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Chapter 13 Measuring soil pH

Key facts
1. pH is the negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion (H ) activity. This is a measure of how acid or alkaline the soil is on a scale of 0 to 14. 2. The ideal pH for most plants in soil is pH 6.5 and pH 5.8 in compost. 3. Calcifuge species prefer acid soils, e.g. heather. 4. Calcicole species are lime-tolerant, e.g. some alpines and Prunus. 5. There are several ways to measure pH. Labs will use a complex pH electrode but the test tube method, using universal indicator solution, is a widely used field technique.

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Background
The importance of pH
pH is used to measure the acidity or alkalinity the growth medium. Plants grown in soils with inappropriate pH will fail. For example, the public are fond of purchasing heathers and other acid-loving species, planting them in alkaline soils and complaining when they grow poorly or die. In addition, the availability of nutrients changes with pH, becoming either decient or toxic in the extremes. The pH at which most nutrients are freely available for absorption by plant roots is pH 6.5 in soils and pH 5.8 in composts. Similarly, there are many plants grown in commercial crop production that will only tolerate a narrow band of acidity. Accurate pH management is therefore vital to ensure success. As horticulturalists we need to know:

the importance of pH methods of measuring soil pH specic plant pH preferences methods to correct soil acidity by liming (raise pH) methods to increase soil acidity by sulphur (lower pH).

The pH scale
pH is measured on a log scale from 0 to 14, as illustrated in Figure 13.1. pH 7.0 is neutral (neither acid or alkaline); below, pH 7.0 is acidic and above, is alkaline.
The pH scale. pH is measured on a log scale from 014: Acid 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Neutral 7 8 9 10 Alkaline 11 12 13 14

Calcifuge species

Calcicole species

Figure 13.1 The pH scale

Plants vary greatly in their tolerance to acidity levels. Lime-loving (alkaline-loving) plants are called calcicole species. Lime hating (acidloving) plants are called calcifuge species. A list of plant pH preferences is given in Table 13.2.
Technically, pH is dened as the negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration.

pH and Hydrogen ion (H ) concentration


pH counts protons of hydrogen ions (H ). It only measures those hydrogen ions free in the soil solution. Protons that are bound to molecules are not counted. However, there is a continual slow release of hydrogen ions into the soil solution from other molecules. In addition, some hydrogen ions leave the soil solution to bind with chemical molecules. Thus there is a dynamic equilibrium where each hydrogen ion is free in solution for a very short time of approximately 2 10 12

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seconds. pH measures this trading activity in and out of the soil solution. A neutral solution has a hydrogen ion concentration of 10 7 (moles per litre). The signicance of this log scale is that, for example, pH 5 is ten times more acidic than pH 6, but one hundred times more acidic than pH 7, and will therefore require substantially more lime to raise the pH. Table 13.1 may help to explain the relationship between pH and some common materials.
Table 13.1 H concentration 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
0 1

Soil reaction pure acids extremely acid extremely acid very strongly acid strongly acid moderately acid slightly acid neutral slightly alkaline moderately alkaline strongly alkaline very strongly alkaline extremely alkaline extremely alkaline pure alkaline

pH 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

Example substance sulphuric acid battery acid, gastric juices worst acid rain record cola, lemon, vinegar, sweat orange, lemonade urine clean rain, coffee distilled water sea water, baking soda soap solution milk of magnesia strong bleach ammonia smelling salts caustic soda solution concentrated sodium hydroxide

2 3

4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

pH range and plant tolerance


The following list gives the pH tolerance range for the most common amenity and commercial crop production species. The optimum pH would normally be in the middle of the range. Where only a lower gure is given, this is the threshold below which plant growth is known to suffer.
Table 13.2 Name pH range Name pH range Name pH range

Loam and mineral soil mediums Nursery stock (including ornamental trees, owers and shrubs) Abelia Acacia Acanthus Aconitum 6.08.0 6.08.0 6.07.0 5.06.0 Acers Adonis Ageratum Ailanthus 5.56.5 6.08.0 6.07.5 6.07.5 Ajuga Althea Alyssum Amaranthus 4.06.0 6.07.5 6.07.5 6.07.5 (Continued )

