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Back stock: Product remaining after shelf, fixture is stocked to capacity.

Bay: An 8 foot wide section of Retail Shelf Space, typically the distance between 2 Uprights. Beam: The steel that is installed between two upright posts to create a shelf on which to place product. Call Report: A report filled out to provide data to the client. Cross Merchandising: Displaying product along with other related product in a location other than its planogrammed space. Cut Case Display: A product display created by trimming the corrugated outer casing to display product contained within. Cut-ins: New items that need to be placed on an existing display, fixture, shelf, in a specifically designated location. Cycle counts: An process of adjusting the computer on hand quantities of product to match the physical on hand quantities. Similar to taking inventory. Damages: Products that cannot be sold for any # of reasons like broken, out of date, missing pieces, a.k.a: claims or reclaims. Display: Arrangement of merchandise, usually accompanied by printed signs. DSD: "Direct Service Delivery" A vendor that orders their own product and it ships directly to stores via vendor trucks, not thru the stores warehouses & the vendors service it. For example, cookies, crackers and soft drinks.

Endcap: Shelf/fixture/display on the end of an aisle. Facing(s): A single item on a shelf, fixture or display. Total number of items visible. FIFO: First in/First out, a method or rotating stock for freshness, newest product going in behind the oldest product.

Fixture: Shelf/case/display that holds product. Gondola: The long fixtures product is located on in a store. Hard lines: Lines of product, commonly considered tools, automotive, house wares, etc. In-Line: Product placement within an aisle run. Item number: Number assigned by Lowes to give a product an individual name in its system. J-Hook: Hook in the shape of a J that is attached to an upright to hold smaller product. Item selection should be made to increase customer purchases. Items should have a package width of 6 wide or less if possible. Try never to block access to the products behind the j hook. Maintenance: General upkeep of keeping product set to current plan-o-gram and fixtures clean.

Merchandiser: A person who services retail stores who is knowledgeable with their clients brands, product and store objectives. Merchandising: Placing product in an approved and eye appealing configuration. Model number: Number assigned by the manufacturer to identify different products they offer. Non stock: A product that is not a stock item. OOS: Out of stock. Pack Out: Placing product on a shelf/display/fixture to full capacity. Planogram or Modular: Approved arrangements of product on a shelf, fixture or display. The Blueprint that shows where merchandise should be placed on a shelf for a particular product line or group of products. For example the arrangement of soups in an allocated section in the store.

P.O.: Purchase order used to ship product to a store. P.O.P.: Point of Purchase Materials or Signage. The pictures, posters and labels that help customers make their buying decisions when looking at products in a bay. Advertising materials. P.O.S.: Point of Sale materials, advertising materials. Reset: Changing shelf, fixture or product display to conform to authorized preferred configuration. Retrofit or Remodel: to furnish or affix parts or equipment made available after the time of original manufacture, or to modify an existing floor plan or fixtures to new specifications. Returns: Product that is not sold or is damaged, often deleted product that is sent back for credit from the manufacturer. RTM or Claims Clerk: The Return To Manufacturer employee that is responsible for getting Credit from the manufacturers for damaged, deleted, recalled and customer returned merchandise. Soft lines: Lines of product, commonly considered clothing, lingerie, things of this nature. SKU: Stock keeping unit (item number assigned to product). Survey: Questionnaire that collects information requested by customer/client. Top Stock: Stock left over after shelf is filled to full capacity and put on the shelves above the product displays. UPC: Universal Product Code, a code pattern or bar stripes of different widths, which can be read by electronic scanners, used for identification of products, cases and coupons. Vendor: A supplier of product. Vendor rep: A representative that works on the behalf of a supplier of merchandise to a store.

