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107. I multiplied two complex numbers in polar form by first multiplying the moduli and then multiplying the arguments. 108. The proof of the formula for the product of two complex numbers in polar form uses the sum formulas for cosines and sines that I studied in the previous chapter. 109. My work with complex numbers verified that the only possible cube root of 8 is 2. 110. Prove the rule for finding the quotient of two complex numbers in polar form. Begin the proof as follows, using the conjugate of the denominators second factor:
r11cos u1 + i sin u12 r21cos u2 + i sin u22 = r11cos u1 + i sin u12 1cos u2 - i sin u22 r21cos u2 + i sin u22 1cos u2 - i sin u22

Group Exercise
112. Group members should prepare and present a seminar on mathematical chaos. Include one or more of the following topics in your presentation: fractal images, the role of complex numbers in generating fractal images, algorithms, iterations, iteration number, and fractals in nature. Be sure to include visual images that will intrigue your audience.

Preview Exercises
Exercises 113115 will help you prepare for the material covered in the next section. 113. Use the distance formula to determine if the line segment with endpoints 1-3, -32 and (0, 3) has the same length as the line segment with endpoints (0, 0) and (3, 6). 114. Use slope to determine if the line through 1-3, -32 and (0, 3) is parallel to the line through (0, 0) and (3, 6). 115. Simplify: 4 15x + 4y2 - 2 16x - 9y2.

Perform the indicated multiplications. Then use the difference formulas for sine and cosine. 111. Plot each of the complex fourth roots of 1.

Section Objectives

7.6

Vectors
F3

Use magnitude and direction to show vectors are equal. Visualize scalar multiplication, vector addition, and vector subtraction as geometric vectors. Represent vectors in the rectangular coordinate system. Perform operations with vectors in terms of i and j. Find the unit vector in the direction of v. Write a vector in terms of its magnitude and direction. Solve applied problems involving vectors.
F2

F3 F2

Fg Fg F1 f f F1

Its been a dynamic lecture, but now that its over its obvious that my professor is exhausted. Shes slouching motionless against the board andwhats that? The forces acting against her body, including the pull of gravity, are appearing as arrows. I know that mathematics reveals the hidden patterns of the universe, but this is ridiculous. Does the arrangement of the arrows on the right have anything to do with the fact that my wiped-out professor is not sliding down the wall?

urs is a world of pushes and pulls. For example, suppose you are pulling a cart up a 30 incline, requiring an effort of 100 pounds. This quantity is described by giving its magnitude (a number indicating size, including a unit of measure) and also its direction. The magnitude is 100 pounds and the direction is 30 from the horizontal. Quantities that involve both a magnitude and a direction are called vector quantities, or vectors for short. Here is another example of a vector:
You are driving due north at 50 miles per hour. The magnitude is the speed, 50 miles per hour. The direction of motion is due north.

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Section 7.6 Vectors 719 Some quantities can be completely described by giving only their magnitudes. For example, the temperature of the lecture room that you just left is 75. This temperature has magnitude, 75, but no direction. Quantities that involve magnitude, but no direction, are called scalar quantities, or scalars for short. Thus, a scalar has only a numerical value. Another example of a scalar is your professors height, which you estimate to be 5.5 feet. In this section and the next, we introduce the world of vectors, which literally surround your every move. Because vectors have nonnegative magnitude as well as direction, we begin our discussion with directed line segments.

Directed Line Segments and Geometric Vectors


A line segment to which a direction has been assigned is called a directed line segment. Figure 7.48 shows a directed line segment from P to Q. We call P the initial point and Q the terminal point. We denote this directed line segment by ! PQ. ! ! The magnitude of the directed line segment PQ is its length. We denote this by ! 7PQ 7 . Thus, 7PQ 7 is the distance from point P to point Q. Because distance is nonnegative, vectors do not have negative magnitudes. Geometrically, a vector is a directed line segment. Vectors are often denoted by boldface letters, such as v. If a vector! v has the same magnitude and the same direction as the directed line segment PQ, we write ! v = PQ. Because !it is difficult to write boldface on paper, use an arrow over a single letter, such as v, to denote v, the vector v. Figure 7.49 shows four possible relationships between vectors v and w. In Figure 7.49(a), the vectors have the same magnitude and the same direction, and are said to be equal. In general, vectors v and w are equal if they have the same magnitude and the same direction. We write this as v = w.

This sign shows a distance and direction for each city. Thus, the sign defines a vector for each destination. Terminal point Q

P Initial point

Figure 7.48 A directed line


segment from P to Q

v w

Use magnitude and direction to show vectors are equal.


Terminal point: (3, 6) y Terminal point: 5 (0, 3) 4 3 u 5 4 3 1 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 Initial point: (0, 0) x

(a) v w because the vectors have the same magnitude and same direction.

(b) Vectors v and w have the same magnitude, but different directions.

(c) Vectors v and w have the same magnitude, but opposite directions.

(d) Vectors v and w have the same direction, but different magnitudes.

Figure 7.49 Relationships between vectors

EXAMPLE 1

Showing That Two Vectors Are Equal

Use Figure 7.50 to show that u = v.


v

Solution Equal vectors have the same magnitude and the same direction. Use the distance formula to show that u and v have the same magnitude.
Magnitude of u

u= =

(x2-x1)2+(y2-y1)2= 32+62=

[0-(3)]2+[3-(3)]2

9+36= 45 (or 3 5) (3-0)2+(6-0)2

Initial point: (3, 3)

Magnitude of v

v= =

(x2-x1)2+(y2-y1)2= 32+62=

Figure 7.50

9+36= 45 (or 3 5)

Thus, u and v have the same magnitude: 7u7 = 7 v 7.

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720 Chapter 7 Additional Topics in Trigonometry


One way to show that u and v have the same direction is to find the slopes of the lines on which they lie. We continue to use Figure 7.50 on the previous page.
y (2, 6) u (5, 2) 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 (5, 6) v (2, 2) 1 2 3 4 5 x Line on which v lies Line on which u lies

m=

y2-y1 3-(3) 6 = = =2 x2-x1 0-(3) 3 y2-y1 6-0 6 = = =2 x2-x1 3-0 3

u lies on a line passing through ( 3, 3) and (0, 3). v lies on a line passing through (0, 0) and (3, 6).

m=

5 4 3 2 1 1 2 3

Because u and v are both directed toward the upper right on lines having the same slope, 2, they have the same direction. Thus, u and v have the same magnitude and direction, and u = v.

Figure 7.51

Check Point

Use Figure 7.51 to show that u = v.

Visualize scalar multiplication, vector addition, and vector subtraction as geometric vectors.

A vector can be multiplied by a real number. Figure 7.52 shows three such multiplications: 2v, 1 v, and - 3 v. Multiplying a vector by any positive real number 2 2 (except for 1) changes the magnitude of the vector, but not its direction. This can be seen by the blue and green vectors in Figure 7.52. Compare the black and blue vectors. Can you see that 2v has the same direction as v but is twice the magnitude of v? Now, compare the black and green vectors: 1 v has the same direction as v but is half 2 the magnitude of v.

2v

qv

w v

Figure 7.52 Multiplying vector v by


real numbers

Now compare the black and red vectors in Figure 7.52. Multiplying a vector by a negative number reverses the direction of the vector. Notice that - 3 v has the 2 opposite direction as v and is 3 the magnitude of v. 2 The multiplication of a real number k and a vector v is called scalar multiplication. We write this product as kv.

Scalar Multiplication
If k is a real number and v a vector, the vector kv is called a scalar multiple of the vector v. The magnitude and direction of kv are given as follows: The vector kv has a magnitude of k 7 v 7. We describe this as the absolute value of k times the magnitude of vector v. The vector kv has a direction that is the same as the direction of v if k 7 0, and opposite the direction of v if k 6 0. A geometric method for adding two vectors is shown in Figure 7.53 at the top of the next page.The sum of u and v, denoted by u + v is called the resultant vector. Here is how we find this vector: 1. Position u and v, so that the terminal point of u coincides with the initial point of v. 2. The resultant vector, u + v, extends from the initial point of u to the terminal point of v.

