning, ii iiaucs iiauiiional
laigc inuiviuual loi sizcs loi ocn iiacis ol
lanu ucsigncu loi common usc. Ii can savc
inliasiiuciuic cosis ly icuucing ihc lcngih ol
ioaus anu uiiliiy lincs in ncw ucvclomcnis.
Oihci lcnchis incluuc ihc icscivaiion
ol ciiiical lanu lcaiuics anu ihc cicaiion
ol communiiy gaihciing aicas wiihin a
ucvclomcni. Somc suluilan icsiucnis
oosc clusici zoning lccausc ihcy uon`i
liIc ihc cicciion ol highci ucnsiiy oi ihc
closc ioximiiy io ncighlois, alihough ihc
ovciall numlci ol uniis has noi incicascu.
Thc communal ocn saccs also icquiic
mainicnancc, olicn ihiough a uucs-lunucu
homcowncis associaiion.
Clusiciing has lccn uscu in many laccs,
incluuing ihc iowns ol Plainvillc anu Icxingion
in suluilan Bosion, in Ohio couniics such
as IaIc, Mauison, Summii, anu Waync, in
vaiious locaiions in Iloiiua anu scvcial oihci
casicin siaics. Zoning law changcs io allow
clusiciing aic unuci consiuciaiion oi on ihc
looIs in many oihci siaics. In ihc asi, ihc usc
ol clusiciing olicn icsulicu in only icmnanis
ol lanu lcing savcu, lcaving lcliovci" saccs
ihai wcic nciihci usclul noi aiiiaciivc. A ncwci
incainaiion ol clusiciing, callcu conscivaiion
suluivision" icscivcs laigci iiacis ol lanu
ihai can lciici mainiain agiiculiuial usc
oi achicvc naiuial lanuscac icscivaiion.
Onc cavcai aloui conscivaiion suluivisions:
Whilc ihcy aic aioiiaic in laccs whcic
oihci aciions aic lcing iaIcn io iciain a
scmi-iuial lccl, wiucsicau ucvclomcni ol
singlc-usc conscivaiion suluivisions wiih only
onc housing iyc can coniiiluic as much
io auiomolilc uccnucncc anu iialhc as
convcniional suluivisions.
Conservation Easenents
Unuci conscivaiion cascmcnis, a lanuownci
may iciain owncishi ol a iociiy whilc
loigoing ucvclomcni oi uisiuilancc ol ihc
aicas inicnucu io icmain as naiuial aicas
oi laimlanu. Conscivaiion cascmcnis olicn
aic gianicu io a non-iohi ihiiu aiiy, anu
ihc lanuownci icccivcs a iax lcnchi oi
oihci monciaiy comcnsaiion. In cllcci, ihc
conscivaiion cascmcni icmovcs ihc iighi io
ucvclo ihc iociiy, anu may cvcn iccluuc
ihc haivcsiing ol naiuial icsouiccs such
as iimlci. Conscivaiion cascmcnis iun in
ciciuiiy, cnsuiing ihai ocn sacc icmains
ocn. Conscivaiion cascmcnis aic olicn uonc
in ianucm wiih clusici ucvclomcni zoning
anu/oi ihc uichasc oi iianslci ol ucvclomcni
iighis unuci govcinmcni-ucsignaicu iogiams,
which aic ucsciilcu lclow.
TransIer oI Developnent Rights (TDRs)
An alicinaiivc io zoning icchniqucs liIc
clusiciing, TDR iogiams allow lanncis io
icuiicci giowih liom onc aii ol a communiiy
io anoihci. Thc aioach climinaics oi
S M k K I K 9 I B I 9 9 L K l I 65
icuuccs ihc iighi io ucvclo onc aica, usually
io icscivc low ucnsiiy ucvclomcni oi ocn
sacc, anu iianslcis ihc iighis io a uillcicni
siic whcic highci ucnsiiy is cncouiagcu anu
suoiicu. Using TDRs icquiics communiiics
io csiallish scnuing" anu iccciving" zoncs.
Thc ucvclomcni iighis aic scni" liom ihc
ucsignaicu low-ucnsiiy lanu ihc scnuing
uisiiici) io ihc aica slaicu loi highci ucnsiiy
anu incicascu ucvclomcni ihc iccciving
uisiiici). Thc ucvclomcni iighi lccomcs
a scaiaic aiiiclc ol iivaic iociiy wiih
cconomic valuc. Ioi a TDR iogiam io lc
laii, a iiuc maiIci valuc musi lc cicaicu. Thc
valuc assigncu io ihc TDR shoulu icucci ihc
amouni ncccssaiy io comcnsaic a iociiy
ownci loi ihc losi valuc icsuliing liom ucnsiiy
icuuciion oi oihci icsiiiciions imoscu on ihc
Florioa Forever
Thc Iloiiua Division ol Siaic Ianus
auminisicis whai ihcy lill as ihc woilu`s
laigcsi conscivaiion lanu luying
iogiam, Iloiiua Ioicvci. Thc iogiam
lcgan in 1999 anu cxicnus Iloiiua`s
long hisioiy ol icsciving cnuangcicu
lanus. Ii auihoiizcu ihc salc ol lonus
woiih SS lillion ovci ihc lollowing icn
ycais io acquiic anu ioicci lanus, as
wcll as icsioiing uamagcu ccosysicms
anu ucvcloing waici icsouiccs. Thc
lonus aic aiu lacI ihiough an cxcisc
iax on iccoiuing somc uocumcnis ai
ihc couiihousc, incluuing uocumcnis
associaicu wiih ical csiaic iiansaciions.
Thc iogiam has acquiicu moic ihan onc
million acics ol lanu sincc 1999, ioicciing
190 iaic anu cnuangcicu sccics anu moic
ihan 7,000 aichacological anu hisioiic siics.
Thc iogiam ioiccis naiuial uooulains,
liagilc coasilinc, wcilanus, giounuwaici
icchaigc aicas, loicsi lanus, signihcani
waici louics, anu haliiai conscivaiion
aicas. Thc acquisiiion lisi is aiovcu
annually ly ihc govcinoi anu his calinci,
uon iccommcnuaiion ly ihc Acquisiiion
anu Rcsioiaiion Council.
In auuiiion io uiiccily acquiiing lanu,
ihc iogiam uichascs conscivaiion
cascmcnis. A icccni conscivaiion
cascmcni ioiccicu SS0 acics ol sanuy
highlanu lciwccn Oilanuo anu IaIc
OIcccholcc, incluuing an Aii Ioicc
insiallaiion, ihc Avon PaiI gunnciy anu
lomling iangc. Thc cascmcni will also
icvcni siawling ucvclomcni liom
cncioaching on ihc Aii Ioicc lasc.
See: www.Je.ne..u/InrJ/nqu...or/
EIo..JnEo.e.e./
South Carolina Conservation
Lano Bank
Souih Caiolina csiallishcu a siaicwiuc
Conscivaiion Ianu BanI in 2002. Thc
lanu lanI is ucsigncu io icscivc ocn
sacc in a siaic wiih a oulaiion ihai is
io|ccicu io giow ly 2 ciccni lciwccn
2000 anu 201. Thc iogiam luys
iociiy oi conscivaiion cascmcnis liom
willing lanuowncis in oiuci io ioicci
wcilanus, naiuial icsouicc lanus, hisioiical
iociiics, anu aichcological siics.
In iwo ycais ihc lanI has icscivcu almosi
SS,000 acics anu has aiincicu in ihc
uichasc ol an auuiiional 40,000 acics.
Thc lanI is lunucu ly lacing 2 ccnis ol
cach Documcniaiy Dccu Siam iccoiuing
lcc inio a iiusi. Moic ihan SS0 million has
lccn invcsicu in ioicciing ocn sacc,
Civil Wai siics, anu hisioiic homcs. Thc
iogiam was siiongly suoiicu ly ihc
Souih Caiolina Associaiion ol REAITORS

anu a lioau coaliiion ol cnviionmcnialisis,


civic, anu lusincss gious.
See: L://bnrI..o.
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S

66
scnuing zonc. TDRs havc lccn cllcciivcly uscu
in iaiuly giowing aicas, olicn io icscivc
ihc oncc-iuial naiuic ol a lacc, such as ihc
Pinclanus aica ol Ncw ]ciscy, aiounu IaIc
Tahoc, anu in scvcial Coloiauo anu Caliloinia
communiiics. In Monigomciy Couniy
Maiylanu, TDRs aic solu on ihc ocn maiIci
anu lisicu in ihc Muliilc Iisiing Scivicc.
Purchase oI Developnent Rights (PDRs)
PDRs allow govcinmcnial agcncics io uichasc
ucvclomcni iighis ouiiighi as a mcans loi
icsciving naiuial icsouiccs oi agiiculiuial
aicas. Aloui 20 siaics havc imlcmcnicu PDR
iogiams, incluuing Pcnnsylvania, Ncw ]ciscy,
Ncw YoiI, Maiylanu, Viiginia, Coloiauo, anu
Moniana. In auuiiion, moic ihan 0 local
anu icgional |uiisuiciions havc ihcii own
PDR iogiams. Accoiuing io ihc Amciican
Iaimlanu Tiusi, PDR is a oulai lanu
ioicciion icchniquc lccausc ii ays willing
lanuowncis io cimancnily icsiiici ihc usc ol
ihcii lanu io laiming, ianching, oi loicsiiy."
PDRs havc iovcn an cllcciivc mcchanism
loi icsciving uwinuling woiIing lanuscacs,
howcvci, lccausc lanuowncis volunicci io
|oin a iogiam, PDRs uo noi always icscivc
icsouicc aicas io ihc cxicni ucsiicu.
Ir+rspcrt+ticr |clit 9pticrs
EoIIow.r . n b..e o.e...ew o Le .oIe
.nro.n.or oI., nr In, .r n. .owL. Eo.
n uIIe. J.u.or o .nro.n.or oI.,, urJ.r
nrJ FEA1TOF

FF .r.oI.eer, Iene

ee T.nro.n.or: A TooII. o.
FEA1TOFS

SS `, n.n.InbIe .o NAF
n www..enIo..o./.nro.ooII.
Ensuiing ihai iiansoiiaiion
invcsimcnis anu ucvclomcni
uccisions woiI iogcihci is ciiiical
io cicaiing communiiics ol
lasiing chaiacici anu cconomic
viialiiy. Ovci ihc lasi lcw uccaucs,
howcvci, iiansoiiaiion anu
lanu usc lunciions iyically havc
lccn unuciiaIcn wiihin scaiaic
govcinmcni silos". In icccni
ycais, communiiics aiounu ihc
couniiy havc lccn hnuing ways io maIc
suic ihai iiansoiiaiion inliasiiuciuic anu
ihc ucvclomcni ihai ii suoiis ociaic in
ianucm io hcl colc gci whcic ihcy aic
going moic clhcicnily, wiihoui scnuing as
much iimc uiiving. Hcic is a iounuu ol somc
ol ihc mosi innovaiivc iucas.
Shorten Distances
Puiiing ihc ucsiinaiions ol uaily lilc
closci iogcihci auuicsscs a wiuc iangc ol
iiansoiiaiion challcngcs, ly hcling io icuucc
ihc nccu io maIc iiis anu icuucing ihc lcngih
ol ihc iiis ihai aic ncccssaiy. Thc lcnchis
aic csccially noiallc whcn ihis is uonc in
con|unciion wiih high-qualiiy iiansii scivicc.
Transit-Oricntcd Dcvclopmcnt (TOD)
As uiscusscu in Scciion III, S: Builuing
Suoii, ol ihis ioolIii, ihc aim ol iiansii-
oiicnicu ucvclomcni is io clusici housing,
sioics, anu |ols closc io iiansii lincs. Il
uonc iighi, TOD uis loih colc anu Icy
ucsiinaiions closc io iiansii sios, anu ollcis
colc who livc oi woiI ncai ihosc siaiions a
vaiiciy ol uining, shoing anu oihci oiions
wiihin walIing uisiancc. Many siaic anu local
govcinmcnis aic cncouiaging ucvclomcni
ncai iiansii. Ioi cxamlc, Pcnnsylvania
icccnily cicaicu ihc Tiansii Rcviializaiion
Invcsimcni Disiiici iogiam io hcl lunu
ucvclomcni ol vacani oi unuciuscu iociiy
wiihin a hall-milc ol a iiansii sio oi siaiion.
Scc ihc siaic iohlcs ol Ncw ]ciscy anu
S M k K I K 9 I B I 9 9 L K l I 67
Mciiooliian Tiansoiiaiion Commission
ioviucs moncy io local govcinmcnis
accoiuing io how many maiIci iaic anu
alloiuallc lcuiooms aic in ncw ucvclomcnis
in aicas ncai iiansii. Thc HIP moncy gocs
io imiovc acccss via looi, licyclc oi iiansii,
such as cucsiiian anu licyclc laciliiics ihai
conncci ihc ncw housing io ihc iiansii siaiion
oi ciosswalIs oi siucwalIs linIing ihc ncw
ucvclomcni io ncaily ucsiinaiions.
See www..n.o./Inrr.r/n._.owL/L..L
lmprcrir] Ir+rspcrt+ticr 9pticrs
As ihc iimc losi io iialhc congcsiion giows,
many colc aic looIing loi lciici oiions. In
many cascs much ol ihc soluiion lics in hxing
ioau ucsign uaws oi maIing ncw conncciions.
Evcn alici ihosc cxcnuiiuics, many colc
lccl siucI, lccausc alicinaiivcs such as iiansii,
licycling oi walIing aic noi availallc, noi
convcnicni, oi unlcasani. In ihc lasi lcw
ycais ihai has lccn changing, as communiiics
invcsi in ncw oiions. REAITORS

can hcl
ihcii clicnis ly lcing awaic ol ihc laicsi
iiansoiiaiion oiions ihai imiovc qualiiy ol
lilc in a ncighloihoou.
New Types oI Transit
Thc numlci ol lighi iail iiansii lincs in
US ciiics has cxloucu in ihc lasi uccauc.
Thcsc iiains aic lcss cxcnsivc io luilu
ihan iiauiiional sulways anu moic ucxillc.
Thcy can iun in ihcii own iighi ol way, oi
in ihc siicci, anu aic wcll suiicu io Tiansii
Oiicnicu Dcvclomcni. Iiom Minncaolis
io Housion, Saciamcnio io NcwaiI, Ncw
]ciscy, communiiics havc invcsicu in lighi
iail lincs, usually ly comlining lcucial lunus
liom ihc Ncw Siaiis" iiansii iogiam wiih
local, voici-aiovcu iiansii lonus. Iiom 200S
ihiough 200, moic ihan 70 ciccni ol ullic
iiansoii lonu mcasuics loi lighi iail anu
oihci io|ccis wcic aiovcu ly voicis.
See www.e.o.
In Dcnvci, whcic ihc hisi lighi iail lincs
cxcccucu cxcciaiions, voicis havc aiovcu
ihc amliiious IasiTiacIs" iogiam, which will
Mtrc ktl+rt+s Lir+|l
Crtrs lriti+tir
Gicaici Ailania, ihc liggcsi mciioolis
in ihc Souihcasi, is now iiying io
comlinc icgional anu local aciion
io lan iiansoiiaiion anu lanu usc
iogcihci. In 1999, ihc 10-couniy
Ailania Rcgional Commission
launchcu ihc Iivallc Ccnicis
Iniiiaiivc, ioviuing S million ovci
hvc ycais loi communiiics io lan
ways io icucvclo cxisiing iown
ccnicis, cicaic ncw walIallc Main
Siiccis, oi iciiohi cugc ciiics" io lc
cucsiiian-liicnuly, all io maIc moic
ucsiinaiions casily acccssillc ly iiansii,
uiiving, liIing oi walIing. Rcsuliing
communiiy lans wcic cligillc loi
a shaic ol SS0 million in lcucially
lunucu iiansoiiaiion imiovcmcnis.
Onc such lan calls loi iuining
Pciimcici Ccnici - a suluilan mall
anu olhcc ccnici wiih ihicc MARTA
iail siaiions - inio a iiansii villagc.
Anoihci calls loi luiluing mixcu-
incomc housing on whai hau lccn
aiIing, ncai an unuciuscu MARTA
siaiion in Dccaiui. In Miuiown Ailania
ncai ihc Gcoigia Tcch camus,
cxicnsivc ucvclomcni inicgiaiing
olhccs anu housing is iaIing lacc.
Thc iogiam has lccn icncwcu loi
scvcial moic ycais anu has cxanucu
io covci aging commcicial siiis as
wcll as iown ccnicis.
Massachusciis anu ihc siuclai on Caliloinia`s
suoii loi TOD laici in ihis scciion.
See www.1uuuu..erJ.o./.owL/.nro.n.or
Housing Incentive Progrom )HIP;
Scvcial Caliloinia communiiics aic icwaiuing
communiiics ly ioviuing cxiia iiansoiiaiion
lunus io laccs ihai luilu comaci housing
ncai iiansii. In ihc Caliloinia Bay Aica, ihc
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S

68
luilu an auuiiional 119 milcs ol lighi iail anu
commuici iail, 1S milcs ol lus iaiu iiansii,
anu cxanucu lus scivicc acioss ihc icgion.
Eo. o.e or Der.e. nrJ En.nI, ee www..J-
Jer.e..o
Oihci communiiics havc iaIcn ihc mysiciy
ihiough uowniown.
Walkability
Whcn ucsiinaiions aic closc cnough iogcihci,
licycling anu walIing can lc ihc lasicsi anu
mosi cconomical way io gci aiounu. Thcy
ioviuc ihc auucu lcnchi ol icgulai hysical
aciiviiy, wiihoui a iimc-consuming iii io ihc
gym. Bui colc will noi walI oi licyclc unlcss
ihcy can uo so salcly anu comloiially.
Many communiiics aic iomoiing ihc cicaiion
ol moic walIallc cnviionmcnis ly aying
aiicniion io ihc uciails. Ioi cxamlc, ihcy may
invcsi in iogiams io comlcic gas in ihc
siucwalI sysicm, oi insiall ciosswalIs signals
ihai couniuown ihc iimc io cioss anu/oi
ioviuc auuillc signals loi llinu cucsiiians.
See www.wnII.r.ro.o.
Better Buses
Bus Raiu Tiansii BRT) scivicc
can ociaic on cxisiing siiccis oi
on a ucuicaicu iighi-ol-way anu
lunciions moic liIc iail, wiih limiicu
sios anu siaiions whcic iiucis ay
iioi io loaiuing ihc vchiclc. Somc
communiiics havc also invcsicu in olu-
lashioncu siiccicais ihai icnu io iiavcl
moic slowly anu olicn scivc iouiisi
ucsiinaiions.
Somc communiiics aic using
icchnologics io sccu u luscs
on ciiy siiccis. In Ios Angclcs, ihc
Mciio Raiu lus lincs usc signal
iioiiiizaiion" icchnology ihai holu
giccn lighis loi luscs. Sios also
havc clcciionic signs ihai icll waiiing
iiucis whcn ihc ncxi lus will aiiivc.
Thc Mciio Raiu luscs iiavcl 2
ciccni lasici ihan icgulai luscs, anu
iiucishi has shoi u.
See www.n.re/.oe_.o.n/.n.J/
o.e...ew.L
oui ol using ihc lus ly siaiiing sccial,
signaiuic lus lincs. Thc liighily ainicu luscs
iun licqucnily so no schcuulc is nccucu,
anu ihcii simlc ciiculai iouics aic casy io
unucisianu. Many ol ihcm also chaigc low
laics. Bcgun in Bouluci, Coloiauo wiih lincs
namcu ihc Ho, SIi, anu ]um, oihci ciiics
havc lollowcu suii. In Washingion DC, scvcial
uowniown Busincss Imiovcmcni Disiiicis
anu local iiansoiiaiion agcncics lunucu
iwo Ciiculaioi" shuiilc lincs ihai ciiculaic
TraIfc Calning
Cicaiing a salci cnviionmcni loi
licycling anu walIing can mcan
inicniionally slowing uown cais,
oi calming` iialhc. Engincciing
icchniqucs such as sccu hums,
iounualouis, anu siucwalI lull-ouis
ai coincis ihai shoiicn cucsiiian
ciossing uisianccs all slow uown
cais anu icclaim siiccis, anu can
uiamaiically icuucc ciashcs. In ncw
ncighloihoous, ihcsc icchniqucs can
lc uscu in licu ol cul-uc-sacs in oiuci
io allow siiccis io conncci wiihoui lcai
ol sccuing cui-ihiough" iialhc.
See www..nnI.r.o.
SaIe Routes to School
School iogiam, is uiicciing moic ihan S600
million inio ncighloihoous acioss ihc couniiy
io maIc ii salci loi chiluicn io walI anu
licyclc io school. Gianis aic auminisicicu ly
S M k K I K 9 I B I 9 9 L K l I 6
ihc Siaic Dcaiimcni ol Tiansoiiaiion anu
lunnclcu io communiiics io hx hazaius anu
slow iialhc on ioaus ihai scivc schools, as wcll
as io luilu aihways, liIc lancs anu siucwalIs
ncai schools. Tcn io S0 ciccni ol ihc
lunuing in cach siaic musi lc uscu loi non-
inliasiiuciuic aciiviiics such as cnloiccmcni,
cncouiagcmcni anu cuucaiion iogiams.
See www.ne..nb.Ie.o./SFTS.n
Ktc]ritir] tl \+lt c|
Ir+rspcrt+ticr kltrr+tirs
Thc cconomic lcnchis ol iiansoiiaiion
alicinaiivcs aic olicn uniccognizcu anu
ovciwhclmcu ly hiuucn sulsiuics io
auiomolilc iiavcl. A numlci ol olicics iiy io
lcvcl ihc laying hclu.
Nortgage options
Siuuics havc uocumcnicu ihai colc who
livc in aicas wiih lciici iiansoiiaiion
oiions scnu a smallci oiiion ol ihcii
incomc on iiansoiiaiion. Scvcial laccs aic
cxciimcniing wiih moiigagc oiions ihai
iccognizc ihc hnancial lcnchis ol luying
a homc wiih goou iiansoiiaiion oiions.
Thc Iocaiion-Elhcicni Moiigagc calculaics
oicniial savings lascu on whcihci ihc homc
Nw ]ti1+rt |cr
rc+1 1si]rrs
In ihc siing ol 2006, ihc Insiiiuic loi
Tiansoiiaiion Enginccis unvcilcu a
siicci ucsign manual ihai uigcs ioau
cnginccis io ucsign ihcii io|ccis io hi
in wiih anu cnhancc ihc ncighloihoous
ihiough which ihcy ass. Conicxi
Scnsiiivc Soluiions in Dcsigning Ma|oi
Uilan Thoioughlaics loi WalIallc
Communiiics" is a |oini clloii lciwccn
ihc Insiiiuic ol Tiansoiiaiion
Enginccis anu ihc Congicss loi ihc
Ncw Uilanism, sonsoicu ly ihc
Icucial Highway Auminisiiaiion anu
ihc Enviionmcnial Pioicciion Agcncy.
Thc manual ucsciilcs scvcial conicxi
zoncs", caicgoiizing uilan aicas inio
uiscicic iangcs ol ucnsiiy anu inicnsiiy
ol ucvclomcni, anu scis loiih an aiiay
ol ihoioughlaic iycs consisicni wiih
cach zonc`s chaiaciciisiics.
Eo. o.e, o. o JowrIonJ n o,, ee: www.
.e.o.//
Bicycle-Frienoly Connunities
Communiiics invcsiing in lciici
licyclc inliasiiuciuic uon`i sio
ai luiluing scaiaicu liIc aihs.
Thcy aic cicaiing inicgiaicu licyclc
nciwoiIs wiih liIc lancs, wiuc cuil
lancs anu shoulucis, convcnicni
licyclc aiIing, anu licyclc iacIs on
luscs. Davis, Caliloinia is an unusual
cxamlc lccausc ihc ciiy was allc io
cicaic an cniiic uilan iiail nciwoiI.
In mosi ciiics, iiails ihai linI io on-
siicci liIc lancs aic a moic iaciical
oiion. Ciiics such as Chicago, Scaiilc,
anu Gaincsvillc, Iloiiua, havc all
cicaicu ouisianuing licyclc iogiams.
See www.b.,Ie..erJI,our.,.o. o.
www.b.,I.r.ro.o.
Car Sharing
Cai shaiing iogiams maIc ii casici loi
colc io avoiu cai owncishi ly giving
ihcm convcnicni acccss io a cai whcn ihcy
occasionally nccu onc. Cai-shaiing vchiclcs aic
aiIcu in ncighloihoous, anu mcmlcis icscivc
ihcm loi a lcw houis ai a iimc using wcl anu
iclchonc-lascu icscivaiion sysicms. In somc
ciiics iivaic cai-shaiing hims oi non-iohis
aiinci wiih ihc ciiy anu ihc iiansii agcncy
io icscivc aiIing saccs on ciiy siiccis oi ai
iiansii siaiions. Ciiics such as San Iiancisco
anu Poiilanu cncouiagc ncw icsiucniial
ucvclomcnis in ciiy ncighloihoous io incluuc
a cai shaiing sacc in ihcii icnani gaiagcs.
See www.n.Ln..r.re
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S

7O
vaiiciy ol valuc-iicing iloi io|ccis.
See: www.Lwn.Jo.o./oI.,/o/.nIue...r
Doing Transportation DiIIerently
Somc iiansoiiaiion agcncics aic uoing moic
ihan auuing a lcw oiions loi oihci moucs
- ihcy aic changing ihc way ihcy unuciiaIc
uaily ociaiions.
Contcxt Scnsitivc Solutions iogiams
aim io liing moic siaIcholucis inio ihc
iiansoiiaiion lanning ioccss anu cnsuic
ihai ioaus hi inio local communiiics. In Ncw
]ciscy, ihc Siaic Dcaiimcni ol Tiansoiiaiion
has auoicu a Iuiuic in Tiansoiiaiion
siiaicgy N] IIT) ihai inicgiaics lanu usc inio
iiansoiiaiion uccision-maIing anu involvcs
many siaIcholucis. In onc insiancc, ihc ncw
olicy has icsulicu in a uccision io iallc a ncw
highway lyass in lavoi ol imioving local
ioau conncciions.
See: www.ore:er...eoIu.or.o. o. www.
ne.r.u/.nro.n.or/wo.I/r/nbou/
nn.r.L
Conplete Streets
Siaic, icgional, anu local govcinmcnis aic
auoiing comlcic siiccis olicics` io cnsuic
ihai ihcii iiansoiiaiion agcncy ucsigns anu
mainiains cvciy ioau io|cci io mcci ihc
nccus ol all iycs ol ioau uscis - uiivcis,
iiansii iiucis, licyclisis, anu cucsiiians ol all
agcs anu aliliiics. ]Plcasc scc lox on agc 72,
Souih Caiolina`s Comlcic Siiccis Policy"|.
See: www.oIee.ee.o.
Parking
PaiIing icgulaiions olicn cicaic vasi
communiiy-ucaucning aiIing lois, anu licc
aiIing cncouiagcs auiomolilc usc. A numlci
ol aiIing siiaicgics can ioviuc icasonallc
amouni ol aiIing anu shili ihc cosi ol aiIing
io ihc usci ol ihc aiIing sacc. Ciiics such
as Scaiilc havc icuuccu oi waivcu iiauiiional
minimum aiIing icquiicmcnis, allowing
ucvclocis io ui in lcwci saccs whcn ihc
usc is cxccicu io gcnciaic lcwci cais, whcn
cai-shaiing is ioviucu, oi in uowniown
is closc io iiansii anu oihci laciois, anu ollcis
a low uown aymcni, comciiiivc inicicsi
iaics, anu ucxillc guiuclincs io allow moic
colc io luy homcs., Ii is availallc in Chicago
anu a lcw oihci ciiics.
See www.Ion.ore.er,.o
Iannic Mac ollcis a low-uown-aymcni Smaii
Commuic iloi moiigagc in Washingion DC
anu a lcw oihci ciiics ihai loosis alicanis`
qualilying incomc, incicasing ihcii luying
owci ly aloui S10,000.
See www.nrr.ene.o/Lou.roJe./
oIu.or/er...orer.LI
Baliimoic, Maiylanu has aiincicu wiih
cmloycis io ollci simlc Iivc Ncai Youi
WoiI" gianis ihai awaiu hisi-iimc homcluycis
as much as S2,000 loi closing cosis whcn ihcy
luy ncai ihcii lacc ol cmloymcni.
See www.I..ebnI.o.e.o/Lb/.r/Ir,w
Connuter choice prograns
Diiving io woiI is olicn sulsiuizcu ly licc
aiIing ollcicu as a iax-licc cmloycc lcnchi,
whilc ihosc who walI, licyclc, caiool, oi
iaIc iiansii gci noihing. Icucial iax law was
changcu icccnily io allow cmloycis io ollci
iax-licc iiansii asscs oi vanool suoii, anu
io allow cmloyccs io iaIc ihcsc in licu ihcii
licc aiIing lcnchi.
See: www.oue.Lo.e.o
Tiansoiiaiion Dcmanu Managcmcni
iogiams comlinc many clcmcnis io hcl
icuucc ihc ucmanu loi uiiving ly hcling
colc hnu alicinaiivc commuics.
See: www....o./J
Congestion Pricing
A lcw laccs aic cxciimcniing wiih maIing
uiivcis ay io uiivc on ioaus ai iimcs ol high
ucmanu. Oiangc Couniy Caliloinia ociaics
cxicss lancs wiih a ioll ihai vaiics lascu on
ihc ucgicc ol congcsiion. Thc Ncw ]ciscy
TuiniIc has also insiiiuicu vaiiallc iolls. Thc
Icucial Highway Auminisiiaiion is hnancing a
S M k K I K 9 I B I 9 9 L K l I 7l
Buses ano Bus Rapio Transit: In mosi
ciiics, luscs aic ihc iimaiy loim ol ullic
iiansoiiaiion, accouniing loi S ciccni
ol mass iiansii naiionwiuc. Incicasingly
communiiics aic looIing io imiovc lus
clhcicncy wiih cxicss scivicc, limiicu-sio
scivicc, oi lus iaiu iiansii BRT), which
comlincs somc qualiiics ol iail iiansii - such
as highci licqucncy, lcwci sios, anu ic-
aiu iicIciing - wiih ihc ucxililiiy ol luscs.
Ii`s also ossillc io simly iun luscs moic
licqucnily io loosi iiucishi.
Light rail: Aloui 20 Amciican ciiics, liom
Bosion anu Baliimoic io Sali IaIc Ciiy anu
San Dicgo, havc auoicu lighi iail sysicms.
Thcy ociaic in a iighi-ol-way noi gcncially
scaiaicu liom oihci iialhc wiih iwo-cai
iiains owcicu ly an ovcihcau clcciiic linc.
Heavy rail: Aloui a uozcn ma|oi
mciiooliian aicas acioss ihc Uniicu
k |t|lit Ir+rsit lcss+r
Siaics havc ucvclocu clcciiihcu hcavy
iail sysicms, incluuing Washingion,
D.C. Mciio), Ailania MARTA),
Chicago CTA), anu OaIlanu BART).
Olicn callcu sulway, iaiu iiansii oi
iaiu iail, ihc scaiaic iighis ol way
ollci high sccu anu lailoim loauing
ol muliilc cais.

Connuter rail: Moic ihan S0 U.S.
ciiics havc lans io cicaic commuici
iail sysicms, in auuiiion io 20 uilan
aicas ihai alicauy ioviuc ihc iailioau
asscngci scivicc lciwccn a ciiy
ccnici anu au|accni suluils. Also
Inown as icgional iail oi suluilan
iail, ihc scivicc cxisis in ciiics such as
Dallas, Anchoiagc, Philauclhia, anu
SiocIion, Caliloinia, anu sysicms aic
unuci consiuciaiion in laccs
liIc Ias Vcgas, Coloiauo, Cincinnaii,
anu Nashvillc.
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S

72
Scttl C+rclir+ Ccmplt Strts |clit
In oiuci io maIc ihc mosi ol iis
iiansoiiaiion consiiuciion invcsimcnis,
Souih Caiolina is woiIing io iuin iis siaic-
lunucu ioaus inio mulii-moual coiiiuois
Inown as comlcic siiccis." Thc siaic
Tiansoiiaiion Commission has auoicu
a olicy ihai accommouaiions loi walIing
anu licycling shoulu lc an inicgial aii
ol ihc Dcaiimcni ol Tiansoiiaiion`s
lanning, ucsign, consiiuciion anu
ociaiing aciiviiics. Thc olicy also icquiics
couniics anu ciiics ihai icccivc siaic oi
lcucial highway lunuing io lully inicgiaic
licycling anu walIing inio io|ccis anu
aciiviiics iccciving ihcsc lunus.
Thc olicy is Inown as a comlcic siiccis
olicy lccausc ii gocs lcyonu ihc moic
iyical aioach ol using sccial licyclc
anu cucsiiian lans io ucsignaic only
somc ioaus loi imiovcmcni. Moic
comichcnsivc comlcic siiccis olicics
incluuc accommouaiion loi uisallcu
iiavclcis anu loi iiansii.
In Souih Caiolina, ihc iniiial olicy has
lccn lollowcu wiih cxicnsivc iiaining
woiIshos anu scminais loi lanncis
anu cnginccis, anu wiih cngincciing
uiicciivcs ihai ioviuc ncw guiuclincs
loi incoioiaiing laciliiics such as liIc
lancs io siaic highways. A numlci ol local
|uiisuiciions, incluuing Saiianluig anu
Columlia, havc asscu ihcii own comlcic
siiccis icsoluiions.
See www.Jo.o./e.r/b.IeeJ/BP_
.Ieore.LI o. www.oIee.ee.o.
C+li|crri+s Stppcrt c| Ir+rsit
9rirt1 |rlcpmrt
Caliloinia`s Dcaiimcni ol Tiansoiiaiion
Caliians) has lccn woiIing io suoii
iiansii-oiicnicu ucvclomcni TOD),
giauually imlcmcniing iccommcnuaiions
k Clcsr Lcc| +t lrrcr+ticrs ir Iwc St+ts
liom a 2000 siuuy iniiiaicu ly Caliians. Thc
icoii noics ihai locusing ucvclomcni
aiounu iiansii siaiions ioviucs moliliiy
choiccs, incicascs iiansii iiucishi anu lcaus
many icsiucnis io icuucc uiiving, which in
iuin can incicasc a houscholu`s uisosallc
incomc whilc icuucing cncigy consumiion
anu aii olluiion. Thc siuuy also says TOD
has hclcu io icuucc inliasiiuciuic cosis,
loosi cconomic aciiviiy, anu coniiiluic io
alloiuallc housing.
Thc agcncy is ioviuing icchnical assisiancc
io local agcncics ihiough a Tiansii-
Oiicnicu Dcvclomcni Comcnuium,"
a comichcnsivc ioollox loi ucvclocis
anu ullic agcncics. Ii also mainiains a
uciailcu, scaichallc uaialasc ol TOD
io|ccis in ihc siaic, anu has issucu a icoii
on how io managc aiIing ai TODs.
Thc lcgislaiuic has asscu a mcasuic
icquiiing ihc siaic io ollci suilus lanus ai
ihc aiaiscu valuc io local govcinmcnis
loi TOD ucvclomcni, anu has cxcmicu
small TOD housing io|ccis liom
cnviionmcnial sianuaius. Thc siaic is also
siuuying imiovcu cooiuinaiion ol icgional
lanu usc anu iiansoiiaiion lanning in a
iloi io|cci in Mciccu Couniy. Mainsiicam
iiansoiiaiion lunus usually icscivcu loi
highway consiiuciion aic lcing uscu io
luilu aiIing gaiagcs ai TOD siaiions, in
oiuci io licc u suilacc aiI-anu-iiuc lois
loi mixcu-usc ucvclomcni io|ccis. Oihci
iccommcnuaiions in ihc 2000 siuuy, such
as ioviuing siaic lunuing loi TOD anu
cicaiing iax-incicmcni hnancing uisiiicis,
havc noi yci lccn imlcmcnicu.
Oihci siaics suoiiing TOD incluuc
Maiylanu, Ncw ]ciscy, Pcnnsylvania,
Iloiiua, anu Massachusciis. A lcucial siuuy
ol siaic suoii ol TOD can lc lounu
ai www.conicxiscnsiiivcsoluiions.oig/
conicni/icauing/nchi_2-2-20
See: www.Jo.n.o./Lq/AnT.nr/oJ.L
S M k K I K 9 I B I 9 9 L K l I 73
aicas whcic many oihci iiavcl oiions aic
availallc. In mixcu-usc ucvclomcnis, aiIing
can lc shaicu, uoing uoullc oi iiilc uuiy
whcn uillcicni iycs ol ucsiinaiions such as
olhccs, icsiauianis, oi cincmas) uiaw colc
ai uillcicni iimcs oi uays ol ihc wccI. Ioi
cxamlc, in Inuianaolis, a laigc ncw iciail
anu cniciiainmcni ccnici ihai woulu havc
nccucu 6,000 aiIing saccs unuci iiauiiional
minimum aiIing icquiicmcnis was allc io
luilu |usi 2,S1 wiih shaicu aiIing.
Chaiging loi aiIing, aiiiculaily ai ihc cuil,
can icuucc ucmanu anu cncouiagc iuinovci,
whilc ioviuing lunuing loi ncighloihoou
imiovcmcni io|ccis.
See: www.en.o./JeJ/n.I.r.L
Krit+litir] Ccmmtritis
Thc icucvclomcni ol cxisiing uilan,
suluilan anu iuial iociiics alicauy
scivcu ly inliasiiuciuic, incluuing inuusiiial
liownhclus" ihai nccu io lc ucconiaminaicu,
siimulaics giowih anu imiovcs a communiiy`s
cconomic viialiiy. Dcvclomcni in cxisiing
ncighloihoous is an aioach io giowih
ihai can lc cosi-cllcciivc whilc ioviuing
icsiucnis wiih a closci ioximiiy io |ols, ullic
sciviccs anu amcniiics. Many communiiics aic
locusing on a vaiiciy ol icchniqucs io maIc
icucvclomcni casici.
k1+ptir] +r1 r1rlcpir]
tlcs1 milit+r |+ss
Having a miliiaiy lasc closc oi icuucc
ociaiions can lc iiaumaiic loi
communiiics. Thc challcngcs may
sccm uauniing, lui many communiiics
havc iiansloimcu loimci lascs inio
valuallc asscis. Inuccu, many ol
ihcsc icucvclomcnis havc lccomc
showlaccs loi ihc cniiic communiiy
- loosiing ihc cconomy, cicaiing |ols,
ioviuing homcs, anu ioicciing ihc
cnviionmcni. Two cxccllcni icsouiccs
aic availallc io hcl:
Beyond the Fence: A REALTORS


Cuide to MiIitory Bose CIosure,
ReoIignment ond Encroochment
Thc ullicaiion is ucsigncu so
ihai REAITORS

can Inow how io


gci involvcu io hcl communiiics
coc wiih ihc sulsianiial cconomic
challcngcs ihai aiisc whcn lascs aic
iooscu loi closuic oi cxansion.
See: www..enIo..o./be,orJLeere
Turning Boses Into Creot PIoces: New
Li[e [or CIosed MiIitory FociIities
This guiuclooI uiscusscs how io cicaic
a vision loi loimci insiallaiions ihai
ioviucs housing anu iiansoiiaiion
choiccs, cicaics a mix ol |ols anu
housing, anu maIcs ihc mosi ol naiuial
asscis. See: www.en.o./JeJ/.I.n.,.L
In Poiilanu, Oicgon, a oiiion ol Bclmoni
Daiiy was incoioiaicu inio icsiucniial lolis,
alloiuallc aaiimcnis, anu moic ihan 2,000
squaic-lcci ol iciail sacc. Dcnvci`s loimci
Iowiy Aii Ioicc Basc has lccn convciicu inio
a walIallc communiiy wiih a mix ol olhccs,
shoing, houscs, aaiimcnis anu civic
luiluings. Thc loimci -acic Scais, RoclucI
anu Co. hcauquaiicis on Chicago`s wcsi siuc
is now ihc mixcu-incomc Homan Squaic
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S

