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(
)

x y x D
D x y

y x
y = f ( x )
:
1 : y = x ( R ) ;

2 y = a x ( a > 0 a 1 );
3 : y = log a x ( a > 0 a 1 );
4 : y = sin x, y = cos x, y = tan x ;
5 :
y = arcsin x, y = arccos x, y = arctan x .

.
1 lim f ( x) = A f ( x ) = f ( x ) = A

0
+
0
x x

2 lim f ( x) = A f ( x ) = A + a ( x ), lim a( x) = 0
0
x x
xx

3(
)

lim f ( x) = A, A > 0(A < 0), > 0 ,


x x0

x ( x0 , x0 + ), x x0f ( x) > 0(f ( x ) < 0)


lim x) = 0, lim ( x) = 0

(1) lim

( x)
= 0, ( x)x)
( x)

( x) =o( ( x) ) .

(2) lim

( x)
= , ( x)x)
( x)

(3) lim

( x)
= c(c 0), ( x)x)

( x)

(4) lim

( x)
= 1, ( x)x)
( x)

( x) : ( x)
(5) lim

( x)
= c(c 0), k > 0, ( x )x)k
k ( x)

x 0
sin x
arcsin x
tan x
: x,
arctan x
ln(1 + x)

e x 1

1 2
x
2
1
1
(1 + x) n 1 : x
n

1 cos x :

1
2
3
Th


lim f ( x) = A, lim g ( x) = B.

(1) lim( f ( x) g ( x)) = A B


(2) lim f ( x) g ( x) = AgB
(3) lim

f ( x) A
= ( B 0)
g ( x) B

1 (x0x) f ( x) ( x),
lim ( x) = lim ( x) = A, lim f ( x) = A
x x0

x x0

x x0

sin x
(1) lim
=1
(2) lim(1 + x) x = e

x 0
x0
x

a0

b ,n = m
0
n
n 1

a0 x + a1 x + L + an 1 x + an
= 0, n < m

lim m

x b x + b x m 1 + L + b

0
1
m 1 x + bm

, n > m

lim n n = 1,

lim arctan x =

lim arctan x =

x +

lim arc cot x = 0,

x +

lim arc cot x =

lim e x = 0,

lim e x = ,

lim x x = 1,

x +0+

x+

(1) () f ( x ) [ a, b] , f ( x )
[ a, b] , M > 0 x [ a, b ] ,
f ( x) M .

(2) () f ( x ) [ a, b] , [ a, b]

f ( x ) , , :

f ( ) = max { f ( x )} , [ a, b]
a x b

f ( ) = min { f ( x )} , [ a, b ] .
a x b

(3) () f ( x ) [ a, b] , f ( a )

f ( b ) ( M m ), [ a, b]

, f ( ) = .

( a b)

(4) () f ( x ) [ a, b]
, f ( a ) f ( b ) < 0 , ( a, b ) ,
4

f ( ) = 0.

(a < < b)
(
)

1 f '( x0 ) = lim f ( x0 +Vx) f ( x0 ) 1

Vx0
Vx

f '( x 0 ) = lim

x x0

f ( x0 ) = lim

f ( x0 + x) f ( x0 )
f ( x) f ( x0 )
= lim
, ( x = x0 + x)
x x0
x
x x0

f +( x0 ) = lim

x 0 +

2 f ( x) x0

x 0

f ( x ) f ( x0 )
x x0

f ( x0 + x) f ( x0 )
f ( x) f ( x0 )
= lim+
x x0
x x0
x

Th1: f ( x) x0 f ( x ) x0
Th2: y = f ( x ) x0 y = f ( x ) x0

..
Th3: f ( x0 ) f ( x0 ) = f +( x0 )

f ( x)x = x0f ( x)M ( x0 , y0 )


y - y 0 = f '( x0 )( x x0 )
: y - y0 =

1
( x x0 ), f '( x0 ) 0.
f '( x0 )

: u = u ( x) v = v ( x ) x
(1) (u v) = u v
d (u v) = du dv
(2) (uv) = uv + vu
d (uv) = udv + vdu
5

u
v

(3) ( ) =

vu uv
(v 0)
v2

(1) y = c

y = 0

(2) y = x ( )

(4) y =

dy = 0

y = x 1

y = a x ln a

(3) y = a x

u
vdu udv
d( ) =
v
v2

dy = a x ln adx

(e x ) = e x

d (e x ) = e x dx

1
x ln a

dy =

1
dx
x ln a

1
x

(ln x) =

y = ln x

dy = x 1dx

d (ln x) =

1
dx
x

(5) y = sin x
(6) y = cos x

y = cos x

d (sin x) = cos xdx

y = sin x

d (cos x) = sin xdx

(7) y = tan x

y =

(8) y = cot x

y =

(9) y = sec x
(10) y = csc x

y = sec x tan x

1
= sec2 x
cos 2 x
1
= csc2 x
sin 2 x

y =

(12) y = arccos x

y =

(13) y = arctan x

y =

(14) y = arc cot x

y =

d (csc x) = csc x cot xdx

1
1 x
1

1 x2

1
1 + x2

d (cot x) = csc 2 xdx


d (sec x) = sec x tan xdx

y = csc x cot x

(11) y = arcsin x

d (tan x) = sec2 xdx

1
1 + x2

d (arcsin x) =
d (arccos x) =
d (arctan x) =

1 x2
1

dx

1 x2

dx

1
dx
1 + x2

d (arc cot x) =

1
dx
1 + x2

(15) y = shx
(16) y = chx

y = chx

d ( shx) = chxdx

y = shx

d (chx) = shxdx

1 : y = f ( x ) x
x f ( x) 0 x
y

dy
1
=
dx dx
dy

2 : = ( x ) x , y = f ( )
( = ( x ) ), y = f ( ( x)) x
, y = f ( ) ( x)
3

dy

dx

(1) x y x y
x .

1
y 2 ln y e y x .
y

x .
(2). F ( x, y ) = 0

F ( x, y )
dy
, Fx( x, y )
= x
dx
Fy( x, y )

Fy( x, y ) F ( x, y ) x y

(3)


x (n)
x
n
(e x ) ( n ) = e x
1 (a ) = a ln a (a > 0)

( n)
n
2 (sin kx) = k sin(kx + n 2 )

3 (cos kx) ( n ) = k n cos(kx + n )


2

4 ( x m ) ( n ) = m(m - 1)L (m - n +1) x m-n


5 (ln x) ( n ) = (1)( n 1)

(n 1)!
xn

6 u ( x) ,v( x) n
n

(uv)( n ) = cni u ( i ) v ( n-i ) u (0) = u v (0) = v


i= 0

Th1() f ( x)
(1) f ( x ) x0
f ( x) f ( x0 ) f ( x) f ( x0 ) ,

(2) f ( x ) x0 , f ( x 0 ) = 0

Th2 () f ( x)
(1) [a, b]
(2) (a, b) (a, b) f ( ) = 0
Th3 () f ( x)
(1) [a, b] (2) ( a , b ) ( a , b )

f (b ) f ( a )
= f ( )
ba

Th4 () f ( x) g ( x)
(1) [a, b] (2) (a, b) f ( x) g ( x)
f (b) f (a) f ( )
g ( x) 0 (a, b)
=
g (b) g (a ) g ( )

0
0

( ) f ( x ) , g ( x )
lim f ( x ) = 0, lim g ( x ) = 0 ; f ( x ) , g ( x ) x0

x x0

x x0

( x0 ) g ( x ) 0 ; lim

x x0

lim

x x0

f ( x)

g ( x)

= lim

x x0

f ( x)
( ).
g( x)

f ( x)
.
g( x)

0
0

I ( ) f ( x ) , g ( x )
lim f ( x ) = 0, lim g ( x ) = 0 ; X > 0 , x > X
x

, f ( x ) , g ( x ) , g ( x ) 0 ; lim

x x0

lim

x x0

f ( x)

g ( x)

= lim

x x0

f ( x)
.
g( x)

) f ( x ) , g ( x )

lim f ( x ) = , lim g ( x ) = ;

x x0

x x0

f ( x ) , g ( x ) x0

( x0 ) g ( x ) 0 ; lim

x x0

lim

x x0

f ( x)
( ).
g( x)

f ( x)

g ( x)

= lim

x x0

f ( x)
( ).
g( x)

f ( x)

. II ( ) I

g( x)

: f ( x) x0 n + 1
x0 x x0 x

f ( x ) = f ( x 0 ) + f ( x 0 )( x x 0 ) +

1
f ( x 0 )( x x 0 ) 2 + L
2!

f ( n ) ( x0 )
( x x0 ) n + Rn ( x )
n!

Rn ( x ) =

f ( n +1) ( )
( x x0 ) n +1 f ( x) x0 n
( n + 1)!

. x0 = 0 n
f ( x ) = f (0) + f (0) x +

1
f ( n ) (0 ) n
f (0) x 2 + L +
x + Rn ( x )
2!
n!

(1)
( n +1)
( ) n +1 0 x .(1)
Rn ( x) = f
x
( n + 1)!

x0 = 0

ex = 1 + x +

1 2
1
x n +1
x + L + xn +
e
2!
n!
( n + 1)!

= 1 + x + 1 x2 + L + 1 xn + o(xn )
2!

sin x = x

1 3
xn
n
x n +1
n +1
x +L +
sin
+
sin( +
)
3!
n!
2
( n + 1)!
2

= x

cos x = 1

n!

1 3
xn
n
x +L +
sin
+ o( x n )
3!
n!
2

1 2
xn
n
x n +1
n +1
x +L +
cos
+
c o s ( +
)
2!
2
( n + 1) !
2
n!

10

= 1

ln(1 + x ) = x

1 2
xn
n
x + L + cos
+ o( x n )
2!
n!
2
1 2 1 3
xn
( 1) n x n + 1
x + x L + ( 1) n 1
+
2
3
n
( n + 1)(1 + ) n + 1

= x

(1 + x ) m = 1 + mx +

1 2 1 3
xn
x + x L + ( 1) n 1
+ o(xn )
2
3
n

m ( m 1) 2
m ( m 1) L ( m n + 1) n
x +L +
x
n!
2!

m(m 1)L (m n + 1) n +1
x (1 + ) m n 1
(n + 1)!

