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Ontoseno Penangsang

1)
1) Electrical Department, Sepuluh Nopember of Institute Technology
Surabaya, 60111, Indonesia
Single Phase Circuits
Review of Phasors
Real and Reactive Power
Real and Reactive Loads
Power Triangle
Real and Reactive Power
Flow
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Review of Phasors
Goal of phasor analysis is to simplify the
analysis of constant frequency ac systems
v(t) = V
max
cos(et + u
v
)
i(t) = I
max
cos(et + u
I
)
Root Mean Square (RMS) voltage of sinusoid
2
max
0
1
( )
2
T
V
v t dt
T
=
}
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Phasor Representation
j
( )
Euler's Identity: e cos sin
Phasor notation is developed by rewriting
using Euler's identity
( ) 2 cos( )
( ) 2 Re
V
V
j t
j
v t V t
v t V e
u
e u
u u
e u
+
= +
= +
(
=

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Phasor Representation, contd
Then drop the constant terms
( ) Re 2
V cos sin
I cos sin
V
j
V
j t
V V
I I
V V e V
v t Ve
V j V
I j I
u
e
u
u u
u u
= = Z
=
= +
= +
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Advantages of Phasor Analysis
0
2 2
Resistor ( ) ( )
( )
Inductor ( )
1 1
Capacitor ( ) (0)
C
Z = Impedance
R = Resistance
X = Reactance
X
Z = =arctan( )
t
v t Ri t V RI
di t
v t L V j LI
dt
i t dt v V I
j C
R jX Z
R X
R
e
e
|
|
= =
= =
+ =
= + = Z
+
}
Device Time Analysis Phasor
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Sine Wave Basics
RMS a method for computing the effective value
of a time-varying e-m wave.
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Real, Reactive and Apparent
Power in AC Circuits
in DC circuits: P=VI but= in AC circuits: average
power supplied to the load will be affected by the
phase angle u between the voltage and the current.
If load is inductive the phase angle (also called
impedance angle) is positive; (i.e, phase angle of
current will lag the phase angle of the voltage) and
the load will consume both real and positive reactive
power
If the load is capacitive the impedance angle will be
negative (the phase angle of the current will lead the
phase angle of the voltage) and the load will
consume real power and supply reactive power.
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Resistive and Reactive Loads
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Impedance Angle, Current
Angle & Power
Inductive loads positive impedance
angle, current angle lags voltage angle
Capacitive loads negative impedance
angle, current angle leads voltage angle
Both types of loads consume real power
One (inductive) consumes reactive as
well while the other (capacitive) supplies
reactive power
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Real and Reactive Power
Equations
First term is energy flow into the circuit Average =
Real power (P)
Second term is power transferred back and forth
between source and load (Reactive power Q)
v(t) = 2 V cos t
i(t) = 2 I cos (t-)
p(t) = v(t) i(t) = 2VIcos t cos (t-)
p(t) = VI cos (1 + cos 2t) + VI sin sin (2t)
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Real term averages to P = VI cos (+)
Reactive term (amplitude) to Q = VI sin
(+/-)
Reactive power is the power that is first stored and then
released in the magnetic field of an inductor or in the
electric field of a capacitor
Apparent Power (S) is just = VI
Apparent Power
Equation
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Voltage, Current and Power
as a function of time
Voltage
Current
(lagging)
Power
Real Power
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Voltage, Current and Power
as a function of time
Voltage
Current
(in phase)
Power
Real Power
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Voltage, Current and Power
as a function of time
Voltage
Current
(lags 90%)
Reactive Power
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Loads with
Constant Impedance
V = IZ
Substituting into real and reactive power
equations
P = I
2
Z cos u
Q = I
2
Z sin u
S= I
2
Z
Since Z = R + jX = Z cos u + jZ sin u
P = I
2
R and Q = I
2
X real and
reactive power consumed by load
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Complex Power and
Key Relationship of
Phase Angle to V&I
S = P + jQ
S = VI(complex conjugate operator)
If V = VZ30
o
and I = IZ15
o
THEN.. COMPLEX POWER SUPPLIED TO
LOAD :
S = (VZ30
o
)(IZ-15
o
) = VI (Z30
o
-15
o
)
= VI cos(15
o
) + jVI sin(15
o
)
NOTE: Since Phase Angle u = u
v
- u
i
S = VI cos(u) + jVI sin(u) = P + jQ
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S = P + jQ
S = VI cosu + j VI sinu
S = VI(cosu + j sinu)
S = VIe
j
OR S=VIZu
Since V = VZ0
0
and I = IZ-u
S = VI
*
VZ0
IZ-u
u
Complex Power
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Review V, I, Z
If load is inductive then the Phase Angle
(Impedance Angle ZZu
o
) is positive, If
phase angle is positive, the phase angle
of the current flowing through the load
will lag the voltage phase angle across
the load by the impedance angle ZZu
o
.
0
0
0

