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Kingdom of Saudi Arabia King Saud University College Of Engineering Mechanical Engineering Department

DESIGNING AN OPTIMUM PERCENT COLD WORK (%CW) FOR COLD ROLLING OF ALUMINUM STRIPS TO ACHIEVE THE BEST MECHANICAL PROPERTIES.

By Fadhel Al Nakhli Yousef Rikli 426101760 428114302

Supervised by: Dr.Zain al Huda Shamsulhuda Dr.Abdulhakim al Majid A project submitted in partial fulfillment of requirement for the degree of Bachelor of Science in Mechanical Engineering in College of Engineering, King Saud University. 1432 1433 H (1) (2011-2012 G)
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We hereby approve the report entitled:

DESIGNING AN OPTIMUM PERCENT COLD WORK (%CW) FOR COLD ROLLING OF ALUMINUM STRIPS TO ACHIEVE THE BEST MECHANICAL PROPERTIES.

Prepared by: Fadhel Al Nakhli Yousef Rikli 426101760 428114302

Principal advisor:

_________________________ Signature _________________

Examiners:

_________________________ Signature _________________ _________________________ Signature _________________

Date (2/1433 H) (1) (12/2011 G)


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Abstract The cold rolled wrought aluminum products find wide industrial applications in automotive, construction, and other engineering components. The degree of cold work (%CW) has a significant influence on the mechanical properties of cold rolled metals. We have designed a series of experiments involving various degree of with specified parameters. We have used a Lab Rolling Mill to cold roll various samples of aluminum strips. We will also use tensile testing machine, Vernier calipers, and cutting machines during the project. We determined mechanical properties; and create graphical plots to analyze the data. We conclude the project by recommending an optimum %CW for aluminum strips to achieve the best mechanical properties.

Figure .1: experiment in process 0

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Contents
Chapter 1 :INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................. 4 1.1 Cold working of metal ........................................................................................................... 5 1.2 Aluminum and its forming ..................................................................................................... 6 1.3 Mechanical properties........................................................................................................... 6 1.4 Project objectives .................................................................................................................. 7 Chapter 2: LITERATURE REVIEW ...................................................................................................... 8 2.1 Meaning of Design ................................................................................................................. 8 2.2 Design of a process ................................................................................................................ 9 2.3 Effect of Cold-Working in material ........................................................................................ 9 2.4 Design philosophy and process ........................................................................................... 11 2.4.1 Philosophy of design .....................................................................................................11 2.4.2 Some of the general concepts.......................................................................................12 Chapter 3: DESIGN PROCEDURE .................................................................................................... 13 3.1 Recognition of need ............................................................................................................ 13 3.2 Definition of problem .......................................................................................................... 14 3.3 Constraints........................................................................................................................... 14 3.4Gathering of information ..................................................................................................... 14 3.4.1 Cold formed steel ..........................................................................................................15 3.4.2 Rolling ............................................................................................................................16 3.4.3 Aluminum ......................................................................................................................16 3.5 Conceptual design ............................................................................................................... 17 3.6 Detailed design .................................................................................................................... 18 3.7 Criteria for success .............................................................................................................. 18 Chapter 4: EXPERIMENTAL WORK ................................................................................................. 19 4.1 Material and methodology .................................................................................................. 19 CHAPTER 5: PROCESS-DESIGN MODELS AND DATA ANALYSIS ..................................................... 25 5.1Mechanical Behavior of each Design Model ........................................................................ 26 5.1.1 Design Model-1: ............................................................................................................26 5.1.2 Design Model-2 .............................................................................................................27 5.1.3Design Model-3 ..............................................................................................................28 5.1.4 Design Model-4 .............................................................................................................29 Page | 3

5.2 Comparative Analysis of Design Models ............................................................................. 31 5.2.1 Strength comparisons ...................................................................................................31 5.2.2 Hardness comparisons ..................................................................................................32 5.2.3 Ductility comparisons ....................................................................................................33 Chapter 6: Conclusion ................................................................................................................... 34 References ..................................................................................................................................... 35 Appendex1......................................................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.

