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RockMechanics Mcaniquedesroches q

CourseLectures Part5 RockFoundationsandSlopes(a) ProfessorZHAOJian EPFLENACLMR


RockMechanicsand TunnelEngineering

Introduction
Rockfoundations(ofbuildings, bridges,anddams)

Rockslopes(and embankments)

Rocktunnels(caverns,mines, andhydropowers)

Introduction
Foundationengineeringinvolvesthedesignand analysisoftype,loadcarryingandsettlementof foundations,andtheirconstruction. foundations, and their construction.

Introduction
TypesofRockFoundations Spreadfootings:Footdirectlyon Spread footings: Foot directly on adequaterocksurface.Foundationis supportedbybearingoftherock. Socketed piles:Socketed orsinked into underlyingadequaterock.Foundationis supported by side wall shear resistance supportedbysidewallshearresistance andendbearing.

Introduction
TypesofRockFoundations Damfoundations:Damfootingdirectly Dam foundations: Dam footing directly onadequaterocksurfacetosupport thegravityloadandwaterpressure. Foundationissupportedbybearing andslidingresistanceoftherock. Tension foundations: Steel bolt and Tensionfoundations:Steelboltand cableanchoredintorocktosupport tension(uplift)loads.Foundationis supportedbyshearresistanceofthe anchorandtherockmass.

FailuresofRockFoundation
FailureofRockFoundations (a)Shearofweakandfracturedrock (a) Shear of weak and fractured rock mass Forheavilyfracturedandweakrock massmayleadstogeneralwedge failureoffoundation. (b)Compressionofjoints (b) Compression of joints Foropenjoints,failureisby compression.

FailuresofRockFoundation
FailureofRockFoundations (c)Punchingorflexuralfailures (c) Punching or flexural failures Oftenforarigidlayeroverlyingsoft material. (d)Breakingofpinnacles Oftenforweatheredrocksurface Often for weathered rock surface

FailuresofRockFoundation
FailureofRock Foundations (e)Collapseofshallow caveandcavities. (f)Slopefailureby foundationloadingor byblocksliding. y g

FailuresofRockFoundation
FailureofRockFoundations (g)Sidewallslideandlarge (g) Sidewall slide and large settlementofpiles. (h)Creepfailurewhenathigh stresslevel.Creepmayalsooccur duetodegradationofrock subjectedtoweathering. j g

FailuresofRockFoundation
FailureofRockFoundations (i)Slidingofdambaseand/orrock (i) Sliding of dam base and/or rock massfailureatdamtoeunderhigh waterpressure. (j)Failureofanchorgroutorrock massaroundanchorbylarge tensileload.

InfluenceofGeologicalFeaturesonFoundationFailures
Features Rocktype Stratigraph Fold Fault EffectonFoundation Strengthanddeformationcharacteristic bearingcapacityandsettlement. Creeprock creepandtimedependentfailure. Layeredstructure punchingorshearingofrigidlayerofrockabovesoft layer. y Rocksurfaceinclinedduetofolding bearingsurfacemaybeinclined. Rockhead contour drasticchangeofrocksurfaceandrocktype. Daylightingfault slopefailurewithfoundation. Faultingofrockstructure drasticchangeofrocktype. Faultwithinfill displacementduetocompressionofinfillmaterial. Openjoints failurebycompression. Closelyspacedjoints generalwedgefailure. Intersectingjointsets formingwedgeblockandshearalongthejoints. Daylightingjoint slidingofrockblock. Weatheredcavities punchingorshearofthinlayerofroofrock. Weatheringofrock maycausecreepfailure. Karstic surface piletipbendinganddamage,failureofpinnacles. Solutioncavities punchingorshearofthinlayerofroofrock.

Joint

Weathering Karst

RockFoundationDesignParameters
InSituRockMassCompressiveStrength RockMassStrengthfromHoekBrownCriterion Rock Mass Strength from HoekBrown Criterion 1 =3 +(mb 3 ci +sci2)a mb =mi exp[(GSI100)/28] Forrockmassesofreasonablequality,i.e.GSI>25, s=exp[(GSI100)/9],a=0.5 s = exp [(GSI100)/9] a=05 Forpoorrockmasses,i.e.,GSI<25,s 0, a=0.65 GSI/200

RockFoundationDesignParameters
Graniterockmass,GSI=75,ci=150MPa,a=0.5. mi forgraniteis32, mb = mi exp[(GSI 100)/28] = 13 1 =m exp[(GSI 100)/28]=13.1 s=exp[(GSI 100)/9]=0.062 1 =3 +(19563 +1395)0.5 cm =37MPa,tm =0.7MPa Siltstonerockmass,GSI=20,ci=65MPa,s=0. mi for siltstone = 7 forsiltstone=7 mb =mi exp[(GSI 100)/28]=0.40 GSI<25,a=0.65 (GSI/200)=0.55 1 =3 +(263 +0.59)0.55 cm =0.8MPa,tm =0
3 (MPa) 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 06 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.5 2.0 0.7(tm) 3 (MPa) 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.5 2.0 0(tm) 1 (MPa) 37 43 47 51 55 59 63 67 75 0

1 (MPa) 0.8 1.8 2.8 3.6 4.3 5.0 5.6 6.5 7.8 0

RockFoundationDesignParameters
RockMassCohesionandFrictionusingHoekBrown CriterionandMohrCircles
UseHBtogenerateaseries13 data,plotthembyMohrcircles,and fitthemwiththesuitablelineartangentenvelope,tofindcand.
Goodgraniterockmass Poor siltstone rockmass