Merchandising
Merchandising is the department which mediates marketing and production departments. It is Space optimization through effective Brand/Package allocation, focusing on gaining first position, providing greatest exposure of brands to all consumers, creating a consistent, orderly and clean appearance for the products, maximizing the use of POS to increase consumer awareness of brand and promotions. Previous Topic Garment Accessories Next Topic Lab Dips

Introduction
Merchandising is a process through which products a re planned, developed, executed and presented to the buyer. It includes directing and overseeing the development of product line from start to finish. Marketing and merchandising depart ment: A team of merchandisers and marketers work together under a profit controls head. Merchan disers handle the foreign buyers. The teams are made according to the buyers being handled. Merchandising is the department which mediates marketing and production departments. Some times, merchandising department will have to do costing and pricing also. In any case, the merchandiser is the person whose responsibility is to execute the orders perfectly as per the costing and pricing. So it is a very valuable department. Following are the main responsibilities of merchandisers. Two type of merchandising done in garment exports Marketing merchandising. Product merchandising.

Marketing merchandising Main function of marketing merchandising is roduct Development

Costing Ordering Marketing merchandising is to bring orders costly products development and it has direct contact with the buyer.

Product merchandising
Product merchandising is done in the unit. This includes all the responsibilities from sourcing to finishing i.e. first sample onwards, the products merchandising work start and ends till shipment.

A Merchandisers key responsibility is as follows: Product Development Market and product Analysis Selling the concept Booking orders Confirming Deliveries Designing and Sampling Costing Raw Material Flow Monitoring Production Follow Ups Payments Follows Internal & external communication, Sampling Lab dips Accessories & trims Preparing internal order sheets

Preparing purchase orders Advising and assisting production, Advising quality department about quality level Mediating production and quality departments Giving shipping instructions and following shipping, Helping documentation department Taking responsibility for inspections and Following up the shipment.

INCOTERMS
Learn Apparel Merchandising, Learn Fashion design. INCOTERMS International Commercial Terms Please find the SUMMERY at first (you will get the details at below) Group Term Stands for E EXW Ex Works F FCA Free Carrier FAS Free Alongside Ship FOB Free On Board C CFR Cost and Freight CIF Cost. Insurance and Freight CPT Carriage Paid To CIP Carriage and Insurance Paid To D DAF Delivered At Frontier DES Delivered Ex Ship DEQ Delivered Ex Quay

DDU Delivered Duty Unpaid DDP Delivered Duty Paid The INCOTERMS (International Commercial Terms) is a universally recognized set of definitions of international trade terms, such as FOB, CFR and CIF, developed by the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) in Paris, France. It defines the trade contract responsibilities and liabilities between buyer and seller. It is invaluable and a cost-saving tool. The exporter and the importer need not undergo a lengthy negotiation about the conditions of each transaction. Once they have agreed on a commercial term like FOB, they can sell and buy at FOB without discussing who will be responsible for the freight, cargo insurance, and other costs and risks. Group Term Stands for E EXW Ex Works EXW {+ the named place} Ex Works Ex means from & Works means factory, mill or warehouse, which is the sellers premise. EXW applies to goods available only at the seller's premises. Buyer is responsible for loading the goods on truck or container at the seller's premises, and for the subsequent costs and risks. In the quotation, indicate the named place (seller's premises) after the acronym EXW, for example EXW Gazipur or EXW Naraynganj. Group Term Stands for F FCA Free Carrier FAS Free Alongside Ship FOB Free On Board FCA {+ the named point of departure} Free Carrier The delivery of goods on truck, rail car or container at the specified point (depot) of departure, which is usually the seller's premises, or a named railroad station or a named cargo terminal or into the custody of the carrier, at seller's expense. The point (depot) at origin may or may not be a customs clearance center. Buyer is responsible for the main carriage/freight, cargo insurance and other costs and risks.