Figures
Figure .1: experiment in process 0 Figure 1.1: Metal rolling process Figure 2.1: Effect of cold working on tensile and yield strength of one metal. Figure 2.2: Effect of cold working on tensile strength, hardness, ductility and grain size Figure 3.1: Flow chart of production of materials Figure 3.4.2: type of metal fabrication techniques Figure 3.4.3: chart describes the types of aluminum Figure 3.6: detailed design Figure 4.1: chemical analysis Figure 4.2: tensile test sample geometry (ASTM E8) Figure 4.3: stress strain diagram for specimen Figure 5.1.1: relationship between load and extension in % 10 CW Figure 5.1.2: relationship between load and extension in % 25 CW Figure 5.1.3: relationship between load and extension in % 35 CW Figure 5.1.4.1: relationship between load and extension in % 40 CW Figure 5.1.4.2: the Alligatoring failure phenomena that occurred in specimen 4 (%40 CW). Figure 5.2.1: ultimate strength for the different models Figure 5.2.2: Vickers hardness numbers for the different models Figure 5.2.3: %elongation for the different models

Tables
Table 4.1: results for chemical analysis. Table 4.4: as received (Specimen 0). Table 5.1: Design models according to %CW Table 5.1.1: Tensile test results for specimen 1(10%CW) Table 5.1.2: Tensile test results for specimen 2(21%CW) Table 5.1.3: Tensile test results for specimen 3(35%CW) Table 5.1.4: Tensile test results for specimen 4(45%CW)

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Chapter 1 :INTRODUCTION
1.1 Cold working of metal
Cold working (CW) and recrystallization annealing are the fundamental phenomena of microstructure evolution in the processing of engineering materials. They are of major scientific interest and of great importance for a wide range of industrial applications. Recent and numerous studies carried out on aluminum alloy sheets have demonstrated that fatigue life of specimens containing a cold worked(CW) open hole can be improved by a factor of 420; this finding is of extreme technological significance in aerospace industries .( Burlat 2008 ) Deformation by cold rolling is a process by which the metal is introduced between rollers and then compressed and squeezed at room temperature (below the recrystallization temperature) for reducing its cross sectional area(Fig.1.1).

Figure 1.1: Metal rolling process

It is convenient to express the degree of plastic deformation as percent cold work as follows: % cold work = [(A0 - Ad)/ A0] x 100 (1.1) % cold work = { } (1.2)

Where A0 = the original area of the cross section, and Ad = the cross-sectional area after deformation.

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1.2 Aluminum and its forming


Aluminum and its alloys are characterized by a relatively low density (2.7 g/ as compared to 7.9 g/ for steel), high electrical and thermal conductivities, and a resistance to corrosion in some common environments, including the ambient atmosphere. Many of these alloys are easily formed by virtue of high ductility; this is evidenced by the thin aluminum foil sheet into which the relatively pure material may be rolled. Since aluminum has an FCC crystal structure, its ductility is retained even at very low temperature. The chief limitation of aluminum is its low melting temperature [660 ], which restricts the maximum temperature at which it can e used. Forming operation are those in which shape of metal piece is changed by plastic deformation; for example, forging, rolling, extrusion, and drawing common forming techniques.

1.3 Mechanical properties


The follwoing mechanical Properties are important in engineering material (internet source 2011B): 1. Yield point. If the stress is too large, the strain deviates from being proportional to the stress. The point at which this happens is the yield point because there the material yields, deforming permanently (plastically).

2. Yield stress. Hooke's law is not valid beyond the yield point. The stress at the yield point is called yield stress, and is an important measure of the mechanical properties of materials. In practice, the yield stress is chosen as that causing a permanent strain of 0.002. The yield stress measures the resistance to plastic deformation. The reason for plastic deformation, in normal materials, is not that the atomic bond is stretched beyond repair, but the motion of dislocations, which involves breaking and reforming bonds. Plastic deformation is caused by the motion of dislocations.

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3. Tensile strength. When stress continues in the plastic regime, the stress-strain passes through a maximum, called the tensile strength TS), and then falls as the material starts to develop a neck and it finally breaks at the fracture point. For structural applications, the yield stress is usually a more important property than the tensile strength, since once it is passed, the structure has deformed beyond acceptable limits.

4. Ductility. The ability to deform before braking. It is the opposite of brittleness. Ductility can be given either as percent maximum elongation maxor maximum area reduction. %EL = max 100 % (1.3)

%AR = (AinitialAfinal)/Ainitial(1.4) Where %EL is the percent elongation and %AR is the percent area reduction. These are measured after fracture (repositioning the two pieces back together).

6. Resilience. Capacity to absorb energy elastically. The energy per unit volume is the area under the strain-stress curve in the elastic region.

7. Toughness. Ability to absorb energy up to fracture. The energy per unit volume is the total area under the strain-stress curve. It is measured by an impact test.

1.4 Project objectives


1) To design optimum %CW for rolling of aluminums trips. 2) To study the effects of various %CW on hardness. 3) To study the effects of various %CW on yield strength and the tensile strength 4) To study the effects of various %CW on ductility (% elongation and % RA) 5) To comparatively analyze the rolling design models to select the best mechanical

properties for the cold worked aluminum strips.