MC

Estimated c=4.5MPa =50 50

MC

Estimated c=0.38MPa =35

c c

RockFoundationDesignParameters
RockMassCohesionandFrictionfromRMR
Thesevaluesaregenerallylowerthanthatestimatedfrom These values are generally lower than that estimated from strengthcriteria.
RMR < 20 21 40 41 41 60 61 80 >81 c(MPa) <0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.3 02 03 0.3 0.4 >0.4 (degree) <15 15 25 25 25 35 35 45 >45 c=4.5 =50 Bystrength Calculation c=0.38 =35

RockFoundationDesignParameters
InSituRockMassDeformationModulus EstimatedfromRockMassQuality Estimated from Rock Mass Quality Em =25logQ Em =10(Qci/100)1/3 Em =2RMR 100
(RMR10)/40 Em =10(RMR 10)/40

forQ>1 forRMR>50 for20<RMR<85

Em =10(15logQ+40)/40

RockFoundationDesignParameters

BearingCapacityofFootFoundations
SurfaceFootingonUniform RockMass Maximumsupportisthe strength(1)oftherock massunderfootingin triaxial compression(red), whoseconfiningstress3 equalstotheuniaxial strengthcmoftheadjacent rockmass(green).
1

Triaxial

cm

Uniaxial

BearingCapacityofFootFoundations
Uniaxialstrengthoftherock mass(green): cm = s
ci

cm

Uniaxial

cm

Triaxial strengthoftherockmass (red): 1 = cm+(mbcmci+sci2) 1 = s ci+(mbs ci2+sci2)


3 =cm

1
Tr riaxial

3 =cm

BearingCapacityofFootFoundations
Allowablebearingcapacityof surfacefooting qa =Cf1 1 /FS
Cf1 istheshapecorrectionfactor,given inChartF1.FSisfactorofsafety,23, typically3.
Foundation shape p Chart F1 Strip (L/B > 6) Rectangular (L/B = 2) Rectangular (L/B = 5) Square Circular Cf1 1.0 1.12 1.05 1.25 1.2 Cf2 1.0 0.9 0.95 0.85 0.7
B L

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BearingCapacityofFootFoundations
RecessedFooting Strength( )oftherock Strength (1) of the rock massunderfoundationisin triaxial compression(red), whoseconfiningstress(3) equalstothetriaxial strength (1)oftheadjacentrock mass(green),whose mass (green) whose confiningstressisthe 3 surchargepressure(3).
1

1
Triaxial

3 isthesurchargepressure 3 =qs 1 3
Triaxial

BearingCapacityofFootFoundations
Surchargepressure3 =qs =unit weighttimetherecessdepth. Triaxial strengthofmass(green): 1 =qs+(mbqsci+sci2)1/2 Triaxial strengthofmass(red): 1 =1+(mb1ci+sci2)1/2 Allowablebearingcapacity qa =Cf1 1 /FS(Cf1 inChartF1)
1 3 = 1 =
Tr riaxial

3 =qs 1
Uniaxial

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BearingCapacityofFootFoundations
BearingCapacityofWeak/PoorRock(BellSolution) qa = (Cf1cNc+Cf2BN+DNq)/FS =(C istherockunitweight,crockmasscohesion,Cf2 inChartF1. Nc =2N (N +1),N =N (N2 1),Nq =N2 N =tan2(45 + ) tan (45+) Nc,N,Nq canalsobefoundchart.

BearingCapacityofFootFoundations
BearingCapacityofWeakandPoorRockMass Ifthefootingisatsurfaceandfoundationloadis If the footing is at surface and foundation load is large(>>weightofrockmass),theequationcanbe simplified: qa =(Cf1cNc)/FS

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BearingCapacityofFootFoundations
BearingCapacityofFootingon Slope qa =(Cf1cNcq+Cf2BNq) /FS istherockunitweight,crock masscohesion,Cf2 inChartF1. Ncq andNq arebearing capacityfactors,inChartF2. it f t i Ch t F2 StabilityNumber N0 =H/c
(USNavyDept,1982)

Chart F2

SettlementofFootFoundations
StressDistributionbelowFootFoundation Stressbelowapointload(Boussinesq Stress below a point load (Boussinesq 1885)

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SettlementofFootFoundations

(Winterkorn &Fang1975)

Distributionofverticalstressduetoaloadedcircularfootingonelastic material:(a)alongverticallines;(b)alonghorizontallines.

SettlementofFootFoundations
(Winterkorn &Fang1975)

Stresscontoursforfootingsonelasticmaterial:(a)verticalnormalstressesbelow circulararea;(b)radialstressesbelowlineload.

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SettlementofFootFoundations

(Winterkorn &Fang1975)

Verticalnormalstressbelowcircular areaoftwolayerselasticmaterials.

Radialstresscontourunderlineloadson transverselyisotropicrock.

SettlementofFootFoundations
FootingonHomogeneousandIsotropic RockMass =CdqD(1 2)/E qistheuniformlydistributedbearing pressure,Dcharacteristicdimensionof theloadedarea( forcircleandBfor rectangle), andEPoissonsratioand g ), Youngsmodulus. Cd istheshapeandrigidityfactor,given inChartF3.
D E,

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SettlementofFootFoundations
Cd forsettlementcalculations(Winterkorn &Fang1975)
Shape Circle Circle(rigid) Square Centre 1.00 1 00 0.79 1.12 0.99 1.36 1.52 1.78 2.10 2.53 4.00 5.47 Corner 0.64 0 64 0.79 0.56 0.99 0.67 0.76 0.88 1.05 1.26 2.00 2.75 MiddleofBside 0.64 0 64 0.79 0.76 0.99 0.89 0.98 1.11 1.27 1.49 2.20 2.94 Middle ofLside 0.64 0 64 0.79 0.76 0.99 0.97 1.12 1.35 1.68 2.12 3.60 5.03 Average 0.85 0 85 0.79 0.95 0.99 1.15 1.30 1.52 1.83 2.25 3.70 5.15