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Section 7.6 Vectors 721

Wiped Out, But Not Sliding Down the Wall


Figure 7.53 Vector addition u + v; the terminal point of u coincides with the initial point of v.
Initial point of u

Resultant vector u+v Terminal point of v v

F3 F2

The difference of two vectors, v - u, is defined as v - u = v + 1-u2, where -u is the scalar multiplication of u and -1: -1u. The difference v - u is shown geometrically in Figure 7.54.
Fg

F1 f

u vu v u

Figure 7.54 Vector subtraction v - u; the terminal


point of v coincides with the initial point of -u. u

The figure shows the sum of five vectors: F1 + F2 + F3 + Fg + f. Notice how the terminal point of each vector coincides with the initial point of the vector thats being added to it. The vector sum, from the initial point of F1 to the terminal point of f, is a single point. The magnitude of a single point is zero. These forces add up to a net force of zero, allowing the professor to be motionless.

Vectors in the Rectangular Coordinate System


As you saw in Example 1, vectors can be shown in the rectangular coordinate system. Now lets see how we can use the rectangular coordinate system to represent vectors. We begin with two vectors that both have a magnitude of 1. Such vectors are called unit vectors.

The i and j Unit Vectors


Vector i is the unit vector whose direction is along the positive x-axis. Vector j is the unit vector whose direction is along the positive y-axis.
1 j x y

Represent vectors in the rectangular coordinate system.

Why are the unit vectors i and j important? Vectors in the rectangular coordinate system can be represented in terms of i and j. For example, consider vector v with initial point at the origin, (0, 0), and terminal point at P = 1a, b2. The vector v is shown in Figure 7.55. We can represent v using i and j as v = ai + bj.

v is the vector addition of ai and bj. P = (a, b) v = ai + bj bj bj is a scalar multiple of j. x

ai

Figure 7.55 Using vector addition, vector v is represented as v = ai + bj.

ai is a scalar multiple of i.

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722 Chapter 7 Additional Topics in Trigonometry


Representing Vectors in Rectangular Coordinates
Vector v, from (0, 0) to 1a, b2, is represented as v = ai + bj. The real numbers a and b are called the scalar components of v. Note that a is the horizontal component of v, and b is the vertical component of v. The vector sum ai + bj is called a linear combination of the vectors i and j. The magnitude of v = ai + bj is given by 7 v7 = 3a2 + b2 .

Terminal point (3, 4) 5 4

EXAMPLE 2

Representing a Vector in Rectangular Coordinates and Finding Its Magnitude

v = 3i + 4j 2 (0, 0) 5 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 Initial point x

Sketch the vector v = -3i + 4j and find its magnitude.

Solution For the given vector v = -3i + 4j, a = -3 and b = 4. The vector can be represented with its initial point at the origin, (0, 0), as shown in Figure 7.56. The vectors terminal point is then 1a, b2 = 1-3, 42. We sketch the vector by drawing an arrow from (0, 0) to 1-3, 42. We determine the magnitude of the vector by using the distance formula. Thus, the magnitude is
7v 7 = 3a2 + b2 = 41-322 + 4 2 = 29 + 16 = 225 = 5.

Figure 7.56 Sketching


v = -3i + 4j in the rectangular coordinate system

Check Point

Sketch the vector v = 3i - 3j and find its magnitude.

P2 = (x2, y2)

The vector in Example 2 was represented with its initial point at the origin. A vector whose initial point is at the origin is called a position vector. Any vector in rectangular coordinates whose initial point is not at the origin can be shown to be equal to a position vector. As shown in the following box, this gives us a way to represent vectors between any two points. Vector v with initial point P1 = 1x1 , y12 and terminal point P2 = 1x2 , y22 is equal to the position vector
x

y 2 y1

Representing Vectors in Rectangular Coordinates


v = 1x2 - x12i + 1y2 - y12j.

x 2 x1 P1 = (x1, y1)

Figure 7.57(a)

We can use congruent triangles, triangles with the same size and shape, to derive this formula. Begin with the right triangle in Figure 7.57(a). This triangle shows vector v from P1 = 1x1 , y12 to P2 = 1x2 , y22. In Figure 7.57(b), we move vector v, without changing its magnitude or its direction, so that its initial point is at the origin. Using this position vector in Figure 7.57(b), we see that v = ai + bj,
P = (a, b)

v = ai + bj v b x

where a and b are the components of v. The equal vectors and the right angles in the right triangles in Figures 7.57(a) and (b) result in congruent triangles.The corresponding sides of these congruent triangles are equal, so that a = x2 - x1 and b = y2 - y1 . This means that v may be expressed as v=ai+bj=(x2-x1)i+(y2-y1)j.
Horizontal component: x-coordinate of terminal point minus x-coordinate of initial point Vertical component: y-coordinate of terminal point minus y-coordinate of initial point

a (0, 0)

Figure 7.57(b)

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Section 7.6 Vectors 723 Thus, any vector between two points in rectangular coordinates can be expressed in terms of i and j. In rectangular coordinates, the term vector refers to the position vector expressed in terms of i and j that is equal to it.

EXAMPLE 3
(5, 6) P2 = (2, 5) y 5 4 v = 5i + 6j 2 1 2 x 4 5 P1 = (3, 1)

Representing a Vector in Rectangular Coordinates

Let v be the vector from initial point P1 = 13, -12 to terminal point P2 = 1-2, 52. Write v in terms of i and j.

Solution

We identify the values for the variables in the formula. P1=(3, 1)


x1 y1

P2=(2, 5)
x2 y2

5 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5

Using these values, we write v in terms of i and j as follows: v = 1x2 - x12i + 1y2 - y12j = 1-2 - 32i + 35 - 1-124j = -5i + 6j.

Figure 7.58 Representing the vector from 13, -12 to 1-2, 52 as a position vector

Figure 7.58 shows the vector from P1 = 13, -12 to P2 = 1-2, 52 represented in terms of i and j and as a position vector.

Study Tip
When finding the distance from P1 = 1x1 , y12 to P2 = 1x2 , y22, the order in which the subtractions are performed makes no difference: d = 41x2 - x122 + 1y2 - y122 or d = 41x1 - x222 + 1y1 - y222 .

When writing the vector from P1 = 1x1 , y12 to P2 = 1x2 , y22, P2 must be the terminal point and the order in the subtractions is important:

v=(x2-x1)i+(y2-y1)j.
(x2, y2), the terminal point, is used first in each subtraction.

Check Point

3 Let v be the vector from initial point P1 = 1-1, 32 to terminal point P2 = 12, 72. Write v in terms of i and j.

Perform operations with vectors in terms of i and j.

Operations with Vectors in Terms of i and j


If vectors are expressed in terms of i and j, we can easily carry out operations such as vector addition, vector subtraction, and scalar multiplication. Recall the geometric definitions of these operations given earlier. Based on these ideas, we can add and subtract vectors using the following procedure:

Adding and Subtracting Vectors in Terms of i and j


If v = a1 i + b1j and w = a2 i + b2 j, then v + w = 1a1 + a22i + 1b1 + b22j v - w = 1a1 - a22i + 1b1 - b22j.

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724 Chapter 7 Additional Topics in Trigonometry EXAMPLE 4 Adding and Subtracting Vectors

If v = 5i + 4j and w = 6i - 9j, find each of the following vectors: a. v + w b. v - w.