74
communiiy wiih 600 houscs, iownhouscs,
anu aaiimcnis, lus ncaily a million squaic
lcci ol iciail sacc anu a 70,000-squaic-looi
communiiy ccnici.
REAITOR

RR Associaiions in Baliimoic, anu


YoiI, Pcnnsylvania havc iaIcn a lcau in
hcling icviializc uilan aicas, icau ihcii
iohlcs in Scciion V.
Thc lollowing ihicc icsouiccs, as wcll as
scvcial oihcis, aic availallc on ihc NAR wcl
siic ai: www.icalioi.oig/liownhcluicucvcl
Bcst Practiccs to Encouragc Inhll
Dcvclopmcnt: This icoii, icaicu ly
Rolinson 8 Colc loi NAR, auuicsscs whai
aciions govcinmcnis can iaIc io auuicss
ihc uniquc challcngcs oscu ly inhll
ucvclomcni, incluuing iociiy acquisiiion,
asscmlly, anu hnancing, iax licns anu iiilcs,
anu cnviionmcnial coniaminaiion.
See: www..enIo..o./.rIIJe.eIoer
Economic Dcvclopmcnt Casc Studics: This
NAR sciics ol casc siuuics cxamincs scvcn
icucvclomcni io|ccis acioss ihc couniiy
ihai havc scivcu as caialyiic io|ccis loi uilan
icviializaiion in ihcii communiiics.
See: www..enIo..o./eorJe.
A Guidc to Tax Incrcmcnt Financing (TIF):
This NAR icoii ioviucs insighi inio how
TII iogiams woiI io liing iax icvcnucs io
communiiics, somc ol ihc ways communiiics
havc uscu TII iogiams, anu cxamlcs ol TII
siaiuics anu casc law.
See: www..enIo..o./..eo.
Tax-incrcmcnt hnancing and othcr tax
inccntivcs. Many ciiics usc iax-incicmcni
hnancing io iomoic icucvclomcni in
ucsignaicu aicas, ucvoiing ihc associaicu
imiovcu iax icvcnucs io aying loi lonus
ihai aic uscu io insiall inliasiiuciuic nccucu io
|um-siaii icviializaiion. Somc, such as Ailania,
aic incluuing alloiualiliiy icquiicmcnis as
conuiiions loi usc ol TII lunus.
Aooressing vacant ano
abanooneo properties
Raiu giowih on ihc liingcs ol many
mciiooliian icgions has ullcu invcsimcni
liom uilan coics anu innci-iing suluils,
lcaving alanuoncu luiluings anu vacani
iociiics. Alanuonmcni iaIcs many loims
- houscs lcli lchinu lccausc ol suluilan
migiaiion, inuusiiial uownsizing, anu
icuaioiy lcnuing iaciiccs, oncc viliani
uowniowns iuincu inio ghosi iowns, oi
local iciail sioics alanuoncu whcn laigc,
icgional ccnicis movcu in. No maiici how ihc
hcnomcnon manilcsis iiscll, ihc incicasingly
iolounu cllccis ol vacani iociiics aic ihc
samc: lowci iax icvcnucs, highci municial
cosis, anu sciious cnviionmcnial anu ullic
hcalih conscqucnccs. Bcloic communiiics can
loi ihcii comclacI, ihcy musi auuicss ihc
scouigc ol vacani iociiics.
Thc Naiional Vacani Piociiics Camaign,
a consoiiium ol naiional, siaic anu local
oiganizaiions shaiing lcsi iaciiccs anu
icchniqucs loi comlaiing alanuonmcni,
ioviucs a wcalih ol icsouiccs on iis wcl siic:
www.vacaniiociiics.oig
State polices
Iollowing aic cxamlcs ol olicics ihai
ihicc siaics havc uscu io iomoic cconomic
icviializaiion anu icucvclomcni.
RecycIing Lond in PennsyIvonio
Coniaminaicu inuusiiial siics can lc a ical
laiiici io icviializaiion. Pcnnsylvania has
woiIcu haiu noi |usi io icmovc laiiicis io
ihc clcanu ol coniaminaicu liownhclu siics,
lui io maIc clcanu casy anu icuiciallc
- anu cvcn iohiallc. Thc siaic`s Ianu
Rccycling Acis ol 199 sci uniloim casy-io-
lollow clcanu sianuaius, ic|cciing cailici
moucls ihai iclicu on iimc-consuming anu
unicuiciallc siic-sccihc ncgoiiaiions.
Ianuowncis aic inviicu io choosc onc ol
ihicc scis ol sianuaius, lascu on ihc nccus
ol ihcii siic. Sianuaiuizcu icvicw ioccuuics
cnsuic no suiiiscs, anu oncc ihcy mcci ihc
sianuaiu, ihcy icccivc lialiliiy ioicciion.
S M k K I K 9 I B I 9 9 L K l I 75
A numlci ol iogiams in ihc siaic ollci
millions ol uollais in hnancial assisiancc
loi liownhclu clcanu anu ucvclomcni.
Thc siaic ays communiiics io conuuci
invcnioiics ol ihcii liownhclu siics. Inuiviuual
lanuowncis anu local govcinmcnis aic
cligillc io icccivc a vaiiciy ol gianis anu
loans io iniiiaic clcan us. Oihci iogiams
ioviuc lunuing io hcl communiiics invcsi
in ucvcloing ihc siics oncc ihcy aic icauy
loi ic-usc. A Biownhclu Aciion Tcam BAT)
iogiam assigns a singlc Dcaiimcni ol
Enviionmcnial Pioicciion managci io hanulc
all ihc luicauciaiic asccis ol a clcanu siic,
incluuing assisiancc in alying loi lunuing
anu cimiis wiih oihci agcncics. Thc siics
sclccicu loi BAT musi lc in laccs alicauy
ucsignaicu loi icviializaiion.
Thc iogiam has clcancu u wcll ovci 2,000
ol Pcnnsylvania`s csiimaicu 10,000 io 12,000
liownhclu siics, iclcasing ihousanus ol acics ol
iimc ical csiaic loi icucvclomcni.
See: www.Jeweb.ne.n.u/InrJ.ewne/w/..ew.
n:n=12.Q=02u:.InrJ.ewneNn.=!.
Michigon Fost Troch Lond Bonh Authority
Thc siaic ol Michigan is a lcauci in hcling
communiiics liing alanuoncu anu vacani
iociiics lacI inio iouuciivc icusc. Acioss
ihc Uniicu Siaics, aniiquaicu iociiy laws
havc icvcnicu local govcinmcnis liom gaining
clcai iiilc io alanuoncu iociiics, oi liom
icaiing ii loi cllcciivc icucvclomcni.
Piociiy olicn siis ncglccicu whilc uclinqucni
iociiy owncis, scculaiois who havc loughi
iax licns, anu ihc local govcinmcni aiguc in
couii. Olicn ihc only mcihou io uisosc ol
iociiy is ihiough auciions io ihc highcsi
liuuci, icvcniing ihc local govcinmcnis liom
consoliuaiing iociiics oi sccIing ncw owncis
wiih lans loi aioiiaic icucvclomcni.
Thc iyical ncglcci anu uclay in ucaling wiih
alanuoncu iociiics has lccn climinaicu
in Michigan. Iiisi, a siaic law asscu in 1999
siicamlincu ihc ioccuuics loi loicclosing on
iax uclinqucni iociiics. Thcn in 200S ihc
siaic asscu a acIagc ol ncw laws aimcu ai
hcling local govcinmcnis hnancc ihc uIcc
ol vacani iociiics anu iaIc whaicvci sics
aic ncccssaiy io maIc ihcm iouuciivc again.
Thc lcgislaiion cicaicu a Iasi TiacI Ianu BanI
Auihoiiiy ihai auihoiizcs local govcinmcnis
io cicaic lanu lanIs ihai can icnovaic oi
icucvclo iociiics in ihcii invcnioiy, anu io
scll ihc iociiy as ihcy scc hi oi cvcn io icni
ii oui. Thc law givcs ihc lanu lanIs ihc owci
io hnancc lanu clcan-u anu icsioiaiion in
a vaiiciy ol ways, incluuing ly issuing lonus.
Thc lanIs aic also allc io Icc ihc iocccus
liom salcs oi icnials, anu loi hvc ycais hall ol
ihc iociiy iaxcs liom iociiics solu oui ol
ihcii invcnioiics go lacI io ihc lanu lanI.
All ihc iociiics hclu ly a lanu lanI aic now
also classihcu as liownhclus, oi coniaminaicu
siics. This mcans local govcinmcnis can usc
siaic anu lcucial liownhclu giani, loan,
anu iax iogiams io hcl clcan ihcm u
anu icucvclo ihcm. Thc Gcncscc Couniy
lanu lanI has iaIcn lull auvaniagc ol ihis
ucsignaiion, anu has icccivcu EPA gianis anu
loans as wcll as sciiing u a iax incicmcni
hnancing TII) iogiam loi ihc iociiics.
See: www..L.nr.o././u,10u7,7-1:-170-
uu.LI
Missouri Historic Preservotion Tox Credits
Rcviializing cxisiing communiiics can comc io a
ucau sio whcn iociiy owncis aic conlionicu
wiih luiluings in nccu ol cxicnsivc icaii anu
ichaliliiaiion. Bui ihis iolusi siaicwiuc iogiam
is cncouiaging ihc ichaliliiaiion ol hunuicus
ol hisioiic homcs anu commcicial iociiics
acioss Missouii. Thc iogiam has ianIcu hisi in
ihc naiion in ihc numlci ol io|ccis comlcicu
anu aiovcu.
Unuci ihc Missouii iogiam, owncis ol
commcicial iociiy anu icnial ical csiaic
can aly loi a iax cicuii cqual io iwcniy-hvc
ciccni ol ichaliliiaiion cosis loi hisioiic
iociiics, oi iociiics ihai coniiiluic io
a hisioiic aica. UnliIc lcucial icscivaiion
iax cicuiis, homcowncis can also iaIc
auvaniagc ol ihc Missouii iogiam loi ma|oi
ichaliliiaiion io|ccis. Thc Missouii cicuii
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S

76
can lc comlincu wiih ihc 20 ciccni lcucial
hisioiic icscivaiion iax cicuii.
A siuuy ly Ruigcis Univcisiiy lounu ihai ihc
iogiam has hclcu uiivc hciiiagc iouiism in
ihc siaic anu has lioughi ncw icvcnuc io ciiics
anu couniics.
See: www.Jr..o.o./Lo/Tn:C.J.L. See nIo,
FLoJe IInrJ n www...LL.ne....u/.eJ.
Cccr1ir+t1 |l+rrir]
Onc ol ihc hisi sics iowaiu giowing smaiici
is io ihinI ahcau aloui how io accommouaic
giowih, invcsi ullic uollais anu maIc suic
olicics linc u wiih communiiics` goals loi ihc
luiuic. Thc visioning innovaiions ucsciilcu in
ihc cailici scciion on lanning anu icgulaiion
auuicss ihis nccu. Thc ncxi sic is io cooiuinaic
ihai lanning among ihc vaiious lcvcls ol
govcinmcni, among ihc agcncics ai cach lcvcl
ol govcinmcni anu among ihc |uiisuiciions
wiihin mciio aicas. Thc noiion is ihai no agcncy
oi lcvcl ol govcinmcni can mcci iis goals il onc
cniiiy is woiIing ai cioss uioscs wiih anoihci.
REAITOR

RR Associaiions in Washingion anu


Ncw Mcxico havc iaIcn an aciivc iolc in
siaicwiuc lanning iniiiaiivcs, scc ihcii iohlcs
in Scciion V. REAITOR

RR Kcn ]acIson shaics


his cxciicnccs in sciving on a local lanning
commission in Scciion V.
This is olicn casici saiu ihan uonc, ol couisc.
Iollowing is a looI ai ihicc siaics ihai havc
iaIcn on ihc |ol ol cooiuinaiing lanning, as
wcll as somc challcngcs ihcy havc laccu.
Voshington Crowth Monogement Act
Washingion`s Giowih Managcmcni Aci has
lccn in lacc sincc 1990, lui ii has lccn
amcnucu a numlci ol iimcs anu has saiIcu
coniiovcisy as ii has lioughi a siiingcni ncw
sci ol lanning anu giowih icquiicmcnis io
giowing couniics anu ciiics acioss ihc siaic. Thc
Aci alics io laigc couniics ihai havc giown
ai lcasi 17 ciccni ovci ihc asi icn ycais, anu
small couniics whcic oulaiion has giown
ly 20 ciccni oi moic, as wcll as ihc ciiics
wiihin ihcm. Thcsc local govcinmcnis musi
iucniily anu ioicci ciiiical aicas whilc locusing
giowih in ucsignaicu giowih aicas. Thc local
govcinmcnis musi icaic comichcnsivc
lans anu cnaci ucvclomcni icgulaiions
ihai aic in linc wiih ihc comichcnsivc lan.
Thicc Giowih Managcmcni Hcaiing Boaius
icsolvc uisuics ovci comliancc wiih ihc
aci, incluuing acals on ncw icgulaiions oi
lounuaiics ol uilan giowih aicas.
Thc law scis oui 1S goals loi ihc
comichcnsivc lan, incluuing icuucing
siawl, using cxisiing inliasiiuciuic, anu
cncouiaging mulii-moual iiansoiiaiion. Thc
goals also sccily ihc imoiiancc ol naiuial
icsouicc-lascu inuusiiics, such as hshing anu
logging, anu call loi ihc ioicciion ol iociiy
iighis anu a sccuy cimiiiing ioccss.
Thc Washingion REAITORS

has lccn
succcsslul in ollciing amcnumcnis io ihc GMA
ihai incluuc ioviuing loi anu claiilying iuial
S M k K I K 9 I B I 9 9 L K l I 77
ucvclomcni ioccuuics, cicaiing inuusiiial
lanu lanIs, a luiluallc lanus invcnioiy
ioccss, anu ihc aliliiy io challcngc local lanu
usc uccisions ihiough ihc couiis, iaihci ihan
oi in auuiiion io ihc GMA Rcgional Hcaiings
Boaius. Scc Scciion V.)
See: www.n..owL.wn.o.
Visconsin Smort Crowth LegisIotion
Wisconsin has choscn io uisuc smaii giowih
ly maIing suic ihai communiiics lan ahcau
- wiih lcniy ol ciiizcn involvcmcni. Thc siaic`s
Comichcnsivc Planning Iaw will cnsuic ihai
ly 2010, almosi cvciy ciiy anu couniy in ihc
siaic will havc a comichcnsivc lan io guiuc
luiuic ucvclomcni. Thc law ioviucs gianis io
local communiiics io ay loi aloui hall ol ihc
cosi ol ucvcloing ihc lans. By May ol 2006,
S19 ciiics, villagcs, iowns, lanning commissions
anu iiilcs - aloui 60 ciccni ol Wisconsin
|uiisuiciions - hau icccivcu lanning gianis.
Thc law uchncs ninc clcmcnis, oi chaicis,
io cvciy comichcnsivc lan. Thcy
icquiic communiiics io iucniily issucs anu
ooiiuniiics, lan loi housing, iiansoiiaiion,
uiiliiics, anu lanu usc, icscivc agiiculiuial,
naiuial, anu culiuial icsouiccs, anu iomoic
cconomic ucvclomcni anu inicigovcinmcnial
coociaiion. Thc hnal chaici is aloui
imlcmcniaiion - ihc law icquiics ihai ciiics
anu villagcs ol 12,00 ciiizcns oi moic auoi a
moucl iiauiiional ncighloihoou ucvclomcni
oiuinancc anu a conscivaiion suluivision
oiuinancc io hcl shac ucvclomcni aiicins.
Thc law also csiallishcs14 lanning goals,
incluuing iomoiing icucvclomcni, ioviuing
iiansoiiaiion choiccs anu alloiuallc housing,
anu luiluing communiiy iucniiiy ly icviializing
Main Siiccis. Communiiics alying loi siaic
lanning gianis musi also agicc io csiallish
smaii giowih aicas," whcic siaic anu local
inliasiiuciuic icsouiccs will lc conccniiaicu.
Thc ullic gcis many anu vaiicu ooiiuniiics
io havc ihcii say aloui ihc lan. In laci, a
scaiaic ullic aiiiciaiion lan is onc ol ihc
hisi sics in any lanning ioccss.
See: www.1I..erJ.o./Cour.,_PInrr.r/VI_
Co.eLer..e_PInrr.r/VI_PInrr.r.L
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78
PennsyIvonio`s IntergovernmentoI
Cooperotion Low
An imoiiani ascci ol goou lanning is
ialIing io youi ncighlois. Pcnnsylvania
has givcn clcai lcgislaiivc auihoiiiy io
local govcinmcnis so ihcy can lan anu
aci coociaiivcly. Thc law iccognizcs ihai
in moucin mciiooliian aicas, inuiviuual
municialiiics aic woiIing in a lai laigci
cconomic maiIci ihai sans ihc icgion,
whcic giowih is noi in ihc coniiol ol any
onc |uiisuiciion. In many laccs a lailuic ol
coociaiion has cnucu u suiiing siawl,
as ucvclocis usc inconsisicni oiuinanccs
io choosc ucvclomcni on ihc cugc, whcic
icgulaiions anu cosis aic lowci loi ihcm, lui
highci loi ihc icgion as a wholc.
Thc law cncouiagcs |uiisuiciions io cnici inio
coociaiivc agiccmcnis loi maIing suic ihcii
zoning anu lanu-ucvclomcni oiuinanccs aic
consisicni wiih onc anoihci. Ii cncouiagcs
communiiics io |oinily ucvclo comichcnsivc
lans ihai san ihcii lounuaiics. Thc lans
can ucsignaic aicas loi luiuic giowih anu
loi icscivaiion on a icgion-wiuc lasis.
Communiiics wiih such icgional lans aic
suoiicu ly ihc Commonwcalih wiih
lanning lunus, auihoiiiy io shaic iax icvcnuc,
anu oihci lcnchis.
See: www.rewn.o/JenuI.n::.J=2u
Ccmmtrit |si]r
Many communiiics havc lounu ihai ii is noi
cnough mcicly io maIc a lan il ihcic is
no clcai vision loi how io imlcmcni ii in a
way ihai iouuccs ihc chaiacici, loim anu
lunciion ihai ciiizcns ucsiic. IiIcwisc, ii`s
noi cnough mcicly io say whai communiiics
uon`i wani io scc in icims ol ucvclomcni,
io gci a saiislacioiy icsuli, ihcy havc io
ucsciilc whai ii is ihcy uo wani in icims ol
communiiy ucsign.
In Vcimoni, as ihc cxamlc lclow cxlains,
ciiizcns havc cxicsscu a iclcicncc loi
giowih ihai iaIcs ihc loim ol ihc Ncw
Englanu iowns ihai havc long chaiaciciizcu
ihc icgion. In Caliloinia, ihc siaic has givcn
communiiics ncw laiiiuuc in using loim-lascu
coucs io guiuc communiiy ucsign. In nciihci
casc uocs siaic govcinmcni olicy uiciaic whai
musi lc luili whcic. Raihci, ii ollcis guiuancc
as io whai ihc communiiy will suoii wiih iax
uollais anu govcinmcni sciviccs.
Vernont Crowth Centers
Vcimoni has a long-csiallishcu ucvclomcni
aiicin ol comaci iowns anu villagcs,
olicn wiih a villagc giccn," suiiounucu
ly laims anu loicsis. Thc siaic is invoIing
ihai iiauiiion in iis ncw 2006) ucsignaiion
ol giowih ccnicis," laccs ihai will gci
iioiiiy in a vaiiciy ol siaic iogiams. Thc
ncw ucsignaiion allows local govcinmcnis
io aly voluniaiily loi giowih-ccnici siaius
loi cxisiing ciiics anu iowns, as wcll as loi
wcll-uchncu aiccls au|accni io cxisiing
ucvclocu aicas. Thc ccnicis musi havc
ullic saccs anu a local oini, a mix ol uscs,
anu musi mainiain ihc hisioiic ucvclomcni
S M k K I K 9 I B I 9 9 L K l I 7
Bctsir] k||cr1+|ilit
In mosi mciio aicas iouay, no singlc cniiiy
is icsonsillc oi accouniallc loi cnsuiing
ihai lamilics ol all incomcs can hnu a
ucccni homc wiihin icasonallc ioximiiy
io |ols anu csscniial sciviccs. Mcanwhilc,
viiiually cvciy local |uiisuiciion has ihc iighi
io imosc zoning iovisions ihai cxcluuc
lamilics ol moucsi mcans, anu vciy many uo.
Manuaics loi laigc lois anu laigci houscs
wiih cxcnsivc hnishcs uiivc u iiccs
whilc lans on aiiachcu, mixcu-incomc anu
oihci loims ol lowci-cosi consiiuciion uiivc
uown ihc alloiuallc suly. Mcanwhilc,
shcci ucmanu loi uilan living anu shoiici
commuics is uiiving iiccs in many closc-
in ncighloihoous lcyonu ihc icach ol
icachcis, hichghicis anu oihcis ol moucsi
incomc. Now, iising gas iiccs aic auuing io
ihc iiansoiiaiion cosi" ol homcs ihai aic
uisiani liom |ols anu aciiviiics.
Iaccu wiih ihcsc ciicumsianccs, communiiics
acioss ihc couniiy aic iiying a iangc ol
innovaiivc oliccs anu ullic-iivaic
aioachcs io incicasc ihc availaliliiy ol
alloiuallc homcs in ioximiiy io |ols anu
uilan amcniiics. Iollowing is a liicl ovcivicw
ol scvcial olicics availallc io iomoic
alloiuallc housing in ihc locaiions whcic
ucmanu is high.
Thc REAITORS

Associaiion in Vcniuia
Couniy Caliloinia has hclcu iomoic
alloiuallc housing ihiough iis HOME
iogiam. Scc Scciion V loi a casc siuuy.
Inclusionary zoning. In hoi housing maiIcis,
somc ciiics aic icquiiing ihai ucvclomcnis
ol a cciiain sizc coniain a shaic ol houscs ihai
mcci local alloiualiliiy goals. Thcsc usually
involvc gianiing a ucnsiiy lonus in cxchangc
loi alloiuallc uniis. Washingion, D.C., Bosion,
Ailania anu San Iiancisco aic among ihc
|uiisuiciions auoiing ihcsc olicics.
See NAF` E.eIJ Cu.Je o IrIu.orn.,
Zor.r` nrJ oLe. .eou.e n www..enIo..o./
.rIu.orn.,.or.r
aiicin ol comaci villagcs anu uilan ccnicis
scaiaicu ly a iuial couniiysiuc.
In auuiiion io giving giowih ccnicis" lunuing
iioiiiy, ihc siaic is allowing ihcm io lccomc
iax-incicmcni hnancing TII) uisiiicis. Insiuc
TII uisiiicis, local govcinmcnis aic allowcu io
usc a oiiion ol iociiy iax icvcnucs liom
ncw ucvclomcnis io ay loi ihc inliasiiuciuic
imiovcmcnis ihai mauc ihc ncw aciiviiy
ossillc in ihc hisi lacc.
Thc ncw lcgislaiion was suoiicu ly ihc
Vcimoni Associaiion ol REAITORS

VAR).
To lioaucn ihc accciancc ol ihc ncw
lcgislaiion, VAR soughi suoii liom NAR io
ucvclo a couisc on ihc iincilcs ol smaii
giowih in aiincishi wiih ihc Vcimoni
Ioium on Siawl. To lcain moic, coniaci Bol
Hill ai iuhCviicalioi.com.
See: www...nwI.o./Feou.e/Ie.In.or/
Ie.In.or-2uu0.L
CaliIornia Forn-Baseo Cooes
Whilc zoning coucs aic siiicily a local maiici,
ihc Siaic ol Caliloinia is maIing clcai io
municialiiics ihai ncw zoning loims aic lcgal
- anu aic cvcn cncouiagcu.
Convcniional zoning is usually lascu on
luiluing usc, anu siiicily scaiaics homcs liom
shos anu lusincsscs. Such zoning has lccn
llamcu loi cicaiing siawl - anu namcu as a
laiiici io mixing iogcihci housing, iciail, anu
lusincss. Caliloinia`s olu law icgulaiing gcncial
lans sccmcu io imly ihai scaiaiing uscs was
ncccssaiy, so in 2004 ihc siaic asscu a law ihai
cncouiagcs whai aic Inown as loim-lascu
coucs." As uiscusscu cailici in ihc scciion on
innovaiions in zoning anu ucvclomcni coucs,
ihcsc zoning coucs locus on ihc icgulaiion ol
luiluing loim, such as how lai a luiluing is sci
lacI liom ihc siicci, anu iis hcighi. Thcy allow
communiiics io achicvc ucsiicu ucsigns whilc
mixing iogcihci uillcicni iycs ol uscs, anu aic
a common way ol achicving smaii giowih.
See: www.I.o./.eeub/PDE/1nrJ_Ue/n_
Lee/o._bneJ_oJe.J
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8O
Rcgional, Iair-sharc housing plans. To hcl
cnsuic ihai no |uiisuiciion cnus u wiih ioo
much ol onc Iinu ol housing, whcihci ai
ihc low oi high cnu, somc mciio icgions aic
cicaiing mulii-|uiisuiciional lans ihai hcl io
allocaic sulsiuizcu housing in a laii way, whilc
cnsuiing ihai oihci loims ol alloiuallc homcs
maich ihc |ols availallc.
Mixcd-incomc projccts can hcl ucliay
inliasiiuciuic cosis loi lowci-iiccu uniis ly
incluuing ihcm wiih moic cxcnsivc uniis.
Mixcu-incomc io|ccis havc iovcn highly
succcsslul in ihc lasi lcw ycais. Many havc
lccn cicaicu ihiough ihc lcucial HOPE VI
iogiam, which iclaccu uilaiuaicu high-
iisc ullic housing wiih ncw io|ccis ihai mix
sulsiuizcu anu maiIci-iaic homcs.
Incrcascd travcl options can allow lamilics
io uiivc lcss, cvcn owning lcwci cais, ihcicly
saving moncy ihai can go iowaiu imiovcu
housing oiions. This is ihc iincilc lchinu
locaiion-clhcicni moiigagcs, which allow
luycis in walIallc ncighloihoous wiih goou
iiansii acccss io qualily loi laigci sums ihan
ihcy oihciwisc woulu, lccausc ol ihc moncy
savcu on vchiclcs.
Pcrmissivc policics on granny ats and othcr
acccssory units. Allowing homc owncis
io cicaic an acccssoiy aaiimcni on ihcii
\rmcrt Bctsir] +r1
Ccrsrr+ticr Irtst |tr1
Vcimoni has lccn mcciing ihc nccu
io lunu loih ocn sacc icscivaiion
anu alloiuallc housing sincc 19S7
whcn ii cicaicu ihc Vcimoni Housing
anu Conscivaiion Tiusi Iunu. Whilc
many siaics havc Housing Tiusi
Iunus olicn lunucu ly ical csiaic
convcyancc iaxcs oi iccoiuing lccs),
Vcimoni was ihc hisi io linI alloiuallc
housing io icscivaiion. Thc lunu
has awaiucu moic ihan S142 million
uollais loi alloiuallc housing anu
icscivaiion, lcvciaging S00 million
moic liom iivaic souiccs.
IinIing housing anu icscivaiion has
hclcu iomoic smaii giowih. Ioi
cxamlc, aloui onc-quaiici ol ihc
alloiuallc housing uniis suoiicu
ly ihc lunu aic in luiluings cligillc
loi ihc Naiional Rcgisici ol Hisioiic
Placcs. Such uual goal" io|ccis
hcl communiiics inicgiaic iwo
sccmingly uivcigcni nccus. In somc
cascs laims icscivcu ly ihc lunu havc
incoioiaicu ncw alloiuallc housing
uniis, in oihcis housing gious
suoiicu ly ihc lunu havc agiccu
io ioicci siicams anu ocn sacc
ai ihc siic ol ncw anu ichaliliiaicu
alloiuallc housing.
Hawaii anu Conncciicui havc icccnily
cicaicu similai iogiams, anu Rhouc
Islanu is woiIing io icvivc a iogiam
mouclcu on Vcimoni`s ihai has ncvci
icccivcu lunuing.
See: www..Lb.o./onI..or.LI
S M k K I K 9 I B I 9 9 L K l I 8l
iociiy, ciihci loi cisonal usc oi icni,
can hcl cxanu ihc housing suly whilc
sulcmcniing homc owncis` incomc.
Smart rchabilitation codcs ihai maIc ii lcss
cosily io ui oluci luiluings io usc. Ncw ]ciscy
has lccn a ioncci in ihis aica.
Rc-usc oI vacant propcrtics. Many ciiics anu
oluci suluils aic uiscovciing ways io woiI
wiih ihc iivaic sccioi io woiI quicIly io ui
iax-uclinqucni anu alanuoncu iociiics
lacI inio scivicc as alloiuallc homcs.
Stlccls
EoIIow.r . n b..e o.e...ew o Le .oIe LooI
n.I..e oI..e nr In, .r n. .owL. Eo.
n uIIe. J.u.or, Iene ee Pullic Schools:
A ToolIii loi REAITORS

www..enIo..o./
ubLooIooII.
As cvciy REAITOR

RR Inows, ihc conncciion


lciwccn schools anu ical csiaic is iolounu.
Thc ciccivcu qualiiy ol schools allcci homc
valucs, |usi as ihc ucclinc ol housing siocI
anu local iax lasc can allcci school qualiiy. A
ncighloihoou wiih a iiauiiional school ncsilcu
wiihin walIing uisiancc ol mosi siuucnis has
onc Iinu ol chaiacici, whilc a ncighloihoou
whosc chiluicn musi lc uiivcn io a laigc
school on lusy aiiciial ioaus havc anoihci.
In icccni ycais, smaii giowih iincilcs havc
convcigcu wiih a movcmcni among cuucaiois
anu ncighloihoou auvocaics loi smallci schools
ihai aic inicgial io ihc communiiy. Rcscaich
shows ihai chiluicn aiicnuing smallci schools
gci lciici giaucs anu aiiiciaic moic in school
aciiviiics, anu aic moic liIcly io go io collcgc.
Ncighloihoou schools also can scivc muliilc
lunciions loi ihc suiiounuing communiiy
ouisiuc ol school houis. Anu in ihis cia ol high
olcsiiy iaics, walIing oi liIing io school givcs
Iius ihai cxiia lii ol hysical aciiviiy ihai can
hcl maIc a uillcicncc - ioviucu ihc school is
in a walIallc ncighloihoou wiih salc iouics io
anu liom ihc school giounus.
In an aiiiclc loi ihc Amciican School Boaiu
]ouinal, consulianis Consiancc Bcaumoni anu
Bailaia McCann iooscu chaiaciciisiics loi
smaii giowih" schools. Thcy aic:
W Small anu hi comloiially inio ihc
ncighloihoous ihcy scivc,
W Encouiagc communiiy involvcmcni in
lanning loi ihc laciliiy,
W Pioviuc high qualiiy cuucaiion,
W Iocaicu wiihin a ncighloihoou whcic
mosi Iius can walI oi liIc salcly,
W Aci as a ncighloihoou local oini, wiih
alici-houis communiiy aciiviiics, anu
9tlr ts|tl rsctrts
Ioi a moic comlcic uiscussion ol
ihcsc issucs, scc ihcsc icsouiccs:
Knowlcdgcplcx.org, a io|cci ol ihc
Iannic Mac Iounuaiion anu a numlci
ol aiincis, ollcis a vasi aiiay ol
alloiualiliiy ncws, iools anu loiums ai
www.IrowIeJeIe:.o.
AIIordablc Housing and Smart
Growth: Making thc conncction ollcis
lullci cxlanaiions ol olicics as wcll
as cxcmlaiy io|ccis, ai www.en.o./
JeJ/J/en_nL_.J
Thc AIIordablc Housing Dcsign
Advisor ollcis a laigc gallciy ol ullic,
iivaic anu non-iohi io|ccis ihai
iooI auvaniagc ol olicics lisicu hcic,
as wcll as oihcis, io cicaic succcsslul,
oulai io|ccis, lcasc scc: www.
Je.rnJ..o..o.
Conscrvation Bascd AIIordablc
Housing: Improving thc Naturc oI
AIIordablc Housing, liom Thc
Conscivaiion Iunu, ollcis 16 cxamlcs
ol communiiics luiluing alloiuallc
housing whilc consciving lanu ai ihc
samc iimc. www.ore..n.orurJ.o./
:n..Ie=12.bnI=.ue
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S

82
W MaIc goou usc ol cxisiing icsouiccs,
incluuing hisioiic luiluings, whcncvci
ossillc.
Ioi many ycais sincc ihc 1960s, wiucly
auoicu sianuaius liom ihc Council ol
Euucaiional Iaciliiy Planncis Inicinaiional
unucimincu ihcsc goals ly iomoiing
laigc, uiivc-io school on siics ol many acics.
Rcccnily, howcvci, ihc sianuaiu-sciiing
oiganizaiion has icihoughi iis guiuclincs io
cncouiagc icnovaiing cxisiing ncighloihoou
schools anu using smaii giowih iincilcs in
siiing uccisions. Thc ncw guiuancc can lc
lounu in ihc icoii, Schools loi Succcsslul
Communiiics: An Elcmcni ol Smaii Giowih",
on CEIPI`s wclsiic: www.en.o./n..owL/
J/Sn.C.owL_LooI_Pub.J
EJun.or Vo.IJ iccommcnus ihcsc olicics as
lcnchcial io loih schools anu ihc communiiics
ihcy scivc, as wcll as ihc cnviionmcni:
W Eliminaic ailiiiaiy acicagc sianuaius
ihai unuciminc ihc aliliiy ol csiallishcu
communiiics io iciain oluci schools
W Givc gicaici cmhasis io icnovaiion, vcisus
ncw consiiuciion
W School uisiiicis anu local govcinmcnis
shoulu collaloiaic on local lanning
W Ensuic ihai a minimum ol 0 ciccni ol
siuucnis can walI io school
Eo. o.e or Lee nrJ oLe. oI..e, ee Le U.S.
EPA` Sn. C.owL nrJ SLooI .e:
www.en.o./n..owL/LooI.L
MoryIond SchooI Construction Progrom
Maiylanu allocaics siaic lunus io hcl local
govcinmcnis wiih school consiiuciion, anu
iioiiiizcs io|ccis ihai icviializc cxisiing
laciliiics anu ihosc in ucvclocu aicas
alicauy scivcu ly ullic inliasiiuciuic.
Thcsc olicics havc lcu Maiylanu io awaiu
S0 ciccni ol iis school consiiuciion uollais
io cxisiing laciliiics insicau ol ncw camuscs
on ihc cugc ol iown. Maiylanu also maIcs
no acicagc sianuaiu iccommcnuaiions,
cxansivc school acicagc icquiicmcnis loi
layhclus anu aiIing lois aic onc icason
S M k K I K 9 I B I 9 9 L K l I 83
communiiics cnu u uiiing schools in ocn
hclus lai liom ncighloihoous.
Oihci siaics, such as Mainc anu Caliloinia,
aic iomoiing lciici coociaiion lciwccn
communiiy lanning agcncics anu school
loaius.
See: www..ne.J.u
Ioi moic on ihc iincilcs lchinu cnuing
school siawl, scc Scciion II: Toics in Smaii
Giowih`.
To lcain aloui a REAITOR

RR woiIing on
school siawl issucs, scc ihc iohlc ol Iinua
Goiuon-Nichols in Scciion V.
Sn. C.owL Sn. SLooI Ir..n..e: www.n.-
LooI.o.
|ist+l |rt1rt
Evciy |uiisuiciion hocs io invcsi ullic
uollais in a way ihai susiains ihc cconomy
whilc imioving ihc qualiiy ol lilc ol
icsiucnis. Olicn, ihough, olicics on
iociiy iaxaiion, iiansoiiaiion lunuing,
waici anu scwci cxicnsions, school lunuing
anu ihc liIc woiI ai cioss uioscs anu
somciimcs cvcn woiI againsi ihc long-icim
susiainaliliiy ol communiiics.
Thc Naiional Govcinois Associaiion has
iomoicu a Iix ii Iiisi" aioach wiih
ihcsc goals:
Spcnd Iunds morc cIhcicntly by:
W Taigciing siaic invcsimcni io aicas wiih cx-
isiing inliasiiuciuic anu laciliiaic ucvclo-
mcni in aicas mosi suiiallc loi giowih.
W Cooiuinaiing siaic agcncy lanning aiounu
common ucvclomcni goals.
Incrcasc cconomic compctitivcncss by:
W Imioving cxisiing communiiy
inliasiiuciuic io cicaic laccs ihai aic
acaling loi lusincss anu icsiucniial
invcsimcni.
W Cicaiing inccniivcs io icviializc anu icsioic
ihc cconomics ol iaigcicu aicas.
Enhancc quality oI liIc by:
W Cicaiing inccniivcs loi communiiics io
uisuc cooiuinaicu ucvclomcni goals.
W Rcmoving laiiicis io ihc consiiuciion anu
ichaliliiaiion ol schools in csiallishcu aicas.
Ioi local govcinmcnis, ihcic aic vaiious
icchniqucs availallc loi mcciing ihcsc goals.
Two ol ihcm aic hscal imaci analysis anu
imaci lccs ihai aic iailoicu io icucci ihc iiuc
cosis associaicu wiih locaiion.
Fiscal lnpact Analysis
Iiscal imaci analysis ol iooscu
ucvclomcnis hcls io uciciminc ihc cosi io
local govcinmcnis anu iaxaycis ol ioviuing
inliasiiuciuic io scivc ncw ucvclomcnis. Ioi
moic on ihc analysis anu whai ii mcans loi
olicy, lcasc scc Dcvclomcnis anu Dollais:
An Iniiouuciion io Iiscal Imaci Analysis in
Ianu Usc Planning" ai www.r.J.o./..e/
n..owL/JJ/JJ.r:.n
lnpact Iees
Imaci lccs aic inicnucu io maIc ncw
ucvclomcni ay iis own way loi loih
inliasiiuciuic anu sciviccs. Olicn, howcvci, ihcic
is no uisiinciion mauc lciwccn ucvclomcni
ihai occuis in giccnhclu" aicas ihai musi lc
scivcu wiih ncw inliasiiuciuic anu cxanucu
olicc, hic anu oihci sciviccs, anu ucvclomcni
ihai occuis in aicas ihai alicauy aic scivcu
anu hcl io maximizc icvious invcsimcnis.
]uiisuiciions ihai choosc io imosc imaci lccs
olicn aic lciici scivcu ly a sysicm ol giauuaicu
lccs ihai icuccis ihc lcnchis ol ucvclomcni
ihai maIcs clhcicni usc ol ullic invcsimcnis.
A lioauci uiscussion ol how io caiuic
ihc hscal anu ooiiuniiy gains associaicu
wiih lciici lanning can lc lounu in ihc
looI Siawl Cosis: Economic Imacis ol
UnchccIcu Dcvclomcni," availallc liom
Islanu Picss: www..InrJ.e.o/booI/Jen.I.
LI/SKU/1-::0-:u-
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S