(1 + x ) m = 1 + m x +
+

m ( m 1) 2
x +L
2!

m ( m 1) L ( m n + 1) n
x + o(xn )
n!

Th1 f ( x) (a, b) x (a, b)


f '( x) > 0 f '( x) < 0 f ( x) (a, b)

Th2 f ( x ) x0 x0
f '( x0 ) = 0 .
Th3 f ( x ) x0
f '( x0 ) = 0 f ( x ) x0 f '( x0 )
.
(1) x x0 f '( x ) +- f ( x0 )

(2) x x0 f '( x ) -+
f ( x0 )

11

(3) f '( x ) x = x0 f ( x0 ) .
Th4 () f ( x ) x0 f ''( x) 0
f '( x0 ) = 0 f ''( x0 ) < 0 f ( x0 )
f ''( x0 ) > 0 f ( x0 ) .
f ''( x0 )0 .
2
(1)

lim f ( x) = b lim f ( x) = b y = b
x +

y = f ( x ) .
(2)

lim f ( x) = lim f ( x) = x = x0
x x0

x x0+

y = f ( x ) .
(3)

a = lim

f ( x)
, b = lim[ f ( x) ax]
x
x

y = ax + b y = f ( x )

3
Th1 ( I f ''( x) < 0 f ''( x) > 0
f ( x ) I .
Th2 ( 1) x0 f ''( x) = 0 f ''( x)
x x0 f ''( x) ( x0 , f ( x0 )) .
Th3 ( 2) f ( x ) x0
f ''( x) = 0 f '''( x) 0 ( x0 , f ( x0 ))
12

1. dS = 1 + y '2 dx.

2. y = f ( x ) ( x, y ) k =

y ''
3

(1 + y '2 ) 2

'(t ) ''(t ) ''(t ) '(t )


x = (t )
,k=
.
3
[ '2 (t ) + '2 (t )] 2
y = (t )

3. M k (k 0) M
1
k

= .

(
)

1 kf ( x) dx = k f ( x) dx

k 0

2 [ f1 ( x) f 2 ( x) L f k ( x)]dx = f1 ( x)dx f 2 ( x)dx L fk ( x)dx


3 [ f ( x)dx]' = f ( x)
4 F '( x)dx = F ( x) + C
k

x dx = k + 1 x
1

k +1

+C

d f ( x)dx = f ( x)dx

dF ( x) = F ( x) + C C

k 1

1
dx = + C
x

13

1
x

dx = 2 x + C

x dx = ln x + C
x
a dx =

ax
+ C (a > 0, a 1)
ln a

cos xdx = sin x + C


1

cos

dx = e x + C

sin xdx = cos x + C

dx = sec2 xdx = tan x + C

dx = csc2 xdx = cot x + C

sin

sin x dx = csc xdx = ln csc x cot x + C


1

cos x dx = sec xdx = ln sec x + tan x + C


sec x tan xdx = sec x + C csc x cot xdx = csc x + C
tan xdx = ln cos x + C cot xdx = ln sin x + C
a

dx
1
x
= arctan + C
2
+x
a
a
dx

a x
2

x
+C
a

dx
1
a+x
=
+C
ln
x 2 2a a x
dx

= arcsin

x a2
2

dx

1+ x

= arctan x + C

dx

1 x2
dx

1 x

= ln x + x 2 a 2 + C

(1) f ( x ) [ l , l ]

l
l

f ( x)dx =

l
0

[ f ( x ) + f ( x )] d x
14

= arcsin x + C
1 1+ x
+C
ln
2 1 x

f x
0 ,
=
l
f x
2 0 f ( x ) d x ,

2
f x T a

a +T

f ( x)dx =

(3 )

a
0

f ( x)dx =

a 2 x2 dx =

T
2
T

f ( x )d x.

1
a2
4

n 1 n 3
n gn 2 L
(4) 2 sin n xdx = 2 cos n xdx
0
0
n 1 gn 3 L
n n 2

5 sin nx cos m xdx =


-

sin nx cos mxdx =

cos nx cos mxdx =

2
0

1
g , n
2 2
2
g1, n
3

, n = m
sin nx cos m xdx =
0, n m

sin nx cos mxdx = 0


, n = m
cos nx cos mxdx = 0 =
0, n m

1

(1)

f ( x)dx = f (t )dt = f (u )du = L


b

(2) f ( x)dx = f ( x)dx


b

(3) dx = b a
a

(4) [ f ( x) g ( x)]dx = f ( x)dx g ( x)dx


15

(5) kf ( x)dx = k f ( x )dx(k


b

(6) f ( x)dx = f ( x)dx + f ( x)dx


b

(7)f ( x) g ( x), x [a, b], f ( x)dx g ( x)dx.


b

1. f ( x) 0, x [a, b]
f ( x)dx 0;
a

2. | f ( x)dx | | f ( x) |dx

(8)m f ( x) M , x [a, b], m, M


b

m(b a) f ( x)dx M (b a)
a

(9)f ( x)[a, b][a, b] ,


b

f ( x)dx = (b a) f ( )
a

f ( ) =

1 b
f ( x)dx
b a a

Th1

f x[ a b ] x [ ab ]
x

Fx= f (t ) dt x
a

F '( x ) =

x
d
d
F ( x) =
( f (t ) d t ) = f ( x )
a
dx
dx

F ( x ) =

( x)

(x)

( x)

(x)
a

f ( t ) dt , F '( x ) = f [ ( x )]g '( x ).

f (t ) dt ) 'x = f [ ( x )] '( x ) f [ ( x )]g '( x )


f ( t ) g ( x ) dt ) 'x = ( g ( x )

(x)

16

f ( t ) dt ) 'x

= g '( x )

(x)
a

f ( t ) dt + g ( x ) f [ ( x )]g '( x )

Th2 f ( x ) [ a , b ] x [ a , b ] ,

f ( x ) dt f ( x ) [ a , b ]

Th3 - : f ( x)[ a, b] F ( x )
b
f ( x)

a

f ( x ) d x = F ( x ) |ba = F ( b ) F ( a )

u d v = u v v d u udv
dv u

f ( u ) d u = F ( u ) + C ,
f [ ( x )] '( x ) d x =

f [ ( x )] d ( x )

u = ( x ) f (u ) du = F (u ) + C = F [ ( x )] + C
2

:
f xabx
t

( 1) ( t ) '(t ) 0.
(2) ( a ) = a ( ) = b . t

t a b

b
a

f ( x)dx =

f [ ( t )] '( t ) d t .

17


u x
v xabu '(x), v '(x),

u ( x ) v '( x ) dx = u ( x ) v ( x ) |ba v ( x ) u '( x ) dx


b

(1) a 2 + b 2 2 ab
(3)
b

( f ( x ) g ( x ) dx ) 2
a

(2) a > 0, a +

b
a

) (

f 2 ( x ) dx g

b
a

1
2
a

g 2 ( x ) dx ,


f x
g x a b

1
f ( x )

a2 x2

x = a sin t

a2 + x2

x = a tan t

x2 a2

x = a sec t

(1)

A
dx = A ln | x a | + C
xa

(2)

A
A
1
dx =
+ C ( n 1)
n
( x a)
n 1 ( x a ) n 1
18

x+ =u
dx
du
2

2
2
2

p 4q p n 4q p =a2 (u + a2 )n
[(x + )2 +
]
4
2
4

(3)

dx
=
2
(x + px + q)n

(4)

x+a
1
1
p
dx
+ (a ) 2
dx =
n
2
n1
(x + px + q)
2(n 1) (x + px + q)
2 (x + px + q)n
2

p 2 4q < 0
4

1

f x
b

2.

f ( x ) dx = lim

3.

f ( x ) dx =

f ( x ) dx = lim

b +

f ( x ) dx

f ( x ) dx

f ( x ) dx +

f ( x ) dx

1. f ( x ) dx = lim+
a

2 .

b
a

f ( x ) d x = lim+
0

f ( x ) d x ,( x a +
f x

a +

. f ( x ) dx = lim+

f ( x ) dx , ( x b f ( x ) )

f ( x ) dx + lim+
0

( x c
f x

19

b
c +

f ( x ) dx

(
)

1..
v

2. a . a .
3.
v v v
v
v
a = xi + yj + zk = {x, y, z} a = x 2 + y 2 + z 2

v v
a b = {x1 x2 , y1 y2 , z1 z2 }.

a a

uuv
av a 0 > 0, av
v v
a = 0
=0,

v uuv0
v
- a a < 0,a
v
a = { x1 , y1 , z1}.

a = {x1 , y1 , z1} b = {x2 , y2 , z2 }

a = {x1 , y1 , z1}

( )

v
v
v v v v
v v
a b a b = a b cos a , b .

v v

a = {x1 , y1 , z1} b = {x2 , y2 , z2 } a b = x1 x2 + y1 y2 + z1 z2 .


v

2 a b
20

c
v

v v

vv

1 c = a b sin(a, b)
v

vv

2 c a, c b c a b
v

3a b c . c a b
v

v v

c = ab .
v

a = {x1 , y1 , z1} b = {x2 , y2 , z2 }


v v v
i j k
v v
y1 z1 v x1 z1 v x1 y1 v
a b = x1 y1 z1 =
i
j+
k.
y2 z 2
x2 z 2
x2 y2
x2 y2 z 2
vvv

v v

3 a, b, c a b a b
v

v v v

c (a b) c a b c
v v v

(a, b, c) (a, b, c) = (a b) c.
v

a = {x1 , y1 , z1} b = {x2 , y2 , z2 } c = {x3 , y3 , z3 }


x1 y1 z1

(a, b, c) = x2 y2 z2
x3 y3 z3


v
v
v
a = {x1 , y1 , z1} b = {x2 , y2 , z2 } c = {x3 , y3 , z3 }


21

v v
v v

1 a b a b = 0 x1 x2 + y1 y2 + z1 z2 = 0

v v
v v v
x1 y1 z1
=
2 a // b a b = 0 =
x2 y2 z 2

x2 , y2 , z2 0
x2 = 0 x1 = 0

3 a b , a + b = 0
v

4 a b
x1 x2 + y1 y2 + z1 z2

v v
cos(a b ) =

x + y12 + z12 x2 2 + y2 2 + z2 2

2
1

5 a b c , , v
v

a + b + vc = 0 (a, b, c) = 0
uuv

2 1 . a a 0
uuv av
x
y
z
a0 = v =
,
,
2
2
2
2
a x2 + y2 + z 2
x +y +z
x + y2 + z2

3
cos =

x
x +y +z
2

, cos =

22

y
x +y +z
2

,cos =

z
x + y2 + z 2
2

, , a .
uuv

4 a 0 = {cos , cos , cos }


cos 2 + cos 2 + cos 2 = 1.