In the air shipment, technically speaking, goods placed in the custody of an air carrier is considered as delivery on board the plane. In practice, many importers and exporters still use the term FOB in the air shipment. The term FCA is also used in the RO/RO (roll on/roll off) services. In the export quotation, indicate the point of departure (loading) after the acronym FCA, for example FCA Hong Kong and FCA Seattle. Some manufacturers may use the former terms FOT (Free On Truck) and FOR (Free On Rail) in selling to export-traders. FAS {+ the named port of origin} Free Alongside Ship Goods are placed in the dock shed or at the side of the ship, on the dock or lighter, within reach of its loading equipment so that they can be loaded aboard the ship, at seller's expense. Buyer is responsible for the loading fee, main carriage/freight, cargo insurance, and other costs and risks. In the export quotation, indicate the port of origin (loading) after the acronym FAS, for example FAS New York and FAS Bremen. The FAS term is popular in the break-bulk shipments and with the importing countries using their own vessels. FOB {+ the named port of origin} Free On Board The delivery of goods on board the vessel at the named port of origin (loading), at seller's expense. Buyer is responsible for the main carriage/freight, cargo insurance and other costs and risks. In the export quotation, indicate the port of origin (loading) after the acronym FOB, for example FOB Vancouver and FOB Shanghai. Under the rules of the INCOTERMS 1990, the term FOB is used for ocean freight only. However, in practice, many importers and exporters still use the term FOB in the air freight. In North America, the term FOB has other applications. Many buyers and sellers in Canada and the U.S.A. dealing on the open account and consignment basis are accustomed to using the shipping terms FOB Origin and FOB Destination. FOB Origin means the buyer is responsible for the freight and other costs and risks. FOB Destination means the seller is responsible for the freight and other costs and risks until the

goods are delivered to the buyer's premises, which may include the import customs clearance and payment of import customs duties and taxes at the buyer's country, depending on the agreement between the buyer and seller. In international trade, avoid using the shipping terms FOB Origin and FOB Destination, which are not part of the INCOTERMS (International Commercial Terms).

Group Term Stands for C CFR Cost and Freight CIF Cost. Insurance and Freight CPT Carriage Paid To CIP Carriage and Insurance Paid To CFR {+ the named port of destination} Cost and Freight The delivery of goods to the named port of destination (discharge) at the seller's expense. Buyer is responsible for the cargo insurance and other costs and risks. The term CFR was formerly written as C&F. Many importers and exporters worldwide still use the term C&F. In the export quotation, indicate the port of destination (discharge) after the acronym CFR, for example CFR Karachi and CFR Alexandria. Under the rules of the INCOTERMS 1990, the term Cost and Freight is used for ocean freight only. However, in practice, the term Cost and Freight (C&F) is still commonly used in the air freight. CIF {+ the named port of destination} Cost, Insurance and Freight The cargo insurance and delivery of goods to the named port of destination (discharge) at the seller's expense. Buyer is responsible for the import customs clearance and other costs and risks. In the export quotation, indicate the port of destination (discharge) after the acronym CIF, for example CIF Pusan and CIF Singapore.

Under the rules of the INCOTERMS 1990, the term CIF is used for ocean freight only. However, in practice, many importers and exporters still use the term CIFin the air freight. CPT {+ the named place of destination} Carriage Paid To The delivery of goods to the named place of destination (discharge) at seller's expense. Buyer assumes the cargo insurance, import customs clearance, payment of customs duties and taxes, and other costs and risks. In the export quotation, indicate the place of destination (discharge) after the acronym CPT, for example CPT Los Angeles and CPT Osaka. CIP {+ the named place of destination} Carriage and Insurance Paid To The delivery of goods and the cargo insurance to the named place of destination (discharge) at seller's expense. Buyer assumes the import customs clearance, payment of customs duties and taxes, and other costs and risks. In the export quotation, indicate the place of destination (discharge) after the acronym CIP, for example CIP Paris and CIP Athens. Group Term Stands for D DAF Delivered At Frontier DES Delivered Ex Ship DEQ Delivered Ex Quay DDU Delivered Duty Unpaid DDP Delivered Duty Paid DAF {+ the named point at frontier} Delivered At Frontier The delivery of goods to the specified point at the frontier at seller's expense. Buyer is responsible for the import customs clearance, payment of customs duties and taxes, and other costs and risks.