84
lllinois Business Location
EIfciency Act
Dcvclocis icnu io liIc olhcc siawl lccausc
ii is simlc - in mosi laccs, uiiing u a
ncw olhcc oi inuusiiial luiluing in a icmoic
locaiion is quicI anu incxcnsivc, cvcn il ihc
ncw cmloyccs cnu u wiih a long uiivc io
woiI. Bui Illinois is giving lusincsscs an cugc
il ihcy choosc locaiions ihai aic scivcu ly
iiansii anu closc io alloiuallc housing loi ihcii
cmloyccs. Thc Busincss Iocaiion Elhcicncy Aci
ol 2006 incicascs coioiaic incomc iax cicuiis
ollcicu unuci ihc Economic Dcvclomcni loi
a Giowing Economy EDGE) iogiam ly icn
ciccni loi such clhcicni locaiions. Comanics
in aicas ihai uon`i qualily can u ihcii EDGE
cicuiis ly cicaiing a icmcuiaiion lan ihai may
ollci cmloyci-assisicu housing, shuiilc sciviccs,
ic-iax iiansii caius, oi caiooling assisiancc.
See: www..II.ro..o./P.eFeIene/
SLowP.eFeIene.:SubeID=2.FeNu=:u
Livable Delaware
Dclawaic is iaIing a comichcnsivc aioach
io icining in siawl anu managing giowih
wiih iis Iivallc Dclawaic Iniiiaiivc. A ciiiical
oiganizing iincilc ol ihc iniiiaiivc is ihc
siaic`s commiimcni io aioiiaicly uiicci
siaic invcsimcnis.
Thc lounuaiion ol ihc iogiam is an uuaicu sci
ol Siiaicgics loi Siaic Policics anu Scnuing"
ihai uiicci how ihc siaic can mosi clhcicnily
invcsi in iiansoiiaiion, social sciviccs, schools,
anu oihci inliasiiuciuic anu sciviccs. Dclawaic
is unusual in ihai ii ioviucs mosi ol ihcsc
sciviccs anu inliasiiuciuic ihioughoui ihc siaic,
anu sianus io savc signihcani icsouiccs wiih
moic caiclully consiucicu invcsimcnis.
Dclawaic has ucsignaicu loui iycs ol
invcsimcni aicas wiih a uciailcu ma): Icvcl
1 aicas aic gcncially csiallishcu ciiics anu
iowns anu Icvcl 4 aicas gcncially icicscni
agiiculiuial aicas. Thc lan ioviucs uciailcu
invcsimcni iioiiiics loi iiansoiiaiion, waici,
housing, siaic laciliiics, aiIs, sciviccs anu
oihci clcmcnis loi cach lcvcl. Ioi cxamlc, in
Invcsimcni Icvcl 1 aicas, Siaic invcsimcnis
anu olicics shoulu suoii anu cncouiagc a
wiuc iangc ol uscs anu ucnsiiics, iomoic oihci
iiansoiiaiion oiions, losici clhcicni usc ol
cxisiing ullic anu iivaic invcsimcnis, anu
cnhancc communiiy iucniiiy anu inicgiiiy."
Icvcl S aicas gci ihc lowcsi iioiiiy ol ihc
ihicc giowih` oiicnicu aicas, as ucvclomcni
is noi nccucu in ihcsc aicas io accommouaic
giowih. Siaic invcsimcni in Icvcl 4 aicas
aic noi uiiccicu iowaiu giowih, lui iowaiu
icscivaiion - incluuing ioicciing ocn sacc.
Thc siaic has also insiiiuicu a sysicm ol
giauuaicu imaci lccs loi ucvclomcni ihai
lcvy no lccs in iioiiiy giowih zoncs, anu
giauuaicu lccs whcn ucvclomcni is iooscu
in aicas slaicu loi lowci giowih oi icscivaiion.
See: www.ne.Je.u/Inrr.r/.ne.e/.ne.e.
LI
rr Btil1ir]
Sincc ihc 19S0s ihc icim giccn luiluing"
has lccn oulaiizcu io mcan using ihc mosi
cnviionmcnially scnsiiivc anu susiainallc
maiciials io iouucc luiluings ihai aic cncigy
S M k K I K 9 I B I 9 9 L K l I 85
anu icsouicc-clhcicni. In ihc lasi lcw ycais,
ihcic has lccn a gicaici iccogniiion wiihin
ihc giccn luiluing hclu ihai susiainaliliiy is
noi |usi aloui luiluings, lui incluucs a locus
on whcic anu how wc siic oui luiluings, how
ihc luiluings aic scivcu ly iiansoiiaiion,
anu ihc ovciall hcalih ol ihc communiiics
ihai ihcsc luiluings shac. IiIcwisc, ihc
smaii giowih movcmcni is aying moic
aiicniion io conscivaiion ol cncigy anu oihci
icsouiccs, aii anu waici qualiiy, anu ihc
cllcci ol luiluings on oui wcll-lcing. As ihc
smaii giowih movcmcni has iccognizcu ihc
imoiiancc ol giccn luiluing anu auoicu ii,
giccn luiluing iaciiiioncis havc iccognizcu
ihc imoiiancc ol smaii giowih in achicving
giccn luiluing`s laigci goals.
Siill, giccn luiluing" icmains a nichc
iaciicc. Insiiiuiional laiiicis icmain lccausc
ol lingciing qucsiions aloui ihc cconomic
vialiliiy, alloiualiliiy, insuialiliiy, anu uuialiliiy
ol giccn luiluings. Thc maiIci will auuicss
ihcsc issucs as moic luiluings aic consiiucicu
anu moic lcssons aic lcaincu. Iuiihcimoic,
ihc maiIci will unuouliculy icsonu il moic
consumcis ucciuc ihai ihcy caic aloui cncigy
savings anu clcanci inuooi aii as much as ihcy
caic aloui sizc anu moucin amcniiics.
Howcvci, govcinmcni olicics can lay a iolc
in siimulaiing ihc incicascu usc ol giccn
luiluing iaciiccs. Bclow aic iwo cxamlcs ol
siaic iogiams ihai uo |usi ihai.
See: www.ub.o./D.In,Pne.
n::CASPneID=7.
Arizona LEED
Aiizona`s Govcinoi ]anci Naoliiano signcu
an Exccuiivc Oiuci in Icliuaiy 200
icquiiing all siaic-lunucu luiluings io mcci
giccn luiluing sianuaius.
Thc luiluings musi qualily loi a Silvci
IEED-cciiihcaiion unuci a iogiam iun
ly ihc Giccn Builuing Council. Thc IEED
cciiihcaiion sysicm which sianus loi
Icaucishi in Encigy anu Enviionmcnial
Dcsign) awaius oinis io ncw consiiuciion loi
susiainallc siiing, waici anu cncigy clhcicncy,
gcnciaiing lcss wasic anu using susiainallc
maiciials, anu cicaiing goou inuooi aii qualiiy.
Builuings also icccivc oinis loi innovaiivc
ucsign. Thc IEED givcs loui ucsignaiions:
Cciiihcu, Silvci, Golu, anu Plaiinum.
Thc Aiizona Exccuiivc Oiuci also icquiics
ihai luiluings musi uciivc icn ciccni ol
ihcii cncigy nccus liom icncwallc icsouiccs
such as winu oi solai owci, oi ihiough
luying icncwallc cncigy cicuiis. Thc
Govcinoi uiiccicu ihc Aiizona Dcaiimcni
ol Auminisiiaiion, Tiansoiiaiion anu
Schools io icoii ihcii
lans io comly wiih ihc
ncw oiuci.
Many oihci siaics
anu communiiics aic
siaiiing io icquiic IEED
sianuaius. Visii ihc
Giccn Builuing Council`s
wclagc, hii://www.
usglc.oig/ io hnu a lisi,
anu io lcain aloui a ncw
IEED-cciiihcaiion sysicm
loi homcs, IEED-H, now
unuci ucvclomcni.
See: www.ub.o./
CLne./A...orn
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S

86
North Carolina HealthyBuilt Hones
In Noiih Caiolina, ihc siaic Encigy Olhcc anu
Dcaiimcni ol Auminisiiaiion havc |oincu
loiccs wiih ihc Noiih Caiolina Solai Ccnici
anu local luiluing oiganizaiions io ollci ihc
Noiih Caiolina Hcalihy Buili Homcs iogiam.
Thc iogiam ioviucs homc luilucis wiih ihc
icsouiccs io hcl ihcm luilu houscs ihai aic
hcalihy anu alloiuallc anu icuucc cncigy anu
waici usagc whilc ioicciing ihc cnviionmcni.
Thc iogiam is aimcu ai small anu mcuium-
sizcu homc luilucis io hcl ihcm comcic in
ihc ncw giccn housing maiIci. Thc iogiam
locuscs on lowciing ociaiing cosis loi
hcaiing anu cooling, imioving inuooi aii
qualiiy, anu lowciing ovciall cnviionmcnial
imaci. Homcs luili unuci ihc HcalihyBuili
iogiam aic insccicu accoiuing io a sccially
ucvclocu chccIlisi anu can lc maiIcicu as
HcalihyBuili homcs.
Bcgun in 2004, ihc iogiam has locuscu in aii
on cnsuiing ihai somc ol ihc cciiihcu homcs
aic alloiuallc. Dcvclomcnis in Ashcvillc anu
Duiham havc achicvcu cciiihcaiion loi aloui
20 homcs ucsigncu loi low-incomc lamilics.
HcalihyBuili homcs also havc ihc auucu lcnchi
ol uiamaiically lowci monihly hcaiing anu
cooling cosis, incicasing ihcii alloiualiliiy.
Thc wclsiic loi ihc iogiam incluucs a linI
whcic ical csiaic iolcssionals can sign u io
lc lisicu in a Diiccioiy ol Encigy Rcncwallc
Piolcssionals, mainiaincu ly ihc Solai Ccnici.
See: www.LenIL,bu.ILoe.o.
|rchls: |ctr St+ts I+|ir] +
Ccmprlrsir Sm+rt rcwtl kpprc+tl
Narylano
Thc Siaic ol Maiylanu lcgan io cncouiagc smaii
giowih in 1997. Ai ihc ccnici ol Maiylanu`s
clloiis aic iwo iniiiaiivcs: ucsignaiing Piioiiiy
Iunuing Aicas loi giowih, anu csiallishing a
Ruial Icgacy iogiam loi aicas ihai shoulu lc
ioiccicu liom ucvclomcni.
Piioiiiy Iunuing Aicas PIAs) aic laccs
whcic ihc siaic conccniiaics iis invcsimcnis
in oiuci io cncouiagc giowih in cxisiing
communiiics. PIAs incluuc all lanu insiuc ciiy
lounuaiics as ol 1997, inuusiiial aicas anu
cniciiisc zoncs, anu oihci aicas ucsignaicu
ly couniics, as long as ihcy mcci waici anu
scwci nccus anu ucnsiiy sianuaius. Thc PIAs
gci lunuing iioiiiy loi inliasiiuciuic such as
highways anu waici anu scwci consiiuciion,
anu loi cconomic ucvclomcni assisiancc.
S M k K I K 9 I B I 9 9 L K l I 87
Ioi cxamlc, ncw homcs hnanccu unuci low-
inicicsi homc loan iogiams loi low-incomc
anu uisallcu ciiizcns musi lc wiihin PIAs. In
auuiiion, cmloycis gci a liggci iax savings
unuci ihc ]ol Cicaiion Tax Cicuii iogiam il
ihcii lusincss is in a PIA.
Thc aiinci io ihc Piioiiiy Iunuing Aicas is
ihc Ruial Icgacy Piogiam, which is aimcu
ai ioicciing laigc, coniiguous iiacis ol
agiiculiuial, loicsi anu naiuial aicas liom
ucvclomcni. Thc Ruial Icgacy iogiam
uichascs conscivaiion cascmcnis anu
cncouiagcs lanning io ioicci ihcsc aicas
liom ucvclomcni icssuic.
Maiylanu has csiallishcu scvcial oihci
iogiams io cncouiagc comaci ucvclomcni
in cxisiing communiiics. Thc siaic
Dcaiimcni ol Planning has lcgun io
maiIci vacani siaic-owncu iociiics loi
icucvclomcni ihiough ihc Maiylanu Smaii
Siics wclsiic www.smaiisiics.oig). Thc
cxisiing Biownhclu Rcviializaiion Inccniivc
Piogiam was icloimcu in 2004 io siicamlinc
ihc alicaiion ioccss anu incicasc ihc iycs
ol cligillc siics. A comciiiivc iogiam lcgun
in 2004 callcu Piioiiiy Placcs, has awaiucu
sccial assisiancc io a hall-uozcn ciiics,
suluils anu small iowns ihai aic luiluing
io|ccis in alicauy ucvclocu aicas. Thc
io|ccis aic suoiicu ly ihc Smaii Giowih
Sul-Calinci," mauc u ol all siaic agcncics
ihai aic involvcu in lanu usc anu giowih.
Thc siaic is also ioviuing icchnical assisiancc
loi communiiics looIing loi ncw ways io giow.
Thc siaic has ucvclocu a Dcvclomcni Caaciiy
Analysis io hcl communiiics csiimaic ihcii
"luilu-oui" caaciiy, anu cncouiagcs |uiisuiciions
io consiuci auoiing Aucquaic Pullic Iaciliiy
Oiuinanccs ihai cnsuic ihai ioaus, scwcis anu
oihci inliasiiuciuic aic aucquaic io scivc ncw
ucvclomcni. Thc Dcaiimcni ol Planning
has issucu moucl smaii coucs` ihai ciiics anu
couniics can auoi ihai aic moic aioiiaic
loi ichaliliiaiion anu inhll ucvclomcni ihan
iiauiiional luiluing coucs.
See: www.J.ne.J.u/n..r.o.L
New Jersey
Thc Siaic ol Ncw ]ciscy has lcniy ol
cxciicncc wiih loih siucs ol siawling
ucvclomcni - ihc ucsiiuciion ol naiuial aicas
loi ncw ucvclomcni, anu ihc uisinvcsimcni
anu ucclinc in cxisiing uilan aicas. Thc siaic
has iaIcn many sics io iiy io icvcisc ihc
iicnu, incluuing a iolusi iogiam io icucvclo
inuusiiial liownhclus, cxicnsivc ocn sacc
anu laimlanu icscivaiion iogiams, anu
smaii luiuic" lanning gianis. Thc siaic
Dcaiimcni ol Tiansoiiaiion has auoicu
olicics ihai call loi hxing ii hisi" anu ihai
suoii ihc cicaiion ol iiansii villagcs" ihai
gci cxiia lanning anu lunuing aiicniion.
In ihis iohlc, wc locus on Ncw ]ciscy`s
innovaiivc siaic lanning sysicm, iis ncw coucs
loi ichaliliiaiing cxisiing luiluings, anu iis
giowih shaic" alloiuallc housing iniiiaiivc.
Thc Siaic Plan csiallishcu cighi lanning
goals scc siuclai), anu hvc iycs ol lanning
Nw !rss |i]lt
|l+rrir] c+ls
@ Rcviializc ihc Siaic`s Uilan Ccnicis
anu Aicas
@ Conscivc ihc Siaic`s Naiuial
Rcsouiccs
@ Piomoic Bcnchcial Economic
Giowih, Dcvclomcni anu Rcncwal
@ Pioicci ihc Enviionmcni
@ Pioviuc Aucquaic Pullic Sciviccs Ai
a Rcasonallc Cosi
@ Pioviuc Aucquaic Housing Ai a
Rcasonallc Cosi
@ Picscivc anu Enhancc Hisioiic,
Culiuial, Ocn Sacc anu
Rccicaiional Ianus anu Siiuciuics
@ Ensuic Sounu anu Inicgiaicu
Planning Siaicwiuc
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S

88
aicas, wiih an accomanying lanning ma.
Thc lan cncouiagcs local aiiiciaiion
ly cicaiing a voluniaiy icvicw sysicm ihai
cnuoiscs ciiy, couniy, anu icgional lans il ihc
lans aic consisicni wiih ihc siaic lans anu
goals anu ihosc ol suiiounuing |uiisuiciions.
]uiisuiciions wiih cnuoiscu lans gci lunuing
iioiiiy, a siicamlincu cimiiiing ioccss, anu
cooiuinaicu agcncy sciviccs.
Rehob codes Wiih moic ihan iis shaic
ol alanuoncu anu ncglccicu luiluings
- hall ol ihc siaic`s homcs wcic luili iioi
io 199 - Ncw ]ciscy has lcu ihc way in
cncouiaging icucvclomcni ly cicaiing
ichaliliiaiion coucs ihai sui icnovaiion
wiihoui iohiliiivc cosis oi icquiicmcnis.
Thc couc climinaics ihc uncciiainiy anu
somciimcs insuimouniallc icquiicmcnis
ol luiluing coucs ihai loicc ucvclocis io
mcci ncw-consiiuciion sianuaius on olu
luiluings. Thc Rchaliliiaiion Sul-couc
icgulaics ihicc iycs ol io|ccis: changcs ol
usc, auuiiions, anu ichaliliiaiions. Rchals
aic luiihci uiviucu accoiuing io how much
woiI has io lc uonc, which allows small
io|ccis io go loiwaiu wiihoui mcciing
luiucnsomc couc icquiicmcnis. Thc couc
has lcu io a uiamaiic incicasc in uollais
scni on ichaliliiaiion. Thc hisi ycai ihc
couc was in cllcci, 199S, ichaliliiaiion woiI
in Ncw ]ciscy`s hvc laigcsi ciiics incicascu
ly 60 ciccni. Thc siaic has also csiallishcu
ihc Ncw ]ciscy Rcucvclomcni Auihoiiiy,
a hnancing auihoiiiy ihai uscs many
mcchanisms io suoii icucvclomcni ol
uilan ncighloihoous.
Crowth shore housing A ciiiical clcmcni in
smaii giowih is alloiuallc housing ihai allows
colc io livc closc io ihcii |ols. Ncw ]ciscy
has csiallishcu giowih shaic" alloiuallc
housing sianuaius ihai cnsuic ihai whcncvci
ncw housing oi |ols comc inio a communiiy,
alloiuallc uniis will lc aii ol ihc mix.
Iocal |uiisuiciions aic icquiicu io cnsuic
ihai loi cvciy cighi maiIci-iaic homcs oi
aaiimcnis ihai aic luili, onc alloiuallc
unii musi lc ucvclocu. Anu loi cvciy 2
ncw |ols iniiouuccu inio a communiiy, onc
unii ol housing ihai is wiihin icach ol low-
oi mouciaic incomc houscholus musi lc
ucvclocu. Thc siaic Council on Alloiuallc
Housing uscs Siaic Planning Commission
giowih io|cciions as ii icvicws ihc giowih
lans ol local |uiisuiciions, a lull cvaluaiion ol
a |uiisuiciion`s succcss in mcciing alloiuallc
housing goals is uuc cvciy ihicc ycais.
See: www.r.o./Jn/o
Nassachusetts
Whilc mosi siaics aic cxciimcniing
wiih inuiviuual smaii giowih iniiiaiivcs,
Massachusciis has lccn aiicmiing a moic
comichcnsivc aioach. Govcinoi Miii
Romncy`s auminisiiaiion has csiallishcu icn
smaii giowih iincilcs anu is imlcmcniing a
cooiuinaicu sci ol ncw olicics anu iogiams.
Hc cvcn ic-oiganizcu siaic govcinmcni io
achicvc ihis vision.
Thc icn Susiainallc Dcvclomcni Piincilcs
ol Massachusciis hi on a singlc agc anu
M+ss+tltstts Stst+ir+|l
|rlcpmrt |rirtipls:
@ Rcucvclo Iiisi
@ Conccniiaic Dcvclomcni
@ Bc Iaii cquiiallc shaiing ol
ihc lcnchis anu luiucns ol
ucvclomcni)
@ Rcsioic anu Enhancc ihc
Enviionmcni
@ Conscivc Naiuial Rcsouiccs
@ Exanu Housing Ooiiuniiics
@ Pioviuc Tiansoiiaiion Choicc
@ Incicasc ]ol Ooiiuniiics
@ Iosici Susiainallc Busincsscs
@ Plan Rcgionally
S M k K I K 9 I B I 9 9 L K l I 8
inloim ihc woiI ol ihc ncwly-cicaicu Olhcc
ol Commonwcalih Dcvclomcni, a suci-
agcncy ihai cooiuinaics ihc woiI ol ihc
housing, iiansoiiaiion, cnviionmcnial, anu
cncigy agcncics ol ihc siaic govcinmcni
io lciici managc giowih. Massachusciis is
a siiong homc iulc siaic, anu many ol ihc
olicics anu iogiams auminisicicu ly ihc
olhcc aic lascu on ioviuing inccniivcs anu
icchnical assisiancc io local communiiics
inicicsicu in smaii giowih.
Thc inccniivcs can comc in ihc loim ol
haiu cash. Unuci Chaici 40R ol ihc siaic
couc, communiiics ihai cicaic sccial zoning
uisiiicis ihai allow anu lan loi ly iighi"
ucvclomcni ol high-ucnsiiy, mixcu usc
housing wiih signihcani alloiuallc uniis aic
icwaiucu hnancially - a S600,000 lum-sum
aymcni, anu SS,000 ci housing unii luili. A
liaiiisan giou, ihc Commonwcalih Housing
TasI Ioicc, iooscu 40R, anu ii is siiongly
suoiicu ly ihc Massachusciis Associaiion
ol REAITORS

. An auucu iovision 40S)


cncouiagcs |uiisuiciions io invcsi in housing
suiiallc loi lamilics ly IicIing in siaic
cuucaiion lunuing io ioviuc loi chiluicn
auucu io a communiiy as a icsuli ol ihc 40R-
insiicu ncw ucvclomcni.
Thc siaic is also ollciing a ncw Tiansii
Oiicnicu Dcvclomcni TOD) lonu
iogiam ihai will lunu licyclc anu cucsiiian
imiovcmcnis, housing io|ccis, anu aiIing
laciliiics loi ucvclomcnis - as long as ihcy aic
wiihin a quaiici milc ol a iiansii siaiion.
Thc Commonwcalih Caiial Scoiccaiu is issucu
loi aloui S00 iowns in ihc siaic. Thc scoiccaiu
mcasuics how wcll local ucvclomcni iaciiccs
mcci ihc Susiainallc Dcvclomcni Piincilcs.
Scoiing wcll can incicasc how much siaic
lunuing a communiiy icccivcs.
A[[ordobIe housing In auuiiion io ihc g
40R alloiuallc housing icquiicmcni,
Massachusciis has a long-sianuing Chaici
40B" alloiuallc housing olicy. In
communiiics whcic lcss ihan icn ciccni ol
housing is alloiuallc io low incomc lamilics
oi scniois, ucvclocis who ioosc io|ccis
wiih 20 io 2 ciccni alloiuallc uniis can
ovciiiuc local zoning guiuclincs, anu also
lcnchi liom a siicamlincu aioval ioccss. Il
ihc communiiy zoning loaiu icquiics changcs
ihai maIc ihc io|cci uncconomical," ihc
ucvcloci can acal io ihc siaic. Thc law
was icccnily icviscu io suggcsi auhcicncc io
ihc icn Smaii Giowih Piincilcs. Thc law has
hclcu luilu moic ihan 4S,000 alloiuallc
uniis sincc ihc caily 1970s.
Massachusciis has oiganizcu a icchnical
assisiancc iogiam aiounu iwclvc icchniqucs
coniaincu in a Smaii Giowih ToolIii loi a
osici ol all iwclvc, scc www.mass.gov/cnvii/
smaii_giowih_ioolIii/uocs/smaii_giowih_
ioolIii_osici.ul). Thc icchniqucs incluuc
cvciyihing liom Tianslci ol Dcvclomcni
Righis io Tax-Incicmcni Iinancing anu
Inclusionaiy Zoning.
Thc Massachusciis Associaiion ol REAITORS

has lccn aciivc in ushing loi ucvclomcni


ol ihcsc iools anu moic, incluuing cicaiing
ucnsiiy lonuscs anu ly-iighi" clusici
ucvclomcni. Thc Associaiion has also
sonsoicu icgional mcciings io uiscuss
alloiuallc housing iincilcs. Ioi moic
inloimaiion, visii www.maicalioi.com
See: www.n.o./:neID=
oJLoene.1=1..J=EoJ.1u=Hoe
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S

O
Cregon
Oicgon`s mcihou ol uiicciing giowih io
cxisiing aicas whilc icsciving laimlanu
anu ocn sacc is cihas ihc lcsi Inown in
ihc couniiy, anu cciiainly ihc olucsi. Mosi
ol Oicgon`s lanu usc laws wcic asscu in a
icmaiIallc scssion ol ihc siaic lcgislaiuic in
197S, ihcn honcu inio olicics anu iogiams
wiih cxicnsivc ullic inui.
Oicgon`s sysicm icquiicu all couniics anu
ciiics io cicaic comichcnsivc lans in linc
wiih ninciccn ovciaiching lanning goals
ucvclocu alici ullic hcaiings ihioughoui
ihc siaic. Oncc all ihc local lans wcic
in lacc, ihcy - noi ihc siaic - govcincu
giowih uccisions. Comlcicu lans cicaicu
uilan giowih lounuaiics UGBs), maiIing
ihc cugc ol ihc lanu nccucu io mcci ihc
icgion`s housing, lusincss, anu iccicaiional
nccus loi ihc ncxi iwcniy ycais. Thc uilan
giowih lounuaiics aic icconsiucicu cvciy
hvc io scvcn ycais. Bcyonu ihc UGBs,
laim, iangc, anu loicsi lanus aic ioiccicu
liom ucvclomcni wiih sccial zoning
ucsignaiions, such as Exclusivc Iaim Usc
EIU). A Ianu Usc Boaiu ol Acals icsolvcs
lanu usc uisuics.
Oicgon`s law also icquiics zoning loi
alloiuallc housing, anu challcngcs ihc
siaic`s laigcsi ciiics io icuucc icliancc on ihc
auiomolilc ly lanning loi iiansoiiaiion
oiions. Thc siaic`s Tiansoiiaiion Planning
Rulc icquiics ihai ncw iciail, olhcc, anu
insiiiuiional luiluings givc iclcicniial
acccss io iiansii, anu ihc siaic`s BiIc Bill"
icquiics ihai all ioaus ioviuc cucsiiian
anu licyclc acccss, as wcll as allocaiing onc
ciccni ol siaic iiansoiiaiion uollais io ihcsc
iiansoiiaiion moucs.
Oicgon`s succcss in icuucing siawl anu
Iccing iialhc congcsiion ai lay is wcll
Inown in aii lccausc ihc Poiilanu icgion
cmliaccu anu cxicnucu ihc caily siaic
olicics. Poiilanu voicis cicaicu ihc naiion`s
only uiiccily-clccicu icgional govcinmcni
in 1979 io ovciscc iiansoiiaiion anu
ucvclomcni acioss ihc icgion. Poiilanu has
succccucu in uiicciing giowih inio a viliani
uowniown whilc icsciving a giccnlcli
ol aciivc laims closc io ihc ciiy. Tialhc
congcsiion has icmaincu managcallc as
commuicis havc comc io icly on lighi-iail
iiains as wcll as ihcii lcci anu licyclcs.
Oicgon`s sysicm is unucigoing iolounu
changc lccausc ol Mcasuic S7, a iclcicnuum
asscu in 2004 ihai icquiics ciiics anu
couniics io comcnsaic lanuowncis il lanu usc
icsiiiciions icuucc iociiy valucs. Thc law
ioviucs no lunuing loi such comcnsaiion,
so is icsuliing in many waivcis anu changcs
in lanu-usc icgulaiions. Ii is lascu on an
auminisiiaiivc claims ioccuuic ihai uocs
noi incluuc iovisions loi involvcmcni ly ihc
ullic oi noiihcaiion ol ncighloiing lanu
owncis. Smaii giowih iooncnis lcai ii will
gui Oicgon`s lanu usc laws.
See: www.o.ne.o..u/bbooI/o./InrJue/
InrJu:.L o. www...erJ.o./.eou.e/
o.e...ew.LI
S M k K I K 9 I B I 9 9 L K l I l
l\C. Btil1ir] Sm+rt
k strr c| irrcr+tir prcjtts
Thcsc laccs wcic luili hisi anu loicmosi io
scivc ihc colc who woulu livc, sho anu
woiI in anu aiounu ihcm. Along ihc way ihcy
accomlishcu oihci goals, such as icusing
cxisiing ucvclocu lanu, maIing ihc mosi ol asi
invcsimcnis in inliasiiuciuic, consciving ocn
sacc anu ccologically scnsiiivc lanu, icviializing
a llighicu oi uagging aica. Mosi ol ihcm wcic
ucsigncu in con|unciion wiih icsiucnis anu
oihci siaIcholucis in ihcii hosi communiiics.
Ir+1iticr+l Ni]l|crlcc1 |rlcpmrt
Sincc lounuing ihcii ncw school ol uilan
ucsign anu aichiicciuic in ihc caily
1990s, iaciiiioncis ol ihc Ncw Uilanism
havc ollcicu iiauiiional ncighloihoou
ucvclomcni as an alicinaiivc io ihc
convcniional suluivision anu siii-mall
aiicin ol suluilan ucvclomcni. A
iiauiiional ncighloihoou ucvclomcni usually
is oiicnicu aiounu a ccnici ihai incluucs a
ullic sacc anu commcicial cniciiisc, an
iucniihallc cugc, iucally a hvc minuic walI
liom ihc ccnici, a mix ol aciiviiics anu vaiiciy
ol housing iycs, an iniciconnccicu nciwoiI
ol siiccis usually in a giiu aiicin, anu ullic
anu ocn saccs, incluuing aiIs, lazas anu
squaics. Uscs aic mixcu wiihin ihc io|cci,
anu olicn wiihin luiluings, as wcll, incluuing
lolis ovci sioics oi livc-woiI uniis as aii ol a
mix ol iycs anu iiccs.
Clenwooo Park, Atlanta, Ceorgia
An cxccllcni cxamlc is Ailania`s Glcnwoou
PaiI, ihc hisi loiay inio ucvclomcni loi
Chailcs Bicwci, onc ol ihc cailicsi anu mosi
T
he Iollowing section Iocuses on sone exanples oI places that have
been built accoroing to those concepts. This is an evolving felo, so each
new project builos on the successes ano shortconings oI those that
cane beIore. While these projects are incluoeo because they succeeoeo
in nany ways, they are not intenoeo as tenplates Ior all Iuture such projects.
Each connunity, each setting, each narket, each oevelopnent tean is oiIIerent,
allowing Ior enoless innovations ano aoaptations to create special character
ano lasting value.
lr tc lcc| |cr mcr \+mpls
Sn. C.owL IIIu.neJ, comilcu ly J
ihc U.S. EPA`s Olhcc ol Economic anu
Communiiy Dcvclomcni, ollcis linIs
io io|ccis ihai illusiiaic cach ol ihc
10 iincilcs cmliaccu ly ihc Smaii
Giowih NciwoiI.
See: www.en.o./n..owL/ne.L
TLe Ao.JnbIe Hou.r De.r AJ..o. siic
coniains a gallciy ol S0 io|ccis showing
how alloiuallc housing was inicgiaicu
succcsslully wiih oihci housing in
a vaiiciy ol sciiings. Ii also incluucs
coniaci inloimaiion loi ihc ucvclocis,
ucsigncis anu oihcis.
See: www.Je.rnJ..o..o.
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S

2
succcsslul Inicinci scivicc ioviucis. Alici
lounuing ihc Minusiing Inicinci scivicc
which cvcniually mcigcu wiih EaiihlinI,
Bicwci iuincu his cniicicncuiial lcni iowaiu
maIing ihc Iinus ol ciiy ncighloihoous hc
hau always lovcu.
Iivc ycais laici, a ncaily-comlcic Glcnwoou
PaiI soiis a mix ol singlc-lamily homcs wiih
Souihcin vcinaculai aichiicciuic, all ol which
mcci sianuaius loi giccn" luiluing, along wiih
conuominiums ovcilooIing a ccniial squaic,
somc ol Ailania`s hisi gcnuinc iow houscs anu
a laigc aiI wiih onu ihai uoullcs as an cco-
liicnuly sioim-waici sysicm. Bccausc ol high
siic ucvclomcni cosis, Bicwci anu comany
uiu noi mcci ihcii ol|cciivc ol auuing lowci-
incomc housing io ihc mix, lui wiih many ol
ihc 0 conuos siaiiing ai S170,000, Glcnwoou
PaiI can accommouaic a wiuci iangc ol
incomcs anu houscholu iycs ihan ncaily any
oihci singlc ucvclomcni luili in ihc aica in
icccni ycais. Thicc shos hau ocncu as ol
May, 2006 - a collcc sho, a Iaiin icsiauiani,
anu a winc anu looI sho - wiih ucvclocis
ushing haiu io mcci ihc siiong ucsiic ol
suiiounuing ncighlois loi a small giocciy.
Thc onc ic-cxisiing luiluing on ihc siic
was convciicu ii inio an olhcc conuominium
luiluing anu is lcing lcascu.
Origins
Having mauc ihc uccision io iiy his hanu ai
Ncw Uilanisi ucvclomcni alici uivcsiing
liom EaiihlinI, Bicwci loimcu Giccn Siicci
Piociiics wiih liIc-minucu collcagucs
Kaihaiinc Kcllcy, loimcily ol Posi Piociiics,
anu Walici Biown, an aciivc auvocaic ol giccn
luiluing ai Ailania`s Souihlacc Encigy Insiiiuic.
Thc ihicc agiccu on a hilosohy ihai woulu
uiivc ihcii aioach io ncighloihoou-
luiluing, now summaiizcu on ihcii wcl siic:
Wc aic siiiving io cicaic a lovcallc, walIallc
ncighloihoou liIc ihc oncs iiavclcis iavc aloui
alici visiiing ihc gicai ciiics ol ihc woilu. Wiih
a mix ol lcasani iicc-lincu siiccis, ciiy houscs,
iownhouscs, aaiimcnis, sioics, anu aiIs, wc
aic cicaiing a livcly ncw ciiy ncighloihoou."
Whcn Bicwci lounu ihc 2S-acic siic ol
his luiuic iiauiiional ncighloihoou
ucvclomcni," ii was a uclunci concicic
S M k K I K 9 I B I 9 9 L K l I 3
iccycling lani, hcacu wiih slag anu loaucu
wiih oicniial cnviionmcnial issucs. Bui ii
hau many viiiucs: Ii was |usi oll I-20, only
a coulc ol milcs liom uowniown Ailania,
wiih ihc sIylinc visillc acioss ihc highway. Ii
was |usi laigc cnough io coniain mosi ol ihc
clcmcnis ol a comlcic ncighloihoou - a
mix ol housing iycs, ncighloihoou iciail
anu somc olhccs - anu was suiiounucu ly
oluci ncighloihoous ihai lacIcu ncaily
sioics anu icsiauianis. Alihough ii is a milc
liom ihc ncaicsi iail sio, ihc aica has goou
lus acccss anu is an casy liIc iiuc liom much
ol whai ihai Ailania has io ollci.
Thc ouilincs ol ihc lan loi Glcnwoou
PaiI wcic shacu in a ucsign woiIsho, oi
chaiiciic, in caily Dcccmlci 2001, lcu ly
Vicioi Dovci ol Miami wiih local assisiancc
liom Tunncl-Sanglci-Walsh 8 Paiincis ol
Ailania. Numcious changing ciicumsianccs
woulu icquiic luiihci ichncmcnis, such as
whcn a lanncu iivaic school iovcu unallc
io locaic on a siic icscivcu loi ii.
ChoIIenges
Thc hisi challcngc involvcu a siiugglc wiih
ihc ciiy`s iialhc cnginccis io win cimission
loi ihc naiiowci siiccis anu iighici iuining
iauii ihai wcic imoiiani io ihc iniimaic,
cucsiiian-liicnuly ucsign. Uliimaicly, ihc
ciiy`s clccicu olhcials asscu a ncw oiuinancc
allowing sccial ioau uimcnsions loi ucsignaicu
iiauiiional ncighloihoou ucvclomcnis.
Ncxi, ihc ucvclocis hau io hghi io gci
cimission io alici a sluugc-hllcu uiainagc
uiich io cicaic ihc cnviionmcnially
liicnuly icicniion onu ihai also was a
Icy amcniiy in ihc ncighloihoou aiI.
Whilc siaic anu local olhcials agiccu ihc
ioosal was iclciallc io ihc cxisiing
conuiiion, comlcx waici qualiiy iulcs anu
|uiisuiciional squalllcs icquiicu monihs io
unianglc. Touay, ihc ucvclomcni is winning
awaius loi iis giccn inliasiiuciuic.
Iinally, Giccn Siicci hau io cisuauc ihc
Gcoigia Dcaiimcni ol Tiansoiiaiion
io iclinquish coniiol ol ihc Glcnwoou
Connccioi, ihc main au|accni ioau, which
lcaus io I-20. Giccn Siicci cnvisioncu ihc
ioau as a iicc-lincu loulcvaiu wiih on-siicci
aiIing, lui DOT cnginccis icsisicu ucaiiing
liom ihcii high-sccu loimula. In ihc cnu, ihc
ioau was iianslciicu io ihc ciiy anu icnamcu
loi Bill Kcnncuy, a icccnily ucccascu loimci
ciiy olhcial who hau suoiicu io|ccis liIc
Glcnwoou, anu ihc siicci was icucsigncu.
Advontoges
Alihough Bicwci was a novicc ai ucvclomcni,
Giccn Siicci`s hisi loiay has lccn icgaiucu
as a icsounuing succcss. Much ol ihai can lc
aiiiiluicu io ihc unihcu vision anu siiong
iincilcs ol Bicwci anu his collcagucs, who
wcic wcll Inown io ciiy olhcials as cisons ol
high inicgiiiy. Thc ucvclomcni ioosal camc
along ai a iimc whcn hcighicncu uiscussion ol
ihc nccu io cuil siawl anu icucvclo Ailania
hau lcu ihc ciiy io icvisii oui-ol-uaic lanning
anu zoning iulcs ihai woulu havc iccluucu a
iclaiivcly ucnsc, mixcu usc ucvclomcni such
as Glcnwoou PaiI. Thc samc iulcs woulu
havc iccluucu icluiluing ihc ciiy`s hncsi, olu
ncighloihoous, as wcll.)
Bccausc all ol ihc hnancing loi ihc lanu
ucvclomcni ai Glcnwoou PaiI has lccn
ioviucu ly Bicwci anu a small giou ol
insiucis", Giccn Siicci has avoiucu ihc
icssuic io conloim io convcniion ihai
mighi havc accomanicu ucli hnancing. Anu
Giccn Siicci`s iiming was goou, ioviuing a
iouuci in vciy high ucmanu as iniown living
icgaincu oulaiiiy.
9NLl N| K|S9UKC|S
C.eer S.ee P.oe..e:
www.glcnwoodpark.com
Oihci noicwoiihy cxamlcs ol
iiauiiional ncighloihoou:
H.LInrJ` Cn.Jer V.IIne: www.cpa.gov/
picdpagc/awards/2005_ovcrall_dura.htm
KerInrJ (Cn.Le.bu., An.,InrJ):
www.kcntlandsusa.com
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S