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Table 13.2 (Continued) Name pH range Name pH range Name pH range

t0020

Nursery stock (including ornamental trees, owers and shrubs) continued Anchusa Androsace Anemone Anthyllis Arbutus Ardisia Arenaria Aristia Armeris Arnice Asperula Ashodoline Aster Astilbe Aubretia Avens Azalea Beauty bush Bergenia Betula papyrifera Bleeding heart Bluebell Broom Buddleia Bupthalum Calendula Calluna vulgaris Camassia Camellia Candytuft Canna Canterburybells Carnation Catalpa Celosia Centaurea Cerastium Chamaecyparis lawsoniana Columnaris 4.55.5 6.07.5 5.06.0 6.07.5 5.06.0 4.06.0 6.08.0 6.08.0 6.07.5 6.07.5 5.06.5 6.08.0 6.08.0 5.57.5 6.08.0 6.07.5 6.07.5 4.56.0 6.07.5 6.07.5 5.56.5 6.07.5 6.07.5 5.06.0 6.07.0 6.08.0 5.57.0 4.55.5 6.08.0 4.56.0 6.07.5 6.08.0 6.07.5 6.07.5 6.08.0 6.07.0 5.06.5 6.07.0 Chrysanthemum Cissus Cistus Clarkia Cleanthus Clematis Colchicum Columbine Convolvulus Coreopsis Coronilla Corydalis Cosmos Cotoneaster Crab apple Crocus Cynoglossum Daffodil Dahlia Day lily Delphinium Deutzia Dianthus Dogwood Elaeagnus Enkianthus Erica carnea Erica cinerea Eucalyptus Euphorbia Everlasting Fir Firethorn Forget-me-not Forsythia Foxglove Fritillaria Fuchsia Gaillardia Gardenia 6.07.0 6.07.5 6.07.5 6.06.5 6.07.5 5.57.0 5.56.5 6.07.0 6.08.0 5.06.0 6.57.5 6.08.0 5.08.0 6.08.0 6.07.5 6.08.0 6.07.5 6.06.5 6.07.5 6.08.0 6.07.5 6.07.5 6.07.5 5.06.5 5.07.5 5.06.0 4.55.5 5.56.5 4.06.5 6.07.0 5.06.0 4.06.5 6.08.0 6.08.0 6.08.0 6.07.5 6.07.5 5.56.5 6.07.5 5.07.0 Gazania Gentiana Geum Ginko Gladioli Globularia Godetia Goldenrod Gourd Gypsophilia Hawthorn Helianthus Helleborus Hibiscus Holly Holyhock Horse chestnut Hydrangeas blue pink white Hypericum Iris Ivy Juniper Kalmia Kerria Laburnum Laurel Larch Lavender Liatris Ligustrum Ligustrum ovali folium Lilac Lily-of-the-valley Lithospermum Lobelia Lupinus 6.57.0 6.07.5 4.56.0 5.06.5 6.07.5 5.57.0 (Continued ) 4.05.0 6.07.0 6.58.0 5.57.0 5.06.5 6.08.0 5.06.5 4.55.0 6.07.0 6.07.0 4.56.0 4.57.5 6.57.5 5.57.5 5.07.5 5.57.0 5.07.5 6.07.5 5.57.0 6.07.0 5.57.0 6.07.5 5.07.0 6.07.0 6.07.5 6.07.0 5.07.0 6.07.5 6.08.0 5.06.5 6.08.0 5.57.0

