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# V.M.K.

V ENGINEERING COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING III YEAR-V SEMESTER THEORY OF COMPUTATION QUESTION BANK UNIT I PART A 1. What is meant by computation? 2. Define concatenation of strings. 3. Define simple abstract model. 4. What are the applications of automata theory? 5. Define finite automation. 6. What are the components are involved in Finite Automation? 7. Define Symbol. 8. List out the types of finite automata. 9. Give the formal definition of DFA. 10. Give the formal definition of NFA. 11. Define transition diagram with example 12. Construct the transition diagram for given table state q0 q1 q0q1 q0 0 1 q1 q1

13. Differentiate NFA and DFA. 14. How will you find out the input string is accepted or not? 15. How will you make a final state in the NFA to DFA conversion? 16. How will you make a final state in the NFA with epsilon to NFA without epsilon conversion? 17. Define transition function with one simple example. 18. Obtain the DFA equivalent to the following NFA.

## 19. Consider the transition diagram as shown below.

Check whether the input string aab is accepted by FA? 20. Consider the DFA as shown below

Show how the string w1=aabba & w2=aba is proceed. 21. List out 10 basic definitions of TOC 22. Define strings and length of string. 23. Define extended transition function 24. Comparison of DFA,NFA and NFA with epsilon move 25. What are the various abstract model machine PART B 1. Briefly explain about finite automata and its types with example. 2. Construct a DFA equivalent to the NFA

## M=({p,q,r,s},{0,1}, , p , {s}) Where is defined in the following table.

3. Construct state diagram and transition table for the given transition function. a) M=({q0,q1,q2},{a , b}, ,q0,{q2}) where is, (q0,a)=(q0,q1}, (q0,b)=(q0}, (q1,a)=(q2}, (q1,b)=(q1}, (q2,a)=(q2}, (q2,b)=q1. b) Check whether the input string W1= ababaa , W2= aaabbaaa is accepted by FA? 4. For a NFA- moves shown below, construct an equivalent NFA without moves.

5. Construct NFA without moves from the NFA given in the diagram?

6. Construct a DFA equivalent to the NFA M=({q0,q1,q2,q3},{a,b}, , q0 , {q3}) Where is defined in the following table. state q0 q0q1 a b q0

q1 q2 q3

q2 q3

q1 q3 q2

7. Construct a deterministic finite automata equivalent to M=({q0,q1,q2,q3},{a,b}, ,q0,{q3}) where is, (q0,a)=(q0,q1}, (q0,b)=(q0}, (q1,a)=(q2}, (q1,b)=(q1}, (q2,a)=(q3}, (q2,b)=(q3}, (q3,b)=(q2}. 8. Construct an equivalent DFA for the following NFA given below,

## 9. Construct an equivalent DFA for the following NFA given below,

10. Give Brief explanation about NFA to DFA Conversion. UNIT-II PART-A 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Define regular Expression. Check (a+b)*(cd) is a regular expression? Check (a.b+) is a regular expression? Write the kleen s theorem for regular expression. List out the closure properties of regular sets. Define pumping lemma. Differentiate L* and L+

## 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

Write the applications of pumping lemma. Define Regular language What are the applications of Regular expressions and Finite automata Write a Regular expression for the language that accepts all strings in which a appears tripled Write a Regular expression for the language such that every string will have at least one a Write the regular expression for the language accepting all combinations of as over the set ={a} . Design the regular expression for the language accepting all combinations of as except the null
.

## over the set ={a} followed by at least one b.

string over the set ={a} 15. Design the regular expression for the language containing all the strings having any number of

as and bs except the null string over the set ={a,b} 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25.
.

Design the regular expression for the language containing all the strings having any number of

as and bs over the set ={a,b} write the regular expression for the language accepting the strings which are starting with 1 and write the regular expression for the language accepting the strings which are ending with 00 .Prove that (0*1*)*=(0+1)* Prove that (ab)*!=(a*b*) How to construct Regular expression from FA?. What is kleen closure . What are the difference between FA and Regular expression? What are the types of closure Write the formula for kleen s theorem part-II. 1. Construct a finite automata equivalent of the following regular expression ((0+1)(0+1))*+((0+1)(0+1)(0+1))* 2. 3. 4. Construct a NFA for the regular expression r=((01+001)*+(0+1)*0*)* Explain the Kleen s theorem in detail. Explain in detail about construction of FA from Regular expression. ending with 0 over the set ={0,1} over the set ={0,1}

PART-B

5. Prove that, Let r be a regular expression then there exist a NFA transition that accepts L(r). 6. 7. 8. a. b. 9. 10. Construct a NFA for the regular expression r=((01+001)*0*)* Briefly explain about pumping lemma. Prove the following grammars are not regular, L={w | w {0,1}* and has equal number of 0s and 1s. L={1i 0i | i>j} is not regular. Draw a NFA Diagram for following regular expression (aa(ba)*+b*aba*) Draw a NFA Diagram for following regular expression (ab+(aab)*)(aa+a) UNIT III PART A 1. What are the advantages in CFG over Regular expressions? 2. Define CFG. 3. Give the formal definition of CFG. 4. Define non terminal and give some example 5. Differentiate terminal and non terminal 6. Let G be the grammar S aB/bA, Aa/aS/bAA, Bb/bS/aBB. For the string aaabbabbba find a left most derivation. 7. Find the language generated by the grammar SaSb, Sab 8. Find L(G). G=({S,C},{a,b},P,S) where P consists of SaCa, CaCa / b. 9. Give short notes about left most derivation. 10. Define ambiguity. 11. How do you simplify the context free grammar? 12. Construct a grammar for the Language L=(an b an / n>=1}. 13. What are the applications of Pumping Lemma? 14. Draw the basic diagram for PDA. 15. What is meant by stack? 16. What are the needs of stack in PDA. 17. Define pushdown automata.