ChartF3

Square(rigid) Rectangle (L/B=1.5) Rectangle (L/B=2) Rectangle (L/B=3) (L/B 3) Rectangle (L/B=5) Rectangle (L/B=10) Rectangle (L/B=100) Rectangle (L/B=1000)

SettlementofFootFoundations
FootingonCompressibleLayerover RigidBase =CdqD(1 2)/E qthebearingpressure,Ddimension oftheloadedarea, andEPoissons ratioandYoungsmodulusofthe compressiblelayer. p y Cd istheshapefactor,giveninChart F4.
D E,

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SettlementofFootFoundations
Cd forsettlementofcentreonelasticlayeroverrigidbase(Winterkorn &Fang1975)
H/D 0.1 0.25 Circle Diameter D 0.09 0.24 0.48 0.70 0.80 0.88 0.91 0.94 1.00 L/B=1 0.09 0.24 0.48 0.75 0.86 0.97 1.01 1.05 1.12 L/B=1.5 0.09 0.23 0.47 0.81 0.97 1.12 1.19 1.24 1.36 L/B=2 0.09 0.23 0.47 0.83 1.03 1.22 1.31 1.38 1.52 Rectangle L/B=3 0.09 0.23 0.47 0.83 1.07 1.33 1.45 1.55 1.78 L/B=5 0.09 0.23 0.47 0.83 1.08 1.39 1.56 1.72 2.10 L/B=10 0.09 0.23 0.47 0.83 1.08 1.40 1.59 1.82 2.53 L/B= 0.09 0.23 0.47 0.83 1.08 1.40 1.60 1.83

ChartF4

0.5 1.0 1.5 2.5 3.5 5.0

SettlementofFootFoundations
FootingwithCompressibleLayer betweenStiffLayers =CdqD(1 2)/E E=(E1H1+E2H2)/(H1+H2) Cd isgiveninChartF5.
ItisthesameasChartF4,byreplacingH with(H with (H1+H2) ).
H1 H2 E1 E2

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SettlementofFootFoundations
Cd forsettlementofelasticlayerbetweenstifflayers(Winterkorn &Fang1975)
(H1+H2)/ D 0.1 0.25 Circle Diameter D 0.09 0.24 0.48 0.70 0.80 0.88 0.91 0.94 1.00 L/B=1 0.09 0.24 0.48 0.75 0.86 0.97 1.01 1.05 1.12 L/B=1.5 0.09 0.23 0.47 0.81 0.97 1.12 1.19 1.24 1.36 L/B=2 0.09 0.23 0.47 0.83 1.03 1.22 1.31 1.38 1.52 Rectangle L/B=3 0.09 0.23 0.47 0.83 1.07 1.33 1.45 1.55 1.78 L/B=5 0.09 0.23 0.47 0.83 1.08 1.39 1.56 1.72 2.10 L/B=10 0.09 0.23 0.47 0.83 1.08 1.40 1.59 1.82 2.53 L/B= 0.09 0.23 0.47 0.83 1.08 1.40 1.60 1.83

ChartF5

0.5 1.0 1.5 2.5 3.5 5.0

SettlementofFootFoundations
FootingonStiffLayerover CompressibleFormation (i)Calculatesettlementasifall compressiblebelow,withshape factorCd fromChartF4. =CdqD(1 22)/E2 (ii)DetermineH/D,E 2, andthen (ii) Determine H/D, E1/E2 and then thecorrectionfactorafromChartF6, calculateactualsettlement =a
H D E1 E2,2

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SettlementofFootFoundations
Correctionfactora forsettlementelasticlayerbelowstifflayer(Winterkorn &Fang1975)
H/D 1 0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 2 1.000 0.972 0.885 0.747 0.627 0.550 0.525 0.500 E1/E2 5 1.000 0.943 0.779 0.566 0.399 0.274 0.238 0.200 10 1.000 0.923 0.699 0.463 0.287 0.175 0.136 0.100 100 1.000 0.760 0.431 0.228 0.121 0.058 0.036 0.010

ChartF6

0.1 0.25 0.5 1.0 2.5 5.0

SettlementofFootFoundations
StressesbelowEccentricallyLoaded Footing (i)Foreccentricdistancee<B/6, q1 =(Q/B)(1+6e/B) q2 =(Q/B)(1 6e/B) (ii)Foreccentricdistancee>B/6,
e q2 e q1 Pressuredistribution

q1 =(4/3Q)/(B 2e)

q1 Pressuredistribution

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SettlementofFootFoundations
SettlementofFoundationwithComplexFormations andLoads Stressdistributionandsettlementoffoundations oncomplexformationand/orwithcomplexloads canbecalculatedbynumericalmodelling,e.g.,FEM.

RockSocketed PileFoundations

(1)Pileinrockat sidesandbase, supportedby pp y bothsidefriction andendbearing. UsuallyQs>Qb

(2)Pileinrockat sideswithloose cuttingorweak g seamatbase, supportedbyside frictiononly. Qb=0

(3)Pileinsoilat sidesandbaseon g goodrock,side , frictionissmall, supportedmainly byendbearing. Qb>>Qs

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RockSocketed PileFoundations
SideFrictionandEndBearingofPileFoundation Rocksocketed pilesaresupportbyendbearing Rock socketed piles are support by end bearing and/orsidefriction. SideFriction:needtoestimaterockconcreteshear resistance. EndBearing:userockmassstrengthtoestimate. Settlement:needtoconsiderdisplacementsof bothrockmassandconcrete.