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Chapter 2: LITERATURE REVIEW


2.1 Meaning of Design
Materials design is a branch of engineering design, with particular nuances related to the hierarchical structure of materials and complex relations between process, structure, and properties. Hence, it is useful to discuss in more general terms the conceptualization of engineering design. Research in engineering design is categorized into design philosophies, models, and methods. Design theory is a collection of principles that are useful for explaining a design process and provide a foundation for basic understanding required to propose useful methodologies. Design theory explains what design is, whereas design methodology is a collection of procedures, tools, and techniques for designers to use. Design methodology is prescriptive, while design theory is descriptive [911]. Design methods have been developed from different viewpoints that emphasize various facets of the overall design process. Some of these views, as summarized by Evbuomwan and coauthors (Evbuomwan, Sivaloganathan et al. 1996), include (1) design as a top-down and bottom-up process, (2) design as an incremental (evolutionary) activity, (3) design as a knowledge-based exploratory activity, (4) design as an investigative (research) process, (5) design as a creative (art) process, (6) design as a rational process, (7) design as a decision making process, (8) design as an iterative process, and (9) design as an interactive process. Although design methods are generally developed with a few of these viewpoints in mind, an ideal design method should support all of these. Pahl and Beitz (Pahl and Beitz 1996) identify four key phases that are common to any prescriptive model for design. These phases include planning and clarification of task, conceptual design, embodiment design, and detail design. Planning and clarification of task involves identifying the requirements that the outcome of design should fulfill. These requirements are then converted into a statement of the problem to be solved. Conceptual design involves generation of principles used to satisfy the problem statement. Embodiment design involves refinement of the solution for the purpose of eliminating those that are least satisfactory until the final solution remains. During the detail design, all the details of the final design are specified and manufacturing drawings and documentation are produced. In contrast to the descriptive models of design, prescriptive models exemplify how design should be done and not necessarily how it is done. Most of the prescriptive methods of design are based on the assumption that any design activity consists of three core activitiesanalysis, synthesis, and evaluation (ASE). Analysis is defined as the resolution of anything complex into its elements and the study of these elements and of their relationships. Synthesis is the pulling together of parts or elements to produce new effects and to demonstrate that these parts create an order (Pahl and Beitz 1996). A general model of design can be visualized as a feedback loop of synthesis, analysis, and evaluation.(David L. McDowell et al. 2010) Page | 8

2.2 Design of a process


Most engineering designs can be classified as- devices or system that are created by human effort and did not exist before or are improvements over existing devices or system. Inventions, or designs, do not suddenly appear from nowhere. They are result of bringing together technologies to meet human needs or to solve problem. Sometimes a design is the result of someone trying to task more quickly or efficiently. Design activity occurs over a period of time and requires a step- by step methodology. We described engineers primarily as problem solvers. Design problems are open ended in nature, which means they have more than one correct solution. The result or solution to a design problem is a system that possesses specified properties. Design problems are usually more vaguely defined than analysis problems. Solving design problems is often an iterative process: As the solution to design problem evolves, you find yourself continually refining the design. While implementing the solution to a design problem. You may discover that the solution you've developed is unsafe, too expensive, or will not work. You then go back to the drawing board" and modify the solution until it meets your requirements.

2.3 Effect of Cold-Working in material


A material is considered to be cold worked if its grains are in a distorted condition after plastic deformation is completed. All the properties of a metal that are dependent on the lattice structure are affected by plastic deformation or cold working. The following properties are affected by cold work significantly: 1. 2. 3. 4. Tensile Strength Hardness Yield Strength Ductility

Tensile strength, yield strength and hardness are increased, while ductility is decreased. Although both strength and hardness increase, the rate of change is not the same. Hardness generally increases most rapidly in the first 10 percent reduction (cold work), whereas the tensile strength increases more or less linearly. The yield strength increases more rapidly than the tensile strength, so that, as the amount of plastic deformation is increased, the gap between the yield and tensile strengths decreases. This is important in certain forming operations where appreciable deformation is required. In drawing, for example, the load must be above the yield point to obtain appreciable deformation but below the tensile strength to avoid failure. If the gap is narrow, very close control of the load is required.

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Figure 2.3: Effect of cold working on tensile and yield strength of one metal.

Figure 2.4: Effect of cold working on tensile strength, hardness, ductility and grain size Page | 10

The increase in internal energy, particularly at the grain boundaries, makes the material more susceptible to inter granular corrosion, thereby reducing its corrosion resistance. Known as stress corrosion, this is an acceleration of corrosion in certain environments due to residual stresses resulting from cold working. One of the ways to avoid stress corrosion cracking is to relieve the internal stresses by suitable heat treatment after cold working and before placing the material in service.

