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1875

A. Port Karns, 18401920


Robert D. Locke, 18501943
187711
81878
18785

187811

278428131199
5

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Prologue

Ding Richang inaugurated as Governor of Fujian Province in November


1875. He persisted in constructing the railroad, erecting the telegraph line,
excavating the coalmine and drilling the petroleum in Formosa (currently
Taiwan). With this modernized idea, Formosa had had a new look. Two
American oil technicians, A. Port Karns and Robert D. Locke, were hired by
Fujian government and arrived at Taiwanfu (currently Tainan) in the end of
November 1877 (the third year of Guangxu Emperor).
Yet, Governor Ding had not been smoothly in promoting his New Deal,
which had been received all quarters of impediments and oppositions. He
malingered, asking for sick leave, and returned to hometown in August 1877.
Though Ding was forced to return to his post shortly and temporarily, yet he
was unwilling to carry out his task as a Governor. He resigned officially in May
1878.
During the turbulent stage of political situation, Messrs. Karns and Locke
found that they had spent too much time in traveling and waiting, much more
than their working hours. It took 4 months from the day they left hometown
until they started to work in Formosa. They understood Chinese 5,000 year
tradition and inefficiency bred by government culture finally. Moreover, there
were fearful headhunters, not hygienic diet, lousy work and living conditions,

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short of manpower and set back of poor logistics, etc. So they wearied from
work and wanted to go back to the United States. They decided not to extend
contracts with Chinese government after expiration and left Formosa at
the beginning of November 1878. This announced the temporary end and
abandonment of the first machine-drilled oil well at Chhut-hong-khinn (in
Gongguan Town, Miaoli County).
Although Robert Locke was an uneducated person from American oil
town in Pennsylvania, yet his habit of keeping a diary reserved a 15 monthlong precious record for Taiwan. On the contrary, there are only few documents
concerned left including 1 document in Li Wenzhinggong Antholog y , 4
documents in Historical Data of Taiwan Foreign Affairs in Qing Dynasty , and
correspondences of Shen Baozhen and of Li Hongzhang. Besides these, there is
no other Chinese record on Taiwan oil drilling found so far. The fact highlights
the importance of Locke's Diary.

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20051014

187883
1878

93
1522

2729
10

1979

VCD
2009

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1877
1878

1877Tong Kingsing,

1878

James Davidson The Island of


Formosa, Past and Present 1903

Harold M. OtnessOne Thousand


Westerners in Taiwan, to 1945Robert D. Locke, American oil
technicianKarns
Robert Locke

OtnessSampson Hsing-chang Kuo


Drilling Oil in Taiwan: A Case Study of Two American
Technicians' Contribution to Modernization in Late Nineteen-Century China
1981Mr. KuoPaul H.
Giddens187794
12151940
Giddens90G

Kuo, p. 463

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1985104105
Hamline University
Dr. Paul H. Giddens

2009
12
263

Sampson Kuo

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1878105tea
house

tea house

2009

2012520

18771122
1213

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187819
ToroYuki
YukiToro

Sophia

Yuki

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Dr. SchenckA2
1952

A2

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1955

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78767783

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141

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1958

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2011

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1859Colonel Drake

Titusville
the Drake Oil Well

70

1877

E. W. Kellogg

94
3

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8
City of Peking912

wagh

22103
81011
13the Astor
House33
Robert Morrison Brown

the Chicago Tribune

111416
520

24
some English
11
28Chang Ying-chieh

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Yipa - Fo o W.
Holland

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Sampson Kuo

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Original English Contract


An agreement made between Chang, Sub-Prefect and Deputy for Taiwan
Board of Trade, Formosa, in the Empire of China, party of the first part, and A.
P. Karns, an American citizen, U. S. A., a driller of oil well, and R. D. Locke, an
American citizen, U. S. A., also a driller of oil well, under the superintendance
of A. P. Karns, on the Island of Formosa, parties of the second part.
This agreement made in consideration of oil wells in the vicinity of Tamsui,
in Formosa, through Yung Taotai of the Chinese Embassy to the United States,
and R. M. Brown of Shanghai, China to engage A. P. Karns and Robert D. Locke
as drillers of oil wells in Formosa. Agreement was being made at Titusville, Pa.,
U. S. A., between R. M. Brown and A. P. Karns and Robert D. Locke, parties of
the second part, to replace by a similar agreement of the same import be made in
China between said parties of the first and second parts as follow
An agreement by and between R. M. Brown of Shanghai, China, and A. P.
Karns and Robert D. Locke, both of Titusville, U. S. A. It is agreed that
(1) A. P. Karns shall receive a salary of three thousand dollars$3,000
gold per year, and Robert D. Locke one thousand two hundred
$1,200as drillers of oil wells on the Island of Formosa.
(2) Also the travelling expenses of Karns and Locke to the Empire of
China shall be paid. On arrival in Formosa an allowance of fifty dollars
$50per month for board and servant shall be made. Lodging and
furniture shall be provided.
(3) Also the return passage tickets to New York of Karns and Locke shall
be paid, unless any of them breaks this agreement by leaving the service
of the Petroleum Company without their consent, within one year
from the date of leaving Titusville, the time this engagement began.