4
Ktl+imir] St|tr|+r "rhl1s
AJneJ .o VLn Ore wn OIJ . Now New:
T.nro..r .e,eIJ .e .ro rew our..e`
b, Jnor A.IIe., .r On Common Giounu r
nn..re, Sue. 2uu:
Incicasingly, unuciciloiming oi olsolcic
malls anu shoing ccnicis - also Inown
as gicyhclu" siics - aic lcing iclaccu ly
mixcu-usc ncighloihoous. Such gicyhclus
aic lccoming an incicasingly common sighi
on ihc Amciican lanuscac. In a 2001 siuuy
ly PiiccwaicihouscCoocis, ihc Congicss loi
ihc Ncw Uilanism CNU) icoiicu ihai 19
ciccni ol ihc naiion`s 2,000 icgional malls
wcic uclunci anu in nccu ol icucvclomcni,
oi vulnciallc io lccoming so, lccausc ihcy
hau salcs ci squaic looi ol S10 oi lcss onc-
ihiiu ihc iaic ol salcs ai a succcsslul mall).
Oihci siuuics havc csiimaicu lciwccn 4,000
anu ,00 smallci gicyhclu malls naiionally.
Rcucvclomcni ol ihcsc siics has lccomc
incicasingly uigcni loi ihc aging suluils
whcic ihcy aic conccniiaicu, wiih ihc icsuli
ihai scvcial uozcn havc lccn oi aic lcing
icconhguicu as uilan villagcs oi mixcu-usc
ccnicis. Bclmai, ihc icucvclomcni ol a
uclunci mall in IaIcwoou, Coloiauo, is onc
iimc cxamlc.
Belnar (Lakewooo, Coloraoo)
Onc ol ihc moic swccing gicyhclu
iiansloimaiions in ihc naiion, Bclmai is a
mixcu-usc icnovaiion anu icucvclomcni
ol ihc lailing Villa Iialia mall in IaIcwoou,
Coloiauo`s louiih-laigcsi ciiy. Comoscu
ol 2S ciiy llocIs 104 acics), Bclmai has
lccomc a lusiling, viliani uowniown uisiiici
loi IaIcwoou, which hau no such uisiiici
lcloic ihc icnovaiion clloii lcgan. Thc aica
is cxccicu io gci anoihci loosi whcn a ncw
lighi-iail linc, aii ol Dcnvci`s IASTRACKS
iniiiaiivc, icachcs ihc aica laici in ihc uccauc.
Bclmai icicscnis ihc cumulaiivc will ol
ihc ciiy ol IaIcwoou anu iis icsiucnis, who
clamoicu loi a uowniown anu an iucniiiy loi
ihc ciiy, says Will Ilcissig, uiiccioi loi lanning
anu ucsign wiih Coniinuum Paiincis IIC, ihc
io|cci`s ucvcloci.
Thc communiiy hau a vciy clcai vision aloui
whai ii wanicu," says Ilcissig. Wc iooI a 1.4-
million-squaic-looi mall anu woiIcu wiih
ihc ciiy io uownsizc ihc iciail anu maIc ihc
siic ucnsci wiihoui cicaiing a luiucn on ihc
cxisiing siicci - ihc iiansii lincs allowcu ihis."
In oiuci io gci oui ol ihc giounu, howcvci,
Bclmai nccucu moic ihan oliiical anu
communiiy will. To cicaic a uowniown,
you nccu io cicaic somc Iinu ol siiuciuicu
aiIing, anu ihai can lc uilhculi io alloiu,"
says Ilcissig. Thc ciiy woiIcu wiih us on
invcsimcni ihai allowcu loi ihc ncw salcs iax
|rirtipls |cr
Ktl+imir] rhl1s
Thc Congicss loi ihc Ncw Uilanism has
locuscu loi scvcial ycais on icclaiming
gicyhclus" - ucau oi uying shoing
ccnicis - anu ucvclocu ihcsc iincilcs:
W Evolvc ihc siic liom a singlc siiuciuic
inio a uisiiici wiih suluisiiicis
W Esiallish a siicci aiicin
W Rcoiicni aciiviiy io lacc ihc siicci
W Conncci wiih ihc suiiounuing
communiiy
W Inicgiaic muliilc uscs
W Dcsign loi human scalc
W Incluuc housing
W Cusiomizc io hi local nccus
Rcau moic in Malls inio Main Siiccis:
A Manual loi Convciiing Dying Malls
inio Viliani Communiiics" anu
Gicyhclus inio Golu Iiclus", onlinc ai
www.cnu.oig
S M k K I K 9 I B I 9 9 L K l I 5
icvcnucs liom ihc io|cci io lc gaincicu loi
ihc ioaus, ihc iiccs, ihc aiIing."
Thc mall`s icucvclomcni has hau sin-oll
cllccis, says Ilcissig. Wc`ic sccing quiic a lii
ol icinvcsimcni aiounu ihc siic - a icsuigcncc
in ucvclomcni in ihc viciniiy. Thcic`s ai lcasi
a hall uozcn ol ihcsc iycs ol ucvclomcni
ncaily, iiying io lcvciagc oui succcss."
Buycis ol ihc lolis, incluucu in mixcu-
usc luiluings, icnu io lc young, singlc,
iolcssional colc who can`i alloiu io livc
in uowniown Dcnvci, lui wani ihc lccl ol an
uilan loli," says Sicvc ]oncs, a REAITOR

RR wiih
Dcnvci-lascu Kcniwoou Ciiy Piociiics. Thc
Bclmai loli conuos wcic sclling loi S2S9,000
io S2,000. All aic 1,020 squaic lcci anu
ollci onc lcuioom wiih a siuuy oi a ucn, lus
a laihioom, iivaic ouiuooi saccs, gaiagc
aiIing anu auuiiional sioiagc.
Thc colc who visii on ihc wccIcnus aic
ovciwhclmcu ai how many colc aic oui anu
aloui, cn|oying ihc sacc," says ]oncs. In my
oinion, hvc ycais uown ihc ioau, Bclmai is
going io lc uscu as a moucl acioss ihc couniiy
loi how io uo a hugc inhll io|cci oui ol a
mall. Ii lccls liIc a ical uowniown."
Il you can incicasc a siic`s ucnsiiy ly iwo oi
ihicc iimcs whilc noi incicasing ihc luiucn
on ihc au|oining ioaus," says Ilcissig, wcll,
ihai`s whai wc nccu io lc uoing in Amciica
- csccially in ihc innci-iing suluils."
Bclmai was ihc winnci ol a 200 Smaii Giowih
Awaiu liom ihc U.S. EPA. Rcau moic onlinc
ai www.ca.gov/icuagc/awaius/200_luili_
laIcwoou.him
Ccmmrti+l Ccm|+t|s: Brir]ir] Mc1rr
Kt+il tc Citis +r1 9l1r St|tr|s
AJneJ .o Coe..nI CoebnI: Fen.Ie. .eu.r
o ore-LurreJ ..e nrJ .rre. ubu.b` b, Dn..J
CoIJbe. .r On Common Giounu, Sue. 2uu:.
Ioi ycais, ihc lcss-ihan-iclciicu
ucmogiahics anu hysical consiiainis ol
innci-ciiy ncighloihoous Ici iciailcis ai
lay. Rcsiucnis ol oluci suluils, mcanwhilc,
saw ihcii oiions shiinI as ihc siii ccnicis
ol ihc 0s, 60s anu 70s lcll oui ol lavoi anu
ihc chains chascu aluucncc oui io ihc ncxi
coinhclu. As closc-in aicas uiaw ncw icsiucnis,
howcvci, a ncw gcnciaiion ol mixcu-usc,
highci-qualiiy shoing cnviionmcnis is
siaiiing io cmcigc.
Ii`s noi hacning ly acciucni. Savvy local
govcinmcnis aic going alici ii, icalizing ihai
loi uilan anu innci suluilan ncighloihoous,
aiiiaciing iciail anu achicving ihc iighi mix
ol shoing anu icsiucniial holu ihc Icy io
icviializaiion, sialiliiy, walIaliliiy anu livaliliiy.
Bui loi ihc hisi iimc, ihcy`ic hnuing iciailcis
io lc iccciivc.
Iiom Ailania, whcic onc ol ihc laigcsi
icucvclomcni io|ccis in ihc ciiy`s hisioiy
lioughi IKEA anu a hosi ol oihci iciailcis
io ihc hcaii ol ihc ciiy, io Chicago, wiih ihc
hisi mulii-sioiy Homc Dcoi, io Washingion,
D.C. anu iis iciail icnaissancc, ma|oi iciailcis
havc uiscovcicu uilan ncighloihoous in a
ma|oi way.
Thc suluils aic saiuiaicu anu ucvclocis
anu iciailcis aic looIing loi ncw maiIcis,
anu ihosc ically aic olu maiIcis ihai may lc
unucigoing a icliiih," saiu Cinuy Sicwaii,
uiiccioi ol local govcinmcni iclaiions loi
ihc Inicinaiional Council ol Shoing
Ccnicis. Accoiuing io Sicwaii, ihc lasicsi-
giowing sccioi ol hci iciail associaiion`s
mcmlcishi is in ihc ullic anu noniohi
scciois - local govcinmcnis anu communiiy
oiganizaiions woiIing on commcicial
icsioiaiion. In auuiiion io laigci ciiics, many
ol ihcm aic oluci suluils iiying io icucvclo
siii coiiiuois noi |usi as a lacc io sho,
lui as a lacc io lc: mixcu-usc, walIallc
ncighloihoous wiih a Main Siicci lccl.
Thc lollowing cxamlc ol Washingion, D.C.
shows an innovaiivc aioach io liinging
aioiiaic iciail io laccs whcic colc
alicauy livc, lui aic unuci-scivcu. This is a Icy
smaii giowih siiaicgy lccausc ii is csscniial
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S

6
io maIing ihcsc laccs viallc anu livallc.
Washingion, D.C. aiincicu wiih lusincss io
cicaic a maiIciing ccnici ihai is uiawing iciail
lacI io icviializc ncighloihoous ihai havc
lccn woclully unuci scivcu.
Washington, D.C.: Retail
revitalization in the inner city
In many ways, Washingion, D.C.`s
icviializaiion is a clcai succcss sioiy. Thc
caiial ciiy has siocu iis oulaiion loss,
wiih 41,000 housing uniis luili oi auucu io
ihc consiiuciion iclinc sincc 2001 anu
many loimcily-uisiicsscu ncighloihoous on
ihc uswing. Siill, ciiy olhcials lounu ihai ihc
oulaiion icmaincu somcwhai iiansicni,
in laigc aii lccausc lasic goous anu
sciviccs coniinucu io lag lchinu. Aiiiaciing
iciail, ihcn, has lccomc a ciiiical mcans ol
sialilizing ihosc ncighloihoous anu maIing
ihcm livcly anu livallc.
Thai lcu Mayoi Anihony Williams anu a
aiincishi ol D.C. lusincss laycis io cicaic
ihc Washingion, D.C. MaiIciing Ccnici, whosc
|ol has lccn io luic lacI sIciical iciailcis,
saiu Michacl Sicvcns, ihc ccnici`s CEO.
Alici mcciing wiih inuusiiy icicscniaiivcs,
ihc ullic-iivaic noniohi luili a hugc
uaialasc, hc auucu. Wc comilcu all ihc
iciail ooiiuniiics inio a singlc icsouicc, anu
osicu ihcm on oui Wcl siic. Wc havc iohlc
shccis, onc agc lioni anu lacI, wiih coniaci
colc, mas anu hoios loi S9 ncighloihoou
clusicis anu 12S ncighloihoous. Wc Inow ihc
ucmogiahics anu iialhc counis."
Evcn ihai wasn`i cnough whcn ii camc io
maiIciing a ncighloihoou such as Columlia
Hcighis. Thc ccnsus anu oihci convcniional
maiIci analyscs siill showcu ii io lc a lau lci
loi lusincss. Thai`s whcn Sicvcns lioughi in
Social Comaci, a noniohi ihai ciloims
uiill uown" analysis io gaugc ihc iiuc luying
owci ol uilan ncighloihoous.
Thc ncighloihoou, lccausc ol ihc oulaiion
ucnsiiy, hau a iicmcnuous amouni io ollci
in luying owci lccausc ii wasn`i aucquaicly
Kt+il ir tl Cit:
Scm tips |cr ]ttir] it
As hcau ol ihc Washingion, D.C.
MaiIciing Ccnici, Michacl Sicvcns
has lccn insiiumcnial in luiing
iciail lacI io ihc ciiy`s unuciscivcu
ncighloihoous. Hcic aic his iis loi
oihci communiiics:
W Iiisi, local cxccuiivcs anu council
havc io luy in. Ii iaIcs moncy, oihci
icsouiccs anu human caiial.
W You nccu an oiganizaiion ihai will lc
ihc inloimaiion clcaiinghousc anu
hisi oini ol coniaci loi iciailcis.
Cauiion: Cicaiing ii isn`i casy.
W Dcvclo a iciail aiiiaciion lan:
Do you nccu giocciy-anchoicu oi
ucaiimcni-sioic-anchoicu ccnicis,
oi ncighloihoou coiiiuois.
W Rciailcis aic looIing loi a ucal.
Inccniivcs: Ianu, icnani hnish-
oui lunus wc usc TII lunus), iax
alaicmcnis, anu/oi |ol iiaining
lunus loi local icsiucnis.
W Iucniily anu maiIci youi
ooiiuniiics: Suluilan maiIcis
havc a hniic numlci ol siics now
anu ihcic is a lacIlash againsi lig
lox." Ciiics nccu io lc icauy io icll
iciailcis ihc iiuc houscholu incomc
in ncighloihoous, whai`s ically
lcing scni in ihc cash cconomy,
accuiaic oulaiion counis anu
aggicgaic luying owci.
scivcu," saiu Kaiin Oiicscn, icsiucni ol
Social Comaci. Thc analysis lounu ihai ihc
ncighloihoou hau ihousanus moic houscholus
ihan ihc ccnsus counicu, anu way moic
uisosallc incomc ihan anyonc imagincu. Icss
ihan a ihiiu ol ihc aggicgaic luying owci ol
S M k K I K 9 I B I 9 9 L K l I 7
Though changc has lccn luiluing
loi scvcial ycais, onc ol ihc siiongcsi
signals yci ol a lunuamcnial shili in
iciail uociiinc camc in a scssion ol ihc
Inicinaiional Council ol Shoing
Ccnicis in Dcccmlci 2004. Ii was ihcic
ihai Rolcii SioIci, scnioi ical csiaic
managci loi Wal-Maii, ucclaicu ihai,
Wc`vc icachcu a siagc whcic wc can lc
ucxillc. Wc no longci havc io luilu a
giay-lluc laiilcshi lox."
Wal-Maii is noi alonc, ol couisc, ciihci in
iis ncw willingncss io auai io moic uilan
cnviionmcnis oi in iis long icsisiancc io
vcciing liom a loimula ihai has hclu sincc
ihc 1960s: A singlc-sioiy luiluing on a
ma|oi aiiciial ioau suiiounucu ly ashali.
In 1960, il you hau 200,000 squaic lcci ol
iciail, ii woulu havc a looiiini ol aloui
onc acic in a mulii-sioiy luiluing," saiu
Eu McMahon, a scnioi lcllow ai ihc Uilan
Ianu Insiiiuic who has wiiiicn scvcial
aiiiclcs on commcicial ucsign iicnus.
Uniil vciy icccnily, ihai samc 200,000 lcci
woulu lc in onc sioiy anu covci ihicc io
loui acics, lionicu ly 20 acics ol aiIing."
Wiih many suluils saiuiaicu wiih lig
lox" anu oihci iciail, wc`ic now sccing
iwo uivcigcni iicnus, cxciis saiu. In ihc
low-ucnsiiy cxuils, ihc ncw sioics anu ihcii
aiIing lois aic laigci ihan cvci so as io
uiaw moioiisis liom many milcs aiounu.
Ai ihc samc iimc, iciailcis now scc ihc
viiiuc ol high-ucnsiiy maiIcis wiih lcniy
ol cusiomcis closc ai hanu. Bui caiuiing
ii icquiics icsuiicciing anu uuaiing ihc
ucsigns liom ihc cailicsi uays ol ucaiimcni
sioics - mulii-sioiy sioics in luiluings wiih
locally-comaiillc aichiicciuic.
Taigci sioics wcic among ihc cailicsi io
auai. Thc comany`s uagshi sioic in
Minncaolis is loui sioiics, anu ihc chain
has iwo-sioiy sioics wiih siiuciuicu aiIing
in Ailania, Gaiihcisluig, Maiylanu anu
scvcial oihci laccs. Homc Dcoi icccnily
ocncu a ihicc-sioiy sioic in uowniown
Chicago. Wal-Maii iiscll has a iwo-sioiy
sioic in a mixcu-usc sciiing in Iong Bcach,
Caliloinia, anu will occuy iwo uoois ol a
mixcu-usc high-iisc in Rcgo, Ncw YoiI.
Mixcu-usc, uilan io|ccis aic oing u
all ovci ihcsc uays, saiu Cinuy Sicwaii, ol
ihc ICSC. You siill scc lilcsiylc anu owci
ccnicis, lui iciailcis going alici ihai
uilan maiIci aic going inio io|ccis ihai
also havc housing, lccausc ihcic`s such a
siiong nccu loi loih."
Bcing aii ol a ncighloihoou iaiscs
iiiggcis, a iangc ol ucsign consiuciaiions
liom aichiicciuic io laccmcni ol loauing
uocIs io masIing ihc aiIing uccIs. Bui
ii can lc woiih ii: Iooi loi looi, uilan
sioics olicn oui ciloim ihcii suluilan
couniciaiis, Sicwaii anu oihcis saiu.
Incicasingly, iciailcis aic iccognizing whai
McMahon calls ihc lacc-maIing uiviucnu:
Pcolc will siay longci anu scnu moic
moncy in laccs ihai aciually cain ihcii
allcciion," hc saiu. Siii shoing ccnicis
aic iciail loi ihc lasi ccniuiy," McMahon
auucu, anu mixcu usc is ihc iciail
cnviionmcni loi ihis ccniuiy."
Il Cl+r]ir] N+ttr c| Ur|+r Kt+il
ihc 7S,000 icsiucnis was lcing scni locally,
mcaning ihai S424 million cach ycai was lcing
scni ouisiuc ihc Columlia Hcighis maiIci.
Thai inloimaiion hclcu ihc ciiy ui
iogcihci a ucal io luilu Tivoli Squaic ai
ihc coinci ol 14ih Siicci anu PaiI Roau.
Thc io|cci incluucs a Giani Ioous giocciy
sioic - an uilan iaiiiy ai S,000 squaic lcci
- anu ihc icsioiaiion ol ihc classic anu long-
uoimani Tivoli Thcaici. An auuiiional 2,000
squaic lcci ol ncw shos linc 14ih Si., anu
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S

8
2S,000 squaic lcci ol olhcc sacc occuics
uoois alovc.
Tivoli Squaic so changcu ihc icnoi ol ihc
iciail cnviionmcni ihai ihc aica has aiiiacicu
ihc laigcsi iciail io|cci in D.C., which will
mix icgional anu naiional iciailcis, such as
Taigci anu Bcu Baih anu Bcyonu. Now unuci
consiiuciion, ihc 46,000 squaic-looi io|cci
will incluuc icsiauianis anu a hcalih clul.
See: www.Jn.Ie.rere..o
Ir+rsit9rirt1 |rlcpmrt
Onc ol ihc viiiucs ol high-caaciiy ullic
iiansoiiaiion sysicms, such as sulways, iiams
anu lighi iail, is ihai ihcy can accommouaic
moic inicnsivc ucvclomcni ihan aicas ihai
aic comlcicly uccnucni on ihc auiomolilc.
Bui ihcic is a iiicI io cicaiing a mix anu
conhguiaiion ol clcmcnis ihai iiuly iaIcs
auvaniagc ol ihc iiansii scivicc. Ioi cxamlc,
mcicly luiluing a convcniional, auiomolilc-
oiicnicu shoing ccnici ncxi io a siaiion
woulu noi hi ihc lill. Thc Amciican Pullic
Tiansoiiaiion Associaiion says iiansii-
oiicnicu ucvclomcni TOD) is comaci,
mixcu usc ucvclomcni ncai ncw oi cxisiing
ullic iiansoiiaiion inliasiiuciuic ihai scivcs
housing, iiansoiiaiion
anu ncighloihoou goals.
Iis cucsiiian-oiicnicu
ucsign cncouiagcs
icsiucnis anu woiIcis io
uiivc ihcii cais lcss anu
iiuc ullic iiansii moic."
TOD can allow
a |uiisuiciion io
accommouaic a gicaici
shaic ol iis giowih in
a smallci looiiini,
hcling io icscivc ocn
sacc anu lowci-ucnsiiy
ncighloihoous, savc on
inliasiiuciuic cosis anu
luilu a iax lasc. Thc ncw
iiucis ioviuc auuiiional
laic lox icvcnuc io ihc
local iiansoiiaiion agcncy, anu ihc incicascu
viliancy ollcis moic oiions io local icsiucnis
anu visiiois. Ovci ihc lasi S0 ycais, Ailingion,
Viiginia has cicaicu all ihosc lcnchis anu
moic as ii has lanncu anu ucvclocu along
ihc Mciio iail linc ihai connccis ihc aica io
Washingion, D.C.
Rosslyn-Ballston Corrioor,
Arlington County, Virginia
AJneJ, .r n., .o Le Cere. o.
T.nr.-O..ereJ De.eIoer; See: www.
.eorre.rne..n.o./TOD/ne_uJ.e.L
Thc govcinmcni ol Ailingion Couniy, Viiginia,
lccamc an caily iooncni ol iiansii-oiicnicu
ucvclomcni TOD) in ihc 1970s as a siiaicgy
ihai coulu lc uscu io iciiohi ihc S-milc long
Rosslyn-Ballsion Coiiiuoi in oiuci io icvcisc
signihcani ucclincs in loih oulaiion
anu commcicial aciiviiy. In lanning loi
ihc coiiiuoi, couniy olhcials wcni io gicai
ains io incoioiaic ihc wishcs ol icsiucnis,
lusincss owncis anu oihcis in Ailingion. Oncc
conscnsus was csiallishcu, ihc couniy ucvclocu
anu ichncu a consisicni anu suoiiivc olicy
liamcwoiI ovci ihc ncxi S0 ycais ihai has
cicaicu sialiliiy anu icuicialiliiy loi icsiucnis
anu ucvclocis aliIc. As a icsuli ihcic has lccn
S M k K I K 9 I B I 9 9 L K l I
limiicu coniiovcisy ovci iooscu io|ccis,
anu ihc coiiiuoi has icmaincu a magnci loi
ucvclomcni, ucsiic ihc laci ihai ucvclocis
aic icquiicu io ay loi signihcani imiovcmcnis
io ullic inliasiiuciuic as a conuiiion ol siic
lan aioval.
Thc laigc amouni ol mixcu-usc ucvclomcni
aiounu ihc hvc Mciio siaiions has mauc ihc
coiiiuoi onc ol ihc mosi ucnscly oulaicu in
ihc U.S. Thc icucvclomcni ol whai hau lccn
iun-uown, caily-suluilan commcicial siiis
lcli ncaily singlc-lamily ncighloihoous laigcly
unchangcu. Wiih S,000 icsiucnis living in
1S,000 houscs anu aaiimcnis, ihc coiiiuoi
also has lccomc a ma|oi cmloymcni ccnici,
conccniiaiing moic ihan 7S,000 |ols wiihin
a ihiiu ol a milc ol ihc siaiions. Bciwccn
1972 anu 2002 ihcic was a nci incicasc ol
moic ihan 11,000 housing uniis, 16 million
squaic lcci ol olhcc, 90,000 squaic lcci ol
iciail, 1,900 hoicl iooms, anu an S1 ciccni
incicasc in ihc asscsscu valuc ol lanu anu
imiovcmcnis. Vacancy iaics aic gcncially
lowci ihan anywhcic clsc in ihc icgion cxcci
in ihc Disiiici ol Columlia, anu icnis aic
highci. Il all ihc ucvclomcni in ihc iwo-
squaic-milc coiiiuoi wcic consiiucicu insicau
on vacani suluilan lanu ai sianuaiu ucnsiiics,
ii woulu covci moic ihan 14 squaic milcs.
Pcihas mosi icmaiIallc, all ihis
ucvclomcni has gcnciaicu only moucsi
lcvcls ol auuiiional iialhc on local siiccis.
Tiansii iiucishi in ihc coiiiuoi is highci
ihan anywhcic clsc in ihc icgion oihci
ihan ihc Disiiici ol Columlia: 47 ciccni ol
icsiucnis usc moucs ol iiavcl oihci ihan ihc
auiomolilc io gci io woiI, anu 7S ciccni
aiiivc ai iail siaiions on looi, ioviuing a
cosi savings lccausc nciihci ihc couniy noi
WMATA, ihc iiansii agcncy, havc io ioviuc
commuici aiIing. Paiccls ucvoicu io
aiIing caily on havc all lccn convciicu io
high-ucnsiiy mixcu-usc ucvclomcni. Tcn
ciccni ol homc-owncis anu 20 ciccni ol
icnicis uo noi own cais - ihc highcsi iaic in
ihc icgion ouisiuc ihc Disiiici ol Columlia.
In 2002, ol ihc ioial io|ccicu ical csiaic
iax lcvy ol S277 million in ihc couniy, S90.9
million, oi S2.S ciccni, camc liom ihc
Rosslyn-Ballsion Coiiiuoi. Thc coiiiuoi
also iouuccs hoicl iaxcs, mcal iaxcs, anu
lusincss anu houscholu cisonal iociiy
iaxcs iaxcs on cisonal iociiy such as
cais, noi ical csiaic). Thc conccniiaiion ol
icvcnuc-iouucing aciiviiics in ihc coiiiuoi
allows iaxcs io lc lowci clscwhcic. As a icsuli,
Ailingion Couniy has onc ol ihc lowcsi
iociiy iax iaics in Noiihcin Viiginia.
Thc couniy has hau io auai anu lcain as
ciicumsianccs cvolvcu. Eaily on, a lailuic io
cnsuic ihai luiluings ocn onio siucwalIs
ihicaicncu io maIc ihc aica lcss walIallc.
Thc couniy also lcaincu ii hau io insisi on a
hcalihy mix ol shoing, olhccs, housing anu
cniciiainmcni in oiuci io cui cai iiis. Touay,
olhcials aic iaIing sics io auu moic alloiuallc
housing in ihc oulai coiiiuoi, anu ihcy
aic sicing u sianuaius loi ihc ucsign anu
acaiancc ol ihc luiluings anu siicciscacs.
Pearl District, Portlano, Cregon
AJneJ, w.L e...or, .o n ne uJ, b,
CIo..n OLInrJ o Le Cere. o. T.nr.-O..ereJ
De.eIoer
Perhaps nost renarkable, all this oevelopnent has generateo only nooest
levels oI aooitional traIfc on local streets: 47 percent oI resioents use
nooes oI travel other than the autonobile to get to work, ano 73 percent
arrive at rail stations on Ioot.
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S

lOO
Sincc 2001, whcn Poiilanu ocncu ihc
hisi ncw siiccicai linc in ihc U.S. in ovci
a hall ccniuiy, aloui 4,600 housing uniis
anu 2.2 million squaic lcci ol commcicial
ucvclomcni - an csiimaicu S2 lillion
invcsimcni - havc lccn luili in ihc Pcail
Disiiici wiihin iwo llocIs on ciihci siuc ol
ihc linc. In ihc scvcn ycais sincc ihc io|cci
lcgan, ihc ciiy alicauy has mci iis 20-ycai
housing goal, on |usi onc-icnih ihc io|ccicu
amouni ol lanu. Anoihci ,000 housing uniis
will lc luili along ihc siiccicai linc souih ol
uowniown ovci ihc ncxi io 10 ycais.
To conncci iwo laigc, vacani aiccls ol lanu
noiih anu souih ol uowniown ihc ciiy siiucI a
aci wiih ucvcloci Homci Williams: Thc ciiy
woulu luilu ihc siiccicai il Williams woulu agicc
io u-zonc his 40-acic iociiy liom 1 uwclling
uniis ci acic io 12 uniis ci acic. Williams
agiccu, anu ihc icsuli was a ciiiical mass ol
ucvclomcni showcasing an uilanc ncw lilcsiylc
io Poiilanu icsiucnis, which iovcu so oulai
ihai oihci ucvclocis lcgan consiiuciing
high-ucnsiiy housing on au|accni iociiy.
Poiilanu has sci a iccoiu loi ihc numlci ol
luiluing cimiis issucu loi scvcn ycais in a iow.
A ncw siuuy shows ihai iociiics closcsi io ihc
siiccicai linc havc cxciicnccu ihc laigcsi shaic
ol ucvclomcni - ai uooi aica iaiios ihai moic
closcly aioach ihc iociiics` zoncu ucnsiiy
oicniial - ihan iociiics siiuaicu luiihci liom
ihc siiccicai. Wiihin onc llocI ol ihc siiccicai
linc ncw ucvclomcni achicvcu an avciagc ol
90 ciccni ol IAR/squaic looiagc oicniial, a
ciccniagc ihai sicauily uios io 4S ciccni ai
ihicc oi moic llocIs oui.
Thc siiccicai was noi ihc only lacioi ciiiical
io succcss, ol couisc. Thc Ccniial Ciiy masici
lan hau luili a conscnsus loi ihis Iinu ol
ucvclomcni anu ihc zoning io imlcmcni
ii. Bui lccausc ol ihc siiccicai anu nciwoiI
ol licyclc aihs anu a iolusi cai-shaiing
iogiam, as wcll as a goou mix ol uscs anu
conncciiviiy io |ols in uowniown anu ihc
icgional iail sysicm, icsiucnis icly lcss on cais
ihan in oihci aicas. Thc icuuccu ucmanu
loi aiIing lois anu siiuciuics anu cuil cuis
loi uiivcways loih imiovcs ihc cucsiiian
cnviionmcni anu cimiis an inicnsiiy ol
uscs ihai has cicaicu an animaicu, iniimaic
ncighloihoou. Bccausc ucvclocis uon`i
havc io luilu as much siiuciuicu aiIing - ai
S20,000 a sacc - ihcy aic allc io invcsi in
highci-qualiiy consiiuciion anu amcniiics.
Consiiuciion anu ociaiion ol ihc siiccicai
has lccn aiily aiu loi ly ihicc local
imiovcmcni uisiiicis as wcll as highci aiIing
lccs. Thc ciiy is cuiicnily cniciing inio anoihci
agiccmcni wiih Williams in ihc 140-acic Noiih
Macauam Disiiici io ihc souih, which cxicnus
a milc along ihc Willamciic Rivci anu will lc
connccicu io ihc Oicgon hcalih anu Scicncc
Univcisiiy on Maiquam Hill - now a 20-minuic
uiivc away - ly a 4-minuic aciial iiam iiuc.
Thc ncighloihoou Williams is luiluing ai
ihc lasc ol ihc iiam will conncci OHSU anu
Poiilanu Siaic Univcisiiy, cnsuic ihai OHSU
can cxanu in ihc ciiy insicau ol moving io ihc
suluils, linI ihcsc iwo ccnicis ol icscaich anu
cuucaiion wiih uowniown, anu ioviuc S,000
housing uniis anu 6,000 |ols.
9NLl N| K|S9UKC|S
Po.InrJ S.een.:
www.portlandstrcctcar.org
9IB|K I9| SI9Kl |S 9N IB| |B:
A.rrenoI.: Ir Lo. o.Je., Le H.nwnLn
A.erue I.L .n.I I.re Ln J.nwr .r.nr
rew Je.eIoer. www.mctrocouncil.
org/dircctions/transit/transit2006/
hiawatha_TODMar06.htm
Eo. o.e or Le ne o TOD .n.e,
ee TLe Cere. o. T.nr.-O..ereJ
De.eIoer: www.rcconncctingamcrica.
org/html/TOD/indcx.htm
A un., .e..or o Le Sn.CoJe,
n o.-bneJ oJe Je.eIoeJ b, Le New
U.bnr. . DPZ: www.tndtownpapcr.
com/Volumc5/smartcodc.htm
TLe Eo.-bneJ CoJe Ir.ue:
www.Iormbascdcodcs.org
S M k K I K 9 I B I 9 9 L K l I lOl
Ktl+imir] lr1tstri+l Brcwrhl1s
Atlantic Station: Fron contaninateo site to
new city, with neighbors support
AJneJ .o CLoo.r Ou. Cour.,` Euu.e`,
b, Dn..J CoIJbe.
Thc icucvclomcni ol ihc siic ol a loimci
siccl mill in ihc hcaii ol Ailania, |usi
acioss ihc 14-lanc inicisiaic highway liom
looming Miuiown, inio a ncw mini-ciiy
has lccn a succcss on many lionis. Ii has
clcancu anu icclaimcu 1SS acics ol a loimci
inuusiiial lanu ihai oihciwisc woulu lc lcli
coniaminaicu anu iusiing.
Billcu as a livc, woiI, lay" communiiy ly
ucvcloci ]im ]acoly, ihis ciiy-wiihin-a-ciiy
will havc homcs loi 10,000 colc, olhccs
loi S0,000 woiIcis, anu shos, icsiauianis,
anu sciviccs. Conccniiaiing ihis giowih in
ihc hcaii ol ihc ciiy, whcic ii can conncci
io cxisiing inliasiiuciuic anu a iail iiansii
sysicm, saics ihc scvcial ihousanu acics
ihai similai ucvclomcni woulu occuy in
Ailania`s siawling suluils. Bui in oiuci
io succccu, ihc ucvclocis hau io cmloy
hcnomcnal cicaiiviiy io ovcicomc olsiaclcs
liom local zoning io cnviionmcnial iulcs anu
ncighloihoou sIciicism.
Many icsiucnis ol ihc au|accni Homc PaiI anu
Ioiing Hcighis ncighloihoous iniiially wcic
lcciy ol ihc massivc ucvclomcni anu ihc lans
io conncci ihc ncw communiiy wiih ihcii own
siiccis ol mosily singlc-lamily houscs.
Pcolc aic aliaiu ol ihc unInown," says Tim
Siaic, hcau ol ihc Homc PaiI Communiiy
Imiovcmcni Associaiion HPCIA). A
liownhclu ncxi io you is moic comloiiallc
ihan noi Inowing whai is going in ncxi io you."
Bui insicau ol simly icsisiing ihc ucvclomcni,
hc anu oihci communiiy lcaucis iooI
auvaniagc ol scvcial loiums ihai gavc ihcm a
say in managing ihc changc ihai woulu comc.
Thc io|cci`s suoiicis unucisioou ihai
ncighloiing icsiucnis woulu lc woiiicu.
Among ihcm was a siaicwiuc conscivaiion
giou, Thc Gcoigia Conscivancy, which
saw Ailaniic Siaiion as a win loih loi ihc
cnviionmcni anu ihc ciiy, il ii wcic uonc
iighi. As ihc io|cci was woiIing iis way
ihiough a comlicaicu cnviionmcnial anu
ucsign ioccsscs, ihc Conscivancy hosicu
a 1S-wccI lanning woiIsho loi Homc
PaiI icsiucnis ucsigncu io claiily ihcii own
iioiiiics loi ihc siic anu ihc ncighloihoou.
Homc PaiI ncighlois also aiiiciaicu in
ihc ciiy`s iczoning ioccss anu managcu
io havc many ol ihcii conccins auuicsscu
in ihc 2S conuiiions ihai wcic sci on ihc
zoning changc.
Ncxi camc a siaIcholuci involvcmcni
ioccss" manuaicu ly ihc ucvclomcni`s
aiiiciaiion in a sccial EPA ucvclomcni
iogiam. Anuics Duany, ihc wcll-Inown
ucsignci ol Scasiuc, Iloiiua, anu oihci Ncw
Uilanisi ucvclomcnis, was lioughi io
Ailania io conuuci a wccIcnu chaiiciic on
imioving walIaliliiy ai ihc ucvclomcni.
Dcvcloci ]acoly sci u a Dcsign Coniiol
Commiiicc, giving ncighloihoou
icicscniaiivcs owci io voic on ihc ucsign
ol luiluings anu a ncw liiugc ovci ihc
uowniown inicisiaic, which was a Icy acccss
oini io ihc siic anu ihc ncighloihoous.
Thcic aic aiis ol ihc lans ]loi Ailaniic
Siaiion| you can oini io anu say, ihai changc
is a uiicci icsuli ol onc ncighloi`s suggcsiion
ai onc aiiiculai Saiuiuay scssion`," says Siaic,
who lclicvcs ihc ucvcloci iiuly valucu ihc
communiiics` inui.
The EnvironmentoI Benefts
o[ AtIontic Stotion
Thc io|cci ioviucu loih icgion-wiuc
anu vciy local cnviionmcnial lcnchis. On
ihc local lcvcl, ihc io|cci clcancu u ihc
10 ions ol coniaminaicu soil along wiih
a ooily ociaiing scwci. Thc ucvcloci
also uonaicu iwo iiccs io cvciy ncighloiing
homcownci. On ihc icgional lcvcl, ihc EPA
has lounu ihai Ailaniic Siaiion will gcnciaic
0 ciccni lcss uiiving anu uiamaiically
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S

lO2
lowci lcvcls ol olluianis ihai coniiiluic
io smog lciwccn 7 anu S00 ciccni
lcss) ihan an cqually sizcu convcniional
ucvclomcni luili in ihc suluils.
Bccausc ol ihcsc aii qualiiy lcnchis, ihc EPA
ucsignaicu ihc io|cci as lcnchcial" io aii
qualiiy. This was ciiiical loi aioval ol a
ma|oi iccc ol ullic inliasiiuciuic iicu io ihc
io|cci: a ncw liiugc sanning ihc I-7/S
liccway ihai uiviucs Ailania`s uowniown. Thc
liiugc incluucs cxiia-wiuc siucwalIs wiih
a shauc canoy, liIc lancs, a shuiilc io ihc
MARTA sulway siaiion acioss ihc liccway anu
sacc loi a luiuic iail conncciion.
ThanIs laigcly io a laigc aiI anu onu ai ihc
io|cci`s coic, ihc EPA has calculaicu ihai ihc
icucvclomcni ol ihc olu siccl mill will icuucc
ihc amouni ol haiu, imcivious" suilacc ai
ihc siic ly 2S,000 squaic lcci, signihcanily
icuucing ihc volumc ol suilacc waici iunoll.
A comaiallc giccnhclu ucvclomcni woulu
uiamaiically incicasc imcivious suilacc anu
incicasc ihc volumc ol iunoll in ihc waicishcu
ly 14 io 19 million squaic lcci.
Ailaniic Siaiion has auucu valuc io oui
ncighloihoou," says Siaic. Ii has auucu
cconomic valuc io oui homcs, anu ioviucu
amcniiics loi ihc communiiy ihai wcic noi
ihcic lcloic: aiI sacc anu iciail sciviccs
ihai aic ucsciaicly nccucu."
Milit+r B+s K1rlcpmrt
Balowin Park, Crlanoo
AJneJ .o Be,orJ Le Eere: A FEA1TOFS

SS
Cu.Je o A.I.n., Bne CIou.e, FenI.rer nrJ
Er.onLer` ee: www..enIo..o./be,orJLeere
o. n JowrIonJnbIe o,.
Whcn ihc U.S. Navy announccu in 199S ihai
ii woulu closc ihc Oilanuo Naval Tiaining
Ccnici, ihc Ciiy ol Oilanuo saw an ooiiuniiy
io luilu a viliani, mixcu-usc ncighloihoou
ihai woulu maIc ihc lasc iociiy oncc again
aii ol ihc communiiy. Thc ciiy loimcu a Basc
Rcusc Commission ol 10 communiiy lcaucis
anu oiganizcu mcciings io lan ihc iociiy`s
luiuic. In 174 mcciings, ciiizcns hclcu ucvisc
anu ichnc a lan io icucvclo ihc lasc. Ai a
visioning woiIsho, ciiizcns ucsciilcu whai
ihcy wanicu: a vaiiciy ol housing iycs, a
viliani main siicci, ullic acccss io laIcs, anu
linIagcs wiih cxisiing ncighloihoous.
Bcloic icluiluing coulu lcgin, 26 luiluings,
200 milcs ol unucigiounu uiiliiics, anu 2
milcs ol ioau hau io lc uismanilcu anu
iccyclcu. Aslcsios anu lcau aini in ihc
luiluings anu aiscnic anu ciiolcum in ihc
soil nccucu io lc clcancu u. Ioui hunuicu
anu loiiy uays alici ucmoliiion lcgan, onc ol
ihc laigcsi iccycling io|ccis in ihc naiion`s
hisioiy was comlcic, anu ihc woiI ol luiluing
a ncw communiiy lcgan.
Sincc ihc hisi moucl ocncu in 200S, Baluwin
PaiI has solu lois anu houscs lasici ihan
any comaiallc io|cci in ihc aica. Whcn
consiiuciion cnus in 200S, Baluwin PaiI will lc
homc io 10,000 icsiucnis living in 4,100 homcs,
ianging liom icnial aaiimcnis io cusiom
houscs, all luili in aichiicciuial siylcs iiauiiional
io ihc aica. In auuiiion, 6,000 colc will woiI
in olhccs ihioughoui ihc ncighloihoou anu
in shos in ihc Villagc Ccnici. Evciyonc will lc
allc io cn|oy ovci 40 acics ol laIcs anu aiIs,
incluuing ovci iwo milcs ol laIclioni iociiy
icscivcu loi ullic usc.
9NLl N| K|S9UKC|S
AInr. Sn.or: TLe E.oIu.or o n
B.owreIJ`: www.tndtownpapcr.com/
Volumc8/cvolution_oI_brownhcld.htm
TLe U.S. EPA .e or b.owreIJ
.eJe.eIoer: www.cpa.gov/swcrosps/
bI/indcx.html
TLe Nn.ornI B.owreIJ Ao.n.or:
www.brownhcldassociation.org
S M k K I K 9 I B I 9 9 L K l I lO3
Baluwin PaiI`s icsiucnis, woiIcis, visiiois,
anu ncighlois will also havc many choiccs
in how ihcy gci aiounu. Thcic aic 0 milcs
ol iiails anu siucwalIs on an iniciconnccicu
siicci giiu loi walIing anu liIing. Tialhc,
oncc llocIcu ly ihc loimci lasc`s sccuiiiy
lcncc, can now uow ihiough S2 ncw
iniciscciions ihai conncci Baluwin PaiI
siiccis io suiiounuing ncighloihoous,
icuucing congcsiion. Thc icucvclomcni
ol ihis loimci naval lasc gavc ihc ciiizcns ol
Oilanuo whai ihcy wanicu anu lanncu loi:
a ihiiving ncw communiiy anu a lcgacy loi
luiuic gcnciaiions io cn|oy.
Bccausc ii is an inhll icucvclomcni io|cci,
Baluwin PaiI can iaIc auvaniagc ol cxisiing
owci lanis anu waici anu wasicwaici
iicaimcni laciliiics. Ai ihc samc iimc, ihc ciiy
9NLl N| K|S9UKC|S
NAF` Be,orJ Le Eere, A FEA1TOFS