2.4 Design philosophy and process


According to an early NBS handbook on material testing (Natl. Bur 1913): An adequate measure of a given property is possible when (1) the property can be defined with sufficient exactness, (2) the material is of known composition or purity, (3) the attending conditions are standard or are known, (4) the experimental methods are theoretically correct, (5) the observations and their reductions are made with due care, and (6) the order of accuracy of the results is known. This ideal is rarely if ever reached, but as it is striven for the results pass from the qualitative to the quantitative stage and are called constants because redeterminations will not yield sensibly different results. Approximate results are improved upon steadily as more precise instruments and methods are devised. The degree of accuracy to be sought becomes a very practical matter in a testing laboratory. The time and labor involved in tests may well increase out of proportion as the limits of attainable accuracy are approached. For the determination of physical constants of fundamental properties of materials the degree of accuracy sought may be the maximum possible. In general, the degree of accuracy striven for should be that which is strictly good enough for the purpose at hand.

2.4.1 Philosophy of design


The philosophy must contain a consistent set of principles within which contradiction does not exist. It must possess an operational aspect. Or lead o action, because an exercise without consequences is useless. Since its origin is empirical, it must contain a feedback mechanism capable of evaluating the success with which principles are applied to particular situation and for revealing short comings.

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2.4.2 Some of the general concepts


1) Need. Individual or social need must exist for the item. 2) Action. The material item must actually be realized. 3) Economic Utility. The item must be made available at a marketable price that includes profit as well as cost. 4) Design procedure. Design proceeds iteratively from the abstract concept to the concrete item. 5) Judicious Compromise. The basically empirical nature of all engineering dictates a constant need for decision. 6) Evaluation. The many designs must be evaluated to establish the best alternative. 7) Optimality. The best alternative is optimized with respect to the most significant criterion. 8) Communication. To gain existence, the design must be communicated to the producer

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Chapter 3: DESIGN PROCEDURE


3.1 Recognition of need
Recognition of a need is the first and the most important step of the machine design or system design cycle (Fig 3.1), without this first step no further steps of the machine design can be taken. It is the need that gives birth to various other steps of the design. If there is no need there wont be any reasons to start the detailed, time consuming and highly complex problem of designing. (S. K. Kataria & Sons)7991

Figure 3.1: Flow chart of production of materials

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Since strength of formed material is a requirement in the design of engineering structures, it is very important to find the %CW which results in a high strength of the material. This is why there is a need to design an optimum %CW which gives us the best mechanical properties.

3.2 Definition of problem


Now we define the problem with reference to our project. In the cold rolling of Al strips, there is a %CW which results in the poorest mechanical properties (e.g. strength), which should be avoided.

3.3 Constraints
A. Hardness value of less than about 100 HBN so that not to damage the rolling machine. B. Elongation ratio must be greater than 25% to be able to produce many CW% of significant differences. C. Dimensions to fit the machine gap: width (150 mm).

3.4Gathering of information
Metal fabrication techniques

Miscellaneous

casting

forming operation

forging

rolling

extrusion

drawing

Roll bending

Roll forming

Flat rolling

Foil rolling

Ring rolling

Figure 3.4.1: type of metal fabrication techniques

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3.4.1 Cold formed steel When a steel member is cold-formed, it can be expected that the newly obtained mechanical properties of the steel are different when compared to the original steel used. The yield stress, ultimate tensile stress and ductility change. The cold forming process also causes fundamental changes in the yielding type, whereby the initially distinct sharp yield point present in most carbon steels is replaced by a rounded stress strain curve. In structural engineering the change in mechanical properties as a result of cold working has been studied earlier. Chajes et al. [1] conducted experiments on the inuence of uniform cold stretching on the mechanical properties of carbon steel sheeting. It was observed that the increase in yield stress and ultimate tensile stress depend on the direction of cold working and the properties of the original material. When the direction of plastic stretching coincides with the direction of loading, increases in yield stress and ultimate tensile stress were observed, underlining the potential benet of cold working steel in structural applications. The inuence of the manufacturing process on the mechanical properties of coldformed steel sections has also been studied extensively. Cold-formed sections are produced from at steel sheeting by means of various cold-forming techniques such aspress-braking and roll forming. The inuence on structural carbon steel has been investigated experimentally by Karren [2], Karren and Winter [3], Key et al. [4] and Abdel-Rahman and Sivakumaran [5] andon stainless steel by Rasmussen and Hancock [6], Gardner and Nethercot [7] and Cruise and Gardner [8]. It was found that especially the corner regions of these cold formed sections showed a signicant increase in yield stress and ultimate tensile stress. Karrensuggested that since the corner regions represent up to 30% of the cross-sectional area, the inuence of the altered mechanical properties should be incorporated in structural calculations.