18. Remove the useless production from the given grammar S->A11B/11A,S->B/11, A->0,B-> BB 19. Define instantaneous description of a PDA. 20. Remove the production from the given grammar S->0B1/1B1,B->0B/1B/ 21. What are the components are involved in PDA? 22. What are the ways to accept PDA? 23. Give the diagrammatic representation of PDA. 24. Remove the useless production from the given grammar S->AB/CA,B->BC/AB, A->a,C->Ab/b 25. Remove the unit production from the grammar S->A/0C1,A->B/01/10,C-> /D PART B 1. Explain in detail about simplification of CFG. 2. Find the language are generated by the following grammars. a. S ->aSa/bSb/ b. S->aSb/aAb, A->bAa/ba c. S->aCa, C->aCa/b 3. Write short note on a) Check whether the given grammar is Ambiguous or not E->E+E/E*E/E-E/id. For the string id +id*id b) Check whether the given grammar is Ambiguous or not S->iCtS/iCtSeS/a,C->b 4. Construct left most derivation and right most derivation for the grammar a) S->Aas/a,A->ab b) S aB/bA, Aa/aS/bAA, Bb/bS/aBB. For the string aabbabba . 5. Simplify the following CFG a)Remove the unit production from the grammar S->0A/1B/01,A->0S/00,B->1/A,C->01 b) Remove the production from the grammars->0S/1S/ c) Remove the useless production from the grammar S->AB/CA,B->BC/AB,A->a,C->aB/b 6. Briefly explain about Pushdown automata with example. 7. Construct a PDA accepting { an b2n : n > =1} by empty store. 8. Construct a PDA equivalent to the following grammar S->AA|a, A->SA|b . Test whether abbabb is accepted by PDA.

## an bmcmdn where n,m >= 1. } by final state.

10. Construct a PDA equivalent to the following grammar S->aAA, A->aS/bS/a . Test whether abaaaa is accepted by PDA UNIT IV PART A 1. Define CNF. 2. Write the procedure to eliminate production. 3. Determine whether the grammar G has a useless production? SA,AaA/ ,bA 4. List out the operations are involved in CFG to CNF form. 5. What are the steps are involved in CFG to GNF form? 6. Define GNF. 7. Write the procedure to eliminate unit production 8. What is the need of normalization in grammar 9. List out the closure properties of CFL 10. Give short notes about useless production. 11. Compare FA,PDA and TM 12. Give formal definition of Turing machine. 13. What is Turing machine? 14. What are the special features of TM? 15. Define instantaneous description of TM? 16. What are the applications of TM? 17. What are the various representation of TM? 18. Differentiate PDA and TM. 19. What are the techniques for Turing machine construction? 20. Distinguish finite state machine and Turing machine. 21. What are the advantages in Turing machines over CFG? 22. Draw the model for Turing machine. 23. What is the use of finite control? 24. List out the properties of CFL 25. List out the various elements of TM? Give the representation of Turing machine. PART B

1. Convert the following grammar in to CNF SaAa / bBb / AC / a BC/ b CCDE / DA / B /ab 2. Construct the GNF grammar for the following. SAA / a A SS / b 3. Convert the grammar in to CNF SaSaA / A AabA/b 4. Transform the grammar with productions SabAB AbAB / BBAa / A / in to CNF? 5. Briefly explain about normal forms and its types 6. Explain the following a) Explain any one of the property of CFL b) Remove all unit production, useless symbols, and production for the grammar S->aB/aBB ,A->aaA/aa, B->bB/bbC ,C->B 7. Briefly explain about Turing machine 8. Design a Turing machine to compute f(x)=x+1. 9. Construct a Turing machine that f(n.m)=n+m perform the given addition operation. 10. Construct a TM for zero function f: N->N, f(x)=0.

UNIT V

PART A 1. State Rice theorem. 2. What is Un-decidability? 3. List out the various problems in un-decidability 4. Define universal language. 5. Define Decidability. 6. Give the examples for recursive languages? 7. Give the examples for decidability problems. 8. What is the relationship between computability and decidability? 9. When a problem is said to be decidable? Give example of an un-decidable problem. 10. Give short notes on halting problem 11. List out some of the decidable problems. 12. What is the use of reducibility? 13. Give the short notes about recursive 14. Differentiate recursive and recursively enumerable languages. 15. List out the non trivial properties in Rice theorem. 16. What is Universal Turing machine? 17. Give the formal definition about phase structure grammar? 18. How the halting problem is occurred in TM? 19. Give the short notes about recursively enumerable 20. What is a universal language Lu? 21. What is a Diagonalization language Ld? 22. What are the properties of R E sets are recursively enumerable? 23. Show that AMBTGUTTY problem is un-decidable. 24. What are the different types of grammars 25. What are the concepts used in UTMs? PART B 1. Explain the following i)decidability and decidability problems ii)un- decidability and un-decidability problems iii) Acceptability

iv) Computability 2. Show that the complement of a recursive language is recursive. 3. Show that if a language L and its complement L are both recursively enumerable then L is recursive. 3. Show that Ln is recursively enumerable 4. Show that Lu is not recursive 5. Explain the halting problem is un-decidable. 6. Explain the following i)Phrase structure grammar ii)Recursively enumerable language iii) Recursive language and Recursively enumerable language iv) Diagonalization language 7. Discuss in detail about Universal Turing Machine. 8. Explain in detail about Rice theorem . 9. Show that L1 and L2 are recursive language then L1 U L2 is also a recursive language 10. Define Ld and show that Ld is not recursively enumerable.