RockSocketed PileFoundations
SideFrictionofPileFoundation Allowablesideresistance Allowable side resistance Qs =s DL/FS s issidewallshearresistance,Dpilediameter,L socketlength a =s/FS R m(s) /FS R ( ) m(s) isrockmassuniaxial compressivestrength,R issocketwallroughnesscoefficient,0.3for undulating>10mm,0.25forundulating<10mm

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RockSocketed PileFoundations
EndBearingofPileFoundation Allowableendbearingforrockmass Allowable end bearing for rock mass Qb = D2 1m(b) /FS 1m(b) triaxial compressivestrengthofrockmass belowpile,Dpilediameter. Rockmasstriaxial strengthcanbeestimatedbythe Rock mass triaxial strength can be estimated by the HoekBrowncriterion.

RockSocketed PileFoundations
SettlementofFrictionPile = Q I / D Em(s) =QI/DE Qappliedload,Dpile diameter,Em(s) surrounding rockmassmodulus. Iisthesettlementinfluence factor,giveninChartP1. factor given in Chart P1
R=Ec/Em(s)
D Em(s) Q Ec L

ChartP1

(Pell&Turner1979)

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RockSocketed PileFoundations
SettlementofEndBearingPile = (4Q/D2)(L/Ec)+ (4Q/D2)[RFCdD(12)/Em(b)] =(4Q/D )+(4Q/D )[RF C ]
Deformationofpile Deformationofrockmassbelowpile

Reductionfactor RFisgivenin ChartP2.

Q Ec L D Em(b)

Reductionfactor,RF

Qappliedload,Dpilediameter,L depthtopileend,Ec ofconcrete, andEm(b) ofrockmass.Cd shapefactor(ChartF4).

ChartP2
(Pell&Turner1979)

RockSocketed PileFoundations
SettlementofSideFrictionandEndBearingPile = Q I / D Em(s) =QI/DE Qistheappliedload,Dpilediameter,Em(s) socket rockmassmodulus,Ithesettlementinfluence factorgiveninChartP3. UseChartP3toestimatepercentageofloadcarried byendbearing.Checkenbearingandsidefriction b db i Ch k b i d id f i ti thatdonotexceedtheallowablecapacities.

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RockSocketed PileFoundations

ChartP3
I

ChartP3

ChartP3

Qb (%) Q Qb Q (%) L/B L/B (Rowe&Armitage 1987) L/B Qb Q (%)

Influencefactorandendbearingratiosforsocketpilefoundations.

DamFoundations
FoundationforGravityDams Damaremostlybuiltoncompetent Dam are mostly built on competent rock.Thefoundationmustbestrong enoughtocarrytheweightofthe dam,andthewaterpressuresacting onthedam. Footingbearingisusuallynota g g y commonproblem.Themostcommon damfoundationfailureisthesliding movementunderhighwater pressure.

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DamFoundations
SlidingResistancealongtheSurface (i)Onhorizontalsurface (i) On horizontal surface FS=totalresistance/slidingload FS=[cA +(V u)tan]/H
c=cohesion, =frictionangle
H, H water pressure V, V weight i ht

u, water uplift A, base area

( ) (ii)Oninclinedsurface
Toresultresistanceandslidingforcesalong theslidingplane.

FS=totalresistance/slidingload

Inclined base

DamFoundations
RecessedDamFooting FS=(slideresistance+ FS = (slide resistance + rockmassstrengthat toe)/slidingload (i)Slidingresistance=cA +(V u)tan
c=cohesion, =frictionangle cm

(ii)Rockmassstrength= =s (ii) Rock mass strength = cm = sci


s=exp[(GSI100)/9](forgenerallygoodrockmass) ci =uniaxial compressivestrengthofrockmaterial

(iii)Slidingload(horizontalwater)=H

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DamFoundations
DamStabilityandDisplacement Duetothegeneralcomplexofdamfoundation Due to the general complex of dam foundation geometry,loadingandrockmass,numerical modellingareusuallyused.Numericalmodelling canalsoincludethefoundationreinforcement.

TensionFoundations
TensionFoundationswithAnchors Steelanchorinthecompetent Steel anchor in the competent rockmassandgrouted,toprovide tensileloadsupportstructures. E.g.,anchorroofprotectingrock fallonslope,tiedownstoprevent damoverturning,rockanchorto supporttensionedcablefor support tensioned cable for bridge.

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TensionFoundations
LoadBearingCapacityofAnchor Loadistransmittedfromanchor Load is transmitted from anchor throughthesteelgroutand groutrocktothesurrounding rockmass,throughshear resistancebetweenthose materials.Theoverallloadis takenbytherockmass,which taken by the rock mass which canbefailedbythepulloutof theconeblock.

Rockmass mobilised mobilised byanchor

TensionFoundations
DesignPrincipleofAnchorFoundation (i)Diameterofsteelanchor:Selectinganchorof (i) Diameter of steel anchor: Selecting anchor of sufficientsizetocarrythedesignedload(check withsteelproductsspecifications). (ii)Bondlengthofanchorsocket:Estimatingthe requiredbondlengthbasedonbondstrengths betweensteelgroutrock. g (iii)Rockmassstrength:Estimatingsizeof mobilisedrockmassandstrengthoftherockmass, includingtheweight.

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TensionFoundations
AnchorBonding Typically,steelgroutbondingistwicegroutrock Typically steelgrout bonding is twice groutrock bonding(bytests).Theanchorbondingisgoverned bygroutrockbonding.Allowableloadcapacityof anchorduetobondingisdefinedas: Qa =DLbult =DLbc/20
Distheeffectivediameteroftheborehole,L lengthofthe D is the effective diameter of the borehole Lb length of the groutedanchorbond.ult istheultimategroutbond strength(failuretestsorgroutproductsspecifications),or 1/10c(ofrockorgrout,lowerone).

TensionFoundations
LocationofRockMass Failure Forcompetentrockmass, thepotentialfailureis initiatedatthebaseof theanchor. Forpoor/weakrockmass, p / , thepotentialfailureis initiatedatthemidpoint ofthebondedsection.