Solution
a. v + w = 15i + 4j2 + 16i - 9j2 = 15 + 62i + 34 + 1-924j = 11i - 5j b. v - w = 15i + 4j2 - 16i - 9j2 = 15 - 62i + 34 - 1-924j = -i + 13j
These are the given vectors. Add the horizontal components. Add the vertical components. Simplify. These are the given vectors. Subtract the horizontal components. Subtract the vertical components. Simplify.

Check Point
vectors: a. v + w

If v = 7i + 3j and w = 4i - 5j, find each of the following

b. v - w.

How do we perform scalar multiplication if vectors are expressed in terms of i and j? We use the following procedure to multiply the vector v by the scalar k:

Scalar Multiplication with a Vector in Terms of i and j


If v = ai + bj and k is a real number, then the scalar multiplication of the vector v and the scalar k is kv = 1ka2i + 1kb2j.

EXAMPLE 5

Scalar Multiplication

If v = 5i + 4j, find each of the following vectors: a. 6v b. -3v.

Solution
a. 6v = 615i + 4j2 = 16 # 52i + 16 # 42j = 30i + 24j b. -3v = -315i + 4j2 = 1-3 # 52i + 1-3 # 42j = -15i - 12j
The scalar multiplication is expressed with the given vector. Multiply each component by 6. Simplify. The scalar multiplication is expressed with the given vector. Multiply each component by -3. Simplify.

Check Point
a. 8v

If v = 7i + 10j, find each of the following vectors: b. -5v.

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Section 7.6 Vectors 725

EXAMPLE 6

Vector Operations

If v = 5i + 4j and w = 6i - 9j, find 4v - 2w.

Solution
4v - 2w = 415i + 4j2 - 216i - 9j2 = 20i + 16j - 12i + 18j = 120 - 122i + 116 + 182j = 8i + 34j
Operations are expressed with the given vectors. Perform each scalar multiplication. Add horizontal and vertical components to perform the vector addition. Simplify.

Check Point

If v = 7i + 3j and w = 4i - 5j, find 6v - 3w.

Properties involving vector operations resemble familiar properties of real numbers. For example, the order in which vectors are added makes no difference: u + v = v + u. Does this remind you of the commutative property a + b = b + a? Just as 0 plays an important role in the properties of real numbers, the zero vector 0 plays exactly the same role in the properties of vectors.

The Zero Vector


The vector whose magnitude is 0 is called the zero vector, 0. The zero vector is assigned no direction. It can be expressed in terms of i and j using 0 = 0i + 0j. Properties of Vector Addition and Scalar Multiplication are given as follows:

Properties of Vector Addition and Scalar Multiplication


If u, v, and w are vectors, and c and d are scalars, then the following properties are true. Vector Addition Properties 1. 2. 3. 4. 1u + v2 + w = u + 1v + w2 u + 0 = 0 + u = u u + 1-u2 = 1-u2 + u = 0 1cd2u = c1du2 c1u + v2 = cu + cv 1c + d2u = cu + du 1u = u 0u = 0 7cv7 = c 7v7 u + v = v + u
Commutative property Associative property Additive identity Additive inverse

Scalar Multiplication Properties 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.


Associative property Distributive property Distributive property Multiplicative identity Multiplication property of zero Magnitude property

Find the unit vector in the direction of v.

Unit Vectors
A unit vector is defined to be a vector whose magnitude is one. In many applications of vectors, it is helpful to find the unit vector that has the same direction as a given vector.

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To find out why the procedure in the box produces a unit vector, work Exercise 112 in Exercise Set 7.6.

Finding the Unit Vector that Has the Same Direction as a Given Nonzero Vector v
For any nonzero vector v, the vector v 7v7 is the unit vector that has the same direction as v. To find this vector, divide v by its magnitude.

EXAMPLE 7

Finding a Unit Vector

Find the unit vector in the same direction as v = 5i - 12j. Then verify that the vector has magnitude 1.

Solution We find the unit vector in the same direction as v by dividing v by its magnitude. We first find the magnitude of v.
7v 7 = 3a2 + b2 = 452 + 1-1222 = 225 + 144 = 2169 = 13 5i - 12j 5 12 v = i j. = 7v 7 13 13 13

The unit vector in the same direction as v is


1 This is the scalar multiplication of v and 13 .

Now we must verify that the magnitude of this vector is 1. Recall that the magnitude
5 of ai + bj is 3a2 + b2 . Thus, the magnitude of 13 i 12 13 j

is

12 2 5 2 144 25 169 = = 21 = 1. b + a- b = + B 13 13 A 169 169 A 169 a

Check Point

7 Find the unit vector in the same direction as v = 4i - 3j. Then verify that the vector has magnitude 1.

Write a vector in terms of its magnitude and direction.


y (a, b) ||v|| v = ai + bj u x

Writing a Vector in Terms of Its Magnitude and Direction


Consider the vector v = ai + bj. The components a and b can be expressed in terms of the magnitude of v and the angle u that v makes with the positive x-axis. This angle is called the direction angle of v and is shown in Figure 7.59. By the definitions of sine and cosine, we have cos u = a 7v7 and sin u = b 7v7

a = 7v7 cos u Thus,

b = 7v7 sin u.

Figure 7.59 Expressing a vector in terms of its magnitude, 7v7, and its direction angle, u

v = ai + bj = 7 v 7 cos ui + 7v7 sin uj.

Writing a Vector in Terms of Its Magnitude and Direction


Let v be a nonzero vector. If u is the direction angle measured from the positive x-axis to v, then the vector can be expressed in terms of its magnitude and direction angle as v = 7v7 cos ui + 7v 7 sin uj.

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Section 7.6 Vectors 727 A vector that represents the direction and speed of an object in motion is called a velocity vector. In Example 8, we express a winds velocity vector in terms of the winds magnitude and direction.

EXAMPLE 8

Writing a Vector Whose Magnitude and Direction Are Given

The wind is blowing at 20 miles per hour in the direction N30W. Express its velocity as a vector v in terms of i and j.
y

Solution The vector v is shown in Figure 7.60. The vectors direction angle, from the positive x-axis to v, is
u = 90 + 30 = 120. Because the wind is blowing at 20 miles per hour, the magnitude of v is 20 miles per hour: 7v 7 = 20. Thus,
x

30 20 v u

v = 7 v 7 cos ui + 7v7 sin uj

Use the formula for a vector in terms of magnitude and direction. 7 v7 = 20 and u = 120. cos 120 = Simplify. 1 23 and sin 120 = . 2 2

Figure 7.60 Vector v represents a wind blowing at 20 miles per hour in the direction N30W.

= 20 cos 120i + 20 sin 120j 1 23 = 20 a - b i + 20 j 2 2 = - 10i + 10 23j

Solve applied problems involving vectors.

The winds velocity can be expressed in terms of i and j as v = - 10i + 10 23j.

Check Point
F2

8 The jet stream is blowing at 60 miles per hour in the direction N45E. Express its velocity as a vector v in terms of i and j.

Application
Force of gravity F1

Figure 7.61 Force vectors


y Resultant force, F F1 10 pounds 20 65 u Direction angle of the resultant force F2 30 pounds x

Many physical concepts can be represented by vectors. A vector that represents a pull or push of some type is called a force vector. If you are holding a 10-pound package, two force vectors are involved. The force of gravity is exerting a force of magnitude 10 pounds directly downward. This force is shown by vector F1 in Figure 7.61. Assuming there is no upward or downward movement of the package, you are exerting a force of magnitude 10 pounds directly upward. This force is shown by vector F2 in Figure 7.61. It has the same magnitude as the force exerted on your package by gravity, but it acts in the opposite direction. If F1 and F2 are two forces acting on an object, the net effect is the same as if just the resultant force, F1 + F2 , acted on the object. If the object is not moving, as is the case with your 10-pound package, the vector sum of all forces is the zero vector.