SS
Cu.Je o A.I.n., Bne CIou.e, FenI.rer
nrJ Er.onLer`:
www.rcaltor.org/bcyondthcIcncc
BnIJw.r Pn.I w.r EPA` Sn. C.owL
Awn.J: www.cpa.gov/picdpagc/
awards/2005_basc_rcdcv_orlando.htm
Tu.r.r Bne .ro C.en PIne: New I.e
o. IoeJ .I.n., n.I..e`:
www.cpa.gov/dccd/military.htm
will gain an auuiiional SS0 million in annual
iociiy iax icvcnucs.
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S

lO4
Nw Icwrs ir Ktr+l kr+s:
S+rir] Ktr+l Sp+t witl Sm+rt rcwtl
AJneJ .o New Towr .r Fu.nI A.en: n..r
.u.nI ne w.L Sn. C.owL` b, B.nJ B.obe., .r
On Common Giounu Magazinc, V.re. 2uu0.
Whcn giowih comcs io iuial couniics, ii can
slaiici ihc lanuscac wiih siawl.
Yci ii uocsn`i havc io lc ihai way.
A aii ol ncw communiiics - onc in Missouii
anu ihc oihci in Iloiiua - aic among ihc
laicsi cxamlcs ol iuial ucvclomcni ihai
accommouaics giowih wiihoui chcwing u
ocn sacc.
I ihinI colc aic icauy loi anoihci choicc
comaicu io a iyical iuial suluivision,"
saiu Gicg WhiiiaIci, icsiucni ol WhiiiaIci
Homcs. Thosc colc oui ihcic looIing
loi lig lois, I uon`i ihinI ihcy icalizc, in my
oinion, ihc uamagc ihcy`ic uoing io ihc
cnviionmcni."
Ncw Town, a ,700-unii communiiy WhiiiaIci
Homcs is luiluing on 740 acics ouisiuc Si.
Iouis, Mo., is anyihing lui a iyical iuial
suluivision. Thc samc gocs loi Ncw Rivci, a
4,S00-unii communiiy ouisiuc Tama lcing
ucvclocu on 1,S00 acics ly KB Homc.
Suiiounucu ly laimlanu, loih iicau much
moic lighily on ihc lanu ihan ihc convcniional
aioach io iuial ucvclomcni in which
sucisizcu lois - anywhcic liom onc io 10
acics ci icsiucncc - uominaic.
Highci ucnsiiy is noi, howcvci, ihc only ihing
ihai scis Ncw Rivci anu Ncw Town aaii. Plans
call loi cach io cvolvc ovci ihc ncxi uccauc
inio scll-coniaincu iowns coniaining aiIs,
schools, chuichcs, sioics anu olhccs. Wc`ic
S M k K I K 9 I B I 9 9 L K l I lO5
noi |usi liinging ihc ioolios, lui cvciyihing
io suoii ihc ioolios," saiu Maishall Giay,
icsiucni ol KB Homc`s Tama uivision.
Ncw Town is ihc hisi ucvclomcni ol iis
Iinu loi WhiiiaIci Homcs, onc ol Missouii`s
lcauing homc luilucis, lui ii won`i lc ihc
lasi. Wc`ic looIing loi moic siics iighi now,"
saiu WhiiiaIci. I iiuly lclicvc ihis is ihc way
colc will lc luiluing in ihc luiuic."
Giay agiccs. KB Homc is onc ol ihc naiion`s
liggcsi homc luilucis. Cuiicnily, aloui 2
ciccni ol ihc comany`s ucvclomcnis hi ihc
molu ol Ncw Rivci. Howcvci, ovci ihc ncxi
hvc io 10 ycais, iwo-ihiius ol ihc comany`s
ucvclomcnis will lollow ihai lluciini, saiu
Giay. Ii`s ically all aloui Smaii Giowih,"
hc saiu. Ncw Town incoioiaics many ol
ihc iincilcs ol Ncw Uilanism. Conccivcu
in icsonsc io siawl, ihc Ncw Uilanism
movcmcni iomoics ucvclomcni ihai
incluucs iiauiiional iown ccnicis, uisiinci yci
comaci ncighloihoous, a vaiiciy ol housing
choiccs - cvciyihing liom uciachcu singlc-
lamily homcs io aaiimcnis - anu naiiow
siiccis ihai iamc iialhc whilc cncouiaging
walIing anu liIing. Cais comc lasi in oui
ucvclomcni," saiu WhiiiaIci.
Thai`s |usi hnc wiih Ncw Town icsiucnis
Dcc anu ]amcs Dcvcicux. Wc lovc ihc
concci ihai you can walI anywhcic," saiu
Dcc. Whcic wc livcu, you hau io iaIc a cai
whcicvci you wcni."
Thc Dcvcicuxs movcu io a singlc-lamily
homc in Ncw Town liom a laigc housc on a
hall-acic in a ncaily suluivision. Wc`ic loih
in oui 60s anu ihc yaiu was a loi ol woiI,"
saiu Dcc. Wc havc a small yaiu now anu wc
liIc ihc sizc ol ii."
Thcy also aicciaic ihc iuin-lacI-ihc-clocI
lilcsiylc - cvcning convcisaiions on ihcii
lioni oich wiih ncighlois, licc movics in ihc
ouiuooi amhiihcaici anu iiis io ihc giocciy
sioic ly liIc. Whai I`m hcaiing liom oihci
colc is ihcy lovc ihc concci |usi liIc wc
uo," saiu Dcc.
Oncc consiucicu novcl, Ncw Uilanism
has gaincu gicaici accciancc wiih cach
ncw communiiy as colc scc moic anu
moic cxamlcs ol succcsslul io|ccis, saiu
Giay. Pcolc shaic lcsi iaciiccs all acioss
ihc couniiy," hc saiu. Whcn you can ialI
io luilucis anu ucvclocis anu inicivicw
homcowncis anu lusincss owncis, ii`s all a
osiiivc."
Whilc olicn associaicu wiih uilan inhll,
iiansii-oiicnicu ucvclomcni anu/oi
suluilan icucvclomcni, Ncw Uilanism
also maIcs scnsc in iuial sciiings, whcic ii
allows colc io livc in ihc couniiy wiihoui
climinaiing ihc cnviionmcni ihcy camc loi in
ihc hisi lacc.
Thc ioioiyc loi Ncw Uilan ucvclomcni
is Scasiuc, Ila., which insiicu WhiiiaIci io
luilu Ncw Town. I`u lccn going ihcic loi
14 oi 1 ycais," hc saiu. Thai`s whcic ihc
ihoughi camc liom. You aiI youi cai anu
you uon`i havc io gci lacI inio ii loi a wccI.
Wc ihoughi aloui uoing somcihing similai loi
ycais. Wc wcic |usi waiiing loi ihc iighi iimc
anu lacc io movc loiwaiu."
Dcsigncu ly ihc samc him - Duany Plaici-
ZylciI 8 Co. - ihai ucsigncu Scasiuc, Ncw
Town has ly mosi accounis iogicsscu lasici
ihan any oihci iiauiiional ncighloihoou
ucvclomcni TND) io uaic. Thc hisi
icsiucnis movcu in lasi siing laicly moic
ihan iwo ycais alici iniiial ucsign lcgan
- a icsiamcni io Ncw Town`s ihoughilul
lanning. Mosi io|ccis havc issucs in icims
ol colc woiiicu aloui iialhc anu schools,"
saiu WhiiiaIci. Thai uiun`i hacn wiih
ihis io|cci."
Paiallcling Ncw Town`s sccuy iogicss
has lccn iis oulaiiiy wiih homcluycis.
Thc amouni ol inicicsi in ihis io|cci has
lccn unlclicvallc," saiu WhiiiaIci, noiing
ihai moic ihan 6,000 colc signcu u
loi a mailing lisi ihai ioviucs ihc laicsi
inloimaiion on ihc communiiy`s iogicss.
Wc`vc ushcu u ihc ocning ol laici hascs
lccausc ol ihc ucmanu."
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S

lO6
Dcsiic ihc oulaiiiy ol laccs liIc Ncw Town,
Ncw Uilan communiiics aic siill ihc cxcciion.
Conscqucnily, auihoiiiics olicn musi lc
convinccu io iclax vaiious lanu-usc icgulaiions
io allow ihc highci ucnsiiics anu mixcu uscs
ihai aic a Ncw Uilan communiiy`s licau anu
luiici. Evciyihing wc`ic uoing in Ncw Town
licaIs all ihc noimal iulcs," saiu WhiiiaIci.
As an cxamlc, hc ciicu Ncw Town`s livc/woiI
uniis in which a lusincss is locaicu on ihc hisi
uooi wiih a icsiucncc alovc.
Whilc noi an cxamlc ol Ncw Uilanism
ci sc - ihc housing siylc is moic icucciivc
ol suluilan suluivisions ihan uilan
ncighloihoous - Ncw Rivci also licaIs somc
molus. Ii`s noi iows ol housing, lui ocIcis
ol housing suiiounucu ly laigc ocn sacc
aicas," saiu Giay. Ncw Rivci also will lcaiuic
a 200-acic iown ccnici wiih 1S0,000 squaic
lcci ol olhcc sacc, 00,000 squaic lcci ol
commcicial sacc, schools, govcinmcni olhccs
anu a 207-acic aiI.
Giay saiu ucvclocis musi lc smaii
ncgoiiaiois" anu cuucaic clccicu olhcials"
in oiuci io icmovc oicniial laiiicis io ihcii
io|ccis. Ioi insiancc, a ciiy oi couniy may
iic ihc amouni ol icsiucniial ucvclomcni
ii allows io a cciiain amouni ol commcicial
ucvclomcni ihai musi occui ai ihc samc
iimc. Thc iollcm is ihai il lusincsscs ocn
lcloic cnough homcs aic comlcicu, ihcy
may noi suivivc, saiu Giay. Ncw Rivci solvcu
ihai uilcmma ly winning aioval io luilu
iis commcicial comoncnis in siagcs ihai will
guaianicc cnough colc aic living in ihc
communiiy io suoii ihc lusincsscs lcloic
ihcy aic luili, hc saiu.
Mcanwhilc, ai Ncw Town, iiansoiiaiion is
a challcngc. WhiiiaIci is woiIing haiu io
liing iiansii - anoihci luiluing llocI ol Ncw
Uilanism - io his communiiy. Wc`ic iiying io
ui a iiollcy liom Ncw Town io Main Siicci in
ihc iown ol Si. Chailcs," hc saiu. Thai woulu
lc a uicam."
Bui cvcn wiih a muliiiuuc ol challcngcs in
ihc iwo iowns, ihc ouicomc lai ouiwcighs ihc
iimc-consuming ncgoiiaiing ioccss, uilhculi
zoning icgulaiions anu ucsign olsiaclcs. In
ihc cnu, ii is a valucu communiiy, which ihcsc
cxamlcs clcaily show.
REALTCR

lnvolvenent
in Snart Crowth

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Transportation Toolkit
This 140-agc iimci on ihc ioic
ol iiansoiiaiion lanning ioviucs
REAITORS

anu REAITOR

associaiions
wiih ihc Inowlcugc io gci involvcu in local
anu icgional iiansoiiaiion lanning issucs.
See: www..enIo..o./.nro.ooII.
Public Schools Toolkit
This 12S-agc iimci on ihc ioic ol ullic
school ucvclomcni, incluuing hnancing,
locaiion, anu sizc issucs is ucsigncu io ioviuc
REAITORS

anu REAITOR

RR associaiions
ihc Inowlcugc io gci involvcu in local anu
icgional ullic school ucvclomcni.
K|kLI9K

lrrclrmrt ir Sm+rt rcwtl


N
ARs Connunity Cutreach oepartnent ano its Snart Crowth Progran
help nenbers ano boaros get involveo in shaping their connunities
as they grow ano change. Because REALTCRS

sell connunities
as well as houses, it is in the REALTCRs

best interest to nake the


whole connunity a great place to live. The resources NAR oIIers ranges Iron
inIornation to snall grants. Sone oI these resources are targeteo to inoivioual
REALTCRS

while nost are Ior use by REALTCR

associations.
See: www..enIo..o./PubSLooITooII.
On Common Cround Magazinc d
NAR`s smaii giowih magazinc is ullishcu
iwicc a ycai on a vaiiciy ol giowih anu
lanu-usc ioics. This is ihc cilcci way loi
any REAITOR

RR io siay u io uaic on ihcsc


aciiviiics. REAITOR

RR associaiions aiounu ihc


couniiy havc lounu Or Coor C.ourJ io lc
an cxccllcni lcavc lchinu" whcn ihcy visii
local clccicu olhcials. Thc magazinc icminus
ihcsc olhcials ihai REAITORS

aic inicicsicu
in smaii giowih issucs anu aic Inowlcugcallc.
See: www..enIo..o./o
Il |cllcwir] rsctrts +r irtr11 |cr
ts | K|kLI9K

+sscti+ticrs.
Smart Growth Action Grants
Dcsigncu io sui smaii giowih-
oiicnicu aciiviiy ly local
REAITOR

RR associaiions, ihc giani


iogiam has iwo alicaiion
cyclcs ci ycai anu awaius u
io SS,000 ci alicani. Mosi
REAITOR

RR associaiions usc ihc


lunus io ioviuc an cuucaiional
cvcni loi ihcii mcmlcis as wcll
as local ullic olhcials aloui a
giowih issucs ihai is aiiiculaily
gcimanc io ihcii aica.
See: www..enIo..o./.nr
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S

lO8
Issucs Mobilization
NAR`s Issucs Molilizaiion iogiam was
cicaicu io suoii siaic anu local REAITOR

RR
associaiions ihiough cuucaiion, icchnical
assisiancc anu/oi hnancial suoii, anu
io cnallc ihcm io oiganizc anu managc
cllcciivc issuc camaigns io iomoic NAR
olicy. A iincial ol|cciivc ol ihc iogiam
is io ioviuc siaic anu local REAITOR

RR
associaiions wiih hnancial assisiancc iowaiu
cllcciivc issuc camaigns lcnchiing anu
iomoiing REAITOR

RR ullic olicy. This is a


maiching lunus iogiam.
See: www..enIo..o./.ueob
Land-Usc Initiativc
NAR`s Ianu Usc Iniiiaiivc assisis siaic
anu local REAITOR

RR associaiions in ihcii
ullic olicy auvocacy ol lanu usc issucs.
Uon icqucsi, NAR will ioviuc licc cxcii
analysis ol ihc lcgal, lanning, cconomic,
anu cnviionmcnial issucs suiiounuing
lcgislaiivc anu icgulaioiy lanu usc ioosals.
Thc iogiam will accci loi analysis lanu
usc mcasuics in uiali loim oi as loimally
iniiouuccu, as wcll as icoiis oi siuuics ihai
luiuic lcgislaiion oi icgulaiion may lc lascu
uon. NAR will only accci icqucsis liom siaic
oi local REAITOR

RR associaiions.
See: www..enIo..o./Iu.
Customizcd statc lcgislation on
land usc and growth
Thc Cusiomizcu Siaic Smaii Giowih
Icgislaiion Piogiam ioviucs assisiancc io
siaic REAITOR

associaiions who wish io


iaIc ihc lcau in wiiiing anu iniiouucing
lcgislaiion io hcl ihc siaic lciici auuicss
ihc challcngcs ol giowih anu imiovc local
communiiics. NAR ollcis, ai a icuuccu iaic,
ihc sciviccs ol icsccicu lanu usc law him
Rolinson 8 Colc io uiali siaic lcgislaiion io
cncouiagc smaii giowih. Examlcs mighi
incluuc ncw zoning cnalling lcgislaiion,
icquiicmcnis loi local lanning, changcs in
suluivision law, oi ocn sacc ioicciion,
io namc a lcw. Thcsc ioosals musi lc
iclaicu io lanu usc anu smaii giowih, anu
shoulu lc issucs ihai can gain suoii liom a
consiiiucncy lcyonu REAITORS

.
See: www..enIo..o./uoIe
Votcr survcys
This iogiam allows siaic anu local
REAITOR

associaiions ihc aliliiy io conuuci


olling on giowih-iclaicu issucs in ihcii
aicas. Thc iogiam uscs onc ol iwo NAR-
alhliaicu ullic oinion hims io suivcy
ihc oinions ol local oi siaic icsiucnis
conccining giowih. Thcsc suivcys usually
coniaci aloui 400 icgisicicu voicis living in
ihc uchncu aica anu can lc owcilul iools
io asscss ihc oinions ol youi communiiy
loi local anu siaic govcinmcni olhcials. Thc
cosi vaiics accoiuing io ihc uciail ol ihc
oll, anu ihc ullic oinion him uscu. In
an clloii io iomoic ihc iogiam anu io
maIc ihis olling availallc ai all lcvcls ol ihc
REAITOR

oiganizaiion, NAR will ay loi 0


ciccni ol ihc suivcy.
See: www..enIo..o./oII.r
Sharcd GAD Program
Thiough ihc Shaicu GAD Govcinmcni
Allaiis Diiccioi) Piogiam, NAR assisis local
anu siaic REAITOR

RR associaiions ihai aic


looIing loi ncw anu uniquc iucas on how io
shaic govcinmcnial allaiis icsouiccs. NAR
assisis inicicsicu siaic anu local associaiions in
laciliiaiing mcciings anu ncw aioachcs loi
ihosc associaiions looIing loi ways io incicasc
ihcii aliliiy io icicscni ihcii REAITOR

RR
mcmlcishi cllcciivcly.
See: www..enIo..o./Ln.eJnJ
To lcain moic aloui any ol ihc lollowing
icsouiccs, coniaci:
Hugh Morris
Communiiy Ouiicach Rcicscniaiivc
Naiional Associaiion ol REAITORS

00 Ncw ]ciscy Avcnuc, NW


Washingion, D.C. 20001
202-SSS-127S
hmoiiisCicaliois.oig
S M k K I K 9 I B I 9 9 L K l I lO
K|kLI9K

ksscti+ticrs ir ktticr
R
EALTCRS

sell nore than hones. They sell connunities. Every


oay REALTCRS

see frst-hano how our connunities are growing,


changing, ano beconing nore oiverse. Who better to assure that their
connunities grow to be the best they can be than the people who
know their connunities better than anyone else? As proIessionals ano resioents,
REALTCRS

have a vesteo interest in naking sure our connunities are as healthy


as they can be. That incluoes strengthening schools, naking our transportation
systen nore eIfcient, ano ensuring that open space is available Ior recreation.
Nany REALTCR

associations ano their nenbers have steppeo up to help


aooress the challenges that result Iron growth ano change. The Iollowing case
stuoies provioe exanples oI REALTCR

associations that have becone oeeply


involveo in helping to shape their connunities as they grow.
+slir]tcr
K|kLI9KS


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C+mp+i]r
Sunnary
In ihc 1990s, Washingion REAITORS

WR) licqucnily lounu ihcmsclvcs in ihc


osiiion ol consianily oosing clloiis io
sio oi slow giowih. Thcii soluiion was
ihc cicaiion ol an ongoing Qualiiy ol Iilc
Camaign io cngagc in a osiiivc way in
iomoiing smaiici giowih. Thc camaign
has hau a siiing ol lcgislaiivc succcsscs,
lui, moic imoiianily, ii also has mauc ihc
associaiion a Icy layci in lanning loi ihc
siaic`s luiuic.
Creating the Cuality oI LiIe Canpaign
Whcn laccu wiih a giowih managcmcni
law ihai ihicaicncu io siiuc ucvclomcni,
REAITORS

in ihc siaic ol Washingion


molilizcu loi cngagcmcni anu soon lounu
ihcmsclvcs iiicu againsi no-giowih aciivisis.
Rcalizing ihai mosi ciiizcns uiun`i wani io sio
giowih, ihc Washingion REAITORS

woiIcu
io icliamc ihc uclaic.
Whai siaiicu as an Economic Dcvclomcni
TasI Ioicc in 1999 is now ihc siaic
associaiion`s Qualiiy ol Iilc Camaign, which
siiivcs io susiain anu cnhancc ihc qualiiy ol
lilc loi Washingion icsiucnis ly suoiiing
qualiiy giowih.
Thc Qualiiy ol Iilc Camaign has iiansloimcu
us liom lcing a giou ihai is Inown loi whai
ii ooscs io onc ihai is Inown loi whai ii
suoiis," says REAITOR

RR MiIc Ilynn, CRS,


2004 icsiucni ol Washingion REAITORS

,
who has lccn aciivcly involvcu in ucvcloing
anu iomoiing ihc camaign.
Thc camaign`s hvc coic iincilcs shaic
many clcmcnis ol ihc Naiional Associaiion ol
Rcaliois

Smaii Giowih Piincilcs:


@ Ensuic cconomic viialiiy ihai cicaics goou
|ols anu iomoics cconomic uivcisiiy.
@ Pioviuc housing ooiiuniiics so ihai
cvciyonc can hnu salc anu alloiuallc
homcs ncai whcic ihcy livc anu woiI.
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S

llO
@ Picscivc oui cnviionmcni ly lanning
loi ocn sacc anu ucvcloing olicics io
ioicci clcan aii anu waici.
@ Builu lciici communiiics ly aucquaicly
invcsiing in inliasiiuciuic iiansoiiaiion,
waici, anu scwci sysicms), schools, anu
ullic sciviccs ihai ioviuc ihc liamcwoiI
loi a high qualiiy ol lilc.
@ Pioicci iociiy owncis` aliliiy io own,
usc, anu iianslci iociiy.
Thcsc iincilcs aic ihc iiicuucillc clcmcnis
ol communiiy," Ilynn says. This iogiam
liings iogcihci whai oui clicnis icll us gocs
inio ihcii uccision-maIing aloui homcs anu
communiiics," hc auus. Bccausc REAITORS

scll communiiy, wc havc a ciscciivc ihai`s


uniquc. Anu ii has a unilying cncigy. ... Ii
allows us io walI inio ihc lcgislaiivc anu olicy-
maIing ioccss anu ollci inui ihai is lioauci
ihan whai clccicu olhcials usually hcai - anu
ihai maIcs us vciy wclcomc ai ihc iallc."
Washingion`s oulaiion, which incicascu
ly a million colc uuiing ihc 1990s, is
cxccicu io |um ly anoihci 1.7 million
icsiucnis in ihc ncxi 20 ycais. Wiihoui ioci
lanning, REAITORS

lclicvc ihai housing


ooiiuniiics will lc limiicu anu ihc siaic`s
chciishcu cnviionmcni anu iolusi cconomy
may lc ai iisI. Thai`s why ihc Washingion
REAITORS

aic gciiing ihc cais ol clccicu


olhcials ai ihc siaic anu local lcvcl. Thc
Washingion Giowih Managcmcni Aci icquiics
cvciy communiiy acioss ihc siaic io icvicw
anu uuaic iis comichcnsivc lans anu io
csiallish ncw icgulaiions io guiuc giowih.
Sccihcally, ihc GMA icquiics communiiics io:
W Iucniily anu ioicci ciiiical aicas
W Dcsignaic couniywiuc lanning olicics
anu uilan giowih aicas
W Picaic anu auoi comichcnsivc lans
W Imlcmcni ihc comichcnsivc lan
W Evaluaic anu uuaic ihc comichcnsivc
lan anu ucvclo icgulaiions
Thc Qualiiy ol Iilc Camaign sccIs io inuucncc
ullic olicy ihai accommouaics qualiiy giowih,
housing, anu cconomic ucvclomcni, uchnc
qualiiy giowih anu iis lcnchis, cnhancc ihc
imagc ol REAITORS

anu clcci canuiuaics who


will sign a lcugc io caiiy oui ihc Qualiiy ol Iilc
iincilcs il clccicu.
Washingion REAITORS

also havc cicaicu


an in-housc icam ol cxciis on lanu-usc law
anu icgulaiion anu hscal olicy io ucvclo
ioosals ihai ihc camaign can usc io hcl
cxanu inliasiiuciuic lunuing, incicasc
ihc housing suly anu moic. Thc icam
ioviucs guiuancc anu assisiancc io local
associaiions in ihcii clloiis io iomoic anu
auoi ihosc olicics.
Washingion REAITORS

has siall ucuicaicu


io iaising moncy loi REAITORS

Poliiical
Aciion Commiiicc RPAC) io suoii olicy-
maIcis who will auoi anu imlcmcni ihosc
olicics. Thc camaign cooiuinaics iis ullic
auvocacy mcssagcs wiih ihc RPAC io coniaci
iaigcicu voicis anu show suoii loi cnuoiscu
canuiuaics. Thc camaign also woiIs io shaic
govcinmcni allaiis icicscniaiion among local
associaiions anu io iiain govcinmcni allaiis
uiicciois io maIc ihc lcsi usc ol ihc Qualiiy ol
Iilc icsouiccs.
Thc siaic associaiion also uisiiiluics an Aciion
Guiuc" scc ihc REAITOR

RR Aciion Guiuc ai
ihc cnu ol ihis scciion) io iis 24,000 mcmlcis
io cncouiagc ihcm io iaIc an aciivc iolc in
ihcii communiiics. Ii ouilincs ihc iogiam`s
iincilcs anu uciails sccihc ways loi
REAITORS

io iaIc aii in ihc local lanning


ioccss. Ii shows how io ucvclo aiincishis
wiih oihci oiganizaiions, woiI wiih ihc local
mcuia, csiallish iclaiionshis wiih clccicu
olhcials, anu iucniily oicniial ooncnis.
A Qualiiy ol Iilc ioolIii is also availallc io
cvciy mcmlci io hcl ihcm lciici unucisianu
issucs anu io cuucaic olicy maIcis. Thc
Qualiiy ol Iilc CD coniains moic ihan S0
icscaich liicls, olicy guiucs, mcuia iools
anu icscniaiions io hcl REAITORS

allcci
S M k K I K 9 I B I 9 9 L K l I lll
local uccisions ihai liamc ihcii communiiy`s
giowih. Evciy ycai moic iools aic auucu as ihc
REAITORS

iangc ol inuucncc on issucs in


ihc siaic lioaucns.
All ol ihcsc iniiiaiivcs havc lcu io moic luy-in
liom siaic associaiion mcmlcis, accoiuing io
Biyan Wahl, WR Govcinmcni Allaiis Diiccioi.
Moic ihan onc-ihiiu ol oui mcmlcis icccnily
ollcu consiuci ihc Qualiiy ol Iilc Piogiam a
io lcnchi ol ihcii mcmlcishi. Wc`vc moic
ihan uoullcu oui RPAC invcsimcnis in ihc
lasi iwo ycais, anu ihcy`vc giown cxoncniially
sincc wc siaiicu ihc camaign. Iasi ycai, wc
lioughi in moic ihan S700,000 in RPAC
invcsimcnis. This ycai, oui goal is S1 million."
As ihc Qualiiy ol Iilc Piogiam gains
momcnium, moic colc aic lamiliai wiih ihc
REAITORS

` woiI. A icccni ullic oinion


suivcy showcu a high lcvcl ol ullic iccogniiion
loi ihc Qualiiy ol Iilc iogiam siaicwiuc. Onc
quaiici ol all voicis ncaily 2 million colc)
aic awaic ol ihc Qualiiy ol Iilc Piogiam, anu
a whoing 7 ciccni suoii ihc iogiam`s
goals. Sixiy-hvc ciccni lclicvc REAITORS

shaic ihcii samc inicicsis loi communiiy


anu lamily, anu 60 io 70 ciccni agicc ihai
REAITORS

aic siiong auvocaics who ioicci


iociiy iighis, maIc housing alloiuallc,
imiovc ihc cconomy anu |ol ooiiuniiics,
anu imiovc qualiiy ol lilc. Thc icsulis show
ihai REAITORS

havc gaincu a siiong


cicuililiiy ihai allows ihcm io scaI cllcciivcly
on issucs ihai ihc ullic caics aloui.
You uon`i nccu io lc ociaiing unuci a
giowih managcmcni aci loi ihis iogiam
io maIc scnsc," assciis Ilynn. Hc says ihc
camaign`s iincilcs can caiuic ihc minus
ol ihc ullic anu ihc clccioiaic icgaiulcss
ol locaiion. In laci, scvcial siaics aic alicauy
auaiing ihc iogiam oi oiiions ol ii) loi
usc in ihcii own siaics, incluuing Wisconsin,
Kansas, Coloiauo, Hawaii, Mississii, Souih
Caiolina, Ncvaua anu Washingion D.C. In
auuiiion, mosi ol ihc iovinccs in Canaua
havc iniiiaicu succcsslul iogiams.
Alici scvcn ycais, ihc camaign`s icsulis
aic imicssivc. Wc`vc hau gicai lcgislaiivc
succcss sincc 2000," says Wahl. Whcn
iyically only 1 ciccni ol all lills
iniiouuccu aic signcu ly ihc govcinoi
uuiing any givcn scssion, ihc REAITORS

aic succcsslul cvciy ycai ai gciiing mosi ol


oui iioiiiy lcgislaiion asscu, incluuing
imiovcmcnis io ihc Giowih Managcmcni
Aci, mcasuics io incicasc housing
ooiiuniiics, uilan anu iuial cconomic
ucvclomcni inccniivcs, conuominium
lialiliiy icloim, cimiiiing clhcicncy,
iiansoiiaiion anu inliasiiuciuic lunuing
acIagcs. Wc wcic also allc io win ihc voics
in ihc siaic lcgislaiuic io luiy a sciious
aiicmi io incicasc ical csiaic iaxcs.
Wc`vc succcsslully gaincu suoii io uclcai
lau lcgislaiion anu ass goou lcgislaiion
lccausc wc`vc icachcu acioss aiiy lincs anu
auuicsscu iuial anu uilan issucs anu lilcial
anu conscivaiivc agcnuas," hc says. Thc
succcss wc`vc hau is somcihing wc liIc io
shaic wiih all oihci REAITOR

associaiions.
Whcn you looI ai oui agcnua - |ols, homcs,
anu communiiy - ihai`s a lioau aioach
ihai all ihc ullic suoiis. Thcsc ically aic
ihc Iiichcn-iallc ioics, ihc issucs colc
caic aloui."
Ilynn concluucs ihai oihci associaiions
ucvcloing similai iogiams can iiansloim
ihcii auvocacy iogiams. Elccicu olhcials hnu
a loi io liIc aloui oui iogiam lccausc ii has
ihc cxiiaoiuinaiy lcnchi ol lcing iniuiiivcly
scnsillc anu laciually accuiaic. Anu ihai`s why
ii woiIs!"
Contact:
Biyan Wahl
Govcinmcni Allaiis Diiccioi
Washingion REAITORS

04 14
ih
Avcnuc, SE
PO Box 719
Olymia, WA 9S07
S00-62-6024
liyan.wahlCwaicalioi.oig
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S

ll2
|lcri1+ ksscti+ticr
c| K|kLI9KS

Sm+rt
rcwtl Cctrtil
Sunnary
In 2000, Souih Iloiiua
REAITOR

RR Sanuia
Golusicin iooI ihc hclm ol hci local
associaiion anu lcgan a qucsi io invcsiigaic
soluiions io hci aica`s giiulocI anu sccmingly
chaoiic ucvclomcni. Shc quicIly giaviiaicu
iowaiu smaii giowih. Thc cuucaiional cvcnis
ihc associaiion sonsoicu iovcu oulai anu
lcu io cicaiion ol a similai, siaicwiuc clloii
unuci ihc Iloiiua associaiion`s Smaii Giowih
Council, which has cvolvcu inio a cimancni
sulcommiiicc ol ihc associaiion ihai sonsois,
among oihci smaii giowih clloiis, iwo local
smaii giowih conlcicnccs ci ycai, cach
onc in a ncw locaiion. Thcsc conlcicnccs
aic cosonsoicu ly ihc local loaiu ol
REAITORS

in ihc |uiisuiciion in which ihc


conlcicncc iaIcs lacc.
Leaoing a oiscussion on growth
ano oevelopnent
Whcn Sanuia Golusicin iaIcs on a lcaucishi
osiiion, shc wanis io Inow shc`s maIing
a uillcicncc. As shc icaicu io chaii ihc
7,000-mcmlci REAITORS

Associaiion ol
Gicaici Miami anu ihc Bcachcs siaiiing in
2000, shc asIcu hciscll, How can I havc ihc
liggcsi imaci." Thc answci, shc ucciucu, was
smaii giowih.
In Miami, wc`ic in giiulocI all ihc iimc,"
saiu Golusicin, icsiucni ol Sanuia Golusicin
8 Associaics, a commcicial lioIciagc anu
luiluing managcmcni him in Kcy Biscaync.
Wc avcu ovci agiiculiuial lanu io luilu
ioaus io ihc suluils, anu now colc aic
lccling uiscnlianchiscu. Iamilics aic scaiaicu
liom ihcii |ols, ihcii homcs, anu ihcii
chiluicn loi mosi ol ihc uay, anu colc scnu
houis in iialhc."
To |um siaii aciivism loi lciici lanning anu
ucvclomcni, shc wcni oui inio hci communiiy
anu mci wiih lcaucis - clccicu olhcials,
lanncis, cnviionmcnialisis anu oihcis who
coulu lay a iolc. Shc icalizcu ihai ihcy all hau
conccins aloui ovci-luiucncu ioaus, ihc loss
ol laimlanu anu ihc cconomic hcalih ol ihc
icgion. Bui nonc ol ihcm wcic ialIing io cach
oihci. Thc associaiion oiganizcu a conlcicncc
io hcl cuucaic REAITORS

anu oihcis
aloui smaii giowih whilc showing communiiy
lcaucis ihai REAITORS

wani io lc involvcu in
communiiy issucs.
In 2002, ihc Iloiiua Associaiion ol
REAITORS

cicaicu a Picsiucniial Auvisoiy


Commiiicc on Smaii Giowih. Thc lollowing
ycai, ihc commiiicc lccamc ihc Iloiiua
Associaiion ol REAITORS

Smaii Giowih
Council, wiih Golusicin as chaii. Wiih scvcial
uozcn voluniccis, ihc council locuscu on
cuucaiion anu mcnioiing oihcis.
Wc camc io ihc icalizaiion ihai wc
nccucu io siaii cuucaiion on a siaic lcvcl...
wiih coniinuing cuucaiion cicuiis," says
Golusicin. WoiIing wiih Iloiiua Ailaniic
Univcisiiy`s Caiancsc Ccnici loi Uilan anu
Enviionmcnial Soluiions, ihcy ucvclocu a
smaii giowih cuiiiculum. In Ociolci 200S,
ihc council hclu a uay-long smaii giowih
cuucaiion scssion loi REAITORS

. Thc
mcciing iooI lacc in Alacoa, Ila., homc io
IAU`s MacAiihui Camus anu an cxccllcni
cxamlc ol a wcll-ucsigncu iown. Thc
REAITORS

iouicu ihc iown lciwccn scssions


on smaii giowih iincilcs, lanning, anu
liinging aciivism inio a communiiy.
Wc iiicu io show ihai ihcic`s no smaii-giowih
ioioiyc ihai will hi cvciy communiiy oi
cvciy villagc in Iloiiua," says Golusicin. Bui
whai wc can uo is cuucaic colc anu alcii
ihcm io whai ihc ossililiiics aic anu whai
succcss sioiics cxisi - anu ihai can lighi a hic
unuci ihcm."
Gcoigc Canicio, Golusicin`s succcssoi as
council chaii, coniinucu io cuucaic Iloiiua
REAITORS

aloui smaii giowih, wiih


conlcicnccs in Oilanuo anu Scasiuc. Wc wani
io mainiain ihc awaicncss ol whai`s hacning
in oui siaic wiih smaii giowih," says Canicio.
S M k K I K 9 I B I 9 9 L K l I ll3
Thc IAU cuiiiculum was again ihc ccniciiccc
ol ihcsc mcciings, whcic hc auucu an ocn
loium loi colc io ialI aloui any osiiivc
oi ncgaiivc issucs ihcy aic lacing wiih smaii
giowih. As wc aiiiculaic ihc issucs ol smaii
giowih wiih moic licqucncy, wc scc icsisiancc
uioing, anu colc icalizc ii`s noi a onc-
sizc-his-all soluiion. Wc wani io show ihai smaii
giowih can lc iailoicu io mcci ihc nccus ol
cach communiiy anu ihc culiuic ol an aica."
Bascu in Miami, Canicio locuscs on
inicinaiional luycis anu scllcis in ihc
icsiucniial maiIci. Hc says his clicnis`
iimaiy conccins aic housing alloiualiliiy,
convcnicncc io sciviccs, anu a scnsc ol salciy,
all ol which hc says aic auuicsscu ly smaii
giowih. Thcsc aic human issucs ihai cui
acioss ihc iicc scciium whcn colc luy
ical csiaic in any communiiy," hc says.
What Cther REALTCRS

Associations
can Learn Iron Florioas Experience
Siaii ihc convcisaiion," suggcsis Canicio. Wc
havcn`i uonc anyihing caiih-shaiiciing, lui wc
havc siaiicu incicasing awaicncss...Evciyonc
wanis insiani giaiihcaiion, lui cvciyihing has
a ciiou ol gcsiaiion...ii iaIcs iimc loi smaii
giowih io caich on."
Golusicin, now aciivc in hci own
ncighloihoou auvisoiy giou, Inows ihai
ihc clloiis io cuucaic REAITORS

aloui
smaii giowih will ay oll in ihc long iun.
REAITORS

aic ihc loiciunncis. Wc`ic ihc


hisi oncs colc coniaci io iaIc caic ol ihcii
lilc nccus. Ii`s imoiiani ihai wc lcain liom
cach oihci anu gci insiiaiion liom cach
oihci. Wc wani io uo somcihing clsc lcsiucs
|usi collcciing a commission. Wc wani io
givc mcaning io whai wc uo. Uliimaicly, as
human lcings wc wani io havc counicu loi
somcihing. Wc wani io maIc a uillcicncc."
Contact:
]ohn Sclicc
Vicc Picsiucni - Pullic Policy
Iloiiua Associaiion ol REAITORS

S0) 224-1400
|ohnsClai.oig
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S

ll4
Nw M\itc Ctstcmit1
St+t L]isl+ticr
Sunnary
Alici ninc ycais ol liuiilcss
aiicmis io amcnu siaicwiuc
lanning anu zoning laws,
ihc Ncw Mcxico REAITORS

associaiion
ucciucu io iaIc auvaniagc ol NAR`s iogiam
ihai ollcis ihc assisiancc ol a naiionally Inown
lanu-usc law him in wiiiing anu auvocaiing loi
siaic smaii giowih lcgislaiion. Thc inlusion
ol ouisiuc cxciiisc hclcu mcmlcis locus
on csscniial iovisions anu uio unncccssaiy
clcmcnis ihai cngcnucicu oosiiion. This
ioccss cxanucu ihc giou`s inuucncc.
Naking progress in New Nexico
In ihc caily 1990s, ihc Ncw Mcxico lcgislaiuic
asscu siaicwiuc lanning anu zoning
lcgislaiion ovci ihc ol|cciions ol many
REAITORS

. Ioi ycais, ihc REAITORS

Associaiion ol Ncw Mcxico RANM) iiicu


unsucccsslully io amcnu ihc lcgislaiion. In
200S, ihc oiganizaiion uscu ihc NATIONAI
ASSOCIATION OI REAITORS