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TensionFoundations
UpliftCapacityofRockAnchor Upliftloadistakenbytwoparts: Uplift load is taken by two parts: theweightofthecone(Wc)and therockstrengthalongthecone surface(Fr). Wc =r L3tan2 fr =tm L2/ 2 /cos
Q L Q

tm

30forpoorrock, 45forgoodrock

Upliftcapacity Q=(fr +Wccos)/FS

TensionFoundations
LoadBearingCapacityofRock Masses Theloadbearingcapacityofthe anchortensionfoundation dependsonrockfracture systems.Thesizeanddimension oftheconeisinfluencedbythe fracturepattern.Tensile fracture pattern Tensile strengthoftherockmassgreatly reducedbytheexistenceofthe fractures.

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TensionFoundations
SteeplyInclinedUpliftofAnchor When exceeding(90 ),some When exceeding (90 ) some lowerpartoftheconeisunder shearresistance,whileother partistensilefailure. Fromcompetentrockmass g generally >>tm. y

tm

TensionFoundations
OtherConditionsofAnchor Withdownwardanchor,the With downward anchor the directionoftheconeweight needtobeanalysed,andthe lowerhalfoftheconeisunder shearresistance. Withgroundwater,thebuoyant g , y effectsneedtobeconsidered. Theconeshouldtakethe effectiveweight.
tm

Q r GW

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Rock Mechanics Mcanique des roches


Course Lectures Part 5 Rock Foundations and Rock Slopes (b) Professor ZHAO Jian EPFLENACLMR RockMechanicsand TunnelEngineering

Introduction
Slopeengineeringinvolvesthedesignandanalysis ofslopeexcavation,supportandconstruction.

Introduction
Slopescanbedividedintonaturalslopesand excavatedslopes.

Introduction
FailureofRockSlopes (a)CircularFailure ( ) Usuallyoccursinwasterock, heavilyfracturedrock andweakrockwithno identifiablestructuralpattern. (b)PlaneFailure Occursinrockswithplane discontinuities,e.g.,bedding planes.

Introduction
FailureofRockSlopes (c)WedgeFailure ( ) Occursinrockswith intersectingdiscontinuities formingwedges. (d)Topplingfailure (d) Toppling failure Occursinrockswithcolumnar orblockstructuresseparated bysteeplydippingjoints.

AnalysisofCircularFailure
CircularFailure Therockmassissohighly The rock mass is so highly fracturedorcrushedthatno structuralpatternexists.The failuresurfaceisfreetofindaline ofleastresistancethroughthe slope.Theslideiscontrolledby shearstrength,i.e.,cohesion(c) shear strength i e cohesion (c) andfriction().

AnalysisofCircularFailure
Useclassicalsoilmechanicanalysismethods,e.g., limitequilibriummethods(e.g.,Jambus and Bishop sslicemethods). Bishops slice methods).

Note:Theequilibriumcannotbesatisfiedwithoutanyassumptions.Please refertothesoilmechanicstextbookforfurtherinformation.

AnalysisofCircularFailure
Itisaniterativemethodwhichmeansthata numberoffailureplanehavetobechosenandthe equilibriumcalculated.Thelowestfactorofsafety (FOS)istheonefortheslope.

cand arecohesionandfrictionangleoftherockmass.

AnalysisofCircularFailure
Nowadays,analysisaregenerallydonebynumerical modellingwithcommercialsoftware.Chartsexist butrelyonmanyassumptions: a) Rockmassishomogenous; b) Rockmassshearstrengthischaracterizedby cohesionandfrictionangle; c) Failureoccursoncircularslidesurface; d) Averticaltensioncrackoccursintheupper surfaceorinthefaceoftheslope; e) Fullysaturatedordryrockmass.

Circularfailure,fully drained,rockmass unitweight18.9 kN/m3. (Wyllieetal2001) (Wyllie et al 2001)

Chartsexistfor othergroundwater conditions.

AnalysisofPlaneFailure
PlaneFailure Therockmassiscutby y discontinuitiesthatparallelto theslope.Rockblocksslide alongtheplanes.

Day lighting

a) Theslidingplaneareparallelornearparallel(within 20)totheslopeplane. b) The sliding plane "daylight" in the slope face i e dip Theslidingplane"daylight"intheslopeface,i.e.,dip angleofslidingplane<dipangleofslope. c) Dipangleofslidingplane>frictionangleofslidingplane. d) Lateralresistancetoslidingisnegligible.

AnalysisofPlaneFailure
HemisphericalProjectionMethod Theprojectionofslopeandthe The projection of slope and the slidingplanemusthavethesame generaldirection(20).The slidingplanehasasmallerdip angle(red)thanslopedip(blue), butgreaterthanfrictionangle (green). (green)

AnalysisofPlaneFailure
Whenjointdipangleis greaterthanslope,joint planeisnotdaylighting, plane is not daylighting nopotentialsliding planeexist. N
Slope

Joint

AnalysisofPlaneFailure
Whenjointdip<slopedip, jointplaneisdaylighting, potentialslidingplaneexists. potential sliding plane exists Withdrycondition,the frictionishigh,thepotential slidingplaneisoutsidethe frictioncircle,nosliding. Withwetcondition,the frictionislow,thepotential friction is low the potential slidingplaneisinsidethe frictioncircle,sidingonthe plane. N
Slope

Dry friction

Lineof maximum dip p

Sliding plane

Wet friction

AnalysisofPlaneFailure
AnalyticalMethod FOSiscalculatedby FOS is calculated by resolvingallforces actingontheslope intocomponents parallelandnormal totheslidingplane.