1
r

(1) Ax + By + Cz + D = 0 n = { A, B, C}

Ax + Cz + D = 0 // y
(2)

A( x x0 ) + B( y y0 ) + C ( z z0 ) = 0

r
M ( x0 , y0 , z0 ) n = { A, B, C}
x x1 y y1 z z1

(3) x2 x1 y2 y1 z2 z1
x3 x1 y3 y1 z3 z1
M 1 ( x1 , y1 , z1 ) , M 2 ( x2 , y2 , z2 ) , M 3 ( x3 , y3 , z3 )

(4)

x y z
+ + = 1 a, b, c
a b c

(a, 0, 0), (0, b, 0), (0, 0, c)

2
A1 x + B1 y + C1 x + D1 = 0 1
A2 x + B2 y + C2 x + D2 = 0 2

()

uur

1 2 n1 = { A1 , B1 , C1}
23

r
i

r r
j k

uur
r uur uur
n2 = { A2 , B2 , C2 } s = n1 n2 = A1 B1 C1
A2 B2 C2

(2)
x x0 y y0 z z0
=
=
l
m
n

M ( x0 , y0 , z0 )

r
s = {l , m, n}
x x1
y y1
z z1
=
=
x2 x1 y2 y1
z2 z1

(3)

M 1 ( x1 , y1 , z1 ) M 2 ( x2 , y2 , z2 )
x = x0 + lt

(4) y = y0 + mt
z = z + nt
0

M ( x0 , y0 , z0 )

s = {l , m, n}
3
1 A1 x + B1 y + C1 z + D1 = 0 2
A2 x + B2 y + C2 z + D2 = 0

(1) 1 // 2

A1 B1 C1
=
=
A2 B2 C2

(2) 1 2 A1 A2 + B1 B2 + C1C2 = 0
(3) 1 2
cos =

A1 A2 + B1 B2 + C1C2
A + B12 + C12 A22 + B22 + C22
2
1

4
24

L :

x x0 y y0 z z0
=
=
l
m
n

1 A1 x + B1 y + C1 z + D1 = 0
(1) L // Al + Bm + Cn = 0
(2) L

A B C
= =
l m n

(3) L
sin =

Al + Bm + Cn
A + B 2 + C 2 l 2 + m2 + n 2
2

5
L1 :
L2 :
(1) L1 // L2

x x1 y y1 z z1
=
=
l1
m1
n1
x x2 y y2 z z2
=
=
l2
m2
n2

l1 m1 n1
=
=
l2 m2 n2

(2) L1 L2 l1l2 + m1 m2 + n1n2 = 0


(3) L1 L2
cos =

l1l2 + m1m2 + n1n2


l + m12 + n12 l22 + m22 + n22
2
1

6 M ( x0 , y0 , z0 )
: Ax + By + Cz + D = 0
d=

Ax0 + By0 + Cz0 + D


A2 + B 2 + C 2

7 M ( x0 , y0 , z0 )
L1 :

x x1 y y1 z z1
=
=

l1
m1
n1
25

r
i
uuuuuur uuuur
M1M 0 M1 P
uuuur
d=
=
M1 P

r
j

r
k

x0 x1 y0 y1 z0 z1
l

l 2 + m2 + n2

(1) : f ( x , y ) = 0 , // z

= 0

f ( x, y ) = 0 ,
( x , z ) = 0

=0

, // y

( x, z ) = 0 ,
( y , z ) = 0
:
, // x

=0
x

( y, z ) = 0 .
f ( x , y , z ) = 0
, {l , m, n}
g ( x , y , z ) = 0

(2) :

, ( x, y, z ) , ( x, y, z )

X x Y y Zz
=
=
l
m
n

X ,Y , Z ,
26


f ( x, y, z ) = 0

g ( x, y , z ) = 0
X x Y y Z z

=
=
m
n
l
x, y , z

x +y =R

2
o

x
y
+ 2 =1
2
a
b

y
x

x2 y2

=1
a2 b2

-a

x2 = 2 py, ( p > 0)

y
x

27

x2 y 2 z 2
+ + =1
a 2 b2 c 2
( a, b, c )

x2 y 2 z 2
+ =1
a 2 b2 c 2
( a, b, c )

x2 y 2 z 2
+ =1
a 2 b2 c 2

( a, b, c )

x2 y2
+
= 2 pz
a 2 b2
( a, b, p )

x2 y2

= 2 pz
a2 b2

()
( a, b, p )
28

o
x

b y

x2 y 2 z 2
+ =0
a2 b2 c2

( a, b, c )

(
)

z = f ( x, y )

lim

z f x' ( x , y ) x f y' ( x , y ) y

Th1( )
z = f ( x , y ) f xy'' ( x , y ), f yx'' ( x , y )
D , f xy'' ( x , y ) = f yx'' ( x , y )

Th2()z = f ( x, y)P( x, y)
z z
z
z
, , , dz = dx + dy
x y
x
y

29

T h 3( )
z z
,
z = f ( x , y )
P ( x, y)
x y
, P ( x , y ) ,
z = f ( x , y ) P ( x , y )


z z u z v
x = u gx + v gx

(1)z = f (u , v), u = ( x, y ), v = ( x, y ),


z = z gu + z v

y u y v y
(2)z = f (u, v), u = ( x), v = ( x),

dz z du z dv
= g + g , z

dx u dx v dx
(3)z = f ( x, u, v), u = ( x, y ), v = ( x, y ),
z f f u f v
x = x + u gx + v gx

z = 0 + f gu + f gv
u y v y
y

123.
2
(1)F ( x, y ) = 0,

F ' ( x, y )
dy
= x
dx
F ' y ( x, y )

(2) F ( x, y, z ) = 0,

F ' y ( x, y , z )
F ' ( x, y, z ) z
z
= x
, =
F 'z ( x, y, z ) y
F ' z ( x, y , z )
x

F( x, y, z) =0
(3)
y = y ( x), z = z ( x),
G( x, y, z) =0

30

dy dz
dy dz
, ,
dx dx
dx dx

F 'x + F ' y
:
G ' + G '
y
x

dy
dz
dy

+ F 'z g = 0
F 'y
+ F 'z

dx
dy

dx

dy
dz
G ' dy + G '
+ G 'z
=0
z
y dx
dx
dx

dz
= F 'x ,
dx

dz
= G ' x
dx

Th1 z = f ( x, y ) M 0 ( x0 , y0 ) f ( x, y )
M 0 ( x0 , y0 ) l = (cos , cos )
f ( x0 , y0 ) f ( x0 , y0 )
f ( x0 , y0 )
cos +
cos
=
l
x
y

l
l = (cos ,sin ) l [0, 2 ]

f ( x0 , y0 ) f ( x0 , y0 )
f ( x0 , y0 )
cos +
sin
=
l
x
y

Th2 u = f ( x, y, z ) M 0 ( x0 , y0 , z0 )
u = f ( x, y, z ) M 0 ( x0 , y0 , z0 )
l = (cos , cos , cos )
f ( x0 , y0 , z0 ) f ( x0 , y0 , z0 )
f ( x0 , y0 , z0 )
cos +
cos
=
l
x
y

f ( x0 , y0 , z0 )
cos
z

z = f ( x, y ) M 0
f ( x0 , y0 )
f ( x0 , y0 ) f ( x0 , y0 )
,
)g(cos , cos )
=(
l
x
y

= grad ( f ( x0 , y0 ))gl = gradf ( x0 , y0 ) cos grad ( f ( x0 , y0 ), l

31

gradf ( x0 , y0 ) = (

f ( x0 , y0 ) f ( x0 , y0 )
,
)
x
y

z = f ( x, y ) M 0 ()
f ( x0 , y0 )
grad ( f ( x0 , y0 )
l l =

l
grad ( f ( x0 , y0 )

grad f ( x0 , y0 )
1

x = x (t )

(1) y = y (t )( x0 , y0 , z0 ) t = t0
z = z (t )

xx
y y0 z z0
0 =
=
x '(t0 ) y '(t0 ) z '(t0 )

x '(t0 )( x x0 ) + y '(t0 )( y y0 ) + z '(t0 )( z z0 ) = 0

Fx, y, z ) = 0
(2)
G ( x, y, z ) = 0

P x0 , y0 , z0 )

x x0

( F , G )
( y, z )

=
p

y y0
( F , G)
( z, x)

=
p

z z0
( F , G )
( x, y )

( F , G)
( F , G )
( F , G )
x x0 ) +
( y y0 ) +
( z z0 ) = 0
( y, z ) p
( z , x) p
( x, y ) p

32

(1)z = f ( x, y), P( x0 , y0 , z0 )
z
z
( x x0 ) +
( y y0 ) ( z z0 ) = 0.
x p
y p
xx
y y0 z z 0
0 =
=
z
1
z
x p
y p