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Table 13.2 (Continued) Name Magnolia Mahonia Marguerite Marigold Molinia Moraea Morning glory Moss Moss, sphagnum Mulberry Myosotis Narcissus Nasturtium Nicotiana Pachysandra Paeonia Pansy Passion ower Pasque ower Paulownia Picea pungens Pea, sweet Penstemon Peony Periwinkle Pittosporum Plantain Grasses Annual meadow grass Bents: Browntop Creeping Colonial Velvet Bermuda grass Bluegrass: Annual Kentucky Rough 5.57.0 5.87.5 5.87.2 5.57.5 5.56.5 4.56.5 5.57.5 5.67.0 5.26.5 6.07.0 Canada Crested dogstail Clover Cocksfooot Fescues: Red Chewing Hard Sheeps Tall Meadow 5.77.2 5.06.5 6.07.0 5.3 6.07.5 4.58.0 4.58.0 4.05.5 4.05.5 5.57.0 6.07.5 (Continued ) Pampas Rye Smooth stalked meadow grass Timothy Trefoil Vetches Yorkshire fog Wheat grass 5.3 6.1 5.9 4.6 6.18.6 6.08.0 5.87.4 6.08.0 pH range 5.06.0 6.07.0 6.07.5 5.57.0 4.05.0 5.56.5 6.07.5 6.08.0 3.55.0 6.07.5 6.07.0 6.07.5 5.57.5 5.56.5 5.08.0 6.07.5 5.57.0 6.08.0 5.06.0 6.08.0 4.55.5 6.07.5 5.57.0 6.07.5 6.07.5 5.56.5 6.07.5 Name Pelargonium Polyanthus Poplar Poppy Portulaca Primrose Privet Prunella Prunus Pyracantha Quercus (oak) Red hot poker Rhododendron Roses: hybrid tea climbing rambling Rosa laxa Rosa multiora Rowan Salix Salvia Saintpaulia Scabiosa Sea grape Sedum Snapdragon Snowdrop pH range 6.07.5 6.07.5 5.57.5 6.07.5 5.57.5 5.56.5 6.07.0 6.07.5 6.57.5 5.06.0 5.56.5 6.07.5 4.56.0 5.57.0 6.07.0 5.57.0 6.57.0 5.56.5 4.56.5 6.57.0 6.07.5 6.07.0 5.07.5 5.06.5 6.08.0 5.57.0 6.08.0 Name Sorbus aucuparia Soapwort Speedwell Spirea Spruce Stock Stonecrop Sumach Sunower Sweet william Sycamore Syringa Syringa vulgaris Tamarix Tobacco Trillium Tulip Viburnum Viola Violet Virginia creeper Wallower Water lily Weyela Wistine Yew Zinnia pH range 6.57.0 6.07.5 5.56.5 6.07.5 4.05.9 6.07.5 6.57.5 5.06.5 6.07.5 6.07.5 5.57.5 6.08.0 6.57.0 6.58.0 5.57.5 5.06.5 6.07.0 5.07.5 5.56.5 5.07.5 5.07.5 5.57.5 5.56.5 6.07.0 6.08.0 5.07.5 5.57.5 Nursery stock (including ornamental trees, owers and shrubs) continued

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Table 13.2 (Continued) Name pH range Name pH range Name pH range

t0020

Common weeds (wild plants) (Threshold below which plant growth is known to suffer) Annual meadow grass Birds foot trefoil Burnuct Cleavers Colts foot Common nettle Creeping softgrass Fruit crops Apple Apricot Avocado Banana Blackberry Blueberry Cherry Cranberry Currants: black red 6.08.0 5.57.0 5.06.5 6.07.0 6.07.5 5.07.0 4.96.0 4.56.0 6.07.5 4.05.5 white Damson Gooseberry Grapevine Hazelnut Hop Lemon Lychee Mango Melon Mulberry 6.08.0 6.07.5 5.06.5 6.07.5 6.07.0 6.07.5 6.07.0 6.07.0 5.06.0 5.56.5 6.07.5 Nectarine Papaw Pear Peach Pineapple Plum Pomegranate Quince Rasberry Rhubarb Strawberry 6.07.5 6.07.5 5.3 6.07.5 5.06.0 5.67.5 5.56.5 6.07.5 5.56.5 5.57.0 5.17.5 5.57.5 6.1 6.1 6.1 5.6 5.1 4.6 Cowslip Dog violet Gentian Kidney vetch Milfoil Milkwort 5.1 5.1 6.1 6.1 4.6 6.1 Oxeye daisy Rest harrow Wild carrot Wild clematis Woodrush Yorkshire fog 6.1 6.1 5.6 6.1 4.6 4.6