AnalysisofPlaneFailure
Tensioncrackfilledwithwater,rockmassimpermeable

H =slopeheight; z =tensioncrackdepth;b=distancebetweencrackand slopecrest;U=waterforcesactingontheslidingplane;W=slidingblock weight;V=waterforcesintensioncrack.

AnalysisofPlaneFailure
Criticaltensioncrackdepthandlocation Dryconditionsandtensioncrackaboveslidecrest Dry conditions and tension crack above slide crest

Groundwaterplaysanimportantroleforslopestability.Pleasereferto theliteratureformoredetail.

AnalysisofWedgeFailure
WedgeFailure Twojointplanesandslopeplanecutrocktoforma Two joint planes and slope plane cut rock to form a wedgethatare"daylighting"intheslopeface,i.e., plungeofthelineofintersectionofthejoint (sliding)planes<dipangleoftheslope. Plungeofthelineof intersectionofthetwo slidingplanes>friction angleofthesliding planes.

Daylighting

AnalysisofWedgeFailure
WedgeFailureAnalysisbyProjectionMethod Forrockslopeconcerningwedgefailure,stability For rock slope concerning wedge failure stability analysiscanbecarriedoutusingprojection method.Thefailureofwedge/blockisalongthe existingjointsandiscontrolledbytheorientation ofthosejointsandfriction angle.Orientationsand frictioncanbeexpressed friction can be expressed byprojectionandanalysis canbeperformed.

AnalysisofWedgeFailure
Wedgefailureby slidingalongboth g g plane(lineof intersection
N

Friction

Lineofintersection

Directionofsliding

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AnalysisofWedgeFailure
Wedgehaspotential toslidealongtheline g ofintersection,but heldbyfriction.
N

Friction

Lineofintersection

Directionof possiblesliding

AnalysisofWedgeFailure
Wedgefailureby slidingalongplane1. g gp Lineofintersection isnotdaylighted. Joint1isdaylighting.
N

Friction

Directionofsliding

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AnalysisofWedgeFailure
Lineofintersection andbothplanesare p notdaylighted,no failurebysliding.
Friction

Lineofintersection

AnalysisofWedgeFailure
WedgeFailureAnalysisbyAnalyticalMethod Rockslopestabilityconcerningwedgefailure, Rock slope stability concerning wedge failure analysiscanbecarriedoutusinganalyticalmethod similartotheplanefailure,butwithmore complicatedforceequations.Suchanalysisisonly carriedoutwhenaspecificwedgeisidentified. Numericalmethodsareoftenemployedtoanalyse p y y wedgestability.

12

AnalysisofWedgeFailure
Assumptions:(i)slidingisresistedonlybyfriction; (ii)frictionanglesforbothplanesarethesame

AnalysisofWedgeFailure
WedgefactorKmaybeestimatedwiththechart below.

13

AnalysisofWedgeFailure
Twodifferentfrictionanglesshouldbeusedfor eachslidingplane. ThedimensionlessfactorsAandBarefoundto dependuponthedipsanddipdirectionsofthetwo planes.Theymaybefoundinaseriesofcharts.

AnalysisofWedgeFailure
Thefollowingchartisforadifferenceindipsof10.

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AnalysisofWedgeFailure
ThisFOSformulationisoversimplistic,includingthe frictiononly.Cohesionsandshouldbeincorporated intheFOSformulationandthuswillbemore complex. Theformulationissocomplexthatitwillnotbe presentedhereinthislecture.

AnalysisofTopplingFailure
TopplingFailure Rockmassofblockstructuresseparatedbysteeply Rock mass of block structures separated by steeply dippingdiscontinuities.Rockblockwidth/height< gradientofthetopplingplane. Whenthedipangleofthetopplingplane<the angleoffrictionofthisplane,topplingonly.When thedipangleofthetoppling p g pp g plane>theangleoffriction Toppling ofthisplane,mixedtoppling planes withsliding.

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AnalysisofTopplingFailure
Determiningrockslope topplingorsliding failure f il
4

W Width/Height Ratio, b/h h

Stable block < b/h > tan Sliding only > b/h > tan

W sin

W cos W

Toppling only < b/h < tan

Sliding & Toppling > b/h < tan

0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

Base plane angle , degree

AnalysisofTopplingFailure
<,frictionangle>slideplaneangle,noslide; b/h>tan,gravitycentrallineinside,notoppling; Stable >,slideplaneangle>frictionangle,slide; b/h>tan,gravitycentrallineinside,notoppling; SlidingOnly <,frictionangle>slideplaneangle,noslide; b/h<tan,gravitycentrallineoutside,toppling; TopplingOnly >,slideplaneangle>frictionangle,slide; b/h<tan,gravitycentrallineoutside,toppling; Sliding&Toppling

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AnalysisofTopplingFailure
ConditionstoToppling (a)Competentrockmass. (a) Competent rock mass. (b)Aprimarysetofjointsdipsteeplyintotheface creatingcolumns. (c)Asecondarysetofjointswidelyspreadand orthogonaltotheprimaryset. (d)Theblockmaytopplebecauseofalossof (d) Th bl k t l b f l f equilibriumofarockblockorbyflexuralfailureofa column.

AnalysisofTopplingFailure
Theprimejointsetdipssteeplyandinopposite directiontotheslope

Joint poles

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AnalysisofTopplingFailure
TopplingFailureAnalysisbyAnalyticalMethod (1)Blockshapetest (1) Block shape test Theblockcannotslideif < Butwilltoppleifb/h<tan

W sin

(2)Blockalignmenttest (2) Block alignment test

W cos

Thesecondaryjointsetmustbeneartoparallelto theslopedip.

AnalysisofTopplingFailure
(3)Intercolumnsliptest Thecolumnsmustbeabletoslipandnotbe The columns must be able to slip and not be blockedneighbouringcolumns.