EXAMPLE 9

Finding the Resultant Force

Two forces, F1 and F2 , of magnitude 10 and 30 pounds, respectively, act on an object. The direction of F1 is N20E and the direction of F2 is N65E. Find the magnitude and the direction of the resultant force. Express the magnitude to the nearest hundredth of a pound and the direction angle to the nearest tenth of a degree.

Figure 7.62

Solution The vectors F1 and F2 are shown in Figure 7.62. The direction angle for F1 , from the positive x-axis to the vector, is 90 - 20, or 70. We express F1 using the formula for a vector in terms of its magnitude and direction.

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728 Chapter 7 Additional Topics in Trigonometry


y Resultant force, F F1 10 pounds 20 65 u Direction angle of the resultant force F2 30 pounds x

F1 = 7F1 7 cos ui + 7 F1 7 sin uj = 10 cos 70i + 10 sin 70j L 3.42i + 9.40j

7F1 7 = 10 and u = 70. Use a calculator.

Figure 7.62 illustrates that the direction angle for F2 , from the positive x-axis to the vector, is 90 - 65, or 25. We express F2 using the formula for a vector in terms of its magnitude and direction. F2 = 7 F2 7 cos ui + 7F2 7 sin uj
7F2 7 = 30 and u = 25. Use a calculator.

= 30 cos 25i + 30 sin 25j L 27.19i + 12.68j The resultant force, F, is F1 + F2 . Thus, F = F1 + F2 L 13.42i + 9.40j2 + 127.19i + 12.68j2 = 13.42 + 27.192i + 19.40 + 12.682j

FIgure 7.62 (repeated)

Use F1 and F2 , found above. Add the horizontal components. Add the vertical components. Simplify.

= 30.61i + 22.08j.
y Resultant force: F = 30.61i + 22.08j (30.61, 22.08)

Figure 7.63 shows the resultant force, F, without showing F1 and F2 . Now that we have the resultant force vector, F, we can find its magnitude. 7F7 = 3a2 + b2 = 4130.6122 + 122.0822 L 37.74

b = 22.08

The magnitude of the resultant force is approximately 37.74 pounds. To find u, the direction angle of the resultant force, we can use cos u = a 7F7 or sin u = b . 7F7

u x a = 30.61

Figure 7.63

Study Tip
If F = ai + bj, the direction angle, u, of F can also be found using tan u = b . a

These ratios are illustrated for the right triangle in Figure 7.63. Using the first formula, we obtain cos u = Thus, u = cos-1 a 30.61 b L 35.8. 37.74
Use a calculator.

a 30.61 . L 7F7 37.74

The direction angle of the resultant force is approximately 35.8. In summary, the two given forces are equivalent to a single force of approximately 37.74 pounds with a direction angle of approximately 35.8.

9 Two forces, F1 and F2 , of magnitude 30 and 60 pounds, respectively, act on an object. The direction of F1 is N10E and the direction of F2 is N60E. Find the magnitude, to the nearest hundredth of a pound, and the direction angle, to the nearest tenth of a degree, of the resultant force.
Check Point
We have seen that velocity vectors represent the direction and speed of moving objects. Boats moving in currents and airplanes flying in winds are situations in which two velocity vectors act simultaneously. For example, suppose v represents the velocity of a plane in still air. Further suppose that w represents the velocity of the wind. The actual speed and direction of the plane is given by the vector v + w. This resultant vector describes the planes speed and direction relative to the ground. Problems involving the resultant velocity of a boat or plane are solved using the same method that we used in Example 9 to find a single resultant force equivalent to two given forces.

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Section 7.6 Vectors 729

Exercise Set 7.6


Practice Exercises
In Exercises 14, u and v have the same direction. In each exercise: a. Find 7 u7. b. Find 7v 7. c. Is u = v? Explain. 1.
6 5 4 3 (1, 2) 3 1 1 2 3 4 5 x y (4, 6) u v (5, 4)

13. P1 = 1-4, -42, P2 = 16, 22 14. P1 = 12, -52, P2 = 1-6, 62

In Exercises 1320, let v be the vector from initial point P1 to terminal point P2 . Write v in terms of i and j.

15. P1 = 1-8, 62, P2 = 1-2, 32

16. P1 = 1-7, -42, P2 = 10, -22 18. P1 = 1-1, 62, P2 = 17, -52 19. P1 = 1-3, 42, P2 = 16, 42 20. P1 = 14, -52, P2 = 14, 32

17. P1 = 1-1, 72, P2 = 1-7, -72

(0, 0) 2

2.
(4, 6) (2, 5) 6 5 4 2

In Exercises 2138, let u = 2i - 5j, v = -3i + 7j, and w = -i - 6j. Find each specified vector or scalar.
v x

21. u + v 23. u - v
1 3 4 (2, 1)

22. v + w 24. v - w 26. w - v 28. 6v 30. -7w 32. 3u + 4v 34. 4w - 3v 36. 7 -2u7 38. 7u - w7

4 3

(0, 0) 2

25. v - u 27. 5v 29. -4w 31. 3w + 2v 33. 3v - 4w 35. 72u 7 37. 7w - u7

3.
4 3 2

(1, 1)

u 1 2 3 v

(5, 1) 5 (4, 1) x

3 1 (2, 1) 2 3 4

In Exercises 3946, find the unit vector that has the same direction as the vector v. 39. v = 6i 41. v = 3i - 4j 43. v = 3i - 2j 40. v = -5j 42. v = 8i - 6j 44. v = 4i - 2j 46. v = i - j

4.
(3, 3) 4 3 2 1 2 1 1 2 3 4

45. v = i + j

(3, 1) 1 2 v 4 x

u 4 (3, 2)

In Exercises 4752, write the vector v in terms of i and j whose magnitude 7v7 and direction angle u are given. 47. 7v7 = 6, u = 30 51. 7v7 =
1 2,

49. 7v7 = 12, u = 225 u = 113

48. 7v7 = 8, u = 45

50. 7v7 = 10, u = 330


1 52. 7 v7 = 4 , u = 200

(3, 4)

In Exercises 512, sketch each vector as a position vector and find its magnitude. 5. v = 3i + j 7. v = i - j 9. v = -6i - 2j 11. v = -4i 6. v = 2i + 3j 8. v = -i - j 10. v = 5i - 2j 12. v = -5j

Practice Plus
In Exercises 5356, let u = -2i + 3j, v = 6i - j, w = -3i. Find each specified vector or scalar. 53. 4u - 12v - w2 55. 7u + v7 2 - 7 u - v7 2 54. 3u - 14v - w2

56. 7v + w7 2 - 7 v - w7 2

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730 Chapter 7 Additional Topics in Trigonometry


In Exercises 5760, let u = a1i + b1j v = a2 i + b2 j w = a3 i + b3j. Prove each property by obtaining the vector on each side of the equation. Have you proved a distributive, associative, or commutative property of vectors? 57. u + v = v + u 58. 1u + v2 + w = u + 1v + w2 59. c1u + v2 = cu + cv 60. 1c + d2u = cu + du In Exercises 6164, find the magnitude 7 v 7, to the nearest hundredth, and the direction angle u, to the nearest tenth of a degree, for each given vector v. 61. v = -10i + 15j 63. v = 14i - 2j2 - 14i - 8j2 64. v = 17i - 3j2 - 110i - 3j2 62. v = 2i - 8j 71. The magnitude and direction of two forces acting on an object are 70 pounds, S56E, and 50 pounds, N72E, respectively. Find the magnitude, to the nearest hundredth of a pound, and the direction angle, to the nearest tenth of a degree, of the resultant force. 72. The magnitude and direction exerted by two tugboats towing a ship are 4200 pounds, N65E, and 3000 pounds, S58E, respectively. Find the magnitude, to the nearest pound, and the direction angle, to the nearest tenth of a degree, of the resultant force. 73. The magnitude and direction exerted by two tugboats towing a ship are 1610 kilograms, N35W, and 1250 kilograms, S55W, respectively. Find the magnitude, to the nearest kilogram, and the direction angle, to the nearest tenth of a degree, of the resultant force. 74. The magnitude and direction of two forces acting on an object are 64 kilograms, N39W, and 48 kilograms, S59W, respectively. Find the magnitude, to the nearest hundredth of a kilogram, and the direction angle, to the nearest tenth of a degree, of the resultant force. The figure shows a box being pulled up a ramp inclined at 18 from the horizontal.