Vegetables, herbs and some arable crops Artichoke Asparagus Barley Basil Beans: runner broad french Beet, sugar Beet, table Beetroot Broccoli Brussel sprouts Cabbage chinese Calabrese Cantaloupe Carrots 6.07.5 6.07.5 6.07.5 5.9 5.9 6.07.5 6.07.0 5.77.5 5.47.5 6.07.5 6.57.5 6.08.0 5.77.0 6.57.5 5.98.0 5.9 5.56.5 Cauliower Celery Chicory Corn, sweet Cress Cotton Courgettes Cowpea Cucumber Fennel Garlic Ginger Ground nut Horseradish Kale Kohlrabi Leek Lentil 5.57.5 6.37.0 5.16.5 5.57.5 6.07.0 5.06.0 5.57.0 5.06.5 5.57.0 5.06.0 5.57.5 6.08.0 5.56.5 6.07.0 5.47.5 6.07.5 5.88.0 5.57.0 Lettuce Linseed Marjoram Marrow Millet Mint Mushroom Mustard Oats Olive Onion Paprika Parsley Parsnip Pea Peanut Pepper Peppermint 6.17.0 5.4 6.08.0 6.07.5 6.06.5 6.68.0 6.57.5 5.47.5 5.4 5.56.5 5.77.0 7.08.5 5.17.0 5.47.5 5.97.5 5.06.5 5.57.0 6.07.5 (Continued )

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Table 13.2 (Continued) Name Pistacio Potato Potato, sweet Pumpkin Radish Rape Rice Rosemary Loamless compost Container-grown nursery stock and protected pot plants (house plants) General plants Abutilon Acorus Aechmea African violet Aglaonema Amaryllis Anthurium Aphelandra Aralia Araucaria Asparagus fern Aspen Aspidistra Azalea Bedding plants Begonia Bird of paradise Bishops cap Black-eyed Susan Blood leaf Bottle brush Bougainvillea Bromeliads Buttery ower Cactus Calceolaria Caladium Calla lily Camellia 5.56.5 5.56.5 5.06.5 5.05.5 6.07.0 5.06.0 5.56.5 5.06.0 5.06.0 6.07.5 5.06.0 6.08.0 4.05.5 4.05.5 4.56.0 5.56.5 5.57.0 6.06.5 5.06.0 5.57.5 5.56.5 6.07.5 5.57.5 5.06.0 6.07.5 4.56.0 6.07.0 6.07.5 6.07.0 4.55.5 Campanula Capscium pepper Cardinal ower Carnations Castor oil plant Century plant Chinese primrose Christmas cactus Chrysanthemums Cineraria Clerodendrum Clivia Cockscomb Coffee plant Coleus Columnea Coral berry Crassula Creeping g Croton Crown of thorns Cuphea Cyclamen Cyperus Daphne Dieffenbachia Dipladenia Dizygotheca Dracaena Dragon tree 5.56.5 5.06.5 5.06.0 5.56.5 5.56.5 5.06.5 6.07.5 5.06.5 5.56.5 5.57.0 5.06.0 5.56.5 6.07.5 5.06.0 6.07.0 4.55.5 5.57.5 5.06.0 5.06.0 5.06.0 6.07.5 6.07.5 6.07.0 5.07.5 6.57.5 5.06.0 6.07.5 6.07.5 5.06.0 5.07.5 Dutchmans pipe Easter lily Ericaceous Elephants ear Episcia Eucalyptus Euonymus Feijoa Ferns: birds nest boston christmas cloak feather harts tonge holly maidenhair rabbits foot spleenwort Fig Fittonia Freesia French marigold Gardenia Genista Geranium Gloxinia Grape hyacinth Grape ivy Grevillea 5.05.5 5.56.5 6.07.5 6.07.5 5.57.5 7.08.0 4.56.0 6.08.0 6.07.5 6.07.5 5.06.0 5.56.5 5.56.5 5.07.5 5.06.0 6.57.5 6.08.0 5.56.5 6.07.5 5.06.5 5.56.5 (Continued ) 6.08.0 6.07.0 5.05.5 6.07.5 6.07.0 6.08.0 5.57.0 5.07.5 pH range 5.06.0 4.96.0 5.56.0 5.57.5 6.07.0 5.6 5.06.5 5.06.0 Name Rhubarb Sage Shallot Sorghum Soya bean Spearmint Spinach Sugarcane pH range 5.4 5.56.5 5.57.0 5.57.5 5.56.5 5.87.5 6.07.5 6.08.0 Name Sunower Swede Thyme Tomato Turnip Water cress Water melon Wheat pH range 6.07.5 5.47.5 5.57.0 5.17.5 5.47.0 6.08.0 5.06.5 5.57.5