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Salaries shall be paid up to such date.


(4) Also the salaries of Karns and Locke shall be paid as often as once in
three months.
(5) Karns and Locke agree to do all in their power to faithfully promote
the interests of the Petroleum Company and superintend oil wells
in Formosa. On these matters, they will consult with the Chinese
Authorities or its deputies. They agree to instruct or teach the
workmen and laborers as far as their experience and abilities go without
reserve. In case disobedience or, misconduct is found on the part of the
laborers, they are to refer this to the deputies to punish the offenders
and not undertake themselves to inflict the punishment
(6) It is mutually agreed that Karns and Locke will remain in the service
for one year, salaries commencing September 4, 1877. If the Petroleum
Company shall discharge one or both, he or they shall receive the full
salaries as agreed upon for one year.
(7) It is agreed that in case of illness, Karns and Locke shall find themselves
doctors and medicine.
(8) Also that the advance made by Tong Taotai to Karns and Locke for
salaries shall be deducted here.
(9) Travelling expenses of Karns and Locke to China having been paid by
Tong Taotai , and after the expiration of one year their return passage
tickets and travelling expenses to New York shall be provided for by
Tong Taotai.
(10) It is agreed that after the expiration of one year if the Chinese
Authorities should consider it expedient for Karns and Locke to
remain longer in the service in order to complete the whole work,

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salaries shall be paid monthly at the same rate of $250 and $100
respectively per month but shall not be paid by the year.
(11) It is agreed that Karns and Locke shall remain in the service as
drillers of oil wells in the Island of Formosa until the machine shops,
buildings and drilling work of the Petroleum Company be brought to
entire completion, giving satisfaction to the Chinese Authorities.
In witness whereof we have here unto our hands and seals at Taiwanfoo
this twenty eighth day of November 1877, corresponding to Kuang-hsu 3rd
year, 10th moon, 24th day.
signed by
Changin Chinese, Sub-Prefect and Deputy for
Taiwan Board of Trade
Witnessed by
Yip-a-Fooin English, Captain of H.I.C.M.S. "Tsing
Yune"
signed by
A. P. Karns
R. D. Locke
Witnessed by
The undersigned
W. Holland, Assistant in Local charge of U.S. Acting
Consulate

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1.
2.

3.
1129
175

127

128

3017.35
105

121213

1518

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Dr.
Matthew Dickson

525126
7580
23.926.7

1878
50

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1877

187794
Titusville,
Erie,
Mr. Newton
September 4, 1877: Left Titusville for San Francisco stopped one night at Erie
with Mr. Newton.

95
3710
67Tarkio Creek
Stanton
September 5: Left Erie 3 A M (A.M.) arrived in Chicago 7 P M (P.M.) Left
Chicago 10 P M arrived at ? 7 P M on the 6th stoped one night.

stopedstoppedA MP MA.M.a.m.P.M.
p.m.

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Dr. Paul H. Giddens

Tarkio CreekStanton

97
9Council Bluffs,
Counsel Bluffs20
3
Omaha

99
5Ogden7

911
8
Prescott House
September 7: Arrived at Counsel Bluffs 9 A M bridge gone had to go down
the river 20 miles and cross on a boat Left Omaha 3 P M arrived at Ogden
on the 9th 5 P M Left Ogden 7 P M on the same day & arrived in San
Francisco on the 11th Stopped at Prescott House.
79113

1025
180

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912
Uncle Hannable
37212
the City of Peking
September 12: Went to see uncle Hannable Bought ticket for Shanghai $372.00
Left 12 noon on the City of Peking.
12
18781212Hanables13
Hanable12
1342

120

37211
270

187810251115

915
62
September 15: Engin broke down 6 in the evening did not get started until 2 in
the morning.

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924
18025
September 24: Crossed the 180 degree line jumped the 25th.

103
22Yokohama3

October 3: Arrived at Yokohama three Chinese died on the way from San
Francisco.
The Oil and Gas Journal
F. F. Murray2,000

wagh
1931
101Titusville
Man Drilled in China in 1877
1869
70

Dennis
Kearneysandlots
the
sandlots campaign

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1877-78/
. -- . --, 2012.06
. --8V16
ISBN 978-986-6318-68-9 ()
1.2.3.
457.0933

101006123

8V16

(246.4)
Meichiao

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