What is the difference between hot working and cold working? When deformation is achieved at a temperature above that at which recrystallization occurs, the process is termed hot working; otherwise it's cold working. With most of forming techniques, both hot- and cold working procedures are possible. For hotworking operation, large deformations are possible, which may be successively repeated because the metal remains soft and ductile. Also, deformation energy requirements are less than for cold working. However, most metals experience some surface oxidation,
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which results in material loss and a poor final surface finish. Cold working produce an increase in strength with the attendant decrease in ductility, since the metal strain hardness; advantages over hot working include a higher quality surface finish, better mechanical properties and a greater variety of them, and closer dimensional control of the finished piece. On occasion, the total deformation is accomplished in a series of steps in which the piece is successively cold worked a small amount and then process annealed. However, this is an expensive and inconvenient procedure. 3.4.2 Rolling The most widely used deformation process consists of passing a piece of metal between tow rolls; a reduction in thickness results from compressive stresses exerted by the roll. Cold rolling may be used in the production of sheet, strip, and foil with high quality surface finish. Circular shapes as well as I- beams and railroad rails are fabricated using grooved. 3.4.3 Aluminum The Aluminum Association (AA) has adopted a nomenclature similar to that of wrought alloys. British Standard and DIN have different designations. In the AA system, the second two digits reveal the minimum percentage of aluminum, e.g. 150.x corresponds to a minimum of 99.50% aluminum. The digit after the decimal point takes a value of 0 or 1, denoting casting and ingot respectively (Arnold, 1995) .The main alloying elements in the AA system are as follows:

1xxx series are minimum 99% aluminum 2xxx series copper 3xxx series silicon, copper and/or magnesium 4xxx series silicon 5xxx series magnesium 7xxx series zinc 8xxx series lithium

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1xxx 2xxx 3xxx Copper and its alloys Ferruos Metal alloy Aluminum and its alloys 4xxx

Non ferruos
Magnesium and its alloys

5xxx
6xxx Titanium and its Alloys 7xxx 8xxx

Figure 3.4.2: chart describes the types of aluminum

3.5 Conceptual design


After recognizing the need and defining the problem, we thought how to solve the problem for obtaining the optimum design for the cold rolling process. For this purpose we decided to develop a flow chart for the detailed design which is discussed in the next section (Sect. 3.6).

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3.6 Detailed design

Choosing and acquiring material

cutting materail to required dimensions

preforming cold rolling to required %CW Repeat for new specimen

hardness and tesile tests (1st verification)

chemical analysis (2nd verification)

measure %CW (verification)

hardness and tensile tests for workpiece rolled

Figure 3.6: detailed design

3.7 Criteria for success


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Number of mechanical properties parameterized. Time and money consumed by the project. simplicity of procedure. Number of design models experimentally produced. Accuracy of results

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Chapter 4: EXPERIMENTAL WORK


4.1 Material and methodology
The Material was presumably Al 3003 aluminum alloy with no heat treatment, bought from the local market, its dimensions were 120202500 mm, the thickness 0f 20 mm was chosen so that the thickness reduction after the rolling would be easily noticed and measured, the width of 120 mm was accepted (rolling machine gap width =150mm). The length was arbitrary taken as (L= 1550 mm), which was estimated to produce enough specimens as we need. small piece from the material was chemically analyzed using the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) technique; its results are shown in Table (4.1), the results fit the Al 6061 more, so we assume the seller was mistaken. It should be noted that due to a peculiar similarity between silver and aluminum, the microscope produced errors regarding the percentage of silver in the specimen.
Table 4.2: results for chemical analysis.
Element Mg K Al K Si K Mn K Fe K Ag L Totals Weight% 0.61 94.25 0.79 0.69 0.38 3.28 100.00 Atomic% 0.70 97.14 0.78 0.35 0.19 0.84

The slab was brought to the university. A workshop form was filled, accompanied with a mechanical drawing of an ASTM E8 tensile test specimen(Fig 4.2). The form was handed to the technicians at the Mechanical Engineering Department workshop, who cut a slice from the slab and machined the
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Figure 4.1: chemical analysis

tensile test specimens. We conducted tensile testing by using computer controlled universal tensile test machine to give ultimate tensile stress, yield stress, young modulus and fracture stress. From the graphical plot (Fig 4.3) the percent elongation was calculated, which turned out to be 30%, which is ductile enough for this project. A small piece from the machined slice was ground, polished and then underwent a hardness test by an electronic Vickers hardness test machine. The results were compiled in a table (Table 4.4)

Figure 4.2: tensile test sample geometry (ASTM E8)

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Figure 4.3: stress strain diagram for specimen

%CW Tensile stress (UTS) Yield stress E (Youngs modulus) % elongation Hardness
Table 4.4: as received (Specimen 0).

Model (1) 328 MPa 90.7 MPa 5660 MPa 29.7% 91.15VHN (91.2 HBN)

In order to cold roll a number of samples, we cut the as-received slab to specimens of dimension (250mm * 21.9mm * 20mm) (see figure 4.4).