Application Exercises
In Exercises 6568, a vector is described. Express the vector in terms of i and j. If exact values are not possible, round components to the nearest tenth. 65. A quarterback releases a football with a speed of 44 feet per second at an angle of 30 with the horizontal. 66. A child pulls a sled along level ground by exerting a force of 30 pounds on a handle that makes an angle of 45 with the ground. 67. A plane approaches a runway at 150 miles per hour at an angle of 8 with the runway. 68. A plane with an airspeed of 450 miles per hour is flying in the direction N35W. Vectors are used in computer graphics to determine lengths of shadows over flat surfaces. The length of the shadow for v in the figure shown is the absolute value of the vectors horizontal component. In Exercises 6970, the magnitude and direction angle of v are given. Write v in terms of i and j. Then find the length of the shadow to the nearest tenth of an inch.
B 18 E D

F 18

C A

Use the following information to solve Exercises 7576. ! BA = force of gravity ! 7BA 7 = weight of the box ! 7AC 7 = magnitude of the force needed to pull the box up the ramp ! BC = magnitude of the force of the box against the ramp 75. If the box weighs 100 pounds, find the magnitude of the force needed to pull it up the ramp. 76. If a force of 30 pounds is needed to pull the box up the ramp, find the weight of the box. In Exercises 7778, round answers to the nearest pound. 77. a. Find the magnitude of the force required to keep a 3500-pound car from sliding down a hill inclined at 5.5 from the horizontal. b. Find the magnitude of the force of the car against the hill. 78. a. Find the magnitude of the force required to keep a 280-pound barrel from sliding down a ramp inclined at 12.5 from the horizontal. b. Find the magnitude of the force of the barrel against the ramp.

69. 7v7 = 1.5 inches, u = 25

70. 7v7 = 1.8 inches, u = 40

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Section 7.6 Vectors 731


The forces F1 , F2 , F3 , , Fn acting on an object are in equilibrium if the resultant force is the zero vector: F1 + F2 + F3 + + Fn = 0. In Exercises 7982, the given forces are acting on an object. a. Find the resultant force. b. What additional force is required for the given forces to be in equilibrium? 79. F1 = 3i - 5j, 80. F1 = -2i + 3j, 81.
F2 F1 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 F4 F3 x y

84. Use the procedure outlined in Exercise 83 to solve this exercise. A plane is flying at a speed of 400 miles per hour on a bearing of N50W. The wind is blowing at 30 miles per hour on a bearing of N25E. a. Approximate the planes ground speed to the nearest mile per hour. b. Approximate the planes true course to the nearest tenth of a degree. What is its true bearing? 85. A plane is flying at a speed of 320 miles per hour on a bearing of N70E. Its ground speed is 370 miles per hour and its true course is 30. Find the speed, to the nearest mile per hour, and the direction angle, to the nearest tenth of a degree, of the wind. 86. A plane is flying at a speed of 540 miles per hour on a bearing of S36E. Its ground speed is 500 miles per hour and its true bearing is S44E. Find the speed, to the nearest mile per hour, and the direction angle, to the nearest tenth of a degree, of the wind.

F2 = 6i + 2j F2 = i - j, F3 = 5i - 12j

4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4

Writing in Mathematics
y

82.

87. What is a directed line segment? 88. What are equal vectors?
8

F2

6 40 20 F3 4 0

F1 70 x

89. If vector v is represented by an arrow, how is -3v represented? 90. If vectors u and v are represented by arrows, describe how the vector sum u + v is represented. 91. What is the vector i? 92. What is the vector j? 93. What is a position vector? How is a position vector represented using i and j? 94. If v is a vector between any two points in the rectangular coordinate system, explain how to write v in terms of i and j. 95. If two vectors are expressed in terms of i and j, explain how to find their sum. 96. If two vectors are expressed in terms of i and j, explain how to find their difference. 97. If a vector is expressed in terms of i and j, explain how to find the scalar multiplication of the vector and a given scalar k.
v+w

83. The figure shows a small plane flying at a speed of 180 miles per hour on a bearing of N50E. The wind is blowing from west to east at 40 miles per hour. The figure indicates that v represents the velocity of the plane in still air and w represents the velocity of the wind.
y Plane's speed: 180 miles per hour

v 50 w Wind's speed: 40 miles per hour

98. What is the zero vector? 99. Describe one similarity between the zero vector and the number 0. 100. Explain how to find the unit vector in the direction of any given vector v. 101. Explain how to write a vector in terms of its magnitude and direction. 102. You are on an airplane. The pilot announces the planes speed over the intercom. Which speed do you think is being reported: the speed of the plane in still air or the speed after the effect of the wind has been accounted for? Explain your answer. 103. Use vectors to explain why it is difficult to hold a heavy stack of books perfectly still for a long period of time. As you become exhausted, what eventually happens? What does this mean in terms of the forces acting on the books?

a. Express v and w in terms of their magnitudes and direction angles. b. Find the resultant vector, v + w. c. The magnitude of v + w, called the ground speed of the plane, gives its speed relative to the ground. Approximate the ground speed to the nearest mile per hour. d. The direction angle of v + w gives the planes true course relative to the ground. Approximate the true course to the nearest tenth of a degree. What is the planes true bearing?

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732 Chapter 7 Additional Topics in Trigonometry

Critical Thinking Exercises


Make Sense? In Exercises 104107, determine whether
each statement makes sense or does not make sense, and explain your reasoning. 104. I used a vector to represent a wind velocity of 13 miles per hour from the west. 105. I used a vector to represent the average yearly rate of change in a mans height between ages 13 and 18. 106. Once Ive found a unit vector u, the vector -u must also be a unit vector. 107. The resultant force of two forces that each have a magnitude of one pound is a vector whose magnitude is two pounds. In Exercises 108111, use the figure shown to determine whether each statement is true or false. If the statement is false, make the necessary change(s) to produce a true statement.
D F C E B A G

113. An airplane has an air speed of 240 miles per hour and a compass heading of 280. A steady wind of 30 miles per hour is blowing in the direction of 265. What is the planes true speed relative to the ground? What is its compass heading relative to the ground? 114. Two tugboats are pulling on a large ship that has gone aground. One tug pulls with a force of 2500 pounds in a compass direction of 55. The second tug pulls with a force of 2000 pounds in a compass direction of 95. Find the magnitude and the compass direction of the resultant force. 115. You want to fly your small plane due north, but there is a 75 kilometer wind blowing from west to east. a. Find the direction angle for where you should head the plane if your speed relative to the ground is 310 kilometers per hour. b. If you increase your air speed, should the direction angle in part (a) increase or decrease? Explain your answer.

Preview Exercises
Exercises 116118 will help you prepare for the material covered in the next section. 116. Find the obtuse angle u, rounded to the nearest tenth of a degree, satisfying cos u = 31-12 + 1 -22142 7v7 7w7 ,

108. A + B = E 109. D + A + B + C = 0 110. B - E = G - F 111. 7A7 = 7 C7 v 112. Let v = ai + bj. Show that is a unit vector in the 7v7 direction of v. In Exercises 113114, refer to the navigational compass shown in the figure. The compass is marked clockwise in degrees that start at north 0.

where v = 3i - 2j and w = -i + 4j. 117. If w = -2i + 6j, find the following vector: 21-22 + 41-62 7w7 2 w.