In the export quotation, indicate the point at frontier (discharge) after the acronym DAF, for example DAF Buffalo and DAF Welland. DES {+ the named port of destination} Delivered Ex Ship The delivery of goods on board the vessel at the named port of destination (discharge), at seller's expense. Buyer assumes the unloading fee, import customs clearance, payment of customs duties and taxes, cargo insurance, and other costs and risks. In the export quotation, indicate the port of destination (discharge) after the acronym DES, for example DES Helsinki and DES Stockholm. DEQ {+ the named port of destination} Delivered Ex Quay The delivery of goods to the quay (the port) at destination at seller's expense. Seller is responsible for the import customs clearance and payment of customs duties and taxes at the buyer's end. Buyer assumes the cargo insurance and other costs and risks. In the export quotation, indicate the port of destination (discharge) after the acronym DEQ, for example DEQ Libreville and DEQ Maputo. DDU {+ the named point of destination} Delivered Duty Unpaid The delivery of goods and the cargo insurance to the final point at destination, which is often the project site or buyer's premises, at seller's expense. Buyer assumes the import customs clearance and payment of customs duties and taxes. The seller may opt not to insure the goods at his/her own risks. In the export quotation, indicate the point of destination (discharge) after the acronym DDU, for example DDU La Paz and DDU Ndjamena. DDP {+ the named point of destination} Delivered Duty Paid The seller is responsible for most of the expenses, which include the cargo insurance, import customs clearance, and payment of customs duties and taxes at the buyer's end, and the delivery of goods to the final point at destination, which is often the project site or

buyer's premises. The seller may opt not to insure the goods at his/her own risks. In the export quotation, indicate the point of destination (discharge) after the acronym DDP, for example DDP Bujumbura and DDP Mbabane. (Collected)

KNITTING CALCULATIONS
Learn Apparel Merchandising, Learn Fashion design. Knitted fabric is made with the help of yarn loops. Yarn of different counts is used to produce fabric of different grammage. There is also a need to calculate optimum production of knitting machines. It is the job of knitting manager to do certain calculation for proper use of machines and production of fabric according to the demands of the customer.

Most suitable count for knitting machines


As we know needle hook has to take yarn to convert it into a loop and finally latch has to close the needle hook so that loop is properly held by the needle hook and ultimately this helps in passing new loop through the previously held loop. It is clear from this explanation that there should be a proper balance between needle hook size and the thickness of the yarn or filament. If the yarn is thicker than needle hook then there will a chance that needle hook will not able to hold this loop and consequently there will be a small hole in the fabric. If the situation is reverse, means yarn is thinner than the size of the needle hook then the fabric produced will look like a net. Both situations are not wanted. This situation demands a balance between needle hook size and count of yarn. It is worth to note that needle hook size depends upon the machine guage. Furthermore for different garments, fabric of different grammage is required. Every time knitter has to decide about the yarn count. There are many ways for the selection of proper count. In the following lines we will discuss most common methods to select count for different machines of different guage. It is also important to note that selection of yarn counts also depends upon the machine manufactures and type of machines, like, single and double knit machine. However a general guideline will be given hereunder. As a thumb rule knitting experts prefer to use such knitting machine whose gauges is near to count of yarn (English count) i.e. for 20-gaugemachines most suitable yarn count is 20s. This rule is has certain limitations, like, for 28-gauge yarn of 26s to 30s is most suitable. But for very fine counts this rule is not applicable and also machines have maximum gauge 32. Normally fine counts are not used as such rather they are make double, like count 60s double, which means that net count is near to 30s. And this 60 double count is suitable for

30-gauge machine. To solve this problem some authors have suggested following formulas.

For single Knitting Machine


Suitable count = G*G/18

For Double knitting machine


Suitable count= G*G/8.4 Where G is gauge of knitting machine Some knitting machine manufacturers suggest a range of yarn count for their machine. There is another way to solve this problem and that is to take help from old record. Every firm is producing many types of fabrics and on the basis of experience they develop a database for ready reference. In the following line we give a table for guidance (table is under construction). One can get a ready reference from the table to produce fabric of certain grammage. We are also giving expected width of fabric after wet processing. This table can provide just a reference. Knitters have to decide by themselves after doing a trial production, since there are many more factors, which can affect yarn and gauge selection process. Knitting Machine Parameters Every knitting machine is made to fulfil certain demands of the customer. There are number of characteristics of machine which are intimated by the machine manufacturers while delivering the machine to customers/users. It is helpful for the user to be well aware about these parameters. Furthermore machine specifications are given in different unit. We will explain these parameters and will also give the conversion factors to convert parameters from one system to other.