Cusiomizcu
Siaic Smaii Giowih Icgislaiion Piogiam anu
succccucu in assing iwo amcnumcnis.
Ioi ninc ycais wc woulu go anu lcai oui
hcaus againsi ihc wall anu iiy io maIc
changcs," says REAITORS

]im Mauuox, who


scivcu as RANM`s volunicci lcgislaiivc chaii
in 200S anu is a asi icsiucni ol ihc siaicwiuc
oiganizaiion. Thcn wc iooI auvaniagc ol ihis
iogiam. Ii lighicns ihc loau on volunicci
REAITORS

, icuucing whai ihcy havc io


icscaich anu unucisianu lcloic cmlaiIing on
a lcgislaiivc clloii."
Thc cusiomizcu lcgislaiion iogiam hcls
siaic associaiions iaIc ihc lcau in wiiiing
anu iniiouucing lcgislaiion io lciici auuicss
ihc challcngcs ol giowih anu imiovc local
communiiics. Thiough ihc iogiam, NAR
ioviucs associaiions wiih ihc sciviccs ol lanu-
usc law him Rolinson 8 Colc anu ays hall
ol ihc lcc Il a siaic associaiion cannoi lunu
iis hall, auuiiional assisiancc may lc availallc
ihiough anoihci NAR iogiam). Thc law
him hcls uiali siaic lcgislaiion on smaii
giowih issucs, ioviuing auvicc on lcgislaiivc
siiaicgy, cicaiing ialIing oinis, assisiing
wiih coaliiion ucvclomcni anu unuciiaIing
somc limiicu uiicci lollying. Thc associaiion
commiis io a lcgislaiivc camaign, iucniihcs
ol|cciivcs loi ihc lcgislaiion io achicvc,
aoinis a lcgislaiivc iasI loicc, aiiiciaics
in siiaicgy anu coaliiion ucvclomcni,
sccuics lill sonsois, anu oiganizcs mcmlci
coniaci icams io lolly lcgislaiois. Ncw
Mcxico is onc ol ihicc siaics along wiih
Souih Caiolina anu Massachusciis) ihai has
uscu ihc iogiam.
Wc hau wonucilul lcgal auvicc iooicu in
u-io-uaic lanu-usc iaciiccs," says Maiy E.
MaiiincI, RANM`s hisi govcinmcni allaiis
uiiccioi. Rolinson 8 Colc caiiicu ihai auvicc
inio suggcsiions loi coaliiion-luiluing ihai
allowcu us io ui iogcihci ihc unuciinnings
ol a succcsslul lcgislaiivc siiaicgy."
In icvious ycais, MaiiincI cxlains, RANM
uscu an all-volunicci lcgislaiivc commiiicc
wiih uozcns ol mcmlcis ihai woiIcu iogcihci
io ucvclo ncw iniiiaiivcs. Onc huiulc ihcy
laccu ycai alici ycai was ihc oosiiion ol ihc
cnviionmcnial anu ullic olicy giou callcu
1000 Iiicnus ol Ncw Mcxico. Thcy siiongly
ooscu iovisions in ihc associaiion`s
amcnumcnis calling loi comichcnsivc
zoning lans ai ihc couniy lcvcl anu ihc
iohiliiion ol loiccu mcigcis ol coniinuous
aiccls ol lanu, iimaiily in iuial aicas.
Whcn a ncw govcinmcni allaiis uiiccioi was
hiicu in 2002, ihc associaiion ucciucu io iiy
a uillcicni aioach. RANM iuincu io ihc
Cusiomizcu Siaic Icgislaiion Piogiam anu
cicaicu a small volunicci iasI loicc wiih only
a hanulul ol colc anu ihc aliliiy io maIc
uccisions. This giou woiIcu closcly wiih
Biian Blacssci, a aiinci in Rolinson 8 Colc,
who camc io Ncw Mcxico io hcl ucvclo a
lcgislaiivc siiaicgy, luilu coaliiions, anu uiali
lcgislaiion. Onc ol ihc hisi mcciings hc hclu
was wiih ihc 1000 Iiicnus ol Ncw Mcxico
io unucisianu ihcii oosiiion. Ii iuincu
S M k K I K 9 I B I 9 9 L K l I ll5
oui ihai hc was allc io climinaic viiiually all
ihc languagc ihcy ooscu anu siill achicvc
ihc icsulis ihai ihc REAITORS

nccucu.
Thcii suoii uliimaicly hclcu gci loih
amcnumcnis asscu.
Ii was hcllul io havc somconc oini oui ihai
wc wcic gciiing io ihc samc lacc," MaiiincI
says, lccausc somciimcs voluniccis gci so
wcuucu io ihc way ihcy ihinI ii shoulu go."
Alluquciquc REAITORS`

Bill Camlcll III,


CCIM, a volunicci mcmlci ol ihc lcgislaiivc
commiiicc, agiccs. Wc`u lccn laiiling ihc
samc colc ovci ihc lanu-usc issucs loi a
long iimc," hc says. You cnu u uiawing
lincs in ihc sanu anu no onc wanis io luugc.
Whcn you liing somclouy liom ihc ouisiuc
wiih a licsh vicw, ii`s casici io ncgoiiaic. Anu
Rolinson 8 Colc lioughi a loi ol cicuililiiy
io ihc iallc. Thcy`ic goou ai whai ihcy uo.
Thcy`ic vciy cllcciivc, ihcy Inow ihc issucs,
anu ihcy`ic vciy lasi. Wc woulun`i havc goiicn
ii uonc wiihoui ihcm."
Mauuox hcaucu u ihc iasI loicc, which
incluucu MaiiincI, ihc associaiion`s cxccuiivc
vicc icsiucni Pcggy Comcau, Camlcll, anu
scvcial auuiiional volunicci REAITORS

, all
ol whom wcic cxiicmcly Inowlcugcallc aloui
ihc issucs anu wcic acccssillc via ccll honcs
24 houis a uay. UnliIc in ihc asi, Mauuox says,
whcn a changc io a singlc scnicncc mighi iaIc
uays io gci aiovcu, Wc unucisioou ihc issucs
anu coulu maIc uccisions wiihin minuics.
Rolinson 8 Colc lioughi ihc lcgal cxciiisc,
lui ii ically hclcu ihai ihc associaiion
siicamlincu ihc uccision-maIing ioccss."
MaiiincI says ihai using a small iasI loicc
was a aiauigm shili" loi ihc associaiion, lui
ii was icuicaicu uon ihc scnsc ol comloii
anu sccuiiiy ihai camc liom woiIing wiih
Rolinson 8 Colc. Ii gavc oui voluniccis a
iicmcnuous scnsc ol conhucncc," shc says,
noiing ihai oihci REAITORS

can lcain liom


ihc Ncw Mcxico cxciicncc. Whilc somc
mcmlcis woiiicu ihai an ouisiuci woulu lail
io unucisianu ihcii issucs, ihai simly was noi
iiuc, shc says.
By using ihc cusiomizcu lcgislaiion iogiam,
MaiiincI says, ihc REAITORS

in Ncw Mcxico
cnhanccu ihcii siaius as movcis anu shaIcis"
in ihc lcgislaiivc aicna. Moicovci, ii gavc
ihcm a loosi iowaiu sulscqucni lcgislaiivc
achicvcmcnis.
Contact:
Pcggy Comcau
Exccuiivc Olhcci
REAITOR

RR Associaiion ol Ncw Mcxico


2201 Bioihcis Roau
Sania Ic, NM S70
0-9S2-2442
comcauCmsn.com
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S

ll6
\rttr+
Cctrt Cc+st+l
ksscti+ticr c| K|kLI9KS

+r1 B9M|
Sunnary
In ihc 1990s, REAITORS

in Vcniuia Couniy,
Caliloinia, lccamc woiiicu ihai incicasing
siiiciuics on giowih anu ihc iniiouuciion
ol lalloi-lox zoning" wcic shuiiing oui
housing loi all lui ihc wcalihicsi inuiviuuals.
Rcalizing ihai iaIing ihc liu oll giowih was noi
an oiion, ihc local associaiion aiiiciaicu
in cicaiion ol Housing Ooiiuniiics Mauc
Easici, oi HOME, a non-iohi coaliiion ihai
is auvocaiing succcsslully loi wcll-ucsigncu,
highci-ucnsiiy ucvclomcni ihai mccis ihc lull
iangc ol housing nccus.
Creating the HCNE coalition
Alici voicis in Caliloinia`s Vcniuia Couniy
asscu giowih-coniiol lcgislaiion in ihc laic
1990s, housing iiccs siaiicu iising, suiicu
ly ihc cxansion ol Ios Angclcs io ihc
souih anu Sania Bailaia io ihc noiih. Whcn
miuulc-class woiIcis siaiicu gciiing iiccu
oui ol ihc housing maiIci, ihc local cconomic
ucvclomcni associaiion loimcu a housing
iasI loicc, which quicIly concluucu ihai a
housing ciunch woulu maIc aiiiaciing ncw
lusincss io ihc couniy incicasingly uilhculi.
Wiih ihc suoii ol ihc Vcniuia Couniy Coasial
Associaiion ol REAITORS

, ihc iasI loicc


lccamc a non-iohi oiganizaiion in 2000 callcu
HOME: Housing Ooiiuniiics Mauc Easici.
A communiiy-lascu oiganizaiion locuscu on
incicasing ihc suly ol aucquaic housing
loi all colc in Vcniuia Couniy, HOME now
incluucs REAITORS

, ucvclocis, alloiuallc
housing auvocaics, local govcinmcni olhcials,
lusincss colc, anu oihcis who wani io
iomoic iaiional giowih siiaicgics loi
Vcniuia Couniy.
Wc`ic in a long-icim laiilc io win hcaiis anu
minus," says REAITOR

RR Iicu Iciio, who iuns


ihc Vcniuia olhcc ol NAI Caiial Commcicial
Rcal Esiaic Sciviccs anu scivcu as HOME`s
chaii uuiing iis hisi ihicc ycais.
In 199S, icsiucnis in Vcniuia Couniy
ovciwhclmingly aiovcu a couniywiuc
giowih-coniiol mcasuic callcu Savc Oui
Agiiculiuial Rcsouiccs SOAR). Sincc ihcn,
cighi ol ihc couniy`s icn ciiics havc aiovcu
similai lcgislaiion ihai iohiliis cxicnsion ol
ciiy sciviccs ouisiuc ol Ciiy Uilan Rcsiiiciion
Bounuaiics CURB) anu icquiics a ullic
voic loi ucvclomcni ol any laimlanu oi ocn
sacc ouisiuc ihc linc.
Thcic aic now icucicimincu lincs whcic
you cannoi ucvclo wiihoui going lacI io
ihc ullic loi a voic," cxlains Kay Runnion,
govcinmcnial allaiis uiiccioi ol Vcniuia
Couniy Coasial Associaiion ol REAITORS

anu a mcmlci ol HOME`s Sicciing


Commiiicc. Alici assing ihc icsiiiciions, shc
says, colc siaiicu oosing all ncw housing
ucvclomcni. Thai |usi isn`i icalisiic," shc
assciis, noiing ihai ihc couniy ol 79,000
colc coulu io a million wiihin a uccauc.
Wc nccu io cuucaic colc aloui alloiuallc
housing anu oihci smaii giowih iincilcs
lccausc ol ihcsc icsiiiciions."
Iciio says ihc lalloi lox zoning" coulcu
wiih uoullc-uigii annual incicascs"
in icsiucniial homc iiccs suiicu ihc
ucvclomcni ol HOME. No-giowih olicics
aic imlcmcnicu laigcly lccausc ihcy`ic
oliiically oulai anu lcasillc, lui no onc
ihinIs aloui ihc ui siuc, ihai homc iiccs
iisc anu colc liIc nuiscs, mcchanics,
anu oliccmcn can`i alloiu io livc in ihc
communiiy anymoic."
Euucaiion anu ouiicach quicIly lccamc onc
ol ihc iimaiy goals ol HOME uuiing Iciio`s
icnuic as chaii.
Ai ihc ouisci, ihc all-volunicci oiganizaiion
woiIcu io luilu a uivcisc lasc ol mcmlcis
whilc gaihciing uaia aloui housing cosis,
oulaiion giowih, |ol giowih, ihc amouni
ol ucvcloallc lanu wiihin ihc CURB lincs,
anu zoning icgulaiions ihai limiicu ihc
communiiy`s aniiciaicu housing ucmanus.
Thc Couniy Planning Dcaiimcni alicauy
was loiccasiing a signihcani housing shoiiagc
S M k K I K 9 I B I 9 9 L K l I ll7
cvcn wiih luiluallc lanu ucvclocu accoiuing
io ihc couniy`s lans. A local cmloyci
suivcy lounu ihai moic ihan 90 ciccni
ol icsonucnis ciicu laiiicis io aiiiaciing
ncw woiIcis lccausc ol housing conccins.
Oihci siuuics showcu ihai somc icsiucnis
wcic scnuing 0 ciccni ol ihcii houscholu
incomc on housing.
HOME uscu inloimaiion liIc ihis io sicau
ihc woiu aloui ihc couniy`s nccu loi
smaii giowih. Thc giou`s hisi ncwslciici,
ullishcu in lall ol 2001, saiu Tcachcis,
ullic salciy woiIcis, anu young auulis |usi
cniciing ihc woiIloicc will lc ihc hisi io lc
uiivcn oui ol Vcniuia Couniy ly ihc housing
ciisis, anu il woiIcis commuic lacI io ihc
couniy loi |ols, ihcn oui alicauy uilhculi
iialhc iollcms will lc luiihci cxaccilaicu.
Howcvci, an acioss-ihc-loaiu housing
shoiiagc also allccis coioiaic cxccuiivcs anu
cniicicncuis. Il ]ihcy| can`i hnu aucquaic
anu convcnicni housing, ihcy will simly
looI clscwhcic io locaic ihcii lusincsscs."
Ii concluucu ihai ihc housing shoiiagc
coulu lcau io an cconomic uowniuin anu
siagnaiion in ihc couniy.
Thc giou also sonsoicu a sciics ol scminais
io incicasc awaicncss ol ihc housing ciisis in
ihc lusincss communiiy anu io highlighi somc
smaii giowih lcsi iaciiccs. Inhll housing
can lc a haiu scll," noics Iciio, csccially
in communiiics ollciing only aaiimcnis
anu singlc-lamily homcs. HOME showcu
ihai alloiuallc housing can lc aiiiaciivc
anu coniinucs io co-hosi onc oi iwo housing
scminais annually.
HOME also uscu scvcial icchniqucs io icach
oui io ihc gcncial ullic anu local lcgislaiois,
incluuing cicaiing a wclsiic www.vchomc.
oig) anu using ullic acccss callc iclcvision.
Onc ol ihc mosi cllcciivc icchniqucs, siill uscu
iouay, is a 20-minuic PowciPoini icscniaiion
cicaicu loi usc ai mcciings wiih ncighloihoou
gious, civic associaiions, ucvclocis, clccicu
olhcials, anu oicniial suoiicis. Wc say,
hcic`s ihc iollcm, hcic aic somc siaiisiics
io lacI ii u, anu hcic aic somc ossillc
soluiions,`" says Runnion. Wc aic iiying io
gci colc io looI ai ihc alloiuallc housing
issuc, io maIc colc awaic ol ihc uillcicni
iincilcs ol smaii giowih, io cxlain ihai
ucnsiiy isn`i a uiiiy woiu, anu io show ihai
ihcic aic slow, maiuic aciions io lc iaIcn."
Shc says many local REAITORS

nccucu
a iimci on alloiuallc housing anu oihci
smaii giowih iincilcs lccausc singlc-
lamily homcs hau always lccn ihc lulI ol
ihcii lusincss. Wc havc io siaii uioing
ihc concci ol only onc iyc ol housing loi
colc. Il ihcic aic oihci choiccs, colc can
ai lcasi looI," says Runnion.
Alici cuucaiing ihc mcmlcishi, ihc
associaiion hclcu launch a scaIcis luicau
loi HOME, cncouiaging local REAITORS

io usc ihc HOME icscniaiion io scaI io


gious in ihcii communiiics. Ii icquiics
consiani cuucaiion io cnallc REAITORS

io
lccl conhucni anu siiong in ihcii auvocacy
ol housing issucs," says Runnion. Somc lcai
ii`s ioo scll sciving, lui wc icminu ihcm ihai
REAITORS

ioviuc a scivicc ly gciiing


inloimaiion oui io colc lccausc REAITORS

Inow housing lciici ihan anylouy."


Iciio says all ol ihc ouiicach has hau an
imaci in Vcniuia Couniy. Thcic`s gicaici
ullic awaicncss, ihcic`s moic uialog liom
a moic uivcisc giou, anu ihcic`s gicaici
collaloiaiion lciwccn gious ihai unucisianu
ihc iollcm." Hc says onc ol ihc giou`s
luiuic goals is io sccuic long-icim lunuing io
hcl solvc a long-icim iollcm."
Onc aica ihai hc ucsciilcs as a wcaI soi" in
HOME`s caily siagc was iis goal ol cnuoising
io|ccis. Thc iuca was io havc a ihiiu-aiiy
ancl ol cxciis aichiiccis, lanncis,
cnviionmcnialisis anu oihcis) icvicw
iooscu ucvclomcnis. Il ihcy mci HOME`s
ciiiciia - iomoiing cconomic sialiliiy, using
goou ucsign, minimizing uilan cxansion,
cicaiing alloiualiliiy, mixing uscs anu
suoiiing ullic iiansii - ihcy woulu lc
cnuoiscu anu ullicizcu ihiough icss
iclcascs anu suoiicu ai ullic hcaiings.
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S

ll8
Whilc HOME uiu cnuoisc a hanulul ol
io|ccis, ihc ioccss was iimc-consuming
anu uilhculi io mainiain, icquiiing consiani
icciuiimcni ol volunicci cxciis. Bccausc
ol ihis, Iciio says, ihc sicciing commiiicc
icccnily ucciucu io ic-ccnici iis locus on
communiiy cuucaiion anu ouiicach.
Runnion vicws ihc io|cci cnuoiscmcni
iogiam as a lcaining cxciicncc loi HOME
anu oihci REAITORS

Associaiions who
aic lacing giowih-iclaicu issucs in ihcii own
communiiics. Don`i iiy io uo ioo many
ihings," shc says. Kcc ii simlc, iomoic a
lcw siiong clcmcnis, siay locuscu, anu uon`i
givc u. Thcic aic iimcs whcn you wani io
ihiow u youi hanus, lui you |usi havc io Icc
lugging away."
Shc cncouiagcs all REAITORS

io
gci acquainicu wiih ihc NATIONAI
ASSOCIATION OI REAITORS

Smaii
Giowih Piincilcs. Evcn il you aic noi lacing
giowih issucs io ihc ucgicc ihai wc aic in
Vcniuia Couniy, you will lacc giowih issucs
cvcniually...Ii`s going io hacn cvciywhcic.
As Caliloinia gocs, ihc icsi ol ihc naiion gocs."
Contact:
Kay Runnion
Govcinmcni Allaiis Diiccioi
Vcniuia Couniy Coasial Associaiion ol
REAITORS

2S0 WanIcl Way


Oxnaiu, CA 9S0S0
S0-9S1-2100
gauCvchomchnucis.com
S M k K I K 9 I B I 9 9 L K l I ll
\cr| Cit
S+rr:
K|kLI9KS

t tc Krcw Ilir Bcmtcwr
Sunnary
Rcviializaiion ol cxisiing iowns anu ciiics is a
Icy clcmcni ol smaii giowih, lui sclling ical
csiaic in many ol ihcm can lc iiicIy. Thc
REAITORS

Associaiion loi YoiI anu Auams


Couniics, Pcnnsylvania, RAYAC) cicaicu
ihc YoiI Ciiy Savvy couisc io lciici cqui
REAITORS

io scll icsiucniial iociiics in ihc


ciiy. Mouclcu on ihc similai Sclcci MilwauIcc
couisc, YoiI Ciiy Savvy ollcis scaIcis who aic
lcaucis in YoiI Ciiy`s ullic anu iivaic scciois,
giving aiiicianis a lioau unucisianuing ol
whai ihc ciiy ollcis oicniial homcluycis.
Bringing Honebuyers into York City
Ioi ycais, many REAITORS

in ihc YoiI Ciiy,


Pcnnsylvania, aica wcic icluciani io show
iociiics in ihc ciiy iiscll. Thc convcniional
wisuom was ihai schools wcic ooi anu
iaxcs high. Buycis, ioo, olicn camc wiih
icconccivcu noiions aloui ihc wisuom ol
luying in iown. Iiusiiaicu ihai ihcsc vicws
lingcicu cvcn alici ihc ciiy lcgan io iuin
aiounu, RAYAC Homcowncishi Cooiuinaioi
Bcisy BucIingham wcni looIing loi iucas loi
how io changc ihc siiuaiion.
In 2002, shc uiscovcicu ihc Sclcci MilwauIcc
iogiam anu coniacicu Scoii Bush ai ihc
Gicaici MilwauIcc Associaiion ol REAITORS

,
who iolu hci how ihc associaiion hau ucvclocu
a couisc ihai hcls cuucaic mcmlcis aloui ihc
myihs anu icaliiics ol ciiy lilc, so ihai ihcy can
lciici mcci ihc nccus ol clicnis loi whom ii
woulu lc a goou hi.
Thc YoiI Ciiy Savvy iogiam is hcling
REAITORS

caiializc on ihc ciiy`s luisi ol


giowih. A nighi sccnc wiih icsiauianis anu
cluls has lcgun io llossom, lans aic unuci
way loi consiiuciion ol a ncw minoi lcaguc
lallaiI uowniown, anu many ncw housing
oiions havc ocncu u, incluuing uscalc
lolis anu iown homcs, as wcll as oiions
loi alloiuallc housing. In auuiiion, scvcial
ichaliliiaiion io|ccis aic in iogicss, incluuing
ma|oi icnovaiions lcu ly ihc local YWCA anu
YMCA in aicas au|accni io uowniown. Thc
ciiy is homc io ihicc inicinaiionally Inown
hims - Plalizgiall, Dcnisly Inicinaiional,
anu Glailclici - anu is locaicu wiihin icach ol
ma|oi Miu-Ailaniic huls: aloui an houi liom
Baliimoic, an houi anu a hall liom Washingion,
D.C., anu iwo houis liom Philauclhia.
York City Savvy:
The Course Breakoown
REAITORS

nccu io mcci no icquiicmcnis io


cnioll in YoiI Ciiy Savvy, anu ihc couisc is licc
ol chaigc. Uon comlciion ol ihc couisc,
aiiicianis icccivc a in anu YoiI Ciiy Savvy"
ucsignaiion. Ai-laigc RAYAC mcmlcishi lccs
aic noi uscu io suoii ihc iogiam.
Thc couisc consisis ol loui scssions ol
ihicc houis cach ihai locus on uisiinci lui
lunuamcnially iniciiclaicu asccis ol YoiI Ciiy:
ncighloihoou govcinancc, schools, icsiucniial
oiions loi homcluycis, anu hnancing issucs.
Scssion onc ollcis a liicl hisioiy ol ihc
YoiI Ciiy Ncighloihoou Alliancc anu iis
amcniiics, incluuing aiIs anu iccicaiion,
culiuial ooiiuniiics, anu sccial inccniivcs
loi young iolcssionals. ScaIcis who havc
voluniccicu ihcii iimc incluuc ihc chaii ol ihc
Ncighloihoou Alliancc, olhcials liom ihc Ciiy
PaiIs anu Rccicaiion Dcaiimcni, anu ihc
uiiccioi ol ihc Hcalihy YoiI Couniy Coaliiion.
Thc scssion also iouchcs on ihc ciiy`s iich
hisioiy, incluuing iis lounuing in 1741 anu
iis iolc in hosiing ihc Scconu Coniincnial
Congicss in 1777-7S.
Scssion two uis ihc lcns io YoiI Ciiy schools,
aiming laigcly io clcai u misconcciions
ihai luycis may havc. In asi vcisions ol ihc
couisc, ihis scssion has incluucu a ioui ol
Smiih Miuulc School. Aiicnuccs lcain aloui
ihc vaiious anu uniquc iogiams loi siuucnis
ol all agcs anu lcvcls.
Scssion thrcc ioviucs a suivcy ol icsiucniial
oiions wiihin YoiI Ciiy. Thcsc incluuc iow
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S

l2O
homcs, homcs on iicc-lincu siiccis, conuos,
lolis, homcs in suluilan sciiings, anu homcs in
commcicial ccnicis," accoiuing io ihc couisc
wiiic-u. In asi scssions, scaIcis havc incluucu
ihc ciiy`s Coucs Olhcci, as wcll as icicscniaiivcs
liom ihc YoiI Ciiy Human Rclaiions
Commission, who ioviucu uuaics on laii
housing issucs. Ol inicicsi hcic is YoiI`s iouu
aichiicciuial hciiiagc, which siicichcs lacI
ncaily ihicc ccniuiics. Accoiuing io iiavcl wiiici
Pai Mcsicin, YoiI`s collcciion ol Vicioiian-cia
iow houscs is scconu only io ihai ol Baliimoic.
Scssion Iour locuscs on cicuii, moiigagc
iouucis anu assisiancc iogiams, anu YoiI`s
Moiigagc Cicuii Cciiihcaic, wiih icscnicis
suggcsiing ways io usc ihcsc sciviccs in
comlinaiion. Thc mosi laci hllcu ol ihc loui
scgmcnis, ihis scssion has incluucu icscnicis
liom ihc Cicuii Buicau anu ihc Housing
Council, as wcll as liom iivaic lanIs anu
Ruial Ooiiuniiics, Inc., a communiiy
ucvclomcni oiganizaiion.
Thcic also is a YoiI-sccihc moiigagc iogiam
anu an cmloyci-assisicu housing iogiam,
ucvclocu ly somc ol ihc ciiy`s laigci
cmloycis io cncouiagc cmloyccs io livc
wiihin ihc ciiy. Also iclaicu io ihis uiscussion
aic ihc lollowing YoiI Ciiy iogiams:
W First-timc homcbuycrs program: a uown
aymcni anu closing cosi assisiancc
iogiam loi qualilying homcluycis.
W Adopt-a-housc program: connccis local
coioiaiions wiih ncglccicu iociiics.
Comlcicu homcs aic solu ai maiIci cosi.
W Rchabilitation loans: hcl hnancc
consiiuciion ai lclow-maiIci iaics.
Early Cutcones
]uuging liom ihc high couisc-comlciion
iaic anu cnihusiasiic icmaiIs on cvaluaiion
loims, ihc YoiI Ciiy Savvy couisc has lccn an
unqualihcu succcss. Gaylc Sanucis, a couisc
aiiiciani who woiIs loi ]acI Gaughcn
REAITOR

RR ERA

AA , cxlaincu, As ical csiaic


iolcssionals, wc nccu io lci oui clicnis anu
cusiomcis Inow ihai wc`ic noi |usi hcic loi
ihc commission. Wc`ic hcic lccausc wc ically
caic aloui oui communiiy." By lcaining moic
aloui ihcii communiiy on issucs ianging liom
schools io hnancing oiions, REAITORS

can noi only hnu ihc iighi hi loi clicnis, ihcy


also lccomc moic involvcu civic mcmlcis.
Oihci aiiicianis, such as Eihcl Davis, a
REAITOR

RR wiih Iong 8 Iosici, saw ihc couisc
as a usclul iclicshci. I hau a Inowlcugc ol ihc
communiiy, anu ihis was a vciy hcllul icvicw
loi mc," shc saiu.
In ihc shoii icim, ihc iogiam uclivcis oihci
lcnchis. Rcicscniaiivcs ol RAYAC aic noi
auihoiizcu io iccommcnu onc REAITOR

RR
ovci anoihci io ihc gcncial ullic. Bui il
somconc icqucsis a REAITOR

RR anu has an
inicicsi in moving inio ihc ciiy, a RAYAC
icicscniaiivc can say, Thc lollowing colc
comlcicu ihc YoiI Ciiy Savvy couisc." Thai`s
whcic ihc ucsignaiion comcs in vciy hanuy.
RAYAC`s wcl siic incluucs a lisi ol REAITORS
who havc caincu ihc ucsignaiion.
Auucu Sicvc Sncll, RAYAC`s Exccuiivc Olhcci,
I`vc lccn lcascu lccausc ihis iogiam has
mauc ii clcai ihai oui associaiion iccognizcs
ihc iniciiclaicuncss ol oui communiiy`s
municialiiics. Thai mcans ihc succcss ol ihc
ciiy, incluuing uowniown, allccis us all. Thiough
ihis iogiam, wc show wc`ic uoing whai wc can."
Aining Ior Cbsolescence
Couisc ucvcloci Bcisy BucIingham noics: My
gicaicsi hoc is ihai ihc iogiam will lccomc
unncccssaiy, as ii uiu in MilwauIcc." Thc iuca
is ihai cnough REAITORS

will lccomc YoiI


Ciiy savvy" ihai ihc iogiam will havc scivcu
iis uiosc - io incicasc ihc numlci ol local
REAITORS

lciici icaicu io scll homcs


in YoiI Ciiy anu io signihcanily incicasc ihc
ciccniagc ol homcowncishi in ihc ciiy.
Contact:
Sicvc Sncll, Exccuiivc Olhcci
REAITORS

Associaiion ol YoiI anu Auams


Couniy
4S Wcsi Philauclhia Siicci
YoiI, PA 17404
S00-SS-12SS
sicvcCiayac.com
S M k K I K 9 I B I 9 9 L K l I l2l
Sllir] Cit 9wr1
|rcprtis ||htirtl
(SC9||} ir B+ltimcr:
!cirt |rcjtt Url+sls
M+r|t |crts cr Ict]l |rc|lm
Sunnary
Thc Gicaici Baliimoic Boaiu ol REAITORS

is woiIing wiih Ciiy ol Baliimoic olhcials,


lounuaiions, anu oihci oiganizaiions io lisi
anu scll ciiy-owncu vacani anu alanuoncu
iociiy. Thc iniiiaiivc, Inown as SCOPE
Sclling Ciiy Owncu Piociiics Elhcicnily),
is a maiIci-oiicnicu aioach io iomoic
homcowncishi anu ichaliliiaiion ol
housing in llighicu ncighloihoous. Thc
hisi hasc ol ihc SCOPE Pio|cci has shown
signihcani oicniial, anu Ciiy olhcials aic
now sulsianiially incicasing ihc numlci ol
iociiics ollcicu loi salc.
City Strives to Cet Title
to 5,OOO Properties
Baliimoic, Maiylanu, liIc oihci laigc ciiics
acioss ihc naiion, has lccn slow io iccovci
liom ihc loss ol manulaciuiing |ols ihai oncc
coniiiluicu io a iolusi uilan cnviionmcni.
Poulaiion ucclinc, which was aiiiculaily
scvcic in ihc 1990s, has lcu io housing
vacancics ihai now amouni io aloui 1,000
iociiics in ihc ciiy. Somc iociiy owncis
havc alanuoncu iociiics iaihci ihan ay ical
csiaic iaxcs oi maIc icaiis - such as lcau aini
alaicmcni - nccucu in Baliimoic`s numcious
oluci homcs, incluuing many liicI iow houscs.
In 2002, Baliimoic Mayoi Maiiin O`Mallcy
iooscu Pio|cci 000, unuci which ihc Ciiy
lanncu io acquiic clcai iiilc io ,000 vacani
iociiics wiihin iwo ycais. Pioccuuics
loi gaining iiilc incluuc iax uclinqucncy
iocccuings, uichasc, anu cxcicisc ol
cmincni uomain. Wiih viiiually all ol ihcsc
iociiics ai lcasi in ihc loicclosuic anu
liiigaiion siagc, ihc Ciiy is now cxloiing
oiions loi ihcii uisosiiion. Somc ol ihcsc
iociiics aic sulhcicnily conccniiaicu io
cnallc laigc-scalc icucvclomcni ly ihc Ciiy.
Bui many moic aic scaiicicu on inuiviuual
lois, anu ihai`s whcic SCOPE his in.
Scvcial ycais ago, ihc Baliimoic Economy anu
Elhcicncy Iounuaiion BEEI) asIcu ihc Ciiy ol
Baliimoic anu ihc Gicaici Baliimoic Boaiu ol
REAITORS

GBBR) io hcl ucvclo a maiIci-


uiivcn mcchanism loi ichaliliiaiing houscs
on inuiviuual lois in scvcial ncighloihoous.
Thc uiosc ol ihis io|cci woulu lc io iciuin
vacani anu alanuoncu iociiics io iouuciivc
usc, liinging ihcm lacI onio ihc iax iolls anu
saiIing inicicsi in au|accni icsiucniial anu
commcicial iociiics.
Duiing ihc ucvclomcni siagc, GBBR
inviicu ihc Rcal Esiaic BioIcis ol Baliimoic
Rcaliisis) io aiiiciaic in SCOPE anu
|oin ihc icvicw ancl ihai sclccicu agcnis
io maiIci SCOPE iociiics. Rcaliisis aic
alhliaicu wiih ihc Naiional Associaiion ol
Rcal Esiaic BioIcis NAREB), which is mauc
u ol minoiiiy iolcssionals. Thc GoluscIci
Iounuaiion ioviucu lunuing loi logisiical
anu siall suoii.
Alici a iwo-ycai lanning ioccss, ihc Ciiy
iucniihcu 62 vacani iociiics as icauy io go
on ihc maiIci. Thc SCOPE Pio|cci inviicu
lioIcis anu agcnis io aly as lisiing agcnis
loi ihcsc iociiics. Ol ihc moic ihan 100
who alicu, 10 wcic sclccicu io lisi SCOPE
iociiics. Thcsc 10, who aic Rcaliisis anu/
oi REAITORS

, aic aiiiculaily lamiliai


wiih loicclosuic salcs anu ihc naiuic ol ihc
ncighloihoous involvcu, as wcll as highly
qualihcu in ical csiaic iiansaciions.
How SCCPE Works: Narket
Processes with Controls
Piociiics aic lisicu on ihc Mciiooliian
Rcgional Inloimaiion Sysicms MRIS)
anu aic incluucu in ihc naiional uaialasc
acccsscu ovci ihc Inicinci ihiough www.
REAITOR.com. This lisiing cnallcs any
ical csiaic lioIci oi agcni io aiiiciaic in
ihc io|cci on lchall ol a luyci. GBBR has
lccn insiiumcnial in ucvcloing sianuaiu
uichasc anu sciilcmcni loims, which aic
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S

l22
now availallc on ihc Boaiu`s wclsiic www.
icalioislaliimoic.com).
Sccial icquiicmcnis uo aly. In sclccicu
ncighloihoous, onc conuiiion ol salc is
ihai ihc housc musi lc ownci-occuicu anu
ichaliliiaicu wiihin 1S monihs. Elscwhcic,
ihc luycis also musi ichaliliiaic ihc housc
in 1S monihs, lui ihcy may Icc ii as a icnial
iociiy oi scll ii as an invcsimcni iociiy.
Thcsc icquiicmcnis hcl io cnsuic ihai
SCOPE iociiics will lc ichallcu anu noi
mcicly hclu in a uilaiuaicu conuiiion waiiing
loi icsalc iiccs io iisc. Poicniial luycis ol
SCOPE iociiics musi uisclosc inloimaiion
aloui oihci iociiics ihcy own in ihc Ciiy,
anu Baliimoic`s Boaiu ol Esiimaics has ihc
auihoiiiy io ic|cci any salc il ihc luyci is
consiucicu unqualihcu loi SCOPE.
Alongsiuc ihcsc icquiicmcnis aic aiiiaciivc
inccniivcs. Thc Ciiy ol Baliimoic cncouiagcs
ical csiaic agcnis io aiiiciaic ly aying a
salcs commission ol S2,00 oi cighi ciccni,
whichcvci is gicaici. Pioscciivc luycis aic
ollcicu a licn-licc iociiy anu havc u io S0
uays alici ihc Ciiy iaiihcs ihc coniiaci io lacI
oui ol ihc ucal wiih no cnaliics.
Why Try a Narket Solution?
Thc scalc ol ihc alanuonmcni anu ncglcci
in somc aicas ol Baliimoic hau ui ihc Ciiy
in ihc unwiiiing iolc ol ma|oi ical csiaic
maiIcici. Bui lcw icsouiccs wcic availallc in
ihc cash-siiacu" ciiy io cnsuic ihai vacani
iociiics on scaiicicu siics wcic solu anu
ichaliliiaicu, accoiuing io Rolcii PiiI,
Diiccioi ol Assci Managcmcni anu Disosiiion
ai Baliimoic`s Dcaiimcni ol Housing anu
Communiiy Dcvclomcni. Uiilizing iivaic
sccioi ical csiaic iolcssionals allows ihc Ciiy
io avail iiscll ol ihc muliilc lisiing scivicc anu
uis a loi moic lcci on ihc siicci."
Thc Ciiy uocs noi ay a commission on
a iociiy uniil ihai iociiy gocs io
sciilcmcni. Baliimoic also savcs moncy ii
woulu havc scni on auvciiising ullic
salcs. MaiIci loiccs siimulaic comciiiion,
which incicascs ihc iicc ihc Ciiy icccivcs
loi ihcsc iociiics anu also maIcs ii casici
loi ihc Ciiy io siiulaic ihai iociiics lc
ichaliliiaicu. Rchaliliiaiion is Icy. PiiI
noics ihai ihc SCOPE iovisions cnsuic ihai
icucvclomcni is woiIing loi ihc lcnchi ol
ihc communiiy. Thai`s ciiiical loi Baliimoic."
Early Cutcones: SCCPE Cenerates
Revenue ano Buzz
Alihough SCOPE is in iis inlancy, ihc iniiial
icsonsc ly Ciiy olhcials, ihc ical csiaic
scivicc communiiy, anu consumcis has
lccn cnihusiasiic. In a mcciing lcloic ihc
Baliimoic Ciiy Council on ]uly 1, 2004,
housing olhcials noicu ihai S9 ciccni ol ihc
oiiginal 62 iociiics hau coniiacis. Aloui
1 ciccni hau gonc io sciilcmcni. SCOPE
hau gcnciaicu S16,000 in icvcnuc loi ihc
Ciiy, wiih anoihci SS91,000 unuci coniiaci.
Salc iiccs loi ihcsc iociiics, which wcic
gcncially guiicu shclls, iangcu liom S2,00 io
S0,000 wiih an avciagc ol aloui S10,000. Thc
Ciiy cxccis io icccivc an csiimaicu S6 million
in homc consiiuciion anu valuc liom ihc
io|cci lascu on ihc iniiial lisiings.
SCOPE has noi lccn wiihoui iis liusiiaiions.
Dclays havc icsulicu liom ihc vciiing nccucu
io uciciminc ihai inuiviuual luycis aic
qualihcu. Mosi ol ihc iociiics aic loaiucu
oi liicIcu u, maIing ii ncccssaiy loi ihc
Ciiy io ocn ihcm anu ioviuc uoois ihai aic
Icycu loi ihc scllcis ihc samc way as oihci
homcs on ihc MRIS.
Thc liggcsi challcngcs sicm liom cumlcisomc
auminisiiaiivc anu lcgal ioccuuics ihai can
uclay sciilcmcni loi six monihs whilc ihc Ciiy
cnsuics clcai iiilc io a iociiy. Accoiuing
io ]osch ]ouy) Ianucis, Exccuiivc Diiccioi
ol GBBR, ihc Ciiy is icaiing a uowchaii ol
luicauciaiic loiilcnccIs anu is woiIing in
ianucm wiih ihc ical csiaic inuusiiy io consiuci
ways io siicamlinc ihc ioccss, ossilly wiih
ihc usc ol iivaic icsouiccs. This is a solvallc
iollcm," hc says.
Viio Simonc, a REAITOR