(2)Fx, y, z) = 0, P( x0 , y0 , z0 )
F 'x ( x x0 ) + Fy ( y y0 ) + Fz p ( z z0 ) = 0
p

xx
y y0 z z 0
0 =
=
F 'x | p F ' y | p F 'z | p

z = f ( x, y)P( x0 , y0 )

P( x0 , y0 ) Q ( x, y )
f ( x, y ) > f ( x0 , y0 )( < f ( x0 , y0 ))
f ( x0 , y0 )f ( x, y ) (
)

T h
1

z = f ( x , y ) P ( x 0 , y 0 )
f x' ( x 0 , y 0 ) = 0
P ( x 0 , y 0 ) z = f ( x , y ) '
f y ( x 0 , y 0 ) = 0

33

Th
2
z = f ( x , y ) P ( x 0 , y 0 )
, f ' x ( x 0 , y 0 ) = 0, f ' y ( x 0 , y 0 ) = 0

[ f "xy ( x0 , y0 )]2 f "x 2 ( x0 , y0 )g f " y 2 ( x0 , y0 ) < 0


P( x0 , y0 )z = f ( x, y )
(1)f "x 2 ( x0 , y0 ) > 0(f "y 2 ( x0 , y0 ) > 0), P( x0 , y0 )

( 2) f "x 2 ( x0 , y0 ) < 0(f "y 2 ( x0 , y0 ) < 0), P( x0 , y0 )


2

(1)z = f ( x, y )x0 , y0 )
(2)Th 2( x0 , y0 )f ( x0 , y0 )

z = f ( x, y )

3
1( x, y ) =0, z = f ( x, y )

:
F ( x, y )=f ( x, y )+( x, y ) ;

34

f 'x ( x, y ) + 'x ( x, y ) = 0

f ' y ( x, y ) + ' y ( x, y ) = 0

( x, y ) = 0

( x0 , y0 );

f ( x0 , y0 )f ( x, y )

2( x, y, z) =0, u = f ( x, y, z )
Fx, y, z ) + x, y, z );

f 'x ( x, yz ) + 'x ( x, y, z ) = 0

f ' y ( x, y, z) + ' y ( x, y, z ) = 0

f 'z ( x, y, z ) + 'z ( x, y, z ) = 0
( x, y, z) = 0

x0, y0, z0 )f ( x0, y0 , z0 )f ( x, y, z )

3
1 x, y, z ) = 0.2 ( x, y, z ) = 0u = f ( x, y, z )

Fx, y, z ) = f ( x, y, z ) + 1
1 x, y, z ) + 2
2 x, y, z )

2
1

(
)

I= f ( x , y ) d = lim f ( i , i ) i , d =
D

d 0

i =1

max {d } ,
1 i n

d i i i = 1, 2,L n )

z = f ( x, y ) 0, ( x, y ) DIz = f ( x, y )
D
35

I= F ( x, y, z )dv = lim f (i ,i , i )vi , d = max {di } ,


D

d 0

1 i n

i =1

di vii = 1, 2,L n)

I = f ( x, y, z )

3 (

)

(1) kfxyd =k f ( x, y )d , k
D

(2) [ f ( x, y ) g ( x, y )]d = f ( x, y )d g ( x, y )d
D

D
n

(3) f ( x, y )d = f ( x, y )d , Di D
D

i =1 Di

i = 1, 2,L , m)
(4) d = A, AD
D

(5)

Df ( x, y ) g ( x, y ), f ( x, y )d g ( x, y )d
D

(6)(M , mf ( x, y )D
AD mA f ( x, y )d MA
D

36

(7)(f ( x, y )DAD
D f ( x, y )d =f ( , ) A
D

(8)

1Dxf ( x, y )y
f ( x, y )d
D

0, f yf ( x, y ) = f ( x, y )

= 2 f ( x, y )d , f yf ( x, y ) = f ( x, y ),

D1
D1D

(a)(b)

2Dyf ( x, y )x
f ( x, y )d
D

0, f xf ( x, y ) = f ( x, y )

= 2 f ( x, y )d , f xf ( x, y ) = f ( x, y ),

D2
D2D
3Df ( x, y )x, y

37

f ( x, y )d
D

0, f x, yf ( x, y ) = f ( x, y )

= 2 f ( x, y )d , f xyf ( x, y ) = f ( x, y ),

D2
D1D

4Dy = x f ( x, y )d = f ( x, y )d
D

D f ( x, y )

D f ( x, y )
8.
1

P( x, y ), Q ( x, y ) D
Pdx + Qdy
L

Q P
=
, ( x, y ) D
x y

Pdx + Qdy = 0, L
L

u ( x, y), ( x, y ) D du ( x, y ) = Pdx + Qdy,


u ( x, y ) =

( x, y)

( x0 , y0 )

Pdx + Qdy

2 D L
P( x, y ), Q ( x, y ) D
Q

( x y )dxdy =
Pdx + Qdy
L

38

(
D

Q P
+ )dxdy =
L Pdx Qdy
x y

1 (Gauss)
S
P( x, y, z ), Q ( x, y, z ), R ( x, y, z )

( x + y + z )dV = Pdydz + Qdzdx + Rdxdy

( x + y + z )dV = P cos + Q cos + R cos dS

S ()
cos , cos , cos S ( x, y, z ) .

2
S
S ()
P( x, y, z ), Q ( x, y, z ), R ( x, y, z ) S

( y z )dydz + ( z x )dzdx + ( x y )dxdy =

dydz
(
S

x
P
R

dzdx dxdy

y
Q

= Pdx + Qdy + Rdz )

z
R

( y z ) cos + ( z x ) cos + ( x y ) cos


S

= Pdx + Qdy + Rdz

1
39

Pdx + Qdy + Rdz

uv
v
v
v
uv

A = P ( x, y, z )i + Q ( x, y, z ) j + R( x, y, z )k ; P, Q, R A


uv P Q R

P( x, y, z ) div A =
+
+
x y z

2
uv

A = P ( x, y, z )i + Q ( x, y, z ) j + R( x, y, z )k
uv
P, Q, R rot A
v
i
uv
rot A =
x
P

v
j

v
k

y
Q

z
R

(
)

1 un
n =1


(1) c 0 u n c u n
n =1
n =1

2 u n v n
n =1
n =1

u n = s , v n = , (u n vn ) = s .
n =1
n =1
n =1

n =1

n =1

n =1

u n
v n , ( u n v n ) .
40

n =1

u n v n ,
n =1

n =1

(u n vn ) .

u
n =1

p un un 0
n =1


(1)0 un vn ,


un vn
un vn

n =1
n =1
n =1
n =1

(2) un vn

n =1

lim

n =1

un
= A(vn 0)
vn

n =1

n =1

n =1

n =1

1.0 A < +, vn un
2.0 < A +, vn un

i ) ar
n =1

n 1

a
,| r |< 1

= 1 r

| r | 1

1 p > 1
=
p
n =1 n
p 1

ii ) p

41

(3)

un n

un 0, n = 1, 2L un
n =1

lim

un +1
un

>
1

un

n =1

= 1
=

un
< 1

n =1

(1)

n 1

n =1

un , (un > 0)

(1) n 1 un , (un > 0)


n =1

(1)un un +1 , (n = 1, 2,L L ); (2) lim un = 0,


n

S u1 , n | Rn | un +1 .

1
a0 + a1 x + a2 x 2 + L + an x n + L = an x n
n=0

lim

an +1
1
= , R = .
an

u ( x)
n =1

(1)
x
| un +1 ( x) |
= ( x)( lim n | un ( x) | = ( x));
n | u ( x ) |
n
n

lim

42

(2) ( x) < 1, un ( x)(a, b);


n =1

n =1

n =1

(3)x =
a x = b
) un (b)
un (a

4 un ( x)
n =1

n =0

n=0

an x n = f ( x), bn x n = g ( x),

R1 , R2 , R = min( R1 , R2 ), x ( R, R),

n=0

n =0

n=0

n =0

n =0

n =0

(1) an x n bn x n = (an bn ) x n = f ( x) g ( x), -RR

(2) ( an x n )( bn x n ) = (a0 bn + a1bn 1 + L + an 1b1 + an b0 ) x n


= f ( x) g ( x)

(3) b0 0, x = 0
f ( x) a0 + a1 x + L + an x n + L
=
= C0 + C1 x + C2 x 2 + L + Cn x n + L
n
g ( x) b0 + b1 x + L + bn x + L

C0 =

a0
ab a b
, C1 = 1 0 2 0 1 ,L
b0
b0

an x nR RR
n =0

(1) an x n
f x
n=0

43

n =0

n =0

(2) an x n f x' =( an x n ) '

(a
n=0

xn ) ' =

na
n=0

x n 1

(3) an x n
f tdt = ( an t n )dt
n=0

n =0

an n +1
x
n=0 n + 1

= ( an t n dt ) =
n =0

3

f xx = x0

n =0

f (n) (x0 )
f "(x0 )
(x x0 )n = f (x0 ) + f '(x0 )(x x0 ) +
(x x0 )2 +L
n!
2!
f ( n ) ( x0 )
( x x0 )n + L
n!

f xx = x0

x0 = 0
n =0

f ( n ) (0) n
f "(0) 2
x = f (0) + f '(0) x +
x +L
n!
2!
+

44

f ( n ) (0) n
x +L
n!

Thf ( x)x = x0

f ( n ) ( x0 )
( x x0 ) n
n
!
n=0
f ( x) lim Rn ( x) = 0,

1
R n ( x) =
f ( n +1) [ x0 + ( x x0 )]( x x0 ) n +1 , 0 < < 1.
(n + 1)!

4
(1)

1
= 1 + u + u 2 + L + u n + L = u n , (1,1)
1 u
n=0

(2)

1
= 1 u + u 2 L + (1) n u n + L = (1) n u n , (1,1)
1+ u
n=0

(3) eu = 1 + u +

u2
un
un
+ L + + L = , (, +)
2!
n!
n =0 n !