Machine Gauge
As per Oxford Dictionary the word gauge is a noun and as well as verb. It is used to measure level of any thing or for an instrument to measure width, length or height of any thing. In knitting it is used to express the number of needle in a unit length of the needle bed. This needle bed may flat or circular. In double knit circular machine it is used for cylinder and as well as dial. Generally gauge is defined as number of needles per inch. According to German standard DIN 60917 (Iyer et al1995) alphabet E is used to denote knitting machine gauge. E = Number of needles 1 inch (25.4 mm)

Machine Pitch
As per German DIN 62125 (Iyer et al1995) the notation gauge is to be avoided in the future. Rather they prefer to use notation pitch for comparison purpose. Machine Pitch means the distance between the centres of two neighbouring needles. It is denoted with small t. It is given in mm.

Machine Wise Sewing Thread Consumption PER Inch


Learn Apparel Merchandising, Learn Fashion design. From this post you will get information regarding the sewing thread consumption depending on type of Machine : Machine Name Classification Require thread/inch Plain Machine, 1 Needle, 2.5" Plain Machine 2 Needle 5" Over lock 3 Thread 13.25" Over lock 4 Thread 16.75" Over lock 5 Thread 18.75" Flat lock 3 Thread 16.75" Flat lock 5 Thread 22.25" Bar tack stitching 7" Generally P/Operation Button hole stitching 7" Generally Per Hole Button Attaching (2 hole) 3" Per button Feed of the ARM 7" For one needle Kanchai Stitching 7" For one needle Back Tape Stitching 7" For one needle After this you must include another 25% sewing thread before place the work order.

Calculate the consumption of knit garments


Learn Apparel Merchandising, Learn Fashion design. Dear All,

For calculating the consumption of your knit garments pls follow the below instruction. The following information you need at first, as listed below:

(During the consumption pls used measurement of middle size for calculation or used the size which have most of the qty. If the style have 6 sizes then used size number 04 for consumption. Here we will consider the size: "L" for calculate the consumption) i. Body length of the garments in cm. Say it is - 73 cm ii. Sleeve length of the garments in cm. Say it is - 19.5 cm iii. Approximate sewing allowance at body hem, shoulder joint, sleeve hem & armhole joint (in cm). Say it is - 10 cm iv. Chest width (1/2) in cm. Say it is - 52 cm v. Approximate sewing allowance at both side seam (in cm). Say it is - 4 cm vi. Fabric GSM (finish). Say it is - 160 gsm vii. Approximate fabric wastage in various stage. Say it is - 10% (In this regards pls note that, fabric wastage depend on how many additional elements the garments have,which may changed in any time.If the garments has rotary print, enzyme stone wash etc than the fabric wastage will be more than normal wastage) If you already have all the above information then,now just put the following information and get the fabric consumption.http://knitgarmentsconsumption.blogspot.com/ otherwise you can follow the below rules Rules: {(B/length + S/length + Sewing Allowance) X (1/2 Chest + Sewing Allowance)}X 2 X GSM X 12 / 10000000 + Wastage = {(73 + 19.5 + 10) X (52 + 4)} X 2 X 160 X 12 / 10000000 + 10% = (102.5 X 56) X 2 X 160 X 12 / 10000000 + 10% = 5740 X 2 X 160 X 12 /10000000 +10% = 22041600 / 10000000 + 10% = 2.20416 + 10 % = 2.424576

= 2.43 kg per dozen. (Consumption) Hope everything is now clear to all.

Relation Between Yarn count, Knitting, Dyeing & Gsm.


Learn Apparel Merchandising, Learn Fashion design. Knitting Rules

For choosing correct yarn count and for producing accurate require fabric it is very important for us to learn the knitting rules & conditions. From my next several post we will learn the Relation between Yarn count, Knitting, Dyeing & Gsm. At first please note: 1 CM = 10 MM, 1 INCH = 2.54 CM 1 INCH = 25.4 MM

Woven fabric consumption formula.