RR who has lisicu


SCOPE iociiics, is convinccu ihai ihc
maiIcilacc is ihc lcsi lacc io gci ihings
S M k K I K 9 I B I 9 9 L K l I l23
uonc anu io gci ihc lcsi icsulis," aiiiculaily
wiih scaiicicu-siic housing. By using ihc
cncigics anu icsouiccs ol ical csiaic lioIcis
anu agcnis, SCOPE cicaics a lcvcl laying
hclu loi consumcis." Hc auus: Anyihing
ihai uis housing on ihc ocn maiIci is a
goou ihing. You casi a wiuci nci loi oicniial
homcowncis anu invcsiois."
Wiih 107 houscs solu as ol Maich 2006, ihc
comlinaiion ol SCOPE anu Pio|cci 000
havc lccn cicuiicu wiih hcling iuin-aiounu
ncighloihoous such as Rcscivoii Hill. PiiI
noics ihai SCOPE has aiiiacicu a lioau aiiay"
ol luycis, liom uilan ionccis" io chuichcs,
small invcsiois, anu laigci ucvclocis. SCOPE
has also gcnciaicu a loi ol luzz," hc says. Ii`s
uchniicly an imoiiani iool in oui Iii."
Contact:
]osch T. Ianucis III, Exccuiivc Diiccioi
Gicaici Baliimoic Boaiu ol REAITORS

1S06 Bcllona Avcnuc, 1si Ilooi


Iuihcivillc, MD 2109S
410-SS7-7200
]TIanucisCRcalioisBaliimoic.com
www.icalioislaliimoic.com/scoc/
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S

l24
Mitli]+r L+r1 Us
kt+1mis: K|kLI9KS


L+rr tc |tt tl Br+|s
cr Spr+wl
Sunnary
Thiough iis Ianu Usc
Acaucmics, ihc Michigan Associaiion ol
REAITORS

cuucaics qualihcu mcmlcis


aloui ihc imoiiancc ol smaii giowih in
ihc siaic. Thc iogiam lcgan in 2004 alici
Govcinoi ]cnnilci Gianholm`s liaiiisan
Ianu Usc Icaucishi Council icoiicu on ihc
nccu io cuil unsusiainallc giowih iaciiccs.
NAR ano the Covernors Lano Use
Leaoership Council
In ihc miu-1990s, lanu usc lccamc a
iomincni issuc on ihc lcgislaiivc agcnua in
Michigan. Communiiics laigc anu small wcic
giowing unchccIcu, anu cxisiing laws anu
icgulaiions lacIcu ihc ucxililiiy io coniiol
ihc icsuliing siawl. Icw REAITORS

in
ihc siaic unucisioou ihc nuanccs ol lanu
usc. In icsonsc, ihc Michigan Associaiion
ol REAITORS

MAR) iniiiaicu a siaicwiuc


cuucaiion camaign.
Gil Whiic, ihcn MAR`s icsiucni-clcci, anu
Rolcii Camau, MAR`s vicc icsiucni loi
ullic olicy anu lcgal allaiis, iooI ihc lcau,
oiganizing lanu usc summiis wiih ihc Michigan
Enviionmcnial Council, ihc Michigan Iaim
Buicau, anu oihci gious. Whiic conccivcu
ol ihc Ianu Usc Acaucmics in 200S whilc
aiicnuing a mcciing ol ihc Michigan Ianu
Usc Icaucishi Council, co-chaiicu ly loimci
govcinoi William MilliIcn anu Aiioincy
Gcncial IianI Kcllcy. Thc 26 mcmlcis, who
icicscnicu a lioau aiiay ol inicicsis, siuuicu
iicnus anu conscqucnccs ol Michigan`s lanu
usc olicics ai ihc local anu siaic lcvcl.
Accoiuing io Whiic, icscaichcis lounu ihai
lciwccn 19S0 anu 199 uilan ucvclomcni,
which hau covcicu 6 ciccni ol ihc siaic in
197S, hau cxanucu ai cighi iimcs ihc iaic ol
oulaiion incicasc. Ai ihai iaic, Michigan`s
ucvclocu lanu was cxccicu io incicasc ly
17S ciccni ly 2040.
In iis hnal icoii, A.L.nr` 1nrJ, A.L.nr`
Euu.e, ihc Michigan Ianu Usc Icaucishi e
Council iccommcnucu ihai ihc govcinoi
anu siaic lcgislaiuic iaIc sics io lciici guiuc
ihc siaic`s giowih. Thc council auvocaicu
mixcu-usc ucvclomcni wiih high ucnsiiy in
aioiiaic locaiions, an aioach associaicu
wiih smaii giowih. Thc council also auvocaicu
ihc icaiaiion ol housing imaci siaicmcnis,
cconomic siuuics asscssing ihc cllccis ol
govcinmcni icgulaiion on ihc availaliliiy ol
alloiuallc housing.
Iinally, wiih siiong lacIing liom MAR, ihc
council iccommcnucu ihai 60 ciccni ol ihc
mcmlcishi ol lanning commissions, zoning
loaius ol acal, loaius ol iiusiccs, anu ciiy
councils in cach |uiisuiciion lc icquiicu io
comlcic a coniinuing cuucaiion couisc in
smaii giowih in oiuci io icccivc siaic aiu.
The Lano Use Acaoenies:
New ano Continuing Eoucation
MAR ollcicu iis hisi Ianu Usc Acaucmy in 2004
anu has ollcicu ihcm ai icgulai inicivals sincc,
ai loih iniiouucioiy anu cxanucu lcvcls.
Land Usc Acadcmy I. Ianu Usc Acaucmy I
is ocn io 0 siuucnis who qualily ly viiiuc
ol cxciicncc auuicssing lanu usc issucs oi
collaloiaiing wiih local govcinmcnis, oi
an aliuing inicicsi in ihc hclu. Thcic is no
chaigc, anu siuucnis icccivc iwo coniinuing
cuucaiion cicuiis.
Thc liochuic iomiscs ihai ihc uay-anu-
a-hall couisc icachcs aiiicianis how io
iniciaci wiih local govcinmcnis aloui all
ihings lanu usc. Siuucnis will lcain maiIci-
liicnuly ucvclomcni icchniqucs ]anu|
goou ucsign ihcoiics." ScaIcis incluuc
cxciis liom ihc ical csiaic, govcinmcni, anu
cnviionmcnial communiiics.
Duiing ihc summci 200 scssion. Bol
McNamaia, olicy icicscniaiivc ol ihc
S M k K I K 9 I B I 9 9 L K l I l25
Naiional Associaiion ol REAITORS

, lcu a
hanus-on scssion in which hc showcu sliucs
ol vaiious lanu usc sciiings - laimlanu,
small iowns, commcicial siiis, anu so loiih
- anu asIcu aiiicianis io iucniily cxamlcs
ol smaii giowih. Whcic smaii giowih was
noi ucicicu, siuucnis uscu a comuici
alicaiion io simulaic imiovcmcnis.
A gucsi insiiucioi was Don Chcn, cxccuiivc
uiiccioi ol Smaii Giowih Amciica, a coaliiion
ol naiional, siaic, anu local oiganizaiions.
Chcn ucsciilcu his oiganizaiion`s clloiis
io imiovc ihc ways wc lan anu luilu ihc
iowns, ciiics, anu mciio aicas wc call homc."
Auuiiional icscniaiions wcic givcn ly MAR`s
ouisiuc lcgal counscl Daviu Picison, who
uiscusscu siiaicgics loi woiIing wiih local
govcinmcni on zoning issucs, Biau Gaimon,
Ianu Piogiams Diiccioi ai ihc Michigan
Enviionmcnial Council, who icscnicu an
cnviionmcnial ciscciivc on ucnsiiy, anu
Bill Rusicm, a longiimc oliiical aciivisi, who
ioviucu an uuaic on lanu usc maiicis acioss
ihc siaic ol Michigan.
Land Usc Acadcmy II. In ihc scconu couisc in
ihc sciics, scaIcis anu aiiicianis cxanu
ihc uiscussion io casc siuuics anu iincilcs
lchinu cllcciivc ucsign ol icsiucnccs anu
communiiics. Ianu Usc Acaucmy II is ocn io
REAITORS

who aiicnucu ihc iniiial couisc.


Thcic is no chaigc loi aiicnuancc anu no
coniinuing cuucaiion cicuii.
Thc summci 200 scssion lcaiuicu ialIs ly
Pcici Allcn, a Michigan uilan ucvcloci
anu au|unci iolcssoi ai ihc Univcisiiy ol
Michigan, who soIc on uilan icviializaiion,
anu Tciiy Sanloiu ol ihc cngincciing anu
suivcying him Ncucivclu Associaics, who
analyzcu casc siuuics on smaii giowih.
ChucI EcIcnsiahlci, a chaiici mcmlci ol
ihc Amciican Insiiiuic ol Planncis, uiscusscu
conscivaiion suluivision lanning, anu
lusincss siiaicgisi Davc Icviii highlighicu
clhcicni ways io ucsign anu aiiangc icsiucniial
iociiics. MAR lcgal counscl Daviu Picison
uiscusscu zoning anu siicamlining ihc lai
ioccss, which is ihc maing oi chaiiing ol
lois, suluivisions, oi communiiics io show
lounuaiy lincs, luiluings, anu cascmcnis.
Positive Stuoent Feeoback
Eiic DcYoung, a REAITOR

RR ai RE/MAX
Voguc in Hollanu, Michigan, who aiicnucu
ihc 2004 Ianu Usc Acaucmy, commcnucu
ihc uivcisc anu hcllul" scaIcis. I
was cxcciing io hcai ihings liom ihc
cnviionmcnial gious ihai I woulu icsisi," hc
saiu. Bui I ihinI ihcy`ic on ihc iighi iiacI,
anu wc all nccu io woiI iogcihci io maIc wisc
usc ol oui limiicu lanu icsouiccs."
Bill M. Nalcis ol Rivcioinic Rcaliy in Dciioii
aiicnucu Ianu Usc Acaucmics I anu II anu
lcli ihai loih auuicsscu lanu usc issucs long
ignoicu in ihc siaic. Noiing ihc ucvasiaiing
iollcms conlioniing his ciiy, which coniinucs
io losc oulaiion anu laccs a hnancial ciisis,
Nalcis saiu hc aicciaicu whai hc lcaincu
aloui ovcicoming luicauciaiic olsiaclcs.
Hc sccs ihai ioic as ciiincni io clloiis in
Dciioii io ass a lanu lanI oiuinancc allowing
lanIs io issuc long-icim loans on ical csiaic in
iciuin loi moiigagcs.
Ioi ]uuy McIalua, who owns Hailoi Rcaliy
Tcam, IIC, in iuial Rogcis Ciiy anu aiicnucu
loih Acaucmics, ihc scssion coiiccicu
misconcciions. Thc uiscussion ol unuscu
lanu lioughi u ciscciivcs I hau ncvci
consiucicu," shc saiu. Dcnsiiy is noi always a
lau ihing."
Eoucation Leaos to Action
Rccommcnuaiions ol ihc Michigan Ianu Usc
Icaucishi Council aic lcing imlcmcnicu
ihioughoui ihc siaic. Mcasuics havc lccn
auoicu io siicamlinc ihc lai ioccss,
imlcmcni conuiiional oi coniiaci zoning
ihc iczoning ol a aiiiculai iccc ol iociiy
lascu on an agiccmcni lciwccn ihc ucvcloci
anu local govcinmcni), anu auoi lanu lanI
olicics io cnallc iouuciivc usc ol aiccls
sianuing vacani. An Ociolci 2004 aiiiclc in
ihc 1nr.r Sne Jou.rnI announccu ihai in
Mciiuian Townshi olhcials aiovcu mixcu-
usc zoning, which hau lccn illcgal sincc ihc
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S

l26
1960s. Pcolc can walI anu iiuc ihcii liIcs
]liom ihcii homcs io shos|," Whiic says
in ihc aiiiclc. Ii`s onc aii ol ihc uzzlc in
cicaiing gicai laccs whcic colc wani io
livc, woiI, anu lay."
Thc lcssons ol ihc Michigan Ianu Usc
Icaucishi Council anu Ianu Usc Acaucmics
show ihai uialoguc among inicicsicu aiiics
can iomi lcgislaiivc anu icgulaioiy aciion,
suiiing luiihci cuucaiional clloiis anu moic
ichncu lcgislaiion. Thc long-icim ouilooI loi
Michigan is onc ol lciici inloimcu lanu usc
olicy anu smaiici giowih.
Aovice to REALTCR

Associations
Thc Michigan Associaiion ol REAITORS

ollcis ihcsc iis io oihci associaiions ihai


mighi wani io siaii ihcii own lanu usc
cuucaiion iogiams:
W Iccl licc io usc scaIcis wiih uillciing
oinis ol vicw, so long as ihc ihiusi ol ihcii
icscniaiion uocs noi conuici wiih youi
ovciall mcssagc.
W Holu aiiicianis` inicicsi ly icscniing
a mix ol ucvclomcni oi salcs siuuics anu
acaucmic oi ihcoiciical scaIcis.
W Sciccn alicanis loi cxciicncc anu
inicicsi io cnsuic ihai aiiicianis lcain
liom onc anoihci.
W Euucaic youi associaiion`s lcaucishi aloui
lanu usc aiicins in youi siaic. Alihough a
siaic nccu noi lc in a ciisis mouc io waiiani
a couisc on lanu usc, cmhasizing ihc
uigcni nccu loi icloim can givc aiiicianis
a scnsc ol uiosc loih as communiiy
mcmlcis anu as ical csiaic iolcssionals.
W Choosc an inicicsiing vcnuc. Thc
Michigan acaucmics havc lccn hclu ai
wilucincss iciicai laciliiics in oiuci io
hcl aiiicianis immcisc ihcmsclvcs in a
ncuiial cnviionmcni.
Contacts:
Rolcii Camau,
Vicc Picsiucni, Pullic Policy anu Icgal Allaiis
Michigan Associaiion ol REAITORS

PO Box 4072
Iansing, MI 4S901-792
17-S72-SS90
icamauCmiicaliois.com
Biau Waiu,
Diiccioi ol Pullic Policy anu Icgal Allaiis
Michigan Associaiion ol REAITORS

PO Box 4072
Iansing, MI 4S901-792
17-S72-SS90
lwaiuCmiicaliois.com
S M k K I K 9 I B I 9 9 L K l I l27
Nw \cr| St+t ksscti+ticr
c| K|kLI9KS

Sm+rt
rcwtl kw+r1s |rc]r+m
Sunnary
Thc Ncw YoiI Siaic
Associaiion ol REAITORS

annual Awaiu loi Smaii


Giowih Exccllcncc
iccognizcs ihc succcsslul
clloiis ol communiiics wiihin ihc siaic io
incoioiaic ihc iincilcs ol smaii giowih
inio ihcii io|ccis, olicics anu iogiams.
Awaro progran oebuts in 2OO5
Alici auaiing anu auoiing ihc Naiional
Associaiion`s smaii giowih iincilcs, ihc
NYSAR ucciucu io cicaic an awaiu ihai woulu
hcl io iaisc ihc iohlc ol ihosc conccis
whilc honoiing io|ccis oi communiiics
ihai cxcmlily ihcm. Thc iogiam acccis
alicaiions loi luili io|ccis, olicy anu
icgulaiion iniiiaiivcs, anu a comichcnsivc
aioach io smaii giowih ihiough a
comlinaiion ol olicy anu luili io|ccis.
Thc winnci is sclccicu ly a ancl ol qualihcu
inuiviuuals liom oiganizaiions anu ullic
insiiiuiions ihai havc an inicicsi anu woiIing
Inowlcugc ol smaii giowih, anu is honoicu ai
ihc associaiion`s lall lusincss mcciing.
Thc hisi awaiu, in 200, wcni io ihc iown ol
WaiwicI, locaicu milcs noiihwcsi ol Ncw
YoiI Ciiy in Oiangc Couniy, in iccogniiion ol
ihc iown`s succcsslul clloiis io incoioiaic ihc
iincilcs inio iis comichcnsivc lan.
Thc lan csiallishcu a laimlanu ioicciion
iogiam anu ui inio lacc innovaiivc zoning
icchniqucs. WaiwicI`s lan is ucsigncu io
icscivc ihc iown`s iuial chaiacici anu as
many ociaiing laims as ossillc, io uiicci
giowih iowaiu alicauy viliani sciilcu villagcs
anu hamlcis, anu io ioviuc signihcani anu
uniquc naiuial aicas ihai aic imoiiani
loi loih ccological icasons anu loi wilulilc
haliiai. Thc smaii giowih iniiiaiivcs
climinaic ihc cncioachmcni ol housing on
iouuciivc laimlanu ly cicaiing inccniivcs io
havc ucvclomcni on alicauy sciilcu villagcs
oi hamlcis.
Oui comichcnsivc lan . allows us io
icscivc whai WaiwicI`s S0,000 icsiucnis lovc
aloui ihcii communiiy - iis iuial chaiacici
anu agiiculiuial hciiiagc - whilc allowing
ucvclomcni now anu in ihc luiuic," saiu iown
ol WaiwicI Sucivisoi Michacl P. Swccion.
This lan was a communiiy-wiuc clloii."
Thc ncw zoning oiuinancc cncouiagcs
clusici ucvclomcnis, walIallc
ncighloihoous, alloiuallc homcs anu ocn
sacc icscivaiion. Sincc ihc auoiion ol
ihc couc, all iooscu suluivisions havc
lccn clusicicu, icsciving an avciagc ol 60
ciccni ol ihc siic as ocn sacc, anu loi
valucs havc sincc incicascu ly as much as 0
io 7 ciccni. Alloiuallc housing asccis
ol ihc couc icquiic ucvclocis io ioviuc
ai lcasi 10 ciccni ol a ncw suluivision
as alloiuallc housing. Ii also cncouiagcs
ucvclomcni ihai imoscs lcss imaci on ihc
communiiy ly allowing iivaic anu naiiowci
ioaus wiih lcss cuiling, ihcicly icuucing
iunoll anu calming iialhc.
In 2006, NYSAR lcsiowcu ihc awaiu on ihc
Town ol Clilion PaiI which is aloui 20 milcs
noiih ol Allany. Thc Town ol Clilion PaiI
has succcsslully imlcmcnicu smaii giowih
conccis inio iis comichcnsivc aioach io
lanning, which has csiallishcu an ocn sacc
ioicciion iogiam anu iooscu innovaiivc
zoning icchniqucs ucsigncu io mainiain a
sohisiicaicu mixcu usc communiiy. Thc
iown`s hvc-ycai clloii has icsulicu in: an ocn
sacc lan, ihc cimancni icscivaiion ol
moic ihan 700 acics ol lanu, ihc cicaiion ol
12 milcs ol iiails wiihin ihc iown, a Gcnciic
Enviionmcnial Imaci Siaicmcni GEIS)
covciing 14,000 acics ol lanu in ihc wcsicin
scciion ol iown, ihc cicaiion ol Wcsicin
Clilion PaiI Dcsign Guiuclincs as a iool loi
owncis anu ucvclocis, cnacimcni ol ncw
zoning uisiiicis in ihc wcsicin scciion, anu ihc
hiiing ol an ocn sacc cooiuinaioi io hcl
imlcmcni ihc iown`s iogiam. Thc iniiiaiivcs
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S

l28
aic ucsigncu io mainiain ihc qualiiy anu scnsc
ol lacc ol Clilion PaiI as ii coniinucs io giow
in ihc luiuic.
NYSAR 2006 Picsiucni ]. Gicgoiy Connois
siaicu ihai, Thc uiosc ol ihc awaiu is
io iomoic ihc coniinucu auvanccmcni
ol smaii giowih in oui siaic in accoiuancc
wiih ihc iincilcs auoicu ly ihc Naiional
Associaiion ol REAITORS

. By honoiing
succcsscs ol communiiics such as Clilion
PaiI ihiough oui ongoing Awaiu loi Smaii
Giowih Exccllcncc iogiam, wc coniinuc
io cicaic awaicncss ol ihc lcnchis ol smaii
giowih anu cncouiagc moic communiiics
io cmliacc ihis aioach io ucvclomcni.
Ncw YoiI`s REAITORS

iccognizc ihc many


lcnchis ol uiilizing a smaii giowih aioach
io communiiy ucvclomcni anu ihc osiiivc
imaci ii has on oui communiiics."
Contact:
Salvaioic Piiviucia, ]i.
Diiccioi ol Communicaiions anu Sccial
Pio|ccis
Ncw YoiI Siaic Associaiion ol REAITORS

1S0 Washingion Avcnuc


Allany, NY 12210
1S-46S-0S00 cxi 20S
siiviuciaCnysai.com
S M k K I K 9 I B I 9 9 L K l I l2
K|kLI9KS

ir ktticr
J
ust as REALTCR

associations are stepping up to the plate to ensure that


their connunities grow snart, so too are inoivioual REALTCRS

naking
signifcant connitnents to shaping their connunities as they grow. As
these case stuoies oenonstrate, their reasons Ior getting involveo are
varieo but all oI these REALTCRS

have Iouno that their civic involvenent has


hao the collateral beneft oI boosting their business.
Kr !+t|scr, CClM, CKS, Kl
Florence, South Carolina
Kcn ]acIson is a lusy
guy. Thc Iloicncc,
S.C., REAITOR

RR is
a loimci chaii anu
cuiicni mcmlci ol
his local lanning
commission. Hc
scivcs as chaiiman
ol ihc loaiu ol
iiusiccs ai Iiancis
Maiion Univcisiiy. Hc icccnily co-chaiicu ihc
Govcinoi`s Qualiiy ol Iilc TasI Ioicc anu lcu
ihc Souih Caiolina Associaiion ol REAITORS

.
Anu hc`s a siiong iooncni ol smaii giowih,
somcihing hc simly uchncs as ucvclomcni
ihai cnhanccs oui qualiiy ol lilc."
As a REAITOR

RR , ]acIson uocs a liiilc lii


ol cvciyihing: icsiucniial, commcicial, anu
inuusiiial, lus somc iociiy managcmcni.
Hc says hc ncvci consciously ucciucu io gci
involvcu wiih smaii giowih. Ii |usi iuincu
oui his inicicsis anu aciiviiics - ihc lanning
commission, REAITORS

associaiions,
cconomic ucvclomcni, anu cuucaiion
- hacncu io maich many clcmcnis ol smaii
giowih. As I goi moic involvcu in cach ol
ihcsc, I uiscovcicu how iniciiclaicu ihcy
aic anu how liiilc ihcy aic cooiuinaicu,"
hc says. I also camc io icalizc ihai I coulu
maIc a uillcicncc ly unucisianuing how ihc
lcgislaiivc anu icgulaioiy ioccss woiIs anu
lcing Inowlcugcallc on ihc issucs."
]acIson lclicvcs Ii is imciaiivc ihai
REAITORS

aiiiciaic in local lanning


uccisions. Wc musi icalizc ihai il wc as
REAITORS

aic noi ai ihc iallc whcn uccisions


aic mauc, wc havc liiilc ioom io comlain."
His succcss anu osiiivc imaci ai ihc local anu
siaic lcvcl ovci ihc asi 10 ycais may insiic
oihci REAITORS

io lollow his lcau anu gci


involvcu in ihcii own communiiics.
Ken Jackson Starts Planning
Alici lccoming a REAITOR

RR in 1990, ]acIson
wanicu io gci moic involvcu in his communiiy
ol 40,000 in noiihcasicin Souih Caiolina. Thc
Ciiy ol Iloicncc is wiihin Iloicncc Couniy,
which has a oulaiion ol 12,000.) His homc
siaic ianIs among ihc naiion`s lasicsi giowing
siaics, so hc also wanicu io lcain aloui ncw
ucvclomcni io|ccis. Thc local lanning
commission sccmcu a logical lacc io siaii.
Hc was aoinicu io ihc commission in 1994.
Alici I was ihcic a lcw monihs ii was olvious
ihai ihc uccisions wc wcic maIing wcic ol
iicmcnuous imoiiancc io ihc communiiy,"
]acIson iccallcu. I icalizcu vciy quicIly ihai
mosi colc, incluuing many clccicu olhcials,
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S

l3O
uon`i icalizc ihc inuucncc ihai a lanning
commission has on ihc way a communiiy
giows. I quicIly lcli a scnsc ol icsonsililiiy io
iaIc ihis osiiion ol ullic iiusi sciiously."
Hc says ii iaIcs ycais io ically unucisianu
how lanning woiIs anu how ihc uillcicni
oiuinanccs, icgulaiions, anu comichcnsivc
lans aic inicnucu io woiI iogcihci. In many
cascs, lanning commissioncis may noi havc
ihc iimc io gci cuucaicu. I havc hau an insiuc
vicw ol how lanning uccisions aic mauc anu
how uncooiuinaicu govcinmcni cniiiics ically
aic in ihcii uccision maIing." Hc chaiicu ihc
commission loi scvcial ycais anu icmains an
aciivc mcmlci. By unucisianuing ihc issucs anu
aciivcly aiiiciaiing in ihc ioccss, hc says, you
will sianu oui anu havc moic inuucncc ihan
ihc cison who |usi shows u loi mcciings. You
also lccomc somconc who is looIcu io ly ihc
communiiy, ihc clccicu olhcials, anu ihc icss
as somconc wiih cxciiisc anu an inloimcu
oinion on lanning issucs."
Accoiuing io Iloicncc Mayoi IianI Willis,
]acIson has ihosc iiaiis. Kcn liings an acuic
unucisianuing ol ihc lanning ioccss io ihc
iallc which many ol ihc commissioncis uo
noi havc, unloiiunaicly. His Inowlcugc anu
lcaucishi havc lcu ihc lanning commission
io unucisianu ihc iolc ihcy lay in ucvcloing
smaii giowih iniiiaiivcs anu in qualiiy ol lilc
issucs. Thc Commission has gicai icscci loi
Kcn so ihcy lollow his guiuancc. Thc long-
icim imaci is ihai hc has sci a sianuaiu loi
ihc commission ihai will lc in lacc loi many
ycais io comc."
Whilc ]acIson was icaiing io scivc as
siaic associaiion icsiucni in 2002, hc goi
involvcu in clcciing MaiI Sanloiu as Souih
Caiolina`s govcinoi. A loimci ical csiaic
lioIci, Sanloiu mauc qualiiy ol lilc a ma|oi
aii ol his lailoim. Oncc clccicu, hc
asIcu ]acIson io co-chaii his Qualiiy ol Iilc
TasI Ioicc. Thc giou incluucu ncaily S0
uivcisc mcmlcis icicscniing coioiaiions,
conscivaiion oiganizaiions, civic associaiions,
anu ucvclocis. Many ol ihc icicscnicu
oiganizaiions hau uisagiccu on many issucs
ovci ihc ycais," noicu ]acIson. Ii was amazing
io scc ihai oncc wc siaiicu ialIing, wc all hau
ihc samc goals loi Souih Caiolina."
Thcy agiccu ihai ihcii mission was io
cnhancc ihc qualiiy ol lilc loi icscni anu
luiuic gcnciaiions ol Souih Caiolinians
ihiough ihc sicwaiushi ol oui commonly
hclu valucs ol PIACE," an acionym loi
Pcolc, Iong-icim, Asiic, Communiiy,
anu Euucaiion. Whilc smaii giowih was
ncvci uiiccily mcniioncu, ihc giou`s
iccommcnuaiions incluucu many smaii
giowih iincilcs: inicgiaic ullic
iiansoiiaiion wiih lanu-usc lanning,
cncouiagc uowniown icncwal anu
icviializaiion io|ccis, suoii iivaic-
sccioi clloiis in alloiuallc housing, anu
icmovc lcgal imcuimcnis io iiauiiional
ncighloihoou ucsign. Alicauy, somc ol ihc
iccommcnuaiions aic maIing hcauway in ihc
siaic lcgislaiivc ioccss.
Summaiizing ]acIson`s woiI, Govcinoi
Sanloiu saiu, Kcn is somclouy who noi only
unucisianus how ccniial qualiiy ol lilc is io
oui cconomic ucvclomcni clloiis as a siaic,
hc`s somclouy who`s also consianily on ihc
lioni lincs ihiowing oui cicaiivc iucas io gci us
whcic wc nccu io lc. Hc`s a siiong auvocaic
loi managing giowih in a way ihai`s consisicni
wiih maiIci iincilcs anu iivaic iociiy
iighis, anu his woiI on oui Qualiiy ol Iilc iasI
loicc was invaluallc in hcling sci ihc ionc loi
ihis auminisiiaiion`s clloiis on ihai lioni."
What Cther REALTCRS

Can Learn
Whilc noi cvciy REAITOR

RR is going io gci
involvcu io ihc cxicni ihai ]acIson has, his
sioiy cmhasizcs ihai onc cison can maIc
a uillcicncc," says Mayoi Willis. REAITORS

havc a uniquc unucisianuing anu ciscciivc


ol ihc giowih ol a communiiy. On a uaily lasis
ihcy aic coniiiluiing io ihc giowih ol ihc
communiiy anu shoulu unucisianu how anu
why ihcii aciions hcl oi hinuci goou` giowih.
Thcy aic in an inuusiiy ihai is uccnucni
on giowih anu as such shoulu cxcii somc
icsonsililiiy as io how ihai giowih iaIcs lacc."
S M k K I K 9 I B I 9 9 L K l I l3l
]amcs Pcicis, loimci Exccuiivc Olhcc ol
SCAR, says ]acIson is iool ihai you can lc
involvcu anu lc succcsslul. Kcn`s involvcmcni
wiih ihc siaic associaiion has cnhanccu his
lusincss, his succcss, anu ihc qualiiy ol lilc
wiih his own lamily."
]acIson says hc cn|oys ihc vaiious aciiviiics,
which havc lcnchicu his lusincss anu mauc
him a lciici REAITOR

RR . Whcn asIcu why


oihcis in ihc iolcssion shoulu gci involvcu in
smaii giowih, hc iclics, Thcic shoulu lc no
oihci Iinu ol giowih! Smaii giowih is aloui
hcling cicaic a lciici qualiiy ol lilc in oui
communiiics, anu REAITORS

aic uniqucly
qualihcu io scivc in osiiions ol inuucncc on
issucs iclaicu io qualiiy ol lilc. Gci cuucaicu
on ihc issucs anu gci involvcu."
Contact:
Kcn ]acIson CCIM, CRS, GRI
147 N. Iily Siicci
Iloicncc, SC 2901
S4S) 669-104 Exi. 20S
KcnCIoiSalcinIloicncc.com
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S

l32
Lir1+ Cl+r|
Fort Worth, Texas
REAITOR

RR Iinua ClaiI has livcu in ihc samc


ncighloihoou loi moic ihan 40 ycais, |usi
souih ol uowniown Ioii Woiih, Tcxas. Shc
wasn`i hay whcn ihc aica`s main cucsiiian-
liicnuly commcicial siicci moihcu inio
an unaiiiaciivc six-lanc ihoioughlaic, lui
whcn lusincsscs siaiicu closing ihcii uoois,
ClaiI moiivaicu hciscll anu oihcis io savc
Bciiy Siicci. Hci icnaciiy anu vision hclcu
io ic|uvcnaic ihc coiiiuoi, liinging ncw
lusincsscs, icsiucnccs, anu viialiiy lacI io hci
ncighloihoou.
I waichcu ii go liom a lacc whcic you
coulu luy iaciically anyihing io a lacc ihai
ollcicu almosi noihing," says ClaiI, who
chaiicu ihc all-volunicci Bciiy Siicci Iniiiaiivc
loi scvcn ycais. Thc giou`s clloiis lcu io
siicciscac imiovcmcnis anu ihc ocning
ol small lusincsscs. Now a sizallc mixcu-usc
ucvclomcni is unuci consiiuciion, soliuilying
ihc siicci`s iuinaiounu. This Iinu ol ihing
ushcs my luiions anu maIcs mc moic cxciicu
aloui whai I uo on a uay-io-uay lasis," says
ClaiI, a commcicial REAITOR

RR wiih Klinc 8
Co. Ii`s cxciiing - anu ii`s my ncighloihoou."
Conccivcu as a icsiucniial siicci ncai Tcxas
Chiisiian Univcisiiy in ihc 1920s anu S0s,
Bciiy Siicci siaiicu aiiiaciing commcicial
lusincsscs in ihc 1940s anu 0s, whcn
cicnuiculai aiIing saccs wcic auucu.
As a TCU collcgc siuucni in ihc 1960s, ClaiI
licqucnily walIcu io Bciiy Siicci`s ucaiimcni
sioic, uiyclcanci, giocciy sioic, anu oihci
ncighloihoou lusincsscs. A 1970s uilan
icncwal io|cci wiucncu ihc liicI-lincu siicci
io a six-lanc avcu ihoioughlaic, wiing oui
ihc convcnicni aiIing saccs anu siiiing
ihc siicci ol iis cucsiiian-liicnuly lccl. By
ihc 19S0s, lusincsscs siaiicu io lc shuiicicu.
Whcn ihc ucaiimcni sioic announccu iis
ucaiiuic in laic 1994, ii was moic ihan ihc
ncighloihoou coulu hanulc.
I goi 1 honc calls in onc uay whcn ihc
ncws hii," says ClaiI, who hau hclcu icscivc
a hisioiic convcni ncai Bciiy Siicci anu
ooscu a highway io|cci. Pcolc Ici
asIing, Whai aic wc going io uo.`" Shc anu
oihcis wcic conccincu ihai ihc siicci woulu
coniinuc iis uownwaiu siial anu iuin inio a
magnci loi iioullc." Moic ihan 400 colc
showcu u ai a ullic mcciing in ]anuaiy
199 io voicc ihcii conccins, incluuing ihc
TCU chancclloi, Bciiy Siicci lusincss anu
iociiy owncis, anu scoics ol local icsiucnis.
Iollowing ihc mcciing, a mcmlci ol ihc
ciiy council asIcu ClaiI io chaii a volunicci
icucvclomcni clloii. Shc acccicu ihc iolc,
anu ihc Bciiy Siicci Iniiiaiivc was launchcu.
My cxciicncc gavc mc ihc vocalulaiy anu
cnough Inowlcugc io hcl ihc communiiy
asI ihc iighi qucsiions liIc, Whai hacncu.`
anu, How uo wc hx ii.`," says ClaiI. Shc
cicuiis ]amcs Kunsilci`s looIs on Amciica`s
changing lanuscac wiih iniiouucing hci
io smaii giowih anu hcling hci io cicaic a
vision loi ihc luiuic ol Bciiy Siicci. Kunsilci`s
Ceo.nL, o NowLe.e ucsciilcu whai hacncu e
on ihc coiiiuoi, anu his Hoe .o NowLe.e
ucsciilcu how io hx ii. Thc soluiion involvcs
gciiing ullic invcsimcni io luic ihc iivaic
sccioi in io ioviuc ihc cconomic siimulus.
Thai`s lasically whai has hacncu on Bciiy
Siicci. Ii has iaIcn a long iimc - longci ihan I
cvci imagincu - lui ii is hacning."
ClaiI anu oihcis involvcu wiih ihc Bciiy Siicci
Iniiiaiivc scni counilcss houis lciwccn 199
anu 199S hosiing anu aiicnuing mcciings,
iaising ullic awaicncss, anu iniiiaiing clcan-
u io|ccis. Thcii clloiis lcu io a SS million
lonu issuc in 199S io lunu a ncw ucsign anu
somc iniiial imiovcmcnis along ihc coiiiuoi.
Thc ciiy hiicu a ucsign him, which woiIcu
closcly wiih ihc Bciiy Siicci Iniiiaiivc loi
moic ihan a ycai, io cicaic whai ClaiI calls
a uynamiic lan" ihai csiallishcu uciailcu
guiuclincs loi ncw lanuscaing, siicci signs,
lighiing, siucwalIs, anu oihci imiovcmcnis.
Thc Bciiy Siicci Iniiiaiivc has lccn ihc
ciiy`s closcsi anu mosi icliallc aiinci as wc
havc lcgun io iiansloim Bciiy Siicci liom
a uisiicsscu commcicial coiiiuoi inio a viial
S M k K I K 9 I B I 9 9 L K l I l33
mixcu-usc uilan villagc," says Icinanuo
Cosia, lanning uiiccioi loi ihc Ciiy ol Ioii
Woiih. Iinua has laycu an imoiiani iolc in
liinging iogcihci iociiy owncis, lusincss
anu ncighloihoou lcaucis, Tcxas Chiisiian
Univcisiiy, anu vaiious ullic olhcials
io uisuc ihis amliiious clloii. Shc has
ucmonsiiaicu cxcciional lcaucishi qualiiics
anu sccmingly lounulcss uciciminaiion io
accomlish hci communiiy`s goals."
Thc siicci is iciuining io iis cucsiiian-liicnuly
lccl, wiih 16-looi siucwalIs, on-siicci aiallcl
aiIing, anu loui lancs ol iialhc uiviucu ly a
iicc-lincu mcuian. Ncw lusincsscs havc now
ocncu, incluuing iwo naiional uiug sioics, a
viuco sioic, a lasi-loou lacc, anu a sii-uown
icsiauiani. In 200, ihc ocning ol a S47
million mixcu-usc ucvclomcni will sccuic ihc
iiansloimaiion ol Bciiy Siicci. Thc iivaicly
lunucu io|cci incluucs S1,000 squaic lcci ol
iciail, 24 aaiimcnis loi TCU siuucnis, anu a
S0-sacc aiIing gaiagc.
Thc CEO ol ihc Gicaici Ioii Woiih
REAITORS

Associaiion, Shciiy Maiina, calls


ClaiI a iiiclcss auvocaic ol imiovcmcni. Hci
vision siaiicu ihis clloii, anu ii`s |usi giown
anu giown anu giown. Shc has mauc a lasiing
coniiiluiion io hci communiiy."
Whilc ihc icucvclomcni iooI much longci
ihan ClaiI aniiciaicu, shc says ii was woiih
ii. As liusiiaiing as ii has lccn lccausc ol ihc
lcngih ol iimc, all I havc io uo is uiivc uown
ihc siicci anu looI aiounu io scc ihc imaci
wc`vc hau," shc says. Thcic`s somcihing ically
iangillc loi mc, cisonally, Inowing I mauc
a uillcicncc. Anu, as a REAITOR