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Table 13.2 t0020 (Continued) Name pH range Gynura5.5 Hedera (ivy) Heliotropium Helxine Herringbone Hibiscus Hyacinth Hoya Impatiens Indegofera Iresine Ivy tree Jacaranda Japanese sedge Jasminum Jerusalem cherry Jessamine Kafr Kalanchoe Kangaroo thorn Kangaroo vine Lace ower Lantana Laurus bay tree Lemon plant Mimosa Mind your own business 5.56.5 6.07.5 6.08.0 5.06.0 5.06.0 6.08.0 6.57.5 5.06.5 5.56.5 6.07.5 5.06.5 6.07.0 6.07.5 6.08.0 5.57.0 5.56.5 5.06.0 6.07.5 6.07.5 6.08.0 5.06.5 6.07.5 5.57.0 5.06.0 6.07.5 5.07.0 5.05.5

Name Monstera Myrtle Nephthytis Never never plant Nicodernia (indoor oak) Oleander Oplisemenus Orange plant Orchid Oxalis Painted lady Palms Pandanus Patient lucy Peacock plant Pelagoniums Pellionia Philodendron Phlox Pitcherplant Pilea Plumbago Podacarpus Poinsettia Polyscias Pothos Prayer plant Puncia

pH range 5.06.0 6.08.0 4.55.5 5.06.0 6.08.0 6.07.5 5.06.0 6.07.5 4.55.5 6.08.0 6.07.5 6.07.5 5.06.0 5.56.5 5.06.0 6.07.5 5.06.0 5.06.0 5.06.5 4.05.5 6.08.0 5.56.5 5.06.5 6.07.5 6.07.5 5.06.0 5.06.0 5.56.5

Name Rubber plant Sansevieria Saxifraga Schizanthus0 Scilla Scindapsus Seed compost Selaginella Senecio Shrimp plant Spanish bayonet Spider plant Succulents Syngunium Thunbergia Tolmiea Tomato Tradescanthia Umbrella tree Venus ytrap Verbena Vinca Weeping g Yucca Zebrina

pH range 5.06.0 4.57.0 6.08.0 6.07.0 6.08.0 5.06.0 5.56.5 6.07.0 6.07.0 5.56.5 5.57.0 6.07.5 5.06.5 5.06.0 5.57.5 5.06.0 5.56.0 5.06.0 5.07.5 4.05.0 6.08.0 6.07.5 5.06.0 6.08.0 5.06.0

Container-grown nursery stock and protected pot plants (house plants) (continued)

Exercise 13.1 Soil and compost pH testing


Background
Before we can modify growth medium pH it is necessary to determine the existing level of soil acidity. Comparison can then be made between this and the plant pH tolerance range for the species growing. If the acidity level is too low, it will need to be corrected by liming. If it is too high, it will need to be lowered, normally by applying sulphur. There are several methods available to determine pH levels in the growth medium. These range from litmus indicator paper, garden centre type needle probe (e.g. Rapitest), test tube measurements (e.g. BDH method), portable electrode meters (e.g. Hanna Instruments pHep range) and laboratory based analysis (e.g. ADAS or Defra). In laboratory tests pH is measured by using

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a hydrogen electrode in the solution of interest as one half of a cell, and a reference electrode (e.g. a calomel electrode) as the other half cell. Often these are combined into a single pH electrode that lasts only about six months before needing replacement. Of these, the test tube method is most suitable for determining quickly, on site, the pH of soils and composts, although the BDH method will be considered. Several products are available that use similar principles including Rapitest and Sudbury products, ADAS field kits and many amateur kits are available from garden centres.

The BDH method for pH testing


British Drug House (BDH, now owned by Merkoquant) developed the apparatus for the following technique to determine soil pH. It involves mixing a small amount of soil with a white powder called barium sulphate, some distilled water and universal indicator solution. The cocktail is then shaken up and left to stand. The barium sulphate causes the soil to fall to the bottom of the test tube (flocculate). It is a neutral material, and like distilled water, does not influence the pH. After a few minutes the soil particles will settle out, leaving a coloured solution above. This coloured solution is then compared with a colour chart and the corresponding pH recorded.

Aim
To determine the pH of soil and compost growth mediums using the BDH method.