118. Consider the triangle formed by vectors u, v, and w.


y (a1, b1) v u (a 2, b 2) w x

N, 0 (0, 0) W, 270 E, 90

S, 180

b. Use the coordinates of the points shown in the figure to write algebraic expressions for 7 u 7, 7u7 2, 7 v7, 7v7 2, 7w7, and 7 w7 2.

a. Use the magnitudes of the three vectors to write the Law of Cosines for the triangle shown in the figure: 7 u7 2 = ?.

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Section 7.7 The Dot Product 733

Section Objectives
Find the dot product of two vectors. Find the angle between two vectors. Use the dot product to determine if two vectors are orthogonal.

7.7

The Dot Product


alk about hard work! I can see the weightlifters muscles quivering from the exertion of holding the barbell in a stationary position above her head. Still, Im not sure if shes doing as much work as I am, sitting at my desk with my brain quivering from studying trigonometric functions and their applications. Would it surprise you to know that neither you nor the weightlifter are doing any work at all? The definition of work in physics and mathematics is not the same as what we mean by work in everyday use. To understand what is involved in real work, we turn to a new vector operation called the dot product.

Find the projection of a vector onto another vector. Express a vector as the sum of two orthogonal vectors. Compute work.

Find the dot product of two vectors.

The Dot Product of Two Vectors


The operations of vector addition and scalar multiplication result in vectors. By contrast, the dot product of two vectors results in a scalar (a real number), rather than a vector.

Definition of the Dot Product


If v = a1i + b1 j and w = a 2 i + b2 j are vectors, the dot product v # w is defined as follows: v # w = a1a2 + b1 b2 . The dot product of two vectors is the sum of the products of their horizontal components and their vertical components.

EXAMPLE 1
a. v # w

Finding Dot Products


c. v # v.

If v = 5i - 2j and w = - 3i + 4j, find each of the following dot products: b. w # v

Solution To find each dot product, multiply the two horizontal components, and
then multiply the two vertical components. Finally, add the two products. a. v w=5(3)+(2)(4)=15-8=23
Multiply the horizontal components and multiply the vertical components of v = 5i 2j and w = 3i + 4j.

b. w v=3(5)+4(2)=15-8=23
Multiply the horizontal components and multiply the vertical components of w = 3i + 4j and v = 5i 2j.

c. v v=5(5)+(2)(2)=25+4=29
Multiply the horizontal components and multiply the vertical components of v = 5i 2j and v = 5i 2j.

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734 Chapter 7 Additional Topics in Trigonometry

Check Point
dot products: a. v # w

If v = 7i - 4j and w = 2i - j, find each of the following c. w # w.

b. w # v

In Example 1 and Check Point 1, did you notice that v # w and w # v produced the same scalar? The fact that v # w = w # v follows from the definition of the dot product. Properties of the dot product are given in the following box. Proofs for some of these properties are given in the appendix.

Properties of the Dot Product


If u, v, and w are vectors, and c is a scalar, then 1. u # v = v # u 2. u # 1v + w2 = u # v + u # w 3. 0 # v = 0 4. v # v = 7 v 7 2
y

5. 1cu2 # v = c1u # v2 = u # 1cv2

The Angle between Two Vectors


(a1, b1) v u (0, 0) w u (a 2, b 2) x

Figure 7.64

The Law of Cosines can be used to derive another formula for the dot product. This formula will give us a way to find the angle between two vectors. Figure 7.64 shows vectors v = a1i + b1j and w = a2 i + b2j. By the definition of the dot product, we know that v # w = a1 a2 + b1b2 . Our new formula for the dot product involves the angle between the vectors, shown as u in the figure. Apply the Law of Cosines to the triangle shown in the figure. u 2= v 2+ w 2-2 v w cos u
u = (a1 a2)i + (b1 b2)j u = (a1 a2)2 + (b1 b2)2 v = a1i + b1 j v = a12 + b12 w = a2i + b2 j w = a22 + b 22

Use the Law of Cosines.

1a1 - a222 + 1b1 - b222 = 1a2 + b22 + 1a2 + b22 - 2 7v7 7w7 cos u 1 1 2 2 a 2 - 2a1 a2 + a2 + b2 - 2b1 b2 + b2 = a2 + b2 + a2 + b2 - 27v 7 7w7 cos u 1 2 1 2 1 1 2 2 -2a1 a2 - 2b1 b2 = -27v 7 7w7 cos u a1a2+b1b2= v w cos u
By definition, v w = a1a2 + b1b2 .

Substitute the squares of the magnitudes of vectors u, v, and w into the Law of Cosines. Square the binomials using 1A - B22 = A2 - 2AB + B2. Subtract a2 , a2 , b2 , and b2 from 2 1 1 2 both sides of the equation. Divide both sides by - 2.

v # w = 7v7 7 w7 cos u

Substitute v # w for the expression on the left side of the equation.

Alternative Formula for the Dot Product


If v and w are two nonzero vectors and u is the smallest nonnegative angle between them, then v # w = 7v 7 7w7 cos u.

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Section 7.7 The Dot Product 735 Find the angle between two vectors. Solving the formula in the box for cos u gives us a formula for finding the angle between two vectors:

Formula for the Angle between Two Vectors


If v and w are two nonzero vectors and u is the smallest nonnegative angle between v and w, then cos u = v#w 7v7 7w7 and u = cos-1 v#w . 7v7 7w7

EXAMPLE 2
y 5 (1, 4) 4 w = i + 4j u 2 3 4 5 (3, 2) v = 3i 2j x

Finding the Angle between Two Vectors

Find the angle u between the vectors v = 3i - 2j and w = -i + 4j, shown in Figure 7.65. Round to the nearest tenth of a degree.

Solution

Use the formula for the angle between two vectors. v#w 7v7 7w7
2

cos u = =

Begin with the formula for the cosine of the angle between two vectors. Substitute the given vectors in the numerator. Find the magnitude of each vector in the denominator. Find the dot product in the numerator. Simplify in the denominator. Perform the indicated operations.

5 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5

Figure 7.65 Finding the angle


between two vectors

31-12 + 1-22142 213 217 2221 11

43 + 1-22 41-12 + 4
2 2

13i - 2j2 # 1-i + 4j2

= -

The angle u between the vectors is u = cos-1 2221 11

L 137.7.

Use a calculator.

Check Point
Use the dot product to determine if two vectors are orthogonal.

2 Find the angle between the vectors v = 4i - 3j and w = i + 2j. Round to the nearest tenth of a degree.

Parallel and Orthogonal Vectors


Two vectors are parallel when the angle u between the vectors is 0 or 180. If u = 0, the vectors point in the same direction. If u = 180, the vectors point in opposite directions. Figure 7.66 shows parallel vectors.
u v w u = 0 and cos u = 1. Vectors point in the same direction. v w

u = 180 and cos u = -1. Vectors point in opposite directions.

Figure 7.66 Parallel vectors

v u w

Two vectors are orthogonal when the angle between the vectors is 90, shown in Figure 7.67. (The word orthogonal, rather than perpendicular, is used to describe vectors that meet at right angles.) We know that v # w = 7v7 7w7 cos u. If v and w are orthogonal, then Conversely, if v and w are vectors such that v # w = 0, then 7v7 = 0 or 7w7 = 0 or cos u = 0. If cos u = 0, then u = 90, so v and w are orthogonal. v # w = 7v7 7w7 cos 90 = 7v 7 7w7102 = 0.

Figure 7.67
Orthogonal vectors: u = 90 and cos u = 0

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736 Chapter 7 Additional Topics in Trigonometry


The discussion at the bottom of the previous page is summarized as follows:

The Dot Product and Orthogonal Vectors


y 5 4 3 w = i + 2j 2 1 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5

Two nonzero vectors v and w are orthogonal if and only if v # w = 0. Because 0 # v = 0, the zero vector is orthogonal to every vector v.