(4) sin u = u

u3
u2n+1
u2n+1
+ L + (1)n
+L = (1)n
,(, +)
3!
(2n +1)!
(2n + 1)!
n=0

(5) cos u = 1

u2 u4
u 2n
u 2n
+ L + (1)n
+ L = (1)n
,(, +)
2! 4!
(2n)!
(2n)!
n =0

(6) ln(1 + u) = u

(7)

u 2 u3
u n+1
+ L + (1)n
+L
2 3
n +1

(1 + u ) a = 1 + au +

(1)
n =0

u n +1
,(1,1)
n +1

a(a 1) 2
a (a 1)L (a n + 1) n
u +L +
u L
2!
n!

( a (-11))

1f ( x)2 [- ][0
2 ]

45


[ l , l ]

an =

f ( x) cos nxdx =

bn =

f (x)sin nxdx =

f ( x) cos nxdx, (n = 0,1, 2,L )

f (x)sin nxdx,(n = 1,2,L )

f ( x)
1
2

2 f ( x) a0 + (an cos nx + bn sin nx)


f ( x)f ( x) :

n =1

1
a0 + (an cos nx + bn sin nx)
2
n =1

3 f ( x)2l[-l ,l ]

an =

1 l
n
f ( x) cos
xdx, (n = 0,1, 2L )
l l
l

bn =

1 l
n
f ( x) sin
xdx, (n = 0,1, 2L )

l
l

1
n
n
a0 + (an cos x + bn sin
x)
2
l
l
n =1

f ( x)f ( x) :

1
n
n
a0 + (an cos
x + bn sin
x).
2
l
l
n =1

3 f(x)[- , ]
(1)
(2) f (x)[ - ]

46


f (x), xf (x)

a0
1
+(an cos x +bn sinnx) = [ f (x0 0) + f (x0 +0)], x0
f x
2 n=1
2
1
2[ f ( +0) + f (0 +0)], x =.

[0, l ]

1 f ( x ) [0, l ]

a
f ( x), 0 x l
n
F ( x) =
f ( x) ~ 0 + an cos
x
2 n =1
l
f ( x), l x < 0

an =

2 l
n
f ( x) cos
xdx n=012

0
l
l

2 f ( x ) [0, l ]
f ( x), 0 x l
F ( x) =
F ( x) x=0 [ , ]
f ( x), l x < 0

f ( x) ~ bn sin
n =1

bn =

2
l

l
0

f ( x ) sin

n
x

n
xd x n=12
l

(
)

47

.
2 f1 ( x) g1 ( y )dx + f 2 ( x) g 2 ( y )dy = 0
g1 ( y ) f 2 ( x ) 0

f1 ( x)
g ( y)
dx + 2
dy = 0
f 2 ( x)
g1 ( y )

f1 ( x)
g ( y)
dx + 2
dy = C
(
x
)
g1 ( y )
2

y
x

1 y ' = f ( )
u =

y
du
y = ux y ' = u + x
x
dx

u+x

du
du
dx
du
= f (u )
=

= ln x + C
dx
f (u ) u
x
f (u ) u

a x + b1 y + c1
dy
= f 1

dx
a2 x + b2 y + c2

(1) c1 = c2 = 0
y

a1 + b1 x
a1 x + b1 y
dy
y
= f
= g ( ) (2)
= f
y
dx
a
x
+
b
y
x
2
2
a2 + b2
x

(2)

a1

b1

a2

b2

= 0,

a1 b1
= =
a2 b2

48

(a2 x + b2 y ) + c1
dy
= f
= g (a2 x + b2 y )
dx
a2 x + b2 y + c2

a2 x + b2 y = u

(3)

a1

b1

a2

b2

du
= a2 + b2 f (u ) 1
dx

0, c1 , c2 0

a1 x + b1 y + c1 = 0
a2 x + b2 y + c2 = 0

( , )
x = X + , y = Y + ,

dy
X
= ( ) 2
dX
Y

3 y '+ p( x) y = q( x)

p ( x ) dx
(1) y '+ p( x) y = 0 y = Ce

p ( x ) dx
(2) y = C ( x)e

(3)
p ( x ) dx
p ( x ) dx
C '( x)e
= q( x) C ( x) = q ( x)e
dx + C%

(4)

y = [ q ( x)e

p ( x ) dx

p ( x ) dx
dx + C%]e

4 y '+ p( x) y = q( x) y n n 0,1
Z = y1 n

1 dz
+ p( x) z = q( x)
1 n dx

dz
+ (1 n) p ( x) z = (1 n)q( x) 3
dx

5 M ( x, y )dx + N ( x, y )dy = 0
49

x
y
M N
=
. M ( x, y0 )dx + N ( x, y )dy = C
x0
y0
y
x

y + p ( x) y + q( x) y = f ( x)

(8.1) p( x), q ( x), f ( x)

f ( x) 0
.

()

1 y1 ( x), y2 ( x) y + p ( x ) y + q( x) y = 0 (8.2)
C1 y1 ( x) + C2 y2 ( x) (8.2)
y1 ( x), y2 ( x) (

y1 ( x)
()) (8.2)
y2 ( x )

y ( x) = C1 y1 ( x) + C2 y2 ( x)
2 y1 ( x), y2 ( x) (8.1)
y1 ( x) y2 ( x) (8.2)

3 y ( x) (8.1) y ( x)
(8.2) y ( x) + y ( x) (8.1)
y1 ( x), y2 ( x) (8.2)(8.1)
y ( x ) = y ( x) + C1 y1 ( x) + C2 y2 ( x) C1 , C2 .

1 y ''+ py '+ qy = 0

50

(1) p, q

2 + p + q = 0
I 1 , 2 (1)
y ( x ) = C1e1 x + C2 e2 x

II 1 = 2 y ( x) = (C1 + C2 x)e x
1

III = i
y ( x) = e x (C1 cos x + C2 sin x)

2 n

y ( n ) + p1 y ( n 1) + p2 y ( n 2) + L + pn y = 0 ()
pi (i = 1, 2,L , n)

n + p1 ( n 1) + p2 ( n 2) + L + pn = 0

(1) 1 , 2 ,L , n n ()
y ( x ) = C1e1 x + C2 e2 x + L + Cn en x

(2) = 0 k (k n) ()
(C1 + C2 x + L + Ck x k 1 )e x
0

(3) + i k (2k n) ()

51

e x [(C1 + C2 x + L + Ck x k 1 ) cos x + ( D1 + D2 x + L + Dk x k 1 ) sin x]

1 y ''+ py '+ qy = f ( x) (2)


p, q

(1) Y ( x)
(2)(2) y * ( x)
(3)(2) y = Y ( x) + y * ( x)
(2) y * ( x)
.
2 x n y ( n ) + a1 x n 1 y ( n 1) + L + an 1 xy + an y = 0
.

(
)

52

A ,i = j

(1) A = (aij ) nn , ai1 Aj1 + ai 2 Aj 2 + L + ain Ajn =


0, i j

A ,i = j
a1i A1 j + a2i A2 j + L + ani Anj =
0, i j

AA* = A* A = A E ,

A11 A21 L
A* = A12 A22 L

LL
L
A
1n A2 n L

An1
An 2 = ( Aji ) = ( Aij )T

L
Ann

(2) A, B n AB = A B = B A = BA
A B = A B
(3) | kA |= k n | A |, An

(4) An| AT |=| A|;| A1 |=| A|1 (A| A*|=| A|n1n 2


A O
A C
A O
5
=
=
=| A || B | A, B
O B O B C B

Am m

Bn n

= 1mn g| A || B | .

53

(6) Dn =

1L

x1

x2 L

xn

L
n 1
1

L L L
n 1
2

L x

= ( xi x j )
1 j < i n

n 1
n

A n i (i = 1, 2L , n) A n
n

| A |= i
i =1

(
)

a11

a21
m naij mn
L


a
m1

a1n

a22 L a2 n

LLLL

am 2 L amn
a12 L

A, (aij ) mn .m = n A n n
.

1 A = (aij ), B = (bij ) m n m n
C = (cij ) = aij + bij A B A + B = C
2 A = (aij ) m n k
m n (kaij ) k A kA .

54

3 A = (aij ) m n B = (bij ) n s
m s C = (cij )
n

cij = ai1b1 j + ai 2 b2 j + L + ain bnj = aik bkj AB


k =1

C = AB
1 AT A1A *
1)( AT )T = A, ( AB)T = BT AT , (kA)T = kAT , ( A B)T = AT BT

2)( A1 ) 1 = A,( AB) 1 = B 1 A1 , (kA)1 =

1 1
A ,
k

( A B) 1 = A1 B 1
3)( A*)* =| A |n 2 A(n 3) ( AB )* = B * A*,

(kA)* = k n 1 A * (n 2). ( A B)* = A * B *


4)( A1 )T = ( AT ) 1 , ( A1 )* = ( A*) 1 , ( A*)T = ( AT ) *

2 A*

1) AA* = A * A =| A | E
2) | A* |=| A |n 1 (n 2), (kA)* = k n 1 A*, ( A*)* =| A |n 2 A(n 3)

3) A A* =| A | A1 , ( A*)* =

1
A
| A|

n, r ( A) = n

4) A n r ( A*) = 1, r ( A) = n 1
0, r ( A) < n 1

55

3 A
A AB = E; | A | 0; r ( A) = n;
A
A Ax = 0

1
1 rA==
2 r ( Amn ) min(m, n);
3 A 0 r ( A) 1
4 r ( A B) r ( A) + r ( B);
5

6 r ( A) + r ( B ) n r ( AB ) min(r ( A), r ( B)), AB = O


r ( A) + r ( B) n
7 A1 r ( AB) = r ( B);
r ( AB) = r ( A);

r ( Amn ) = n r ( AB) = r ( B );
r ( Ams ) = n r ( AB) = r ( A);
8 r ( Am s ) = n Ax = 0
2
1