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Figure (4.4): rolling specimen preparation

It is important for the safety of the rolling machine that we first allow a small percentage thickness reduction (10%) when cold rolling. for this purpose, the following calculations were made(next page)

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To measure thickness before rolling ( ). we used a Vernier calipers; Which was found to be ( : L = 1370 mm w = 120 mm Area of cross-section before rolling = =438 Specimen 1: %CWrequired = 10% % CW = { So 10 = } x 100

20- = 2 Hence, we adjusted distance between rolls as accurately as possible = 17.8 mm Then performed rolling in two passes (t=19, 17.8) mm consecutively. Measurements after rolling:

then

%CWactual= Specimen 2 %CWrequired = 25% % CW = { so 25% = } x 100

= 11%

20- = 2 Hence, we adjusted the gap between rolls = 15.2 mm Then performed rolling in 4 passes: (t=19.35, 18.3, 17.2, and 15.2) mm consecutively. Measurement after rolling:

then

%CWactual=

= 23.5%
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Specimen 3 %CWrequired = 35% % CW = { so 35% = } x 100

20- = 5 Hence, we adjusted the gap between rolls = 12.8 mm Then performed rolling in 6 passes. Measurement after rolling:

then

%CWactual= Specimen 4 %CWrequired = 45% % CW = { So 45% = } x 100

= 32.5%

18.4- = 8.28 Hence, we adjusted the gap between rolls = Then performed rolling in 6 passes: Measurement after rolling:

then

%CWactual=

= 38.59%

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CHAPTER 5: PROCESS-DESIGN MODELS AND DATA ANALYSIS


We here referred in sect. 3.6, about detailed design (see chapter 3) of this project. We have also mentioned in Figure 3.4 about our repetition of experiments to establish various design models. In this chapter, we have included results for each design model. Table 5.1 present various design models. These design models would enable us to obtain an optimum %CW design of cold rolling process to achieve the best mechanical properties in the investigated 6061 aluminum alloy.

Table 5.1: Design models according to %CW Design models Design model-0 Design model-1 Design model-2 Design model-3 Design model-4 Design model-5 %CW(aim) 0 (as received) 10 25 35 45 55 %CW(actual) 0 (as received) 11 23.5 32.5 38.59 cancelled

The results for the Design Model-0 (as received material) have been presented in chapter 4.

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5.1Mechanical Behavior of each Design Model


5.1.1 Design Model-1:
As mentioned in table 5.1, the Design model-1 refers to 10% CW. The mechanical test results data for this model are explained in the following sub-sections. Hardness test results: No. of indentations: 2 Average hardness value: 119.2 VHN Tensile test results:

Figure 5.1.1: relationship between load and extension in % 10 CW

Table 5.1.1: Tensile test results for specimen 1(10%CW)


Maximum Load (N) Tensile stress at Maximum Load (MPa) Load at Yield (Offset 0.2 %) (N) Tensile stress at Yield (Offset 0.2 %) (MPa) Modulus (E-modulus) (GPa) Tensile extension at Break (Standard) (mm) % Elongation

9660

367

3518

330.3

11

19.7

Comparison of Model-1 with Model-0: Now we Compare Model-1 with Model-0, as regard to hardness. The value for hardness has increased from 113VHN to 119.2VHN. That can be explained by the strain hardening of the grains of the rolled strip. Tensile stress has also increased from 328MPa to 367MPa. Meaning it approximately tripled in value.

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5.1.2 Design Model-2


As mentioned in table 5.1, the design model-2 refers to 25% CW. The mechanical test results for this model are explained in the following sub-sections. Hardness test results: No. of indentations: 2 Average hardness value: 122.5 VHN Tensile test results:

Figure 5.1.2: relationship between load and extension in % 25 CW

Table 5.1.2: Tensile test results for specimen 2(21%CW)


Maximum Load (N) Tensile stress at Maximum Load (MPa) Load at Yield (Offset 0.2 %) (N) Tensile stress at Yield (Offset 0.2 %) (MPa) Modulus (E-modulus) (GPa) Tensile extension at Break (Standard) (mm) % Elongation

10255

392

3668

344.4

12.8

15.4

Comparison of Model-2 with Model-1: Now we Compare Model-2 with Model-1, as regard to hardness, the value for hardness has decreased from 119.2VHN to 122.5VHN. That might be a mistake in specimen 2 hardness test. Tensile stress has also increased from 367MPa to 392MPa, which is a slight increase compared to that of model one.