EXAMPLE 3
u 2 3 4 5 6 x

Determining Whether Vectors Are Orthogonal

Are the vectors v = 6i - 3j and w = i + 2j orthogonal?

Solution The vectors are orthogonal if their dot product is 0. Begin by finding v # w.
v # w = 16i - 3j2 # 1i + 2j2 = 6112 + 1-32122 = 6 - 6 = 0 The dot product is 0. Thus, the given vectors are orthogonal. They are shown in Figure 7.68.

v = 6i 3j

Figure 7.68 Orthogonal vectors

Check Point
Find the projection of a vector onto another vector.

Are the vectors v = 2i + 3j and w = 6i - 4j orthogonal?

Projection of a Vector Onto Another Vector


You know how to add two vectors to obtain a resultant vector. We now reverse this process by expressing a vector as the sum of two orthogonal vectors. By doing this, you can determine how much force is applied in a particular direction. For example, Figure 7.69 shows a boat on a tilted ramp. The force due to gravity, F, is pulling straight down on the boat. Part of this force, F1 , is pushing the boat down the ramp. Another part of this force, F2 , is pressing the boat against the ramp, at a right angle to the incline. These two orthogonal vectors, F1 and F2 , are called the vector components of F. Notice that F = F1 + F2 . A method for finding F1 and F2 involves projecting a vector onto another vector. Figure 7.70 shows two nonzero vectors, v and w, with the same initial point. The angle between the vectors, u, is acute in Figure 7.70(a) and obtuse in Figure 7.70(b). A third vector, called the vector projection of v onto w, is also shown in each figure, denoted by projwv.
v u w projw v projw v w u v

F1 F2 F

Figure 7.69

Figure 7.70(a)

Figure 7.70(b)

How is the vector projection of v onto w formed? Draw the line segment from the terminal point of v that forms a right angle with a line through w, shown in red. The projection of v onto w lies on a line through w, and is parallel to vector w. This vector begins at the common initial point of v and w. It ends at the point where the dashed red line segment intersects the line through w. Our goal is to determine an expression for projw v. We begin with its magnitude. By the definition of the cosine function, cos u= projwv v
This is the magnitude of the vector projection of v onto w.

7v 7 cos u = 7projwv7 7projw v 7 = 7v7 cos u.

Multiply both sides by 7v7. Reverse the two sides.

We can rewrite the right side of this equation and obtain another expression for the magnitude of the vector projection of v onto w. To do so, use the alternate formula for the dot product, v # w = 7 v7 7w7 cos u.

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Page 737

Section 7.7 The Dot Product 737 Divide both sides of v # w = 7v 7 7w7 cos u by 7w7: v#w = 7v7 cos u. 7w7

The expression on the right side of this equation, 7v 7 cos u, is the same expression that appears in the formula for 7projwv 7. Thus, 7projw v7 = 7v 7 cos u = v#w . 7w 7

We use the formula for the magnitude of projwv to find the vector itself. This is done by finding the scalar product of the magnitude and the unit vector in the direction of w. projwv=a v w w v w w b a b= w w w2
This is the unit vector in the direction of w.

This is the magnitude of the vector projection of v onto w.

The Vector Projection of v Onto w


If v and w are two nonzero vectors, the vector projection of v onto w is projwv = v#w w. 7w7 2

EXAMPLE 4
y 7 6 5 4 v 1 2 3 4 x

Finding the Vector Projection of One Vector Onto Another

If v = 2i + 4j and w = -2i + 6j, find the vector projection of v onto w.

Solution

The vector projection of v onto w is found using the formula for projwv. projwv = 12i + 4j2 # 1-2i + 6j2 v#w w = w 2 2 7w 7 A 41-222 + 62 B 21-22 + 4162 20 w = 1 1-2i + 6j2 = -i + 3j = w = 2 2 40 A 240 B

projw v 4 3 2 1 1 2

Figure 7.71 The vector projection of v onto w

The three vectors, v, w, and projw v, are shown in Figure 7.71.

Check Point
v onto w. Express a vector as the sum of two orthogonal vectors.

If v = 2i - 5j and w = i - j, find the vector projection of

We use the vector projection of v onto w, projwv, to express v as the sum of two orthogonal vectors.

The Vector Components of v


Let v and w be two nonzero vectors. Vector v can be expressed as the sum of two orthogonal vectors, v1 and v2 , where v1 is parallel to w and v2 is orthogonal to w. v1 = projwv = v#w w, 7w7 2 v2 = v - v1

Thus, v = v1 + v2 . The vectors v1 and v2 are called the vector components of v. The process of expressing v as v1 + v2 is called the decomposition of v into v1 and v2 .

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738 Chapter 7 Additional Topics in Trigonometry EXAMPLE 5 Decomposing a Vector into Two Orthogonal Vectors

Let v = 2i + 4j and w = -2i + 6j. Decompose v into two vectors, v1 and v2 , where v1 is parallel to w and v2 is orthogonal to w.

Solution These are the vectors we worked with in Example 4. We use the formulas in the box on the previous page.
v1 = projwv = -i + 3j v2 = v - v1 = 12i + 4j2 - 1-i + 3j2 = 3i + j
We obtained this vector in Example 4.

5 Let v = 2i - 5j and w = i - j. (These are the vectors from Check Point 4.) Decompose v into two vectors, v1 and v2 , where v1 is parallel to w and v2 is orthogonal to w.
Check Point
Compute work.

Work: An Application of the Dot Product


The bad news: Your car just died. The good news: It died on a level road just 200 feet from a gas station. Exerting a constant force of 90 pounds, and not necessarily whistling as you work, you manage to push the car to the gas station.
Force: 90 pounds

A 200 feet

Although you did not whistle, you certainly did work pushing the car 200 feet from point A to point B. How much work did you do? If a constant force F is applied to an object, moving it from point A to point B in the direction of the force, the work, W, done is You pushed with a force of 90 pounds for a distance of 200 feet. The work done by your force is W = 190 pounds21200 feet2 or 18,000 foot-pounds. Work is often measured in foot-pounds or in newton-meters. The photo on the left shows an adult pulling a small child in a wagon. Work is being done. However, the situation is not quite the same as pushing your car. Pushing the car, the force you applied was along the line of motion. By contrast, the force of the adult pulling the wagon is not applied along the line of the wagons motion. In this case, the dot product is used to determine the work done by the force. W = 1magnitude of force21distance from A to B2.

Definition of Work
The work, W, done by a force F moving an object from A to B is ! W = F # AB. When computing work, it is often easier to use the alternative formula for the dot product. Thus, W=F AB= F AB cos u.
F is the magnitude of the force. AB is the distance over which the constant force is applied. u is the angle between the force and the direction of motion.

It is correct to refer to W as either the work done or the work done by the force.

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Section 7.7 The Dot Product 739

EXAMPLE 6
30 po un ds

Computing Work

35

A child pulls a sled along level ground by exerting a force of 30 pounds on a rope that makes an angle of 35 with the horizontal. How much work is done pulling the sled 200 feet?

Solution
Figure 7.72 Computing work done pulling
the sled 200 feet

The situation is illustrated in Figure 7.72. The work done is W= F AB cos u=(30)(200) cos 35 4915.
Magnitude of the force is 30 pounds. Distance is 200 feet. The angle between the force and the sleds motion is 35.

Thus, the work done is approximately 4915 foot-pounds.