RR , ii auus
io ihc sialiliiy anu iiccs ol ihc suiiounuing
ncighloihoous. Thcic`s no uouli ii auus valuc."
Oihci communiiics in Ioii Woiih havc
iaIcn noiicc ol ihc changcs on Bciiy
Siicci, ioo. Thc visillc uillcicncc in
Iinua`s ncighloihoou is so gicai ihai ii has
insiicu icucvclomcni io|ccis along oihci
coiiiuois," says Maiina. Shc says ihcic aic
ninc oihci coiiiuois ihioughoui ihc ciiy
ihai aic slaicu io lollow Bciiy Siicci`s lcau.
ClaiI`s auvicc io oihci io|ccis is io hnu
moncy io hiic ai lcasi aii-iimc aiu siall io
hcl managc ihc volunicci clloii, which shc
says is haiu io mainiain ovci scvcial ycais.
Noncihclcss, shc aciivcly cncouiagcs oihcis
in hci iolcssion io gci involvcu wiih smaii
giowih in ihcii own communiiics. MaIc
ihc iimc anu siay involvcu anu lcain aloui
ucvclomcni conccis," shc suggcsis. Ii`s so
imoiiani - anu wc can maIc a uillcicncc."
Ioii Woiih`s Cosia, lanning uiiccioi scconus
hci suggcsiion. Iinua ioviucs an cxccllcni
cxamlc ol how civic-minucu REAITORS

can maIc a lig uillcicncc in ihc lilc ol ihcii


communiiics," says Cosia. Hc iccommcnus ihai
REAITORS

gci cuucaicu aloui smaii giowih,


ihcn aly youi Inowlcugc wiih conviciion,
anu uon`i lci minoi uisaoinimcnis gci in ihc
way ol youi succcss."
Contact:
Iinua ClaiI
Klinc 8 Comany
1S0 W. Magnolia Avc.
Ioii Woiih, TX 76104
S17)924-19S7
lcIlinccoCslcglolal.nci
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S

l34
Lir1+ cc1wirNitlcls, CKS, Kl
Vice Nayor, City oI Kissinnee, Florioa
Iinua Goouwin-Nichols
has hau a lilclong slogan:
You only gci oui ol a
communiiy whai you ui
inio ii." Anu shc noi only
lclicvcs ii, shc livcs ii ly
gciiing involvcu - anu
clccicu.
Picsiucni ol Goouwin Rcaliy 8 Associaics
in Kissimmcc, Iloiiua, Goouwin-Nichols
has voluniccicu loi counilcss loaius anu
commiiiccs uuiing hci S0-ycai ical csiaic
caicci. Anu loi ncaily cighi ycais, shc has
scivcu as an clccicu olhcial on hci ciiy
commission, incluuing ihc asi loui ycais as
vicc mayoi.
Bcloic I ucciucu io iun, I lcaicu ihai
uccisions I woulu maIc as an clccicu olhcial
woulu huii my lusincss," says Goouwin-
Nichols. Thai was ihc mosi incoiicci ihoughi
I cvci hau in my lilc. ...Bcing an clccicu
olhcial has uonc noihing lui cnhancc my ical
csiaic caicci."
As an clccicu olhcial in a iaiuly giowing
communiiy, shc`s hau io maIc lcniy ol
iough uccisions, lui shc`s siaycu locuscu on
hcling hci communiiy giow smaiily iaihci
ihan hahazaiuly. Accoiuing io Ciiy Managci
MaiI Duilin, Shc`s always allc io maIc ihc
iighi uccision. Shc`s a naiuial loin lcauci."
Hc`s sccn many commissioncis uuiing his
17-ycai icnuic uiicciing Kissimmcc, anu
hc icauily summaiizcs hci woiI. Shc`s a
ihinIci, a lannci, anu uocs noi lci cmoiions
coniiol uccisions shc maIcs. Ai ihc samc
iimc shc`s comassionaic anu has ushcu ihc
ciiy io ioviuc sciviccs io icsiucnis who nccu
govcinmcni hcl."
Kissimmcc siis in ihc miuulc ol Iloiiua, wiihin
10 milcs ol Disncy Woilu anu suiiounucu
ly Osccola Couniy, onc ol ihc siaic`s lasicsi
giowing aicas. Thc oulaiion has moic ihan
quauiulcu, liom 12,00 whcn Goouwin-
Nichols siaiicu hci lusincss io ncaily ,000
colc iouay. I`vc sccn a liiilc cow iown mauc
u ol laigc lanuowncis, caiilc ianchcis, anu
laimcis lccomc a mulii-culiuial, uivcisihcu
communiiy," shc says. Touiism anu consiiuciion
lucl ihc local cconomy, oncc uominaicu ly
laiming. Giowih icscnis iis challcngcs
- ihc ioaus aic ovciciowucu, ihc schools aic
ovciciowucu, cvciyihing`s ovciciowucu - so
you locus on maIing a lciici communiiy."
Onc ol ihc liggcsi challcngcs shc`s laccu whilc
in olhcc is ovciciowucu schools. Kissimmcc
is locaicu in ihc Sunshinc Siaic`s lasicsi
giowing school uisiiici - anu iis ooicsi. Moic
ihan 70 ciccni ol aica siuucnis icccivc licc
lunchcs an inuicaioi ol low lamily incomc
lcvcls). Whilc Goouwin-Nichols says ii woulu
havc lccn casy loi clccicu olhcials io ignoic
ihc issuc anu lci ihc school loaiu iacIlc ihc
challcngcs alonc, ihc ciiy commissioncis
Incw ihcy hau io hcl lccausc schools aic a
communiiy issuc.
Alici shc was hisi clccicu in 199S, ihc ciiy
commissioncis voicu io luilu a ullic chaiici
school. Thc commissioncis aciually ian ii,
liIc a school loaiu, lcloic iuining ii ovci io
an cuucaiional lounuaiion. Moic icccnily,
ihc commission cicaicu Euucaiional Bcnchi
Disiiicis, cncouiaging ucvclocis io sci asiuc
acicagc loi ncighloihoou schools luili in
aiincishi wiih ihc local school loaiu. Pcolc
who luy in ihc communiiy ay a lcc similai io
homcownci associaiion uucs) loi ihc lcnchi
ol having ihcii chilu ai a school closc io homc.
Ii is a hcnomcnal way io lunu ncw schools,"
noics Goouwin-Nichols, who loasis ihai
Osccola Couniy has no lailing schools ucsiic
many challcngcs. Wc can`i sio giowih, so wc
nccu io lc cicaiivc wiih ways io lunu schools."
Onc ol ihc liggcsi ooiiuniiics shc`s hau
as ciiy commissionci is io hcl shac ihc
luiuic ol Kissimmcc ihiough anncxaiion.
Shc noics ihai a icwiiic ol ihc communiiy`s
comichcnsivc lan whilc shc`s lccn in olhcc
has cnallcu ciiy lcaucis io uiciaic whai will
lc on ihc lanu anu how ii will lc ucvclocu,
iaihci ihan ucvclocis uiicciing ihc giowih.
S M k K I K 9 I B I 9 9 L K l I l35
In ihc laic 1990s, ihc ciiy inIcu ihc laigcsi
anncxaiion in iis hisioiy. Thc 1,200-acic
aiccl ushcu ihc ciiy limiis oui io a ma|oi
ihoioughlaic, Osccola PaiIway. Thc iimc
ical csiaic was oiscu loi iaiu icsiucniial
ucvclomcni. Il noi loi ihc comichcnsivc
lan, moic cooIic-cuiici ucvclomcnis"
mighi havc siung u on ihc lanu, says
Goouwin-Nichols. Insicau, ihc lan callcu loi
moic susiainallc communiiics, wiih gaiagc
scilacIs, housing vaiiciy, anu moic iicc covci,
which shc says ically iaiscu ihc lai on ihc
lcvcl ol houscs lcing luili in ihis aica. Wc`vc
ically woiIcu haiu io ucvclo whai oui Iius
anu gianuIius aic going io cn|oy."
Whilc shc uocsn`i consiuci hciscll a
smaii giowih cxcii, shc unucisianus ihc
iniciconnccicuncss ol all clcmcnis wiihin a
communiiy, anu uscu ihai lasic smaii giowih
icnci io hcl guiuc hci oliiical uccisions. I
uon`i ihinI smaii giowih is iocIci scicncc.
I ihinI you havc io looI ai a communiiy`s
challcngcs anu you`vc goi io lacc ihcm anu
gci ihcm unuci coniiol as much as ossillc.
As an clccicu olhcial, smaii giowih has
hclcu mc looI ai ihc long-iangc vision ol my
communiiy. Ii`s cnallcu mc anu oihcis on ihc
commission io loiccasi whai ihc challcngcs
aic iouay, whai ihcy`ic going io lc, anu how
ihcy`ic going io imaci qualiiy ol lilc, so wc
can solvc ihosc challcngcs lcloic ihcy cannoi
lc solvcu."
Duilin says ihai, as a REAITOR

RR , Goouwin-
Nichols is highly aiiuncu io giowih issucs. Shc
unucisianus ihc ins anu ouis ol giowih lccausc
shc has sccn ihcm ihioughoui hci caicci.
Hci Inowlcugc anu lig-iciuic ihinIing"
havc lccn asscis io ihc ciiy commission, hc
says, noiing ihai shc has hclcu cuucaic ciiy
lanncis uuiing hci icnuic. Planncis icnu io
looI ai ihings liom a icxilooI oini ol vicw,
anu shc liings ihc ical woilu cxciicncc."
Tcim limiis cnucu Goouwin-Nichols`
siini as ciiy commissionci in Novcmlci
2004, anu Duilin says, I`m going io miss
hci iicmcnuously." Hc cncouiagcs oihci
REAITORS

io gci involvcu anu says cvcn il


ihcy uon`i wani io iun loi olhcc ihcy shoulu
maIc ihcii voiccs hcaiu. Ii`s imoiiani
loi REAITORS

io unucisianu ihai ihcii


loiiuncs aic iicu io ihc loiiuncs ol ihc local
govcinmcni. Il ihc govcinmcni is uoing a
goou |ol ioviuing sciviccs, ihai`s going io
maIc a REAITOR`s

|ol casici."
Goouwin-Nichols says lcing an clccicu olhcial
has lccn an invaluallc cxciicncc anu
cncouiagcs oihci REAITORS

io gci aciivc
anu iun loi olhcc. Il you`ic comlaining anu
you`ic noi involvcu, ihcn nolouy shoulu lisicn
io you." Shc says ciiy cmloyccs havc asIcu
loi hci hcl anu shc`s also lioIcicu somc
iociiics loi ihc couniy. Evciyonc Inows
I`m a REAITOR

RR ," shc says, noiing ihai shc


has always lccn a REAITOR

RR hisi anu ihcn a


ciiy commissionci. I ncvci go io onc ol ihcsc
mcciings wiihoui gciiing a lcau. Ii`s ihc casicsi
maiIciing in ihc woilu."
Contact:
Iinua Goouwin-Nichols, GRI, CRS
Goouwin Rcaliy 8 Associaics
9S1 W OaI Si Sic 100
Kissimmcc, II S4741
407)S46-27S7
goouwinuCaol.com
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S

l36
Brr1+ |llswcrtl
Nayor, Ash Crove, Nissouri
As mayoi ol Ash Giovc,
Missouii, REAITOR
Bicnua Ellswoiih saw
a chancc io maIc ihc
mosi ol hci conncciions
io ihc icsouiccs ol NAR
io hcl hci communiiy
lccomc a lcauci in
smaii, ciiizcn-uiivcn lanning.
As a icsuli ol hci 2004 iniiiaiivc, hci iown was
sclccicu as ihc hisi ciiy in ihc U.S. io icccivc
an cxicnsivc lcvcl ol assisiancc liom ihc NAR
Smaii Giowih Piogiam. A liiilc moic ihan a
ycai laici, ihc ciiy ol Ash Giovc anu ihc NAR
Smaii Giowih Piogiam wcic honoicu wiih an
Exccllcncc in Planning Awaiu loi Ouisianuing
Communiiy Iniiiaiivc" liom ihc Missouii
Chaici ol ihc Amciican Planning Associaiion.
Ii lcgan in ihc siing 2004, whcn Ellswoiih
anu ihc Gicaici Siinghclu Boaiu ol
REAITORS

icqucsicu assisiancc liom NAR`s


Smaii Giowih Piogiam io iniiiaic a iogiam
io lan loi ihc ciiy`s luiuic. Ash Giovc, wiih
a oulaiion ol aioximaicly 1,00, is 20
milcs liom iaiuly-giowing Siinghclu anu
is cxccicu io scc signihcani giowih in ihc
ncai luiuic. Ellswoiih saiu shc lcgan ihc
lanning iniiiaiivc lccausc ol ihc communiiy`s
ucsiic io mainiain oui chaiacici anu scnsc
ol communiiy in ihc lacc ol giowih. Mosi
small-iown lcaucis uo noi havc ihc nccucu
Inowlcugc io maIc ihai hacn anu uo noi
havc ihc lunus io hiic ihc cison ihai uocs."
Thc iown uscu ihc NAR assisiancc io hiic A.
Nclcsscn Associaics, a naiionally iccognizcu
lanning anu ucsign him liom Bcllc Mcau,
Ncw ]ciscy, io conuuci visioning anu lanning
woiIshos ovci a loui-uay ciiou in Ash
Giovc. Moic ihan 120 Ash Giovc icsiucnis,
lusincss owncis anu oihci siaIcholucis
aiicnucu ihc woiIshos. Paiiicianis
comlcicu visual iclcicncc suivcys anu
qucsiionnaiics on lanu-usc olicics, anu
woiIcu in icams io cicaic mas icicscniing
ihcii iccommcnuaiions loi giowih. Planncis
liom A. Nclcsscn Associaics wcic assisicu
ly volunicci lanncis liom NAR, ihc ciiy ol
Siinghclu, anu ihc lanning laculiy anu
siuucnis liom Missouii Siaic Univcisiiy.
Thc aiincishi lciwccn Ash Giovc, NAR,
ihc local REAITOR

RR loaiu, anu ihc univcisiiy


was so imoiiani io ihc succcss ol ihis
lanning clloii," says ]oc Molinaio, managci
ol NAR`s Smaii Giowih Piogiam. Anu ihc
laci ihai so many ciiizcns aiiiciaicu is a
icsiamcni io Mayoi Ellswoiih`s lcaucishi."
Soon alici ihc lanning cvcni, ciiizcn woiIing
gious wcic loimcu io luiihci uisuc many
ol ihc iucas ucvclocu in ihc icliminaiy
lan, anu ihc ciiy is cuiicnily woiIing io
incoioiaic ihc ouicomcs ol ihc ioccss inio
a comichcnsivc lan anu uuaicu lanu-
ucvclomcni icgulaiions. Thc icliminaiy
lan also ioviucu ihc imcius anu suoii
loi ihc ciiy`s iwo succcsslul alicaiions loi
lunuing liom ihc Missouii Dcaiimcni ol
Tiansoiiaiion io insiall siucwalIs anu siicci
lighiing anu lani iiccs along ma|oi ioaus
in ihc ciiy, anu was ihc caialysi loi luiihci
woiI wiih Diuiy Univcisiiy`s aichiicciuic anu
lusincss schools io ucvclo ucsign conccis
anu a maiIciing lan loi uowniown.
Contact:
Bicnua Ellswoiih, CRS, GRI
Uniicu Couniiy Suluilan BioIci
P.O. Box SSS
Ash Giovc, MO 6604
417-71-SSSS
licnc2Caol.com
S M k K I K 9 I B I 9 9 L K l I l37
ttir] lrrclr1: k K|kLI9K

s ktticr ti1
TLe u.Jnre beIow wn nJneJ .o Le
VnL.ror FEA1TOFS

SS ` QunI., o 1.e A.or


Cu.Je or Low FEA1TOFS

SS nr e .r.oI.eJ .r

.n.r Le.. our.,` o.eLer..e Inr.


Howe.e., L. .onJn nr be nI.eJ o e.r
.r.oI.eJ w.L nr, our., .owL .ue. Eo. o.e
.ro.n.or or Le VAF QunI., o 1.e P.o.n ee
www.waicalioi.com/Govcinmcni/qol.as
Action Plan
Thc lollowing ouilincs a iooscu aciion
lan loi local REAITOR

involvcmcni in
uuaics oi ic-wiiics ol ihcii communiiics`
comichcnsivc lans. Thc answcis io
ihc qucsiions asIcu in ihc lay ol ihc
lanu` scciion ioviuc a liamcwoiI loi
local aciivisis io gci ihc inloimaiion ihcy
nccu io lccomc inloimcu anu involvcu.
Answcis io ihc qucsiions may lc oliaincu
liom lanning siall mcmlcis, lanning
commission mcmlcis anu clccicu olhcials
anu ihcii sialls.
A loi ol ihis woiI will lc luiluing anu
mainiaining iclaiionshis, somcihing ihai
REAITORS

uo cvciy uay in ihcii woiI wiih


clicnis.
K|kLI9K

ktticr ti1
Strategy ano Tone
Thcic aic scvcial lunuamcnial
iccommcnuaiions io sci ihc siiaicgy anu ionc
loi local involvcmcni.
W REAITORS

shoulu gci involvcu in ihc


lan uuaic ioccss immcuiaicly. Thc goal
is io gci ihc comichcnsivc lan uuaic
ioosal io icucci ihc REAITORS

olicy
ol|cciivcs liom ihc ouisci.
W Anoihci unucilying goal is io osiiion
REAITORS

as a ihoughilul anu osiiivc


loicc in gciiing ihc local lans uuaicu
in ways ihai avoiu ullic conuici anu
coniiovcisy, anu auvocaics who will assisi in
oliaining communiiy suoii loi ihc lan.
Iocal REAITORS

shoulu maIc ii clcai


ihai ihcy aic gciiing involvcu io ollci somc
ol ihcii insighis inio ihc communiiy anu
aic commiiicu io ongoing involvcmcni in
ihc uuaic ioccss.
W Mcciings wiih local olhcials, lanning
commissioncis, anu siall mcmlcis shoulu
noi lc comlaining scssions aloui whai
is wiong in ihc communiiy anu wiih ihc
cuiicni lan. REAITORS

shoulu insicau
ollci assisiancc io maIc ihings lciici.
W Iocal REAITORS

shoulu ciic local


cxamlcs ol io|ccis ihai accomlish ihc
Neetings with local oIfcials, planning connissioners, ano staII nenbers
shoulo not be conplaining sessions about what is wrong in the connunity
ano with the current plan. REALTCRS

shoulo insteao oIIer assistance to


nake things better.
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S

l38
ol|cciivcs ol ihc lanning clcmcnis ihcy
wani io scc incluucu. Examlcs liom
ncighloiing communiiics may lc uscu il
nonc cxisi in ihcii own communiiics.
Cet lnvolveo Early ano CIten
The sooner you Ieorn obout ond get invoIved
in the process, the better o[[ you`II be.
W MaIc allics ol ihc lanning siall as caily
as ossillc. Having ihc siall on youi siuc
anu auvocaiing loi youi iovisions is much
lciici ihan having ihcm oosc ihcii
inclusion alici ihc lan is ui loiwaiu.
W Auvisc clccicu uccision-maIcis as soon as
ossillc aloui whai you`ic uoing anu why.
Kcc ihcm uuaicu as ihc ioccss anu
youi involvcmcni coniinucs.
W Il siall mcmlcis aic noi iccciivc io youi
involvcmcni, havc symaihciic clccicu
olhcials maIc ioosals io ihcm loi you
anu cncouiagc siall io maIc suic you`ic ai
ihc iallc.
Cetting the Lay oI the Lano
You woulun`i uicam ol iiying io scll a housc
wiihoui Inowing iis locaiion, sizc, ihc numlci
ol lcuiooms anu iis amcniiics. Euucaiing
youiscll on ihc issucs anu colc involvcu in ihc
comichcnsivc lan uuaic is |usi as imoiiani.
Educote yourseI[ obout the existing
comprehensive pIon poIicies.
W Do ihc cxisiing olicics incluuc ihc olicy
clcmcnis suoiicu ly REAITORS

.
W Il ihcy uo, how aic ihc cxisiing olicics
woiIing anu whai changcs mighi maIc
ihcm lciici.
W Which clcmcnis aic noi incluucu in ihc
cxisiing lan.
W Is ihcic uiali languagc availallc liom oihci
communiiics ihai mighi woiI in youi aica.
W Aic ihcic cxamlcs in youi communiiy,
oi in ncighloiing aicas, ol olicics ihai
aic woiIing wcll anu ihai shoulu lc
cncouiagcu.
IdcntiIy thc clcctcd oIhcials and staII
who will be invoIved in the updote process.
W Will a couniy oi ciiy council commiiicc
aiovc ihc uuaic lcloic ii gocs io ihc
lull council. Il so, who is ihc commiiicc
chaii anu who aic iis mcmlcis. Which
commissionci, il any, will hcau u ihc
ioccss anu which aic mosi inicicsicu in
lanning issucs.
W Will a lanning commission lc involvcu.
Who aic ihc chaii anu mcmlcis.
W Which local REAITORS

havc goou
iclaiionshis wiih sccihc olhcials anu can
ialI wiih ihcm aloui ihc lan uuaic.
W Which ciiy oi couniy ucaiimcni will lc
conuuciing ihc uuaic. Who is ihc hcau ol
ihc ucaiimcni anu which siall mcmlcis
aic uoing ihc woiI.
W Do any local REAITORS

havc goou
iclaiionshis wiih ihc lanning siall anu
can ialI wiih ihcm aloui ihc uuaic.
Identi[y the updote process ond scheduIe
W Will ihcic lc woiIshos io uiscuss ihc
lan.
W Whcn will ii hisi lc lioughi loiwaiu loi
ullic icvicw anu commcni.
W Will a lanning commission oi oihci
similai louy uo ihc iniiial icvicw. Il so,
whai will ihcii ioccss anu schcuulc lc.
W Whcn anu whcic will ullic hcaiings lc
hclu.
W How anu whcn can you anu youi allics
anu suoiicis maIc commcnis on ihc
iooscu lan.
W Who will you gci io aiicnu any woiIshos,
icvicw scssions, mcciings anu hcaiings io
scaI in lavoi ol ihc lan clcmcnis you
suoii.
Identi[y Your AIIies
W Who in ihc local ical csiaic communiiy
woulu lc cllcciivc in uiscussing youi clloii
wiih sccihc clccicu olhcials anu siall.
S M k K I K 9 I B I 9 9 L K l I l3
W Whai oihci local gious oi oiganizaiions
mighi suoii youi osiiions. Naiuial
allics may incluuc chamlcis ol commcicc,
luilucis, cconomic ucvclomcni councils,
ioiaiics anu oihci lusincss oiganizaiions.
W Consiuci lcss olvious allics: Aic ihcic low-
incomc housing auvocaics, laloi unions,
ncighloihoou gious, aiIs auvocaics oi
cnviionmcnialisis who may shaic vicws
aloui clcmcnis ol ihc comichcnsivc lan
uuaic.
W Who in youi communiiy has coniacis wiih
ihosc gious anu may lc allc io cxloic
common giounu.
Identi[y PotentioI Opponents
W Aic ihcic local ncighloihoou,
conscivaiion, cnviionmcnial oi oihci
gious liIcly io lc involvcu in ihc uuaic
ioccss.
W Whai iycs ol osiiions anu aciions havc
ihcy iaIcn in ihc asi icgaiuing lanu usc
issucs.
W Havc ihcy lccn involvcu in iioi
comichcnsivc lan uuaics.
W Do ihcy havc goou coniacis wiih siall who
will ucvclo ihc lan anu uccision-maIcis
who will auoi ii.
W Can you hnu ioom loi agiccmcni. Whai
issucs. Can you agicc io movc loiwaiu on
aicas ol agiccmcni.
Identi[y Medio
W Whai mcmlcis ol ihc local mcuia ialI anu
ncws iauio, iclcvision, ncwsaci) mighi
lc inicicsicu in ihc comichcnsivc lan
uuaic.
W Whai local REAITORS

havc goou
iclaiionshis wiih ihcm.
W Whai local REAITORS

will hanulc mcuia


inquiiics.
W Whai local REAITORS

anu allics mighi


lc availallc io liicl cuiioiial wiiicis ai
aioiiaic iimcs.
I+|ir] ktticr
Atteno local hearings
Ii is imciaiivc ihai REAITORS

aiicnu local
hcaiings whcn imoiiani issucs aic uiscusscu.
Rcmcmlci ihis:
W Pooily lanncu aiicnuancc ai an imoiiani
mcciing coulu icsuli in a misscu ooiiuniiy.
W A wcll-oichcsiiaicu aiicnuancc ly
REAITORS

anu homcowncis in laigc


numlcis can maIc a siiong imicssion on
local olhcials.
Iollow ihcsc sics io maIc ihc mosi ol youi
aiicnuancc:
W Havc REAITORS

mcci lcloichanu io
agicc on a siiaicgy anu mcssagc.
W Dcsignaic a soIcscisons) io
communicaic ihc REAITOR

RR osiiion.
W Dcvclo ialIing oinis, an ouilinc ol youi
Icy mcssagcs.
W Aniiciaic ihc aiicnuancc ol local mcuia
anu incoioiaic ihis inio youi siiaicgy. Ii
coulu mcan valuallc caincu mcuia iimc"
loi youi mcssagc.
Stay inIorneo
REAITORS

alsoluicly musi siay inloimcu


aloui local issucs. Thcic aic a numlci ol sics
you can iaIc io siay on io ol ihings:
W Rcau local ncwsacis
W Sulsciilc io anu moniioi local agcnuas
anu minuics. Somc ol ihis is availallc ovci
ihc Inicinci.
W Aiicnu local council anu lanning
commission hcaiings.
W Dcvclo siiong iclaiionshis wiih local
govcinmcni olhcials anu siall.
W Aiicnu local civic cvcnis hosicu ly allicu
inuusiiy gious such as ihc Chamlci
ol Commcicc anu Builuing Inuusiiy
Associaiion.
W Inviic local olhcials io scaI io youi
associaiion on sccihc issucs.
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S

l4O
Porticipote in IocoI commissions
ond tosh [orces
W You can inuucncc ihc uclaic aloui local
issucs ly having REAITORS

sii on local
commissions anu iasI loiccs.
W Il youi ciiy govcinmcni has noi cicaicu a
commission oi iasI loicc, iaIc ihc iniiiaiivc
anu suggcsi ihai onc lc loimcu.
W Paiiiciaiion in ihcsc loiums is ihc lcsi
way loi REAITORS

io gci involvcu in ihc


uialoguc caily anu counici ihc inuucncc
ihai local govcinmcni siall anu oosiiion
loiccs may havc ovci clccicu olhcials.
DeveIoping reIotionships with IocoI o[fcioIs
Ii is imoiiani io ucvclo iclaiionshis wiih
local olhcials lcloic coniiovcisics icach
ihcii high oini io cnsuic ihai you will havc
an ocn cai. Ways io ucvclo iouuciivc
lcgislaiivc iclaiionshis aic:
W Hosiing a mcci anu gicci" iccciion loi
local olhcials ai youi associaiion olhcc.
W Hosi lunuiaiscis loi canuiuaics anu
clccicu olhcials.
W Inviic govcinmcni olhcials io scaI io youi
mcmlcishi on aiiiculai issucs.
W Havc a icgulai icscncc ai local
govcinmcni mcciings.
W Placc youi associaiion on local clccicu
olhcials` mailing lisis.
W Placc youi local clccicu olhcials on ihc
associaiion`s mailing lisis.
W Coniinuc youi iclaiionshi wiih olhcials
alici a uccision has lccn mauc, csccially il
ihc uccision was lavoiallc.
Dont Iorget about staII
Covernment sto[[ inuences eIected o[fcioIs
os much, i[ not more, thon onyone eIse
W Siall icaics icoiis, siuuics anu analyscs
ol imoiiani issucs.
W Elccicu olhcials olicn cuucaic ihcmsclvcs
ly icvicwing ihc inloimaiion ihcy icccivc
liom siall.
W REAITORS

musi mainiain ocn lincs ol


communicaiion wiih siall io cnsuic ihai ii
ioviucs ol|cciivc inloimaiion io clccicu
olhcials.
W Similaily, ii is imoiiani io havc ocn lincs
ol communicaiion wiih clccicu olhcials,
in ihc cvcni ihai siall uocs noi shaic youi
oini ol vicw.
Identi[y Your Objectives
Giowih issucs manilcsi ihcmsclvcs in many
loims - lalloi mcasuics, zoning oiuinanccs,
io|cci aiovals, oi comichcnsivc lan
uuaics, io namc a lcw. Rcgaiulcss ol ihc iyc
ol siiuaiion you aic lacing, ii is imoiiani loi
you io iucniily youi ol|cciivcs hisi, lcloic you
ucvclo a siiaicgy.
Determine your gooIs
W Whai uo you hoc io accomlish in
iclaiion io ihis issuc. Aniiciaic uillcicni
lcvcl sccnaiios.
W Bc icaicu io comiomisc anu io accci
somcihing lcss ihan youi iucal ouicomc.
EvoIuote Your Resources
W Whai icsouiccs uo you havc ai youi
uisosal io achicvc youi goals.
W Aic voluniccis oiganizcu anu icauy io
molilizc.
W How much moncy uocs youi associaiion
havc, anu how much is ii willing io scnu.
W Whai moucs ol communicaiion can you usc.
W Do you nccu, anu can you alloiu, io hiic a
iolcssional consuliani.
W Whai iclaiionshis uo youi mcmlcis havc
wiih local olhcials.
Mop out the poIiticoI dynomics
W Know whai ihc oliiical lcasililiiy is ol
achicving youi goals.
W Do you havc ihc voics anu whai will ii iaIc
io gci ihcm.
S M k K I K 9 I B I 9 9 L K l I l4l
Identi[y Torgets
Tayloi youi mcssagc io ihc auuicncc you nccu
io cisuauc, whcihci:
W Policy-maIcis lcgislaiois, council
mcmlcis, commissioncis, cic.)
W Iocal govcinmcni siall
W Planning commissioncis
W Homcowncis
W Voicis
W All icsiucnis
W Poicniial coniiiluiois
DeveIop o messoge
This is ihc mosi imoiiani aii ol ihc ioccss!
Hcic aic sics io lollow:
W Dciciminc how you wani io convcy youi
osiiion io ihc iaigci auuicncc.
W Kcc youi mcssagc succinci, simlc anu
casy io unucisianu.
W Youi mcssagc shoulu convcy ihc osiiivc
oinis ol youi osiiion.
W SiicI wiih youi mcssagc.
Toctics
How will you convcy youi mcssagc. Consiuci
ihcsc sccnaiios:
W Il you nccu io lolly ihc ciiy council on an
oiuinancc ioosal, you will nccu io woiI
wiih siall, mcci wiih olicy-maIcis, aiicnu
hcaiings, icsiily, anu maIc suic you havc ihc
voics ncccssaiy io achicvc youi ol|cciivc.
W You may wani io conuuci a ullic
cuucaiion camaign, incluuing lciicis io
ihc cuiioi ol ihc local ncwsaci oi maylc
a iown hall loium wiih clccicu lcaucis.
W Youi iaciics will uccnu iimaiily on whai
youi iaigci auuicncc is anu whai ii is ihai
you aic iiying io communicaic.
BuiId CooIitions
Allicu inuusiiy gious can hcl you
communicaic youi mcssagc wiih auucu
icsouiccs.
W Homcowncis
W Voicis
W Builucis
W Associaiions
W Iocal Busincsscs
W Chamlcis ol Commcicc
W Economic Dcvclomcni Councils
W Poii Disiiici olhcials
W Schools anu PTAs
W Ialoi Unions
W Enviionmcnialisis
Any oi all ol ihc alovc may shaic ihc samc
osiiion as REAITORS

on housing, cconomic
ucvclomcni, giowih managcmcni oi
iociiy-iclaicu issucs. Thcy can lc cnlisicu
in a vaiiciy ol ways loi a common uiosc.
Adopt a stratcgy Ior achicving your goals
Hcic aic somc ol youi choiccs, uccnuing on
youi goals anu how you havc cvaluaicu all ol
ihc oihci issucs mcniioncu alovc.
W Giassioois camaign, molilizing
REAITORS

, iociiy owncis anu oihcis


W Pullic cuucaiion camaign. This mighi
incluuc iaigci mailings, caincu" mcuia
sioiics anu oinion icccs in local ncws
ouilcis) oi aiu mcuia.
W Coaliiion luiluing
W Iollying ciiy council oi siall
Youi uliimaic siiaicgy will uccnu on youi
goals, youi iaigci auuicncc anu how you
inicnu io icach ii. Ioi cxamlc, il ihc ciiy
council is consiuciing an oiuinancc, ihcn you
will wani io lolly ihc council.
Youi iaciics will uccnu iimaiily on whai
youi iaigci auuicncc is anu whai ii is ihai you
aic iiying io communicaic.
Use Eorned Medio
You may hnu ii usclul io conuuci a ullic
cuucaiion camaign. Thc lcsi way io uo ihis
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S

l42
wiihoui scnuing valuallc icsouiccs is ly
using caincu mcuia:
W Euiioiial loaius
W Iciicis-io-ihc-cuiioi
W Oinion cuiioiials
Set up o Key Contoct` progrom
REAITORS

havc csiallishcu a Icy coniaci"


iogiam ai ihc siaic lcvcl ihai can lc auaicu
io ihc local lcvcl. A Icy coniaci" is a cison
who is maichcu io a siall cison oi clccicu
olicy maIci in ihcii communiiy. Thc Icy
coniaci" scivcs as a souicc ol inloimaiion loi
olicy-maIcis aloui issucs allcciing ihc ical
csiaic inuusiiy. Thc Washingion Associaiion
has a hanulooI ihai can hcl you in
csiallishing ihis iogiam.
InitioI Contocts
W A icam ol local REAITORS

shoulu
lc iucniihcu io cnsuic ihai cnough
commiiicu colc aic availallc io lcgin
anu mainiain ihc involvcmcni ioccss.
W Mcciings shoulu lc hclu as quicIly
as ossillc wiih lanning siall anu
commission mcmlcis, as wcll as wiih
clccicu olhcials anu ihcii sialls. Ai ihcsc
mcciings REAITORS

woulu uiscuss why


ihcy wani io lc involvcu, how ihcy lan on
aiiiciaiing, whai ihcy havc io ollci ihc
ioccss anu ihc ouicomcs ihcy hoc io
achicvc.
W Iocal cxamlcs ol succcsslul ucvclomcni,
zoning anu icgulaiions ihai illusiiaic
anu align wiih ihc REAITORS

sccihc
Checklist Ior REALTCRS

W Visii www.icalioi.oig/smaiigiowih.
W Aiicnu a ciiy council oi couniy
commission mcciing.
W Dcvclo an unucisianuing ol local
giowih issucs.
W Rcqucsi oi uownloau) NAR icsouiccs
io usc locally.
W Aioach oicniial coaliiion aiincis.
W Voicc youi suoii loi smaii giowih ai
a ullic hcaiing.
W Wiiic a lciici io ihc cuiioi ol ihc local
ncwsaci.
W Mcci wiih clccicu olhcials.
W ]oin an RPAC commiiicc.
W Suoii a canuiuaic loi olhcc.
W Volunicci loi a communiiy
oiganizaiion.
W SccI an aoinimcni io a local loaiu.
W Run loi olhcc.
Checklist Ior REALTCR

Associations
W Hosi a smaii giowih siiaicgic lanning
scssion.
W Euucaic youi mcmlcishi.
W Cicaic volunicci icsouiccs.
W Pcisonalizc NAR maiciials loi
uisiiiluiion io youi mcmlcishi anu
communiiy lcaucis.
W Sicau ihc smaii giowih woiu ai ihc
communiiy lcvcl.
W Ioim iclaiionshis wiih a lioau lasc ol
aiincis.
W Hosi a smaii giowih scminai loi
communiiy lcaucis.
W Co-sonsoi a lanning cvcni.
ttir] (+r1 St+ir]} lrrclr1
S M k K I K 9 I B I 9 9 L K l I l43
comichcnsivc lan uuaic olicy
iccommcnuaiions shoulu lc uocumcnicu
anu ioviucu io lanning siall anu olhcials
lollowing ihc iniiial mcciings.
Ongoing InvoIvement
W Ongoing coniaci shoulu lc mainiaincu
wiih lanncis, clccicu olhcials anu
ihcii sialls io auvocaic loi sccihc
olicy iccommcnuaiions anu ongoing
involvcmcni.
W Iocal REAITORS

shoulu lc icscni
ai cvciy mcciing, woiIsho, uiscussion
oi hcaiing ai which ihc comichcnsivc
lan uuaic will lc uiscusscu. Planning
commission, ciiy anu couniy councils anu
commissions, anu ullic mcciings hclu ly
siall aic cxamlcs ol ihc iycs ol mcciings
ai which REAITORS

shoulu mainiain
an ongoing icscncc. Bui icmcmlci ihai
mosi uccisions aic mauc lchinu ihc sccncs,
so you`ll wani io lc involvcu ihcic, ioo.
W Whcncvci ullic commcnis aic allowcu, lc
ihcy wiiiicn, oi oial, REAITORS

anu ihcii
allics shoulu lc molilizcu io ioviuc ullic
suoii loi ihc lan uuaics you sccI.
Siall anu olhcials shoulu lc shown ihai
ihcic is wiucsicau, vocal anu susiaincu
suoii loi youi ioosals anu uccisions io
cnaci ihcm. This is aiiiculaily imoiiani
lccausc olhcials aic much moic liIcly
io aiovc lan iovisions il ihcy Inow
ihcy aic siiongly suoiicu ly commiiicu
communiiy mcmlcis.
W Ii is ciiiical io ioviuc wiiiicn anu oial
icsiimony loi ihc iccoiu" io cnsuic
you havc sianuing" ihc lcgal iighi io
lc involvcu anu auuicss ihc issucs you
icscnicu) shoulu olicy uccisions lc oi
nccu io lc) challcngcu.
|irislir] Up
ThanI anu coniinuc io suoii olhcials who
aiovcu olicics you iooscu. Rcmain
involvcu in ihc communiiy.
Iinally, ihinI aloui gciiing REAITORS

clccicu anu aoinicu io local olhcc.


Having REAITORS

aoinicu io lanning
commissions oi clccicu io ciiy council
ioviucs ihc lcsi assuiancc ihai youi voicc will
lc hcaiu on imoiiani issucs.
Sanple Legislation

.

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|clit is tl tritit+l lir| |twr pl+rrir] +r1
tl plsit+l r+lit c| ctr tcmmtritis.
S M k K I K 9 I B I 9 9 L K l I l45
Thc lollowing ioviucs an assoiimcni ol
samlc olicics anu lcgislaiion ihai havc lccn
cnacicu in vaiious communiiics aiounu ihc
couniiy. Thc inicni is io ioviuc you wiih a
signihcani siaii in youi clloii io liing smaii
giowih olicics io youi communiiy.
U.S. |rrircrmrt+l |rcttticr k]rt
Gciiing io Smaii Giowih: 100 Policics loi
Imlcmcniaiion, now in iwo volumcs, ioviucs
cxccllcni cxamlcs ol olicics ihai suoii
smaii giowih iincilcs liom communiiics
aiounu ihc couniiy. Whilc ihc lcgislaiivc icxi
is noi incluucu, ii is an cxccllcni lacc io siaii
iiacIing uown olicics ihai auuicss sccihc
asccis ol smaii giowih. Boih volumcs can lc
uownloaucu liom: www.en.o./n..owL/
e.r_o_2.L
kmrit+r |l+rrir] ksscti+ticr
Giowing Smaii Icgislaiivc GuiuclooI: Moucl
Siaiuics loi Planning anu ihc Managcmcni
ol Changc ioviucs a comichcnsivc guiuc
io icloiming lanning siaiuics anu uiscusscs
how io lcgin lanning siaiuic icloim ihiough
ihc siaic lcgislaiuic, ihc govcinoi, anu iivaic
inicicsi gious, anu ioviucs guiuancc loi
siaic, icgional, anu local lanu-usc lanning,
incluuing moucl siaiuics. Thc looI can lc
oiuci liom: www.Inrr.r.o./.ow.rn.
S+mpl L]isl+ticr
A
principal reason why snart growth oevelopnent is not nore connon
is that the existing zoning laws in nany connunities prohibit conpact,
nixeo-use high oensity oevelopnent. Connunities that have naoe
the eIIort to change their oevelopnent guioance are seeing the
oesireo types oI oevelopnent take place.
Smaii Giowih Coucs ioviucs 11 moucl smaii
giowih oiuinanccs on ihc lollowing ioics,
wiih commcniaiy, scc: www.Inrr.r.o./
n..owLoJe/Lne1.L
W Mixcu-Usc Zoning Disiiici Oiuinancc
W Town Ccnici Oiuinancc
W Alloiuallc Housing Dcnsiiy Bonus
Oiuinancc
W Unihcu Dcvclomcni Pcimii Rcvicw
Pioccss Oiuinancc
W Tianslci ol Dcvclomcni Righis Oiuinancc
W Clusici Dcvclomcni Oiuinancc
W Pcucsiiian Ovcilay POD) Disiiici
W On-Siic Acccss, PaiIing, anu Ciiculaiion
Oiuinancc
W Shaicu PaiIing Oiuinancc
W Siicci Conncciiviiy Sianuaius Oiuinancc
Il Sm+rt rcwtl Ntwcr|
Thc wcl siic ioviucs many usclul iools loi
liinging youi communiiy`s ucvclomcni
icgulaiions u io sccu loi smaii giowih
ucvclomcni, incluuing iwo ullicaiions,
Smaii Giowih Zoning Coucs: A Rcsouicc
Guiuc anu Thc Inhll 8 Rcucvclomcni Couc
HanulooI as wcll as onlinc acccss io sccihc
coucs liom communiiics aiounu ihc couniiy.
See: www.n..owL.o./I.b.n.,/IJ.I..n
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S

l46
NkK 9rlir Ksctrts
NAR`s Smaii Giowih wcl siic has linIs io
oihci samlc/moucl lcgislaiion, incluuing
cxamlcs loi:
W Tiauiiional Ncighloihoou Dcvclomcni
W Ioim-Bascu Zoning Couc
W Inclusionaiy Zoning Oiuinancc
W Builuing Rchaliliiaiion Couc
W Vacani Piociiy Rcclamaiion
W Taigciing Giowih
W Alicinaiivc Tiansoiiaiion
See: www..enIo..o./ooII.I.rI
smartgrowth