B 1

A1CB 1

B 1

A1
A O

=
O B
O

A1
A C
=

O B
O

56

B 1

A1
A O

= 1 1
C B
B CA
1

O
O A

= 1
B
O

B 1

B 1

AB

(
)

1
(1) 1 , 2 ,L , s
.
(2) 1 , 2 ,L , s 1 , 2 ,L , s

1 , 2 ,L , s .
(3) 1 , 2 ,L , s

r ( 1 , 2 ,L , s ) = r (1 , 2 ,L , s ,
2
(1).
(2) n n
1 , 2 L n | [ 1 2
L n ] | 0

n n 1 , 2 L n
| [ 1 , 2 ,L , n ] |= 0

n+1 n .
57

1 , 2 L S

(1) 1 , 2 ,L , s
.
(2) 1 , 2 ,L , s 1 , 2 ,L , s
1 , 2 ,L , s .
(3) 1 , 2 ,L , s

r( 1 , 2 ,L , s ) = r (1 , 2 ,L , s , )
1 r ( Amn ) = r A r ( A) A

(1) r ( Amn ) = r = m A .
(2) r ( Amn ) = r < m A .
(3) r ( Amn ) = r = n A .
(4) r ( Amn ) = r < n A

1
1 , 2 ,L , n 1 , 2 ,L , n V

58

c11

c
(1 , 2 ,L , n ) = (1 ,2 ,L ,n ) 21
L

cn1

c1n

c22 L c2n
= (1 ,2 ,L ,n )C

LLLL

cn 2 L cnn
c12 L

C 1 , 2 ,L , n 1 , 2 ,L , n

2
1 , 2 ,L , n 1 , 2 ,L , n
X = ( x1 , x2 ,L , xn )T Y = ( y1 , y2 ,L , yn )T

= x11 + x2 2 + L + xn n = y1 1 + y2 2 + L + yn n
X = CY Y = C 1 X
C 1 , 2 ,L , n 1 , 2 ,L , n

( , ) = a1b1 + a2 b2 + L + an bn = T = T
Schmidt
1 , 2 ,L , s 1 , 2 ,L , s
i 1 , 2 ,L , i (i = 1, 2,L , n) i

i = i 1 , 2 ,L , i .
i

59

1 = 1
2 = 2

( 2 , 1 )
1
( 1 , 1 )

3 = 3

( 3 , 1 )
( , )
1 3 2 2
( 1 , 1 )
( 2 , 2 )

s = s

( s , 1 )
( , )
( , )
1 s 2 2 L s s 1 s 1
( 1 , 1 )
( 2 , 2 )
( s 1 , s 1 )

(
)

a11 x1 + a12 x2 + L

a x + a x + L
21 1 22 2
LLLLLL
an1 x1 + an 2 x2 + L

+ a1n xn = b1
+ a2 n xn = b2
LLL

+ ann xn = bn

D = A 0
x1 =

D
D1
D
, x2 = 2 ,L , xn = n D j D j
D
D
D
60

.
2

n A Ax = 0 . b, Ax = b

r ( Am n ) = n Ax = 0 .

1 A m n r ( Amn ) = m Ax = b

r ( A) = r ( AMb) = m, Ax = b .

2 x1 , x2 ,L xs Ax = b k1 x1 + k2 x2 + L + k s xs
k1 + k2 + L + k s = 1 Ax = b k1 + k2 + L + ks = 0

Ax=0.

x1 + x2
Ax = b 2 x3 ( x1 + x2 )
2

Ax = 0 .
3 Ax = b r ( A) + 1 = r ( A) b
A 1 , 2 ,L , n .
1 Ax = 0 ().

Ax = 0

n r ( A)
.
2 1 , 2 ,L ,t Ax = 0
(1) 1 , 2 ,L ,t Ax = 0
(2) 1 , 2 ,L ,t
(3) Ax = 0 1 , 2 ,L ,t .
k11 + k22 + L + ktt Ax = 0 k1 , k2 ,L , kt

61

(
)

1 A
kA, aA + bE , A2 , Am , f ( A), AT , A1 , A *

k , a + b, 2 , m , f ( ), , 1 ,

| A|

, A

.
n

i =1

i =1

i =1

2 1 , 2 ,L , n A n i = aii , i =| A |
| A | 0 A .
3 1 , 2 ,L , s A s

1 , 2 ,L , s
= k11 + k2 2 + L + ks s ,
An = k1 An1 + k2 An 2 + L + ks An s = k11n1 + k2 2n 2 + L ks sn s

1 A : B
(1) AT : BT , A1 : B 1 , A* : B *.
n

i =1

i =1

(2) | A |=| B |, Aii = bii , r ( A) = r ( B)


(3) | E A |=| E B |,
1 A n A ki

i n r (i E A) = ki
2 A P 1 AP = , A = PP 1
An = P n P 1
62

3
A O B O
:
.
O C O D

(1) A : B, C : D

(2) A : B f ( A) : f ( B), f ( A) : f ( B) f ( A)
n A .
(3) A (
)( A )
1 A, B n
P B = P 1 AP AB A : B .
2
A : B

(1) AT : BT
(2) A1 : B 1 (AB)
(3) Ak : B k (k)
(4) E A = E B , A, B
(5) A = B , A, B
(6) ( A) = ( B), E A = E B , AB

(
)

1 n x1 , x2 ,L , xn
63

f ( x1 , x2 ,L , xn ) = aij xi y j aij = a ji (i, j = 1, 2,L , n)


i =1 j =1

n .

x1
a11

x
a
x = 2 , A = 21
L
M


xn
an1

a1n

a22 L a2 n
, f

L L L L

an 2 L ann
a12 L

f = xT Ax . A
aij = a ji (i, j = 1, 2,L , n)

A
.
1

2
f = ( x1 , x2 ,L , xn ) = xT Ax x = Cy

f = xT Ax = yT C T ACy = di yi2

f (r n) .

i =1

r ( A) .
3
64

f
f = z12 + z22 + L + z 2p z 2p +1 L zr2 rA p

r p .
1 A kA(k > 0), AT , A1 , A * | A |> 0, A

aii > 0 | Aii |> 0


2 A B A+B ABBA
3 A f ( x) = xT Ax > 0, x 0

A
A
A n
P A = PT P

T
1
Q Q AQ = Q AQ =
O

i > 0, i = 1, 2,L , n. kA(k > 0), AT , A1 , A *


| A |> 0, A aii > 0 |

65

Aii |> 0


(
)

1
(1) A B A B .
(2)A=B A B B A .
(3) A U B A+B
A B .
(4)A-BA B .
(5) A I B ABA B .

(6) A I B = .
(7)
A I B = , A U B = , A = B B = A

2
(1) A U B = B U AA I B = B I A
(2)A U BU C = A UB U C
A I BI C = A IB I C

(3)A U BI C =A I C
U B I C
3 g A U B = A I B
AU B = AU B
4 : A1A2 L An
Ai I Aj = i j

U =
i =1

1
P

g 3
66

(1) A P
A 0
(2) P
= 1

i =1

i =1

(3) A1A2
L An ,L , Ai Aj = (i j ), P(UAi ) = P( A).
2
(1) P ( A) = 1 P ( A);
(2) P ( A B ) = P ( A) P ( AB );
(3) P ( A U B ) = P ( A) + P ( B ) P ( AB );
B A P ( A B ) = P ( A) P ( B ) P ( B ) P ( A)

P(AUBUC) = P(A) + P(B) + P(C) P(AB) P(BC)


P ( AC ) + P ( ABC );
n

(4) A1 , A2 ,L , An P ( U Ai ) =
i =1

( P( A ).
i =1

3 :

P( A) =

4 :

67

P( A) =

1 :

(1):

P
AB
P
B | A=
AB


P
A

(2)

n
n
P
A= P( A | Bi ) P( Bi ), Bi B j = , i j , U Bi = .
i =1

i =1

(3) Bayes P( B j | A) =

P( A | B j ) P( B j )
n

P( A | Bi ) P( Bi )

, j = 1, 2,L , n

i =1

Bi .
(4)
P( A1 A2 ) = P( A1 ) P ( A2 | A1 ) = P ( A2 ) P( A1 | A2 )
P( A1 A2 L An ) = P ( A1 ) P( A2 | A1 ) P( A3 | A1 A2 )L P( An | A1 A2 L An 1 )

2
(1)A B P( AB ) = P ( A) P ( B )
(2)ABC
P( AB ) = P( A) P( B );

P( BC ) = P ( B ) P(C );

P( AC ) = P ( A) P(C );

(3)ABC
P( AB ) = P( A) P( B );

P( BC ) = P ( B ) P(C );

P( AC ) = P ( A) P(C );

P( ABC ) = P ( A) P( B) P(C ).

3 : n
A p n A k
68

P( X = k ) = Cnk p k (1 p) n k .

4
(1) P( A) = 1 P ( A)

(2) P ( A U B) = P ( A) + P( B) P( AB )
P( A U B U C ) = P( A) + P( B) + P(C ) P( AB ) P( BC )
P ( AC ) + P ( ABC )
(3) P( A B) = P( A) P ( AB)
(4) P ( AB ) = P ( A) P( AB ), P( A) = P( AB) + P( AB ),
P( A U B) = P( A) + P( AB ) = P( AB ) + P ( AB ) + P( AB)

(5) P(g| B)
. P( A1 | B) = 1 P( A1 | B )
P( A1 U A2 | B) = P( A1 | B) + P( A2 | B) P ( A1 A2 | B)
P( A1 A2 | B ) = P ( A1 | B) P ( A2 | A1 B)
n

i =1

i =1

(6) A1 , A2 ,L , An P(I Ai ) = P( Ai ),
n

i =1

i =1

P(U Ai ) = (1 P( Ai ))

(7)
A B A B A B
A B .
(8) A1 , A2 ,L , Am , B1 , B2 ,L , Bn f ( A1 , A2 ,L , Am )
g ( B1 , B2 ,L , Bn ) f (g), g (g)

69

1 0
.