Learn Apparel Merchandising, Learn Fashion design. Before calculate the woven fabric consumption, you must need the followings information as mentioned below: 1) Measurement chart with technical spec. 2) Style Description. 3) Fabric Description. 4) Fabrics width/weight. 5) Washing shrinkage if any. This formula is as under : Formula = Length X Width / Fab width X Fab Unit Here, Length = length of the specific parts + allowance

Width = width of the specific parts + allowance Fab width = Fabric width ( after considering the shrinkage allowance). Say, fabric width is 45" & the shrinkage allowance is 1", Then the Fabric width will be (45"-1") = 44" in the formula. Fab unit = Fabric calculation unit, here it will be 36 because we are going to calculate the consumption in Yards. Now we will calculate the consumption of a Shirt (front part) Center front length = 32"+1" (Sewing allowance) = 33" Width (Chest) = 24" + 1" (Sewing allowance) + 3" Pleat.W (1.5X2) = 28" = Length X Width / Fab width X Fab Unit = 33" X 28" / 44" X 36" = 924" / 1584" = 0.5833333 = 0.59 Yards. (for front part)

Calculate the CM of a Garments.


Learn Apparel Merchandising, Learn Fashion design. Dear All, My this post for these people, who's are still confused regarding the CM (cost of making) of a knit items (garments). To find out the CM of a item you must need the following 06 (six) information at first, as listed below:

i. Monthly total expenditure of your factory with factory rent,commercial cost, electricity bill, water bill, transportation, repairing, worker & stuff wages etc. (8hrs/day) in bangla taka. Suppose - 50,00,000/- tk

ii. Qty of running Machine of your factory of the following month (which total expenditure we have consider here). Suppose - 100 machines iii. Number of machine to complete the layout for the following Items (which CM we are calculating). Suppose - 25 machines iv. Production target/capacity of the following items, per hour from the existing layout, excluding alter & reject. Suppose - 200 pcs per hour v) Total working day of the followings month,(though the house rent,commercial expenses,machine overhauling & some other cost remain same)Suppose- 26 days. v. If you want to calculate the CM in US$ (dollar) then pls input present dollar conversation rate BDTk. Suppose - $1 = 74 taka. Now you should put the following information in the following form, which you will get here http://cmcostofaknitgarments.blogspot.com/ Otherwise you may follow the below rule: COST OF MAKING (CM) = {(Monthly total expenditure of the following factory / 26) / (Qty of running Machine of your factory of the following month) X (Number of machine to complete the layout)} / [{(Production capacity per hr from the existing layout,excluding alter & reject) X 8}] X 12 / (Dollar conversion rate) = [{(50,00,000 / 26) / ( 100 ) X (25)} / {(200) X 8}] X 12 / 74 = [{192307.7 / (100) X (25) } / 1600] X 12 / 74 = (48,076.9 / 1600) X 12 / 74

= 30.048 X 12 / 74 = 360.58 / 74 = $4.873 / dozen (this is the making cost (12 pcs) of the following items)

However, normally at present (after starting the new salary scale) in Bangladesh we calculate the CM of any item consider the overhead sewing machine cost 1200 tk to 1400 tk/day that means $16.216 to $18.92/per day. Above is for a non-compliance factory. For the a compliance factory the per day machine cost will be 1800 tk to 2100 tk ( $24.32 to $28.37) SO, if the an items produce 1600 pcs per day using 25 machines then the CM will be = Overhead machine cost X require machine / produce quantity X 12 / $74 = 1400 X 25 / 1600 X 12 / 74 = $3.547/DOZ

Sewing Thread Consumption per Body


Learn Apparel Merchandising, Learn Fashion design. Dear All, Sewing thread consumption is very important for the garments costing. For quick costing we use our previous idea to calculate the sewing thread cost. Please find below an approximate sewing thread consumption list for some common item. This list is based on minimum wastage. So, at first please check your percent of wastage & and try to control it.