Check Point

6 A child pulls a wagon along level ground by exerting a force of 20 pounds on a handle that makes an angle of 30 with the horizontal. How much work is done pulling the wagon 150 feet?
35. v = i + 3j, w = -2i + 5j 36. v = 2i + 4j, w = -3i + 6j 37. v = i + 2j, w = 3i + 6j 38. v = 2i + j, w = 6i + 3j

Exercise Set 7.7


Practice Exercises
In Exercises 18, use the given vectors to find v # w and v # v. 1. 3. 5. 6. 7. v v v v v = = = = = 3i + j, w = i + 3j 2. v = 3i + 3j, w = i + 4j 5i - 4j, w = -2i - j 4. v = 7i - 2j, w = -3i - j -6i - 5j, w = -10i - 8j -8i - 3j, w = -10i - 5j 8. v = i, w = -5j 5i, w = j u = 2i - j, v = 3i + j, and w = i + 4j. Find each specified scalar. 9. 11. 13. 15. u # 1v + w2 u#v + u#w 14u2 # v 41u # v2 10. 12. 14. 16. v # 1u + w2 v#u + v#w 15v2 # w 51v # w2

Practice Plus
In Exercises 3942, let u = -i + j, v = 3i - 2j, and w = -5j. Find each specified scalar or vector. 39. 5u # 13v - 4w2 40. 4u # 15v - 3w2 41. proju1v + w2 42. proju1v - w2 In Exercises 4344, find the angle, in degrees, between v and w. 3p 4p 3p 4p 43. v = 2 cos i + 2 sin j, w = 3 cos i + 3 sin j 3 3 2 2 5p 5p 44. v = 3 cos i + 3 sin j, w = 2 cos pi + 2 sin pj 3 3 In Exercises 4550, determine whether v and w are parallel, orthogonal, or neither. 3i - 5j, w = 6i - 10j -2i + 3j, w = -6i + 9j 3i - 5j, w = 6i + 10j -2i + 3j, w = -6i - 9j 18 49. v = 3i - 5j, w = 6i + j 5 50. v = -2i + 3j, w = -6i - 4j 45. 46. 47. 48. v v v v = = = =

In Exercises 916, let

In Exercises 1722, find the angle between v and w. Round to the nearest tenth of a degree. 17. 18. 19. 21. v v v v = = = = 2i - j, w = 3i + 4j -2i + 5j, w = 3i + 6j -3i + 2j, w = 4i - j 20. v = i + 2j, w = 4i - 3j 22. v = 3j, w = 4i + 5j 6i, w = 5i + 4j

In Exercises 2332, use the dot product to determine whether v and w are orthogonal. 23. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 31. v v v v v v v = = = = = = = 24. v = i + j, w = -i + j i + j, w = i - j 2i + 8j, w = 4i - j 8i - 4j, w = -6i - 12j 2i - 2j, w = -i + j 5i - 5j, w = i - j 30. v = 5i, w = -6i 3i, w = -4i 32. v = 5i, w = -6j 3i, w = -4j

Application Exercises
51. The components of v = 240i + 300j represent the respective number of gallons of regular and premium gas sold at a station. The components of w = 2.90i + 3.07j represent the respective prices per gallon for each kind of gas. Find v # w and describe what the answer means in practical terms. 52. The components of v = 180i + 450j represent the respective number of one-day and three-day videos rented from a video store. The components of w = 3i + 2j represent the prices to rent the one-day and three-day videos, respectively. Find v # w and describe what the answer means in practical terms.

In Exercises 3338, find projwv. Then decompose v into two vectors, v1 and v2 , where v1 is parallel to w and v2 is orthogonal to w. 33. v = 3i - 2j, w = i - j 34. v = 3i - 2j, w = 2i + j

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740 Chapter 7 Additional Topics in Trigonometry


53. Find the work done in pushing a car along a level road from point A to point B, 80 feet from A, while exerting a constant force of 95 pounds. Round to the nearest foot-pound. 54. Find the work done when a crane lifts a 6000-pound boulder through a vertical distance of 12 feet. Round to the nearest foot-pound. 55. A wagon is pulled along level ground by exerting a force of 40 pounds on a handle that makes an angle of 32 with the horizontal. How much work is done pulling the wagon 100 feet? Round to the nearest foot-pound. 56. A wagon is pulled along level ground by exerting a force of 25 pounds on a handle that makes an angle of 38 with the horizontal. How much work is done pulling the wagon 100 feet? Round to the nearest foot-pound. 57. A force of 60 pounds on a rope is used to pull a box up a ramp inclined at 12 from the horizontal. The figure shows that the rope forms an angle of 38 with the horizontal. How much work is done pulling the box 20 feet along the ramp?
60 pounds 38 12

Writing in Mathematics
65. Explain how to find the dot product of two vectors. 66. Using words and no symbols, describe how to find the dot product of two vectors with the alternative formula 67. 68. 69. 70. 71. v # w = 7v7 7 w7 cos u. Describe how to find the angle between two vectors. What are parallel vectors? What are orthogonal vectors? How do you determine if two vectors are orthogonal? Draw two vectors, v and w, with the same initial point. Show the vector projection of v onto w in your diagram. Then describe how you identified this vector. 72. How do you determine the work done by a force F in moving an object from A to B when the direction of the force is not along the line of motion? 73. A weightlifter is holding a barbell perfectly still above his head, his body shaking from the effort. How much work is the weightlifter doing? Explain your answer. 74. Describe one way in which the everyday use of the word work is different from the definition of work given in this section.

Critical Thinking Exercises


Make Sense? In Exercises 7578, determine whether each statement makes sense or does not make sense, and explain your reasoning. 75. Although I expected vector operations to produce another vector, the dot product of two vectors is not a vector, but a real number. 76. Ive noticed that whenever the dot product is negative, the angle between the two vectors is obtuse. 77. Im working with a unit vector, so its dot product with itself must be 1. 78. The weightlifter does more work in raising 300 kilograms above her head than Atlas, who is supporting the entire world.

58. A force of 80 pounds on a rope is used to pull a box up a ramp inclined at 10 from the horizontal. The rope forms an angle of 33 with the horizontal. How much work is done pulling the box 25 feet along the ramp? 59. A force is given by the vector F = 3i + 2j. The force moves an object along a straight line from the point (4, 9) to the point (10, 20). Find the work done if the distance is measured in feet and the force is measured in pounds. 60. A force is given by the vector F = 5i + 7j. The force moves an object along a straight line from the point (8, 11) to the point (18, 20). Find the work done if the distance is measured in meters and the force is measured in newtons. 61. A force of 4 pounds acts in the direction of 50 to the horizontal. The force moves an object along a straight line from the point (3, 7) to the point (8, 10), with distance measured in feet. Find the work done by the force. 62. A force of 6 pounds acts in the direction of 40 to the horizontal. The force moves an object along a straight line from the point (5, 9) to the point (8, 20), with the distance measured in feet. Find the work done by the force. 63. Refer to Figure 7.69 on page 736. Suppose that the boat weighs 700 pounds and is on a ramp inclined at 30. Represent the force due to gravity, F, using F = - 700j. a. Write a unit vector along the ramp in the upward direction. b. Find the vector projection of F onto the unit vector from part (a). c. What is the magnitude of the vector projection in part (b)? What does this represent? 64. Refer to Figure 7.69 on page 736. Suppose that the boat weighs 650 pounds and is on a ramp inclined at 30. Represent the force due to gravity, F, using F = - 650j. a. Write a unit vector along the ramp in the upward direction. b. Find the vector projection of F onto the unit vector from part (a). c. What is the magnitude of the vector projection in part (b)? What does this represent?

In Exercises 7981, use the vectors u = a1i + b1 j, v = a2 i + b2j, and w = a3i + b3 j, to prove the given property. 79. 81. 82. 83. 84. 85. 80. 1cu2 # v = c1u # v2 u#v = v#u u # 1v + w2 = u # v + u # w If v = - 2i + 5j, find a vector orthogonal to v. Find a value of b so that 15i - 3j and -4i + bj are orthogonal. Prove that the projection of v onto i is 1v # i2i. Find two vectors v and w such that the projection of v onto w is v.

Group Exercise
86. Group members should research and present a report on unusual and interesting applications of vectors.