(
)

1 :

2
F ( x) = P ( X x ), < x < +
(1) 0 F ( x) 1

(2) F ( x)

(3) F ( x + 0) = F ( x)

(4) F () = 0, F (+) = 1

P( X = xi ) = pi , i = 1, 2,L , n,L

pi 0, pi = 1
i =1

2
f ( x);
(1) f ( x) 0,
(2)

f ( x)dx = 1
x

(3) xf ( x)f ( x) = F '( x)F ( x) = f (t )dt

1
(1) 0-1 P( X = k ) = p k (1 p)1 k , k = 0,1
(2) B(n, p)

70

P( X = k ) = Cnk p k (1 p) n k , k = 0,1,L , n

(3) Poisson p ( )

P( X = k ) =

k!

e , > 0, k = 0,1, 2L

1
,a < x < b

(4) Uab
f ( x) = b a
0,

(5) N ( , 2 ) :

( x) =

1
2

( x )2
2 2

, > 0, < x < +


x
e , x > 0, > 0
0,

(6) E ( ) : f ( x) =

(7) G ( p) : P( X = k ) = (1 p) k 1 p, 0 < p < 1, k = 1, 2,L .


(8)
H ( N , M , n) : P ( X = k ) =

CMk C Nn kM
, k = 0,1,L , min(n, M )
C Nn

2
(1) P( X = x1 ) = pi , Y = g ( X )
P(Y = y j ) =

g ( xi ) = yi

P( X = xi )

(2) X ~ f X ( x), Y = g ( x)
Fy ( y ) = P(Y y ) = P ( g ( X ) y ) =

g ( x) y

fY ( y ) = F 'Y ( y )
71

f x ( x)dx

3
(1) X ~ N (0,1) (0) =

1
, (0) = ,
2
2

( a) = P( X a) = 1 (a )
(2) X ~ N ( , 2 )

~ N (0,1)P( X a) = (

(3) X ~ E ( ) P ( X > s + t | X > s ) = P ( X > t )


(4) X ~ G ( p) P ( X = m + k | X > m) = P( X = k )

(5)

.
(6).

(
)

XY

F ( x, y ) = P( X x, Y y )
2
P{ X = xi , Y = y j } = pij ; i, j = 1, 2,L

(1)
(2)

pi = pij , i = 1, 2,L
j =1

p j = pij , j = 1, 2,L
i

(3)

72

P{ X = xi | Y = y j } =

P{Y = y j | X = xi } =

pij
p j

pij
pi

1 f ( x, y ) :
(1) f ( x, y ) 0

(2)

f ( x, y )dxdy = 1

2 F ( x, y ) =

f (u , v)dudv

3
f X ( x) =

f ( x, y )dy

fY ( y ) =

4 f X |Y ( x | y ) =

f ( x, y )dx

f ( x, y )
fY ( y )

fY | X ( y | x ) =

f ( x, y )
f X ( x)

1
, ( x, y ) D

(1) ( x, y ) : U ( D) , f ( x, y ) = S ( D )
0,

(2)X Y~ N12 12 22
f ( x, y ) =

1
2 1 2 1 2

1
( x 1 )2
( x 1 )( y 2 ) ( y 2 )2
g exp

2
+
]
2
12
1 2
22
2(1 )

2
73

X Y F ( x, y ) = FX ( x) FY ( y )
pij = pi p j ( f ( x, y ) = f X ( x) fY ( y )(

X Y XY = 0 X Y
X Y
1
(1)
P( X = xi , Y = yi ) = pij , Z = g ( X , Y )

P
Z = z k ) = P { g ( X , Y ) = z k } =

g ( xi , yi ) = zk

P( X = xi , Y = y j )

(2)

( X,Y) : f (x, y), Z = g( X,Y)

Fz ( z ) = P { g ( X , Y ) z} =

f ( x, y )dxdy f z ( z ) = F 'z ( z )

g ( x, y ) z

2
(1)
f X ( x) =

fY ( y ) =

f ( x, y )dy,

f ( x, y )dx.

(2) P {( X , Y ) D} = f ( x, y )dxdy
D

(3)XY N ( 1 , 2 , 12 , 22 , )
X ~ N ( 1 , 12 ), Y ~ N ( 2 , 22 ).
X Y = 0 X Y .

74

C1 X + C2Y ~ N (C1 1 + C2 2 , C12 12 + C22 22 + 2C1C2 1 2 ).


X Y=y

N ( 1 + 1 ( y 2 ), 12 (1 2 )).
2
Y X=x

N ( 2 + 2 ( x 1 ), 22 (1 2 )).
1
(4) X Y N ( 1 , 12 ), N ( 1 , 22 ),
( X , Y ) ~ N ( 1 , 2 , 12 , 22 , 0),
C1 X + C2Y ~ N (C1 1 + C2 2 , C12 12 + C22 22 ).

(5) X Y f ( x)g ( x)
f ( X )g (Y ) .

(
)

P { X = xi } = pi , E ( X ) = xi pi
i

+
X ~ f ( x), E ( X ) = xf ( x)dx

(1) E (C ) = C , E[ E ( X )] = E ( X )
(2) E (C1 X + C2Y ) = C1 E ( X ) + C2 E (Y )
75

(3) X Y E ( XY ) = E ( X ) E (Y )
(4) [ E ( XY ) ] E ( X 2 ) E (Y 2 )
2

2 D( X ) = E [ X E ( X ) ] = E ( X 2 ) [ E ( X )]
2

3 D( X )
4 D ( X ) = [ xi E ( X )] pi
2

[ x E ( X )]

5 D ( X ) =

f ( x)dx

(1) D (C ) = 0, D[ E ( X )] = 0, D[ D ( X )] = 0
(2)X Y D ( X Y ) = D ( X ) + D(Y )
(3) D(C1 X + C2 ) = C12 D ( X )
(4)
D(X Y) = D(X) + D(Y) 2Cov(X,Y) = D(X) + D(Y) 2 D(X) D(Y)

(5) D( X ) < E ( X C ) 2 , C E ( X )
(6) D( X ) = 0 P { X = C} = 1
1
(1) Y = g ( x)


X P{ X = xi } = pi , E (Y ) = g ( xi ) pi X

i

+
X ~ f ( x), E (Y ) = g ( x) f ( x)dx
76

(2) Z = g ( X , Y ) ; ( X , Y ) ~ P{ X = xi , Y = y j } = pij ;
E ( Z ) = g ( xi , y j ) pij
i

( X , Y ) ~ f ( x, y ) ; E ( Z ) =

g ( x, y ) f ( x, y )dxdy

2 Cov ( X , Y ) = E [ ( X E ( X )(Y E (Y )) ]
3 XY =

Cov( X , Y )
D ( X ) D(Y )

,k E ( X k ) ;

k E {[ X E ( X )]k }

(1) Cov( X , Y ) = Cov(Y , X )


(2) Cov (aX , bY ) = abCov(Y , X )
(3) Cov( X 1 + X 2 , Y ) = Cov( X 1 , Y ) + Cov( X 2 , Y )
(4) ( X , Y ) 1
(5) ( X , Y ) = 1 P (Y = aX + b) = 1, a > 0
( X , Y ) = 1 P(Y = aX + b) = 1, a < 0

4
1 D ( X ) = E ( X 2 ) E 2 ( X )
2 Cov( X , Y ) = E ( XY ) E ( X ) E (Y )
3 ( X , Y ) 1,

77

( X , Y ) = 1 P (Y = aX + b) = 1, a > 0
( X , Y ) = 1 P(Y = aX + b) = 1, a < 0

4 5

( X ,Y ) = 0
Cov( X , Y ) = 0
E ( X , Y ) = E ( X ) E (Y )
D( X + Y ) = D( X ) + D (Y )
D( X Y ) = D ( X ) + D (Y )

X Y 5
.

1 P {| X E ( X ) | }

Cheby
shev

P {| X E ( X ) |< } 1

D( X )

D( X )

2 X 1 , X 2 L , X n ,L
E ( X i ) = , D( X i ) = 2 (i = 1, 2,L ),

1 n

lim P X i < = 1
n
n i =1

1
X 1 , X 2 L , X n ,L 0-1 B (1, p )
78

Khinc
hine

1 n

Xi p < = 1

n
i =1

lim P
n

2
X 1 , X 2 L , X n ,L EX i = , i = 1, 2,
1 n

Xi < = 1

n i =1

lim P
n

1 ---
n ~ B(n, p ), X 1 , X 2 L , X n , 0-1

De
Movire-L
aplace

LevyUndbe

n = X i
i =1

x
1 t2
np

lim P n
x =
e dt
n
np(1 p )
2
2

2 ---
X 1 , X 2 L , X n ,L
E ( X i ) = , D( X i ) = 2 ( 0)i = 1, 2,L ,

2
X i n

x
1 t2
lim P i =1
x =
e dt

n
n
2

(
)

79

X n
X 1 , X 2 L , X n , n

X1 , X 2 L , X n , X
g ( X 1 , X 2 L , X n ) g (g)

g ( X 1 , X 2 L , X n )
X =

1 n
Xi
n i =1

S 2 =

1 n
( X i X )2
n 1 i =1

k Ak =
k Bk =

1 n k
X i , k = 1, 2,L
n i =1
1 n
( X i X )k , k = 1, 2,L
n i =1

2 2 = X 12 + X 22 + L + X n2 ~ 2 (n) X 1 , X 2 L , X n ,

N (0,1)
2
t T =

t
F

X
Y /n

~ t (n) X ~ N (0,1), Y ~ 2 (n), XY

F F =

X / n1
~ F (n1 , n2 ) X ~ 2 (n1 ), Y ~ 2 (n2 ),
Y / n2

XY
P( X x ) = , x X

1 X 1 , X 2 L , X n N ( , 2 )

80

X =

1 n
1 n
Xi , S2 =
( X i X )2 ,

n i =1
n 1 i =1

(1) X ~ N ( ,
(2)
(3)
(4)