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5.1.3Design Model-3
As mentioned in table 5.1, the design model-3 refers to 35% CW. The mechanical test results for this model are explained in the following sub-sections. Hardness test results: No. of indentations: 3 Average hardness value: 126.4 VHN Tensile test results:

Figure 5.1.3: relationship between load and extension in % 35 CW

Table 5.1.3: Tensile test results for specimen 3(35%CW)


Maximum Load (N) Tensile stress at Maximum Load (MPa) Load at Yield (Offset 0.2 %) (N) Tensile stress at Yield (Offset 0.2 %) (MPa) Modulus (E-modulus) (GPa) Tensile extension at Break (Standard) (mm) % Elongation

10419

419

3285

308.5

12.8

14.7

Comparison of Model-3 with Model-2: Now we Compare Model-3 with Model-2, as regard to hardness, the value for hardness has increased from 122.5VHN to 126.4VHN. That can be explained by the strain hardening of the grains of the rolled strip. Tensile stress has also increased from 392MPa to 419MPa which is even a smaller increase than in model2..

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5.1.4 Design Model-4


As mentioned in table 5.1, the design model-3 refers to 45% CW. The mechanical test results for this model are explained in the following sub-sections. Hardness test results: No. of indentations: 4 Average hardness values: 87.7 VHN Tensile test results:

Figure 5.1.4.1: relationship between load and extension in % 40 CW Table 5.1.4: Tensile test results for specimen 4(45%CW)
Maximum Load (N) Tensile stress at Maximum Load (MPa) Load at Yield (Offset 0.2 %) (N) Tensile stress at Yield (Offset 0.2 %) (MPa) Modulus (E-modulus) (GPa) Tensile extension at Break (Standard) (mm) % Elongation

4100

223.6

2500

4.8

18.9

Comparison of Model-4 with Model-3: Now we Compare Model-4 with Model-3, as regard to hardness, the value for hardness has decreased sharply from 126.4 VHN to 87.7 VHN. That can be explained by the failure of the bar under this much CW and Alligatoring. Tensile stress has also decreased from 419MPa to 223.6MPa, the trend here has reversed due to the following failure

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Figure 5.1.4.2the Alligatoring failure phenomena that occurred in specimen 4 (%40 CW).

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5.2 Comparative Analysis of Design Models


5.2.1 Strength comparisons In the preceding section, we explained strength data obtained for each design model. In this section we will compare the strengths obtained for the various design models.

UTS (MPa)
UTS (MPa) 419

392

367

328

223.6

model 4

model 3

model 2

model 1

model 0

Figure 5.2.1: ultimate strength for the different models

Figure (5.2.1) illustrates the trend in the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) for the design models 0-4. A look on the bar chart shows that the UTS first increases gradually from 328MPa (for Model0) (as received material) to 419MPa (for model3) (35%CW). Then UTS decreases from 419MPa to 223.6MPa (for model 4). We know from material science that as cold work percentage increases, so does the strain hardening associated with it. The strain hardening effect is represented by the increase in the ultimate tensile strength as we move from model -0 to model-3. The drop in UTS as we move from model-3 to model-4 is justified as follows. The model4(45%CW specimen) had fractured during rolling resulting in Alligatoring, when a specimen is split due to Alligatoring, the strain hardening from the cold work is not distributed evenly vertically in the bars cross section, resulting in some regions strain hardening more than others, some maybe not at all, if the hardness and tensile specimens were extracted from those regions, the sudden drop in strength (UTS); and hence the low UTS value for the design model 4 would be reasonable. The bar chart of Figure (5.2.1) shows that the highest UTS value is for model-3 (35%), suggesting that it is the best design model.
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5.2.2 Hardness comparisons

hardness (VHN)
hardness (VHN) 126.4 122.5

119.2

113.4

87.7

model 4

model 3

model 2

model 1

model 0

Figure 5.2.2: Vickers hardness numbers for the different models

Figure (5.2.2) illustrates the trend in the hardness for the design models 0-4. A look on the bar chart shows that the hardness increases gradually from 113VHN (for Model0) (as received material) to 126.4VHN (for model3) (35%CW). Then hardness decreases from 126VHN to 78.7 VHN (for model 4). We know from material science that as cold work percentage increases, so does the strain hardening associated with it. The strain hardening effect is represented by the increase in the hardness as we move from model -0 to model-3. The drop in hardness as we move from model-3 to model-4 is justified as follows. The model-4(45%CW specimen) had fractured during rolling resulting in Alligatoring, when a specimen is split due to Alligatoring, the strain hardening from the cold work is not distributed evenly vertically in the bars cross section, resulting in some regions strain hardening more than others, some maybe not at all, if the hardness and tensile specimens were extracted from those regions, the sudden drop in hardness (VHN); and hence the low VHN value for the design model 4 would be reasonable. The bar chart of Figure (5.2.2) shows that the highest VHN value is for model-3 (35%), suggesting that it is the best design model.