Z
V
Z
0 V
Z
Z =
Z
Z
= =
V
I
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The Power Triangle
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Real Power Flow
Z = 0 V V
u Z = I I
u cos I
u
V
I
If the component of I along the axis of E is in phase with E, the
power is generated power which is being delivered to the system,
for this component of current is always flowing away from the
positively marked terminal
P, the real part of VI* (Vicos) , is positive.
The Source is a Generator
System
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u Z = I I
Z = 0 V V
u cos I
V
I
u
System
If the component of current along the axis of E is negative (180
0
out
of phase with E), power is being absorbed
P, the real part of VI* (Vicos) , is negative.
The Source is a Motor
Real Power Flow
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Reactive Power Flow
Z = 0 V V
Z = 90 I I
V
I
90
L
X

Positive reactive power equal to |I|


2
X is supplied to the inductance
since inductance draws positive Q.
Q, the imaginary part of VI* (Visin), is positive
I lags V by 90
0
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Reactive Power Flow
u Z = I I
Z = 0 V V
V
I
90
Negative Q must be supplied to the capacitance of the circuit, or
the source with the emf E is receiving positive Q from the capacitor
Q, the imaginary part of VI* (Visin), is negative
I leads V by 90
0
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Example
V = 120Z0
o
V
Z = 20Z-30
o
O
Calculate current I, Power Factor (is it
leading or lagging), real, reactive,
apparent and complex power supplied
to the load
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Three-Phase (3-|) Circuits
What are they?
Generating 3-| Voltages and
Currents
Balanced systems
Wye (Y) and delta (A) connections
Three Phase Power
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What does Three-Phase mean?
A 3-| circuit is a 3-| AC-generation
system serving a 3-| AC load
3 - 1-| AC generators with equal voltage
but phase angle differing from the
others by 120
o
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One Cycle (1/50th sec.)
Common Neutral
A 3-| circuit can have the negative
ends of the 3-| generators connected to
the negative ends of the 3-| AC loads
and one common neutral wire can
complete the system
If the three loads are equal (or
balanced) what will the return current be
in the common neutral?
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If loads are equal.
the return current can be calculated to
be
ZERO!
Neutral is actually unnecessary in a
balanced three-phase system (but is
provided since circumstances may
change)
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Balanced
Three Phase Systems
Balanced
Same amplitude
120phase diff.
Phase shift
i
a
lags u
a
angle
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Three-phase currents
Balance: I
a
+ I
b
+ I
c
=0
No return current
Losses reduced
No return conductor
a
b
c
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Wye (Y) connection
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Wye (Y) connection
I
c
I
a
I
b
a
LOAD SOURCE
a
b
b
c
c
n
n
n : neutral
V
ab
= V
bc
= V
ca
= V
L
: line to line voltage
V
an
= V
bn
= V
cn
= V
p
: line to neutral (phase) voltage
I
c
I
a
I
b
I
a
= I
b
= I
c
= I
L
: line current
= I
p
: phase current
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Voltage Current
Relationships
I
L
= I
p
V
L
= 3 V
p
V
L
, V
p
, I
L
, I
p
: rms values of
voltage and current
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Phasor Diagram
SOURCE = LOAD
V
ab
30
o
o
p cn
120 V V Z =
o
p an
0 V V Z =
o
p bn
V V 120 Z =
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Delta ( ) connection
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Delta ( ) connection
I
c
I
a
I
b
SOURCE
a
b
c
V
ab
= V
bc
= V
ca
= V
L
: line to line voltage
= V
p
: phase voltage
I
ab
I
bc
I
ca
I
c
I
a
I
b
LOAD
a
b
c
I
ab
I
bc
I
ca
I
ab
= I
bc
= I
ca
= I
p
: phase current
I
a
= I
b
= I
c
= I
L
: line current
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Voltage Current
Relationships
V
L
= V
p
I
L
= 3 I
p
V
L
, V
p
, I
L
, I
p
: rms values of
voltage and current
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o
p bc
I I 120 Z =
o
p ca
I I 120 Z =
b
I
o
p ab
I I 0 Z =
o
30
o
p bc
I I 120 Z =
o
p ca
I I 120 Z =
o
p ab
I I 0 Z =
a
I
o
30
Phasor Diagram
SOURCE LOAD
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=ui
R
=ui
L
Three Phase Power
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Three Phase Power
p
a
(t) , p
b
(t) , p
c
(t) : phase power
p
total
(t)= p
a
(t)+ p
b
(t)+ p
c
(t)
three phase power
p
a
(t) = p
b
(t) = p
c
(t)
If voltages and currents balanced
cos need not be zero
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p p p
p p p
Sin I V Q
Cos I V P

3
3
3
3
=
=
FOR A BALANCED THREE PHASE SYSTEM :

p
: phase angle between
phase voltage and phase
current (lagging)
Three Phase Power
THREE PHASE POWER : 3 X PHASE POWER
Watt : real power
Var : reactive power
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Rumus Daya 3 Fasa
p L L
p L L
Sin I V Q
Cos I V P

3
3
3
3
=
=
Three Phase Power
L p
L
p
I I
V
V = = ;
3
3
;
L
p L p
I
I V V = =
For Y connection
For connection
Watt : real power
Var : reactive power
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L L
I V
Q P S
3
2 2
=
+ =
VA
Three Phase Power
APPARENT POWER :
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