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AnalysisofTopplingFailure
LimitEquilibriumAnalysis

Forcesonbase:normalandshear(Rn ,Sn) Interfaceforces:(Pn ,Qn,Pn1,Qn1)

AnalysisofTopplingFailure
LimitEquilibriumAnalysis

Pointsofapplication:(Mn ,Ln)

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AnalysisofTopplingFailure
LimitEquilibriumAnalysis (i) Start with top block Startwithtopblock. (ii) Checktopplingbyblockshapetest. (iii) Forthefirsttopplingblock,lateralforcesto preventtopplingPn1,tandslidingPn1,sare calculatedas:

AnalysisofTopplingFailure
LimitEquilibriumAnalysis (vi)Topplingwilloccurif (vi) Toppling will occur if Slidingwilloccurif (v)Checkthatslidingdoesnotoccur

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AnalysisbyRockMassRating
EstimatingSlopeFailurebyRockMassRating Rockslopestabilityisafunctionofrockmass Rock slope stability is a function of rock mass quality.RMRsystemprovidesqualityratingforthe rockmassoftheslope. However,adjustmentforjointorientationmustbe appliedwithrespecttotheorientationofslope.

AnalysisbyRockMassRating
AdjustmentofRMRwithConstruction Giventhesamerockmassinsitu,therockmass Given the same rock mass in situ the rock mass mayrepresentdifferentquality(ordegreeof difficultforconstruction)inrelationtoaproject.
Unstableslope Slopescutinarockmass Slopes cut in a rock mass Stableslope

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AnalysisbyRockMassRating
RockMassRating(RMR)rockmassclassificationsystem
(a)BasicRMRrating
Basic RMRratingisthesumofratingsoffiverockparameters:(i)rockmaterialstrength,(ii)RQD, (iii)jointspacing,(iv)jointconditionand,(v)groundwatercondition. RMRratings Rockmassquality
>81 61 80 41 60 21 40 <20

Verygood

Good

Fair

Poor

Verypoor

(b)Ratingadjustmentforjointorientations
Conditionandproject Condition and project forrating Rating Tunnels Foundations Slopes Very Very favourable
0 0 0

Favourable bl
2 2 5

Fair i
5 7 25

Very Very Unfavourable unfavourable f bl


10 15 50 12 25 60

AnalysisbyRockMassRating
AdjustmentforRMRforSlope Adjustmentforslopeistocounterforthestability Adjustment for slope is to counter for the stability relatedtoplaneandwedgesliding,andtoppling,as influencedbyjointorientationsinrelationtothe slopeorientation. RMRadjustmentforslope=(A*B*C)+D RMR(slope)=RMR+[(A*B*C)+D] RMR( l ) RMR + [(A*B*C) + D] A,B,Careorientationrelatedadjustments,andD isadjustmentforslopeexcavationquality.

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AnalysisbyRockMassRating
RMR(slope) adjustments for sliding failure
Adjustment Jointdipdirection slopedip direction Very favourable <30or >30 Favourable 30~20 30~20 Fair 20~10 20~10 Unfavourable 10~5 10~5 Very unfavourable 5~5

A
Joint dipangle

0.15
<20

0.40
20~30

0.70
30~35

0.85
35~45

1.00
>45

B
Jointdipangle d l slopedipangle

0.15
>10

0.40
10~0

0.70
0

0.85
0~10

1.00
<10

C
Slopeformation

0
Naturalslope

6
Presplitting

25
Smooth blasting

50
Blasting/ ripping

60
Deficient blasting

+15

+10

+8

AnalysisbyRockMassRating
Jointdipdirection Slopedipdirection Jointplaneparalleltotheslopeface(0)leadsto highpotentialofplaneandblocksliding. hi h i l f l d bl k lidi Jointdip Slidingfailureoccurswhenjointhassteep dipangle(>frictionangle). Jointdip Slopedip Joint dip Slope dip Jointdip<slopedipmeansdaylighting. Slopeformation Wellconditionedslopehaslowfailurepotential.

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AnalysisbyRockMassRating
Slope rock mass quality based on RMR(slope)
RMR(Slope) ( p ) Rating >81 61~80 41~60 21~40 <20 SlopeRock p MassQuality Verygood Good Fair Poor VeryPoor Slope p Stability Completely stable Stable y Partiallystable Unstable Completely unstable SlopeFailure p Mode None Someblocks Somejointsor manywedges many wedges Planarorlarge wedges Largewedgesor circularfailure Support pp Requirements None Spot Systematic y Important/ Corrective Reexcavation

RockSlopeExcavationandSupport
RockSlopeExcavation Blastingisusedfor Blasting is used for generallyslopeexcavations inhardrocks.Forsoft rocks,mechanical excavationsareused. Forapermanentrock p slope,blastedslopeshould beminimumdisturbed. Presplittingandsmooth blastingshouldbeused.

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RockSlopeExcavationandSupport
SmoothBlasting Arowofparallelholes A row of parallel holes drilledalongthefinal slopeface,withhole spacing60~100cm. Chargesarelight. Rowisfiredafterthe Row is fired after the mainblast.

RockSlopeExcavationandSupport
PreSplittingBlasting Arowofparallelholesdrilledalongthefinalslope A row of parallel holes drilled along the final slope face,withholespacing50~80cm. Chargesareverylight. Chargesaredecoupled fromholewalls,leaving airspace. air space. Rowisfiredbefore themainblast.

