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Demography is the study of human populations.

Demography is very useful in helping to understand the geography of Canada and other countries. You cant really directly compare number of births or deaths to other countries since the population area What really matters is not the number of births and deaths but the relationship between the number of deaths and births and the size of the population. You can combine the birth and death rate into a very useful measurement called the natural increase rate. The rate of increase or decrease has a big impact on the lives of many people. A population that is growing rapidly may have some serious problems providing enough housing, education, healthcare, and jobs for everyone. A population that is declining there may be a shortage of works and customers to meet the needs of the countries businesses. Demography First people were hunter-gathers, they were like cavemen except they were nomads. Despite rapid growing population, birth rate is slowing. The gradual increase is due to people settling down and being the Agriculture Revolution. Parasite singles in negative growth or no growth countries go home after university and stay with the parents and live off what they provide Most of the countries in the world that are getting an increasing population are developing countries Most of the countries in the world are getting decreasing population are industrial (developed) countries. Year Population 0 250 million 1800 1 billion 1930 2 billion 1960 3 billion 1975 4 billion 1987 5 billion 2000 6 billion 2011 7 billion A little history..... For approximately 200,000 years, the world human population remained steady (very little increase or decrease). Then, starting about 5 10 thousand years ago, the human population started to very gradually rise.

Finally, starting a couple hundred years ago, the human population started to increase very rapidly. Currently, we are still in this phase of very rapid population increase Why was there..... ....very little change in population from 200,000 years ago to about 10,000 years ago? Humans were hunter-gathers during this time. They lacked medicine, often lacked enough food, and had to constantly move from place to place. As a result, humans lived much shorter lives and could not have many children. .....a gradual increase in population from 10,000 years ago to about 200 years ago? Humans discovered how to raise crops and livestock (the Agricultural Revolution). They now had a more stable and reliable source of food and could settle into villages, towns, and cities. As a result, humans started to live longer and have more children. .....a rapid rise in population from about 200 years ago to the present? Starting around the time of the Industrial Revolution, humans made a number of significant discoveries. Medical advances, improved sanitation practices, and modern technology allowed humans to live longer and have more children survive into adulthood. Lets take a closer look World population has exploded in the last 200 years. Population by country Even though the world population is rapidly increasing, some countries are actually experiencing slow growth, no growth, or even negative growth. For example: Slow growth Canada, USA, France No growth Spain, Austria, Finland Negative growth Germany, Russia, Japan However, most countries worldwide are growing at a moderate or high rate Generally speaking: Developing countries are experiencing rapid population growth Developed (industrialized) countries are experiencing slow population growth So why is this the case? Why do developing countries have rapid population growth, whereas developed countries have slow population growth? Why is because in some countries like Africa, women are not treated equally and men make the decisions. So they can choose how many kids they have.

3 Important Stages Though out our lives, we play different roles in our society. Demographers have identified the following stages: 1. Children (0 15) 2. Working Adults (16 64) 3. Older Adults (65 and older) Support Generally speaking, children and older adults have to be dependent/supported by working adults. The proportion of the population that has to be supported is called the dependency load. Dependency Load A high dependency load (i.e. lots of children, older people, or both) means that the working adults population has a lot of pressure to provide many essentials such as: 1. Education = schools, high schools 2. Housing = welfare, subsidised housing 3. Health Care = hospitals 4. Old Age Homes = retirement homes Currently, Canada has a dependency load of 33% (21% children and 12% elderly people). Luckily Canadas young adults/working adults can support this dependency load. Currently, Niger in northern Africa has a dependency load of 52% (49% children and 3% elderly). This is far too high for a poor country to support. As a result many Nigerians lack many essentials such as education, health care, and proper housing. Population Pyramid A useful tool that demographers use to study population is something called a population pyramid. It allows demographers to see population trends, as well as things like the dependency load of younger and older. Co hoard is an age span/age group. Generally speaking, there are 3 different types of basic shapes that most population pyramids take: 1. Expansive a. Rapid population growth b. High birth and death rate c. Short life expectancy d. Large number of children e. Few elderly f. Typical of a developing country

g. High dependency load 2. Stable a. Slow/no population growth b. Low birth and death rate c. Long life expectancy d. Moderate number of children e. Moderate number of elderly f. Low dependency load g. Typical of most developed countries 3. Constrictive a. Negative population b. Low birth rate c. Moderate death rate d. Long life expectancy e. Few children and large number of elderly f. High dependency load g. Typical of developed countries

Factors That Affect Immigration Immigrants or descendents of immigrants make up 98% of Canadas population Canada is often described as a tossed salad of peoples, or more formally, a multicultural society. PUSH FACTORS: Reasons for leaving your own country PULL FACTORS: Factors which attract someone to another country INTERVENING OBSTACLES: Factors that discourage or stop a person from following through on his or her decision to immigrate. An immigrant coming to the USA is expected become American, adopt American culture and speak English. An immigrant coming to Canada isnt expected to adopt Canadian culture you can still follow your own religion and culture. Gay marriage is allowed unlike in the USA where only a few states allow it Marijuana is allowed for medical purposes unlike the USA it is illegal under all cases Abortion is allowed in Canada; well in the USA it is illegal Canadian Immigration Patterns Immigration to Canada has had periods of boom and bust. These were caused by events that occurred both in Canada and in other countries. When? What Happened? Why? 1840s Arrival of thousands of Irish Irish potato crops fails; facing settlers starvation, many Irish move to Canada and other countries. 1905 1914 Massive immigration from Canadian Government Eastern Europe to the wanted to settle the Prairies; Canadian West offered free land and other incentives to immigrants. 1915 1919 Little Immigration World War I and worldwide influenza epidemic 1930 1945 Little Immigration Worldwide economic depression and World War II 1945 1950 Many Italians World War II devastated Italy; Italians searched for economic opportunities in Canada. 1956 Many Hungarians come to Hungarians revolt against the Canada Russians failed; refugees fled to Canada to avoid punishment. 1980 1997 Arrival of thousands of Hong Residents of Hong Kong Kong Chinese sought political stability before China took control of Hong Kong in 1997,