Apparatus
BDH test tubes Universal indicator solution Soil A Potting compost A pH colour chart Barium sulphate Distilled water Soil B Ericaceous compost B

Useful websites
www.sciencepages.co.uk www.avogadro.co.uk

Method
Follow the method in Figure 13.2 to find the pH of the different materials.
Soil pH tests 7 Leave to settle and compare colour with pH colour chart 6 Seal tube with bung and shake vigorously 5 Fill with indicator solution to the second line Distilled water fill line 4 Fill with distilled water to the first line 3 Add about 15 mm of barium sulphate (for faster results use up to 25 mm on clays and only 15 mm on sands with proportionately less/ more soil) 2 Add about 15 mm of soil or compost 1 Place bung in bottom of tube Test tube 3 No barium sulphate is necessary since the cocktail will not be cloudy Indicator fill line Compost pH tests

Figure 13.2 Soil and compost pH tests

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Results
Record your results in the table provided. Growth medium Soil A Soil B Compost A Compost B pH Interpretation (e.g. slightly acid)

Conclusions
1. Explain the purpose of using barium sulphate. 2. State the ideal pH for most plants grown in a soil. 3. Comment on the suitability of Soil A for growing white-flowered hydrangeas. 4. How does the method vary, if testing a compost? 5. What is the ideal pH for most plants grown in a compost? 6. Comment on the suitability of Soil B for growing strawberries. 7. Comment on the suitability of Compost A for growing azaleas 8. Comment on the suitability of Compost B for growing busy lizzies (Impatiens). 9. Explain what is meant by a calcicole plant and give one example. 10. Explain what is meant by a calcifuge plant and give one example.

Exercise 13.2 Soil texture assessment


Background
In addition to determining the soil pH, information about the soil texture is also needed. Soil texture refers to the relative proportions of sand, silt and clay particles in the soil. This is important because clay soils require more lime to correct acidity than sandy soils. This property is called buffering capacity. Please refer to Chapter 10 for a detailed procedure for assessing soil texture.

Aim
To correctly conduct a hand texture assessment of different soils types.

Apparatus
Figure 10.7 Sandy soil A Clayey soil B

Method
Assess the texture of Soil A and Soil B, giving the reasoning behind your answer.

Results
Record your results in the table provided in the next page.

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Sample Soil A Soil B

Texture

Reasoning

Conclusions
1. Explain which soil has a greater buffering capacity and also therefore ability to hold nutrients. 2. Which soil will require more lime to correct any soil acidity problem, and why? 3. How would the procedure to measure pH, using the BDH method, vary between these two soils?

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Answers
Exercise 13.1. Soil and compost pH testing
Results
Soil A should be selected to give a slightly alkaline reading. Soil B should be selected to give an acid reading. Potting compost A has a pH of 6.0. Ericaceous compost B has a pH of 5.5. 7. 5. 6. the colour can be easily compared with the colour chart. pH 5.8 Strawberries have a pH range of 5.1 to 7.5; if soil B is within this range it will be suitable, but will grow best as the mid point. Azaleas are a calcifuge species having a pH range from 4.5 to 6.0. Compost A at pH 6.0 would not be suitable because it is at the edge of the tolerance range. A more acid compost should be selected. Busy lizzies (Impateins) have a pH range from 5.5 to 6.5. compost B would not be suitable since it has a pH at the edge of the tolerance range. A less acid compost should be selected. A calcicole plant is lime-tolerant, e.g. geranium (pH 6.08.0) and firethorn (pH 6.08.0). A calcifuge plant is acid-loving, e.g. azalea (pH 4.56.0) and birds nest fern (pH 5.05.5).

Conclusions
1. Barium sulphate is used to flocculate clay particles. causing them to sink to the bottom of the test tube and leaving a clear liquid above which can be easily compared with the colour chart. pH 6.5. White flowered hydrangeas have a pH range of 6.58.0, so soil a at pH 7.0 would be suitable. When testing a compost barium sulphate is not required since the cocktail will not be cloudy and 9.

8.

2. 3.

4.

10.

Exercise 13.2. Soil texture


Results
A sandy textural class should be selected for soil A and a clayey texture for soil B. 2. nutrients. It has a larger surface are per unit volume than sand and will therefore hold more water. The clay will require more lime because it has a higher buffering capacity. Clay would require more barium sulphate than sand to help flocculation.

Conclusions
1. Clay has a greater buffering capacity because it has cation exchange capacity, giving it an ability to hold

3.