Item Consumption of sewing thread / body Basic T-shirt 125 mtr Basic Polo shirt 180 mtr Basic L/slv Woven Shirt 150 mtr Basic S/slv Woven Shirt 125 mtr Classic L/slv Woven Shirt 175 mtr Classic S/slv Woven Shirt 150 mtr Basic shorts 350 mtr Classic Shorts 450 mtr Basic L/pants 350 mtr Classic L/pants 450 mtr Basic Nylon Jogging Suit 500 mtr Basic Short all 350 mtr Classic Short all 400 mtr Basic Overall 400 mtr Classic Overall 500 mtr Padded Coverall 450 mtr Basic Romper 350 mtr Classic Romper 450 mtr Night Dress 200 mtr Pajama Set 450 mtr Skirt 300 mtr Panty 50 mtr Brief 50 mtr Brassier 100 mtr Corp set 150 mtr

Tank Top 50 mtr Denim 5 Pocket Pants 400 mtr Basic Nylon Padded Jacket 350 mtr Classic Nylon Padded Jacket 500 mtr Denim Jacket 450 mtr Twill Jacket 450 mtr Basic Nylon Wind Breaker 300 mtr

CALCULATION OF GSM
Learn Apparel Merchandising, Learn Fashion design. Dear All, GSM means the weight in gram per square meter of fabric.GSM is a very important parameter for specified a certain quality of knitted fabric. The production of knitted fabric is calculated in weight. The GSM cutter is very popular and easy usable GSM testing instrument used in most knitted factory. But the construction of this cutter is very simple. It is circular disk of 100 square cm area with sharp blade attached to its edge. So 100 square cm of fabric can easily cut by it and weighted at the electric balance to get GSM reading. There are two formulas for calculating the GSM of a knitted fabric First formula is as under: Course per inch X Stitch length X 39.37 X 39.37 X Tex GSM = ---------------------------------------------------------------------1000 X 1000 aNd WPI X CPI X SL(mm) GSM = ----------------------------- X 0.9155 Count(Ne) CALCULATION OF WALES PER INCH (WPI): We calculated the number of Wales in 10 inch fabric unraveling the yarn. Then we divide the no of total Wales by 10 inch to getting the Wales per inch.

CALCULATION OF COURSE PER INCH (CPI): We calculated the number of course in five inch with the help of counting glass and needle. Then we divide the total no of course by five inch to getting the course per inch. MEASUREMENT OF STITCH LENGTH (SL mm): Stitch length is theoretically a single length of yarn which includes one needle loop and adjacent needle loops on either side of it. Loop exits in course in course length and it is that which influence fabric dimension and other properties including weight. In order to determine the stitch length, we count 100 no Wales or stitch and count its length by hanging the yarn on the stitch counter. The reading is found in mm unit. MEASUREMENT OF YARN COUNT: We have fallowed a different way to find out the count of the yarn. At first we unravel a considerable no yarn from the fabric. Then we measured the total length of the yarn and measured the weight of that no of yarn. From these weights, we find out the count of the yarn. The equation we followed is as follow: N x L x 453.6 Count = ---------------Wt x 36 x 840 Where, N = number of yarn in bundle. L = length of yarn. Wt = weight of yarn. Another formula is the following: Ks x Tex GSM = --------------------Stitch length (mm) Where, Ks is a constant. Its value is different for different fabric structure and fabric type. Ks is calculated and estimated as below: GSM x Stitch length Ks = -----------------------------

Tex

(Collected & Edited)

What is Merchandising ?
Learn Apparel Merchandising, Learn Fashion design. Dear All, The Merchandising is known to the persons specially involved in garments trade. The term merchandising has been derived from the Merchandise. Merchandise means goods that are bought & sold. Merchandising is the methods, practices, and operations used to promote and sustain certain categories of commercial activity. In the broadest sense, merchandising is any practice which contributes to the sale of products to a retail consumer. At a retail in-store level, merchandising refers to the variety of products available for sale and the display of those products in such a way that it stimulates interest and entices customers to make a purchase.