Some terms Originally, mistakenly called Indians Today they are more correctly called: Native people First Nations people Inuit 3 Main Groups For legal purposes, the Canadian government divided the Native people in to 3 groups: 1. Inuit 2. First Nations 3. Mtis Formerly called Eskimos Live in the Northern parts of Canada, as well as Alaska, Greenland, Scandinavia (Norway, Sweden, Finland, and Denmark), and Russia. First Nations Comprised of the native peoples that live south of the Inuit (the rest of Canada). Some of the (many) First Nations groups are: Cree Ojibwa Iroquois Haida Mtis These are people who are mixed Aboriginal and European descent. Some of the original European explorers married First Nations people Their descendants have a long history and are considered a separate group called the Mtis. The Mtis are found all over Canada, but especially in the western provinces of Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta. A brief history Native peoples came from Asia over 25,000 years ago At the time, North America and Asia were attached by a land bridge. Most likely, these original immigrants were hunter perusing prey (i.e. caribou) They may have also been seeking new land to settle due to population pressures in Asia. Over the course of thousands of years, these new arrivals to North America increased in population and spread all over North and South America, forming various tribes. Each tribe developed their own language, beliefs, and culture

Nearby tribes interacted with each other, sometimes peacefully (i.e. trading goods) and sometimes not (i.e. fighting for territory). West Coast Northwest Coast region: Haida, Bella Coola, Nanaimo, Nootka, Tanitan, and Chikotin. One room ceder lodge = 40 60 people Dependent on fishing and whaling Generally, were the only settled aboriginals in Canada because of an abundant food supply from rivers and the ocean. Interior Plains Piegan, Sioux, Plains Cree, and Nahani Lived in portable teepees, because they followed the buffalo herds. Note: they did NOT have horses until the Europeans arrived. Eastern Canada Cree, Ojibwa, Algonquian, Naskapi, Huron, Iroquois, and Mohawk Were also nomadic they followed their prey (i.e. moose and deer). Lived in longhouses Travelled by foot or by canoe. The Arctic Some Inuit groups: Mackenzie, Copper, Caribou, Netsilik, Iglulik, and Labrador. Live in a very harsh climate Lived in igloos Travelled by dog sled and kayak Hunted caribou, whale, and seal

Urban built up city areas 82% Rural countryside 18% Suburb between the urban area and rural area Urban and Rural Interactions There has been a significant movement of people in Canada between urban and rural areas over time. In most cases, people in rural areas live in a neighbourhood, village, or town. People in urban areas live in suburb, city, or metropolis. These different types of places to live are known as the urban hierarchy (each one is a larger settlement going up the line than the one before it). Hamlet less than 100 people Urban Hierarchy Neighbourhood Village Town Suburb City Metropolis Urbanization Urbanization is the movement of people UP the urban hierarchy. This has been the main migration pattern of Canadians since the creation of our country in 1867 until the 1990s. The chart below illustrates the overall percentage of Canadas population living in rural and urban areas over the years. Year % Rural % Urban 1871 77 23 1931 50 50 1976 34 66 2011 17 83 Why did people leave the countryside to live in the big cities? 1. Reduced need for farm labour due to farm modernization (e.g. tractors) 2. Improvements in mobility (better transportation systems reduces need for local stores). 3. Consolidation of goods and services (most things one need has relocated to urban areas). Counter Urbanization Counter urbanization is the movement of people DOWN the urban hierarchy. This has been the trend for many parts of Canada since the late 1970s (metropolis neighbourhood). In general, there are now three categories of people living in rural areas.

1. Newcomers retain ties to urban or younger, well educated, well off, managers/processionals. 2. Home comers young families returning to provide rural upbringing to children 3. Ruralites having never lived in an urban core. Why are people leaving the cites to live in smaller towns and villages? 1. Health issues, security, community. 2. Back to nature movement (desire to live in the country). 3. Increase in telecommuniting (less need to be at an office). 4. Cheaper land and house prices. Urban Land Use Cities are made up of very different types of lands. These different land uses produce patterns. Airport Rural Medium and High Density Residential

Urban/Rural Fringe

CBD Central Business District

Industrial

Suburbia

Central Business District Also known as the downtown core or CBD This is where the largest skyscrapers are located within a city

A CBD is also the place where the city originated and often has the most expensive property values. These costs are so high that businesses are often forced to build vertically (i.e. skyscrapers). Examples: Manhattan, Downtown Toronto Does Guelph have a CBD?

Residential Land Uses 1. High Density Residential: High rise apartment buildings, condominiums etc. 2. Medium Density Residential: Townhouses, roughhouses, etc. 3. Low Density Residential: Large suburban homes on lots. Residential refers to any place where people live.

Definitions: Immigrate To move permanently to a new country. Emigrate To leave your home country for good. Demography The study of population Birth Rate Total population divided by average births then multiplied by 1000 Death Rate Total population divided by average deaths then multiplied by 1000 Natural Increase Rate Birth rate Death Rate Immigration Rate Total population divided by average immigrants multiplied by 1000 Emigration Rate Total population divided by average emigrants multiplied by 1000 Net Migration Rate Immigration rate Emigration Rate Population Growth Rate Birth rate death rate + immigration rate emigration rate Migration To move away or to a country permanently Doubling Time The amount of time it takes a number to double Rule of 70 70/population growth rate Dependency Load The percentage of people dependent on others Population Pyramid Percentage of people within age groups on a graph.