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RockSlopeExcavationandSupport
SlopeSupportandProtection
NoSupport: No Support: Nonesupport/reinforcement Scaling Protection: Toeditching Fences(attoeoronslope) Nets(overtheslopeface) Reinforcement: Bolts Anchors

RockSlopeExcavationandSupport
SlopeSupportandProtection
Concreting: Shotcrete Dentalconcrete Ribsand/orbeams Toewalls Drainage: Surface Deep Reexcavation: Method Orientation

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RockSlopeExcavationandSupport
Rockboltsarethemost commonrockslope supportmethod. t th d
Boltlength: Normally3~4m;1~2min solidrockafterunstablejoint (>slopeheight/10) Boltdiameter: Bolt diameter: normally20~25mm Boltstrength: 120~150kN
Steelbolt Resin Expansionshell

RockSlopeExcavationandSupport
Blockyhardrock(averagejointspacing>1m): Systematicbolting3~4mspacing. Fracturedhardrock(averagejointspacing0.3~1m): Fractured hard rock (average joint spacing 0 3~1 m): Systematicbolting1~3mspacing(3xthetypicaljoint spacing). Veryfracturedhardrock(averagejointspacing<0.3m): Systematicbolting1mspacing+15~25cmthickshotcreting. Weatheredrockwithopenorclayfilledjoints: Boltingtosecurehangingblocks.Spacingandlength Bolting to secure hanging blocks Spacing and length dependonjointpattern. Softrocks(UCstrength<25MPa): Systematicboltingwithshotcrete forrockofstrength5~25 MPa.Boltingnotsuitableforrockofstrength<5MPa.

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1.Preliminarycollectionofgeologicaldatafromair photos,surfacemappingandboreholecores.

Rockslopestabilityanalysis

2.Preliminaryanalysisofgeologicaldatatoestablish majorgeologicalpatterns.Examinationofthesepatterns inrelationtoproposedslopestoassessprobabilityof slidesdeveloping.

3.Slopesinwhichnounfavourablediscontinuitiesexist orslopesinwhichfailurewouldnotmatteridentified.No furtherstabilityanalysisofthoseslopesrequired.Slope anglesdeterminedfromoperationalconsiderations.

4.Slopesinwhichunfavourablediscontinuitiesexistidentifiedandthoseslopesin whichfailurewouldbecriticalatanystageoftheexcavationoperationmarkedfor which failure would be critical at any stage of the excavation operation marked for detailedstudy. 5.Detailedgeologicalinvestigationof criticalslopeareasonbasisofsurface mappinganddrillcorelogging.Special drillinginthevicinitymayberequired. 6.Sheartestingof discontinuitysurfaces, particularlyifclaycoveredor slickensided. 7.Installationofpiezometers indrillholes toestablishgroundwaterflowpattersand pressuresandtomonitorchangesin groundwaterlevelsduringexcavation.

8.Reanalysecriticalslopeareasonbasisofdetailedinformationfromsteps5,6and7, usinglimitedequilibriumtechniquesfircircular,planeorwedgeslides.Examine possibilityofothertypesoffailureinducedbyweathering,toppingordamagedueto blasting. 9.Examineslopesinwhichriskoffailureishighintermsofslopedesign.Optionsare: a)Flattenslopes; b)Stabiliseslopesbydrainage,and/orrockbolts; c)Acceptriskoffailureandimplementmonitoringprogrammeforfailureprediction. 10.Stabilisationofslopesbydrainageorreinforcement feasibleifcostsavingresultingfromsteepeningofslopes exceedscostofdesigningandconstructionstabilisation system.Additionalfieldmeasurementsrequiredto establishdrainagecharacteristicsofrockmass. 11.Acceptingriskoffailureonbasisofabilitytopredict andtoaccommodateslopewithoutendangeringmanand equipment.Mostreliablepredictionmethodbasedupon measurementofslopedisplacement.

RockSlopeExcavationandSupport
Largescalerocksliding g g downofthewedge formedbytwo intersecting discontinuities.

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RockSlopeAnalysisExample
Example Aroadrunningeastwestistocutthrougharockhillof blockyrock.Theestimatedrockmassqualityisgoodwith RMRat65.Therockmasshas3jointsets(025/10,165/46, 220/75).Estimatedaveragejointfrictionangleis40.Slopes aretobecutatanangleof60onbothsidesoftheroad.

Analysis Plotjoints(J1,J2,J3), slopes(Ssfacing south,Sn facing north). Noteintersectionsof i i f J1,J2andJ3.I(23) daylightsonSs,I(12) andI(13)daylighton Sn,butaresub horizontal,Sn stable. DrawfrictioncircleF. NoteI(23)andJ2in theareaofSsandF, i.e.,daylightand steeper,plane/wedge sliding,Ssnotstable.

J1

F Sn

Ss J2 J3

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J1

Redesign Possibleredesign: Ssslopeanglechangeto Ss slope angle change to <45.I(23)nolonger daylight,i.e.,nosliding failureonSsslope. Sn changetobe>70 angle.Sn notsuffer fromsliding.Steep anglesavesexcavation g volume.

F RedesignSs

RedesignSs J2 J3

RockSlopeAnalysisExample
AnalysisbyRMR(Slope) Northfacingslope(000/60) North facing slope (000/60) D(smoothbasting)=+8 Adjustment=9 +8=1 RMR(s)=65 1=64(good) Sn slopegenerallystable.
C A*B*C A B J1 25 0.4 10 0.15 50 60 4 J2 165 0.15 46 1.0 14 60 9 J3 80 0.15 75 1.0 15 0 0

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RockSlopeAnalysisExample
AnalysisbyRMR(Slope) Southfacingslope(180/60) Southfacing slope (180/60) D(smoothbasting)=+8 Adjustment=42 +8=34 RMR(s)=65 34=31(poor) Ssslopeunstableandtobe redesignedorheavily supported.
A B C A*B*C J1 155 0.15 10 0.15 50 60 1 J2 15 0.7 46 1.0 14 60 42 J3 40 0.15 75 1.0 15 0 0

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