(n 1) S 2

i =1

(X

/ n

(X

i =1

~ N (0,1)

X ) 2 ~ 2 (n 1)

) 2 ~ 2 ( n)

X
~ t (n 1)
S
n

1 2 ~ 2 (n) E ( 2 (n)) = n, D( 2 (n)) = 2n;


2 T ~ t (n) E (T ) = 0, D(T ) =

n
(n > 2)
n2

3 F ~ F (m, n)
1
1
~ F (n, m), Fa / 2 (m, n) =
;
F
F1 a / 2 (n, m)

4 X
E ( X ) = E ( X ), E ( S 2 ) = D ( X ), D ( X ) =

D( X )
n

(
)

1 gx g g
81

.
2 gx g () g ( )

3 E ( X ) = E ( X ), E ( S 2 ) = D ( X ), X S
E ( X ), D ( X ) .
2

4 X S E ( X ), D ( X ) .
5 E () = , D () 0(n ) .

1
)

2 (1 , 2 ) 1 gx
( g (1 ), g (2 )g (2 )g (1 ) g( )
1

U=

: N (0,1)

(X , X + )
2

P{ } =

82

T=

X
S

: t (n 1)

( X t

, X + t

P{ T t } =
2

(X ) (X )
2

( i =1

W =
'

(X

2 i =1
: 2 ( n)

,
2
1

2
2

W=

U=

( n 1) S 2
2

: 2 ( n 1)

n1

2 (n)
1

'

P{W

( X 1 X 2 ) ( 1 2 )

12

, i=1

2 (n)

'

P{W (n)} =

22
n2

: N (0,1)

2
n 1 S
2
n 1

(n)} =

( n 1) S 2
, 2
) 1 ( n 1)
2

2 2
( X1 X2 ) 1 + 2 ,

n1 n2
2

2 2
( X1 X2 ) + 1 + 2
n1 n2
2
P{U } =
2

1222

T=

(X1 X2)(1 2)
S

2,
2

S2 =

1 1
+
n1 n2

: t(n1 +n2 2)

(n1 1)S12 +(n2 1)S22


n1 +n2 2

1 1
(X1 X2)t (n1 +n2 2) S + ,
n1 n2
2

1 1
(X1 X2)+t (n1 +n2 2) S +

n
1 n2
2
P{T t}=
2

83


S12
1

F (n 1, n 1) S2 ,
2
2
1
2

S12

2
1
2
2

F=

22
S12

F (n2 1, n1 1)

: F(n1 1, n2 1)

2
2

S12

S22

P{F F (n1 1, n2 1)} =


2

P{ F (n2 1, n1 1)} =
F
2
2

(
)

1
(1) H 0
(2)

(3)

(4) H 0


.
84

.

.

H0

H0

H 0

= 0
( 2

U=

X 0

| u |=

/ n

x 0
ua
/ n
2

~ N (0,1)

= 0

2 = 02

( )

T=

X 0

| t |=

S/ n
~ t (n 1)

X
W = i

0
i =1
~ 2 ( n)
n

x 0

t (n 1)

S/ n

n
x
2
w = i
a ( n)
i =1 0

w 2 a ( n)
1

2 = 02

( )

W=

( ,

2
2

02

~ 2 (n 1)

1 2 =
2
1

(n 1) S 2

U=

w=

(n 1) S 2

a2 (n 1)

02

a
2

(n 1)

X1 X 2

12
n1

22
n2

~ N (0,1)

| u |=

X1 X 2

12
n1

85

22
n2

u
2

1 2 =

X1 X 2

T=

( 12 , 22
= )
2
1

2
2

SW

2
2

| t |=

F=

(n1 1)S12 +(n2 1)S22


n1 +n2 2

S12
S 22

1 1
+
n1 n2

t a (n1 + n2 2)
2

f =

~ F ( n1 1, n2 1)

X1 X 2
SW

~ t (n1 + n2 2)

SW2 =

2
1

1 1
+
n1 n2

2
1
2
2

S
Fa (n1 1, n2 1)
S
2

f Fa1 (n2 1, n1 1)
2

1 2

(1)(a b)2 = a2 2ab + b2


(2)(a + b + c)2 = a2 + b2 + c2 + 2ab + 2ac + 2bc
(3)a2 b2 = (a b)(a + b)
(4)( a b ) 3 = a 3 3 a 2 b + 3 ab 2 b 3
(5) a 3 b 3 = ( a b )( a 2 m ab + b 2 )

(6) a n b n = ( a b )( a n 1 + a n 2 b + a n 3 b 2 + + ab n 2 + b n 1 )

86

2
(

a c
= )
b d

(1)

a+b c+d
=
b
d

(2)

ab cd
=
b
d

(3)

(4)

a+b c+d
=
ab cd

a c
e
a c
e
a c
e
a+c+e
= = , = = = t . = = =
b d
f
b d
f
b d
f b+d + f

k
(5) y x y = kx
k
(6) y x y = k
x

1 a > b > 0, n > 0 a n > b n


2 a > b > 0, n n a >

(3)

a
c
a
a+c
c
< , <
<
b
d
b b+d
d

(4)
a+b
ab ,
2
a+b+c 3
abc ,
3
a1 + a2 + a3 + an n
a1a2 an
n
(5)
87

1| a + b || a | + | b |

2| a b || a | + | b |
3| a b || a | | b |
4 | a | a | a |
4
ax + bx + c = 0
2

(1) : x1 =

b +

b 2 4 ac
b b 2 4 ac
, x2 =
2a
2a

(2) x1 + x 2 =

b
c
, x1 x 2 =
a
a

> 0,

(3) = b 4 ac = 0
< 0,

5
:

x3 + px 2 + qx + r = 0x1 , x2 , x3
x1 + x2 + x3 = p
x1 x2 + x2 x3 + x3 x1 = q
x1 x2 x3 = r
6.

(1)a m ga n = a m + n
(2)a m a n = a m n
(3)(a m ) n = a mn
88

(4)(ab)n = a n b n
a m am
(5)( ) = m
b
b
(6)a m =

1
am

7
log a N , ( a > 0, a 1, N > 0)

(1)N = a log a N , N = eln N


(2) log a ( MN ) = log a M + log a N
(3) log a (

M
) = log a M log a N
N

(4) log a ( M n ) = n log a M


(5) log a n M =

1
log a M
n

(6) log a M =

log b M
log b a

(7) log a 1 = 0
(8) log a a = 1
8

a1 ----

an ----
89

d ----

Sn ---- n

1)an = a1 + (n 1)d
2) S n =

a1 + an
n(n 1)
n = na1 +
d
2
2

1
3)a, b, c, b = (a + c)
2
2

a1 ----

q----

an ----

1)an = a1q n 1

2)nSn =

a1 (1 q n ) a1 an q
=
1 q
1 q

1
n(n + 1)
2
1
2)12 + 22 + 32 + L + n 2 = n(n + 1)(2n + 1)
6
1
3)13 + 23 + 33 + L + n3 = [ n(n + 1)]2
2
1
4)1g2 + 2g3 + L + n(n + 1) = n(n + 1)(n + 2)
3
1
4)1g2g3 + 2g3g4 + L + n(n + 1)(n + 2) = n(n + 1)(n + 2)(n + 3)
4

1)1 + 2 + 3 + L + n =

Pnm = n(n 1)(n 2)L [n (m 1)]


90

Pnn = n(n 1)L 3g2g1 = n !


3

Cnm =

n(n 1)L (n m + 1)
n!
=
m!
m !(n m)!

1)Cnm = Cnn m

2)Cnm = Cnm1 + Cnm11

(a + b)n = an + nan1b +

n(n 1) n2 2
n(n 1)L [n (k 1)] nk k
a b +L +
a b +L + bn
2!
k!

1

1

1
1
1
S = bh = ab sin C = s ( s a )( s b)( s c ), s = (a + b + c)
2
2
2

S = bh = ab sin
2
S=

3
S =

1
1
rl = r 2
2
2

2

1

R----H----
1 S = 2 RH
91

2 S = 2 R ( H + R )
3 V = R H
2

2
l =

R 2 + H 2

1
S = Rl
2 S = R (l + R )
3 V =

1
R2 H
3

R---- d----
1 S = 4 R
2 V =

4
R3
3

1 S = 2 Rh()

h
3

2 V = h ( R )
2

S----H----
1 V = SH

1
SH
3
1
3 A =
2

2 V =

92

1 sin csc = 1

2 cos sec = 1

3tan cot = 1

4sin

51 + tan = sec
2

+ cos 2 = 1

61 + cot = csc

7 tan =

sin
cos

8 cot =

cos
sin

(1)sin 2 = 2 sin cos

(2) cos 2 = cos 2 sin 2 = 1 2sin 2 = 2 cos 2 1


(3) tan 2 =

2 tan
1 tan 2

(4) cot 2 =

1 cot 2
2 cot

(5) sin 2 =

1 cos 2
2

(6) cos 2 =

1 + cos 2
2

+

(1) sin + sin = 2 sin
cos
2
2
(2) sin sin = 2 cos

(3) cos + cos = 2 cos

(4) cos cos = 2 sin


(5) sin cos =

sin

cos

+
2

sin

1
[sin( + ) + sin( )]
2
93

(6) cos cos =

1
[cos( + ) + cos( )]
2

(7) cos sin =

1
[sin( + ) sin( )]
2

(8) sin sin =

1
[cos( + ) cos( )]
2

a
b
c
=
=
= 2 R R
sin A sin B sin C
2

a 2 = b 2 + c 2 2 bc cos A
b 2 = c 2 + a 2 2 ca cos B
c 2 = a 2 + b 2 2 a b co s C

(1)arcsin xarcsin y=arcsin( x 1+ y2 y 1 x2 )

(2) arccos x arccos y = arccos( xy m (1 x 2 )(1 y 2 ))

(3) arctan x arctan y = arctan(

(4) arcsin x + arccos x =


(5) arctan x + arc cot x =

x y
)
1 m xy

94