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5.2.3 Ductility comparisons

%EL (ASTM E8)


%EL(ASTM E8)

29.7

18.9 14.7 15.4

19.7

model 4

model 3

model 2

model 1

model 0

Figure 5.2.3: %elongation for the different models

Figure (5.2.3) illustrates the trend in the Ductility for the design models 0-4. A look on the bar chart shows that the ductility first decreases from 29.7% (for Model0) (as received material) to 19.7% (for model1) (10%CW). Then it decreases from 19.7% to 15.4% (for model 2).It then increases again to 14.7% (for model3).Then it increases from 14.7% to 18.9% (for model 4). As it is known the ductility is highest for non-worked materials (specimen 0), and as the cold work increases through specimens 1-3, so does the ductility The increase in %EL as we move from model-3 to model-4 is justified as follows. The model-4(45%CW specimen) had fractured during rolling resulting in Alligatoring, when a specimen is split due to Alligatoring, the strain hardening from the cold work is not distributed evenly vertically in the bars cross section, resulting in some regions strain hardening more than others, some maybe not at all, if the hardness and tensile specimens were extracted from those regions, the sudden increase in ductility (%EL) and hence the high %EL value for the design model 4 would be reasonable. The bar chart of Figure (5.2.3) shows that the highest %EL value is for model-0 (as received), suggesting that it is the best design model.
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Chapter 6: Conclusion
A single trend can be observed in the specimens with regard to all mechanical properties under study; two things can be said about that trend; 1- It is proportional to the percent cold work. 2- It is reversed after the failure at specimen4 (45%CW) Both tensile strength and hardness increase with %CW, and ductility decreases. Both reach an extreme point at specimen3 (35%) before reversing at failure. From strength point of view, model 3 seems to be the best design model. However, this model results in limited ductility which is a drawback. However, considering the industrial applications of Aluminum, strength is always more important, hence design model3 is suggested.

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References
Burlate, M.Julian, D., Levesque, M., Bui-Quoc, T., Bernard, M.(2008),Effect of local cold working on fatigue life of 7475-T7351 aluminum alloy hole specimens, Eng. Fracture Machins. 75(8)20442-2061 (Nah et. al. Effects of Degrees of Cold Working and Recrystallization on the Microstructure and Hardness of Commercial-Purity Aluminum 550 2001; Humphreys and Hatherly, 1996) Internet source (2011B):http://www.virginia.edu/bohr/mse209/chapter6.htm Internet source (2011C):http://www.odannyboy.com/blog/cmu/archives/000766.html cross,N., 2006. T211 Design and Designing: Block 2, Page 99. Milton keynes: The Open University Huda (2009), Effects of Degrees of cold working and Recrystallization on the microstructure and hardness of commercial-Purity Aluminum. Rich, D.L., Impellizzeri, L.F., ASTM(1997). In:" cyclic stress-strain and Plastic deformation aspects of fatigue crack granth. ASTM STP637.philadephia: 135-175 European Journal of scientific Research, vol.26,No.4(2009) 539-557 Pahl, G., and Beitz, W. Engineering design: A systematic approach, Springer-Verlag, London, 1996. Truex, D., Baskerville, R., and Travis, J. "A methodical systems development: The deferred meaning of systems development methods," Accounting, Management and Information Technologies (10:1) 2000, pp 5379. Ralph, P. "Comparing two software design process theories," International Conference on Design Science Research in Information Systems and Technology (DESRIST 2010), Springer, St. Gallen, Switzerland, 2010, pp. 139153. Simon, H.A. The sciences of the artificial, (1st ed.), MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, USA, 1969. Internet source (2011A): http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rolling_(metalworking) I J. Polmear, Light Alloys, Arnold, 1995. Internet source (2011A): http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aluminium_alloy Pahl, G., Beitz, W., 1996. Engineering Design: A Systematic Approach, second ed. SpringerVerlag, New York.

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Evbuomwan, N.F.O., Sivaloganathan, S., Jebb, A., 1996. A survey of design philosophies, models, methods, and systems. Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. 210, 301319.

David L. McDowell, Jitesh H. Panchal, Hae-Jin Choi, Carolyn Conner Seepersad, Janet K. Allen, FarrokhMistree, Chapter 4 - Decision Making in Engineering Design, Integrated Design of Multiscale, Multifunctional Materials and Products, Butterworth-Heinemann, Boston, 2010, Pages 65-85, ISBN 9781856176620, 10.1016/B978-1-85617-662-0.00004-1. The Testing of Materials, Natl. Bur. Standards Circ. 45 (1913) Dr. P.C. Sharma D.K. Aggarwal, P. C. Sharma, Aggarwal D. K. S. K. Kataria& Sons, 1997, Machine Design, ISBN 0909481818

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Appendices
Attached are two documents: 1- Gantt chart. 2- Chemical analysis for model0 (as received material).

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