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Overview of centralized biogas plants projects in France

Will the new economic incentives overcome the non technical barriers ?

Christian Couturier SOLAGRO 75 Voie du TOEC 31075 Toulouse Cedex 3 Christian.couturier@solagro.asso.fr Tl. 05 67 69 69 69 www.solagro.org www.lebiogaz.info

Biomethane production & use


Enteric fermentations 50 PJ

Atmosphere 94 PJ

Losses 4,7 PJ

Slurry storage 24 PJ Biomethane production 114 PJ 17 Landfill gas 37 PJ 5,4 Used biogas 8,8 PJ Biogas plants 3,4 PJ

Flared biogas 15 PJ

Power 1,7 PJ (460 GWh)

Power plants 5,7 PJ Heat used 2,4 PJ Boilers, driers & furnaces 3,1

Sources : CITEPA, SOLAGRO Last energy data updating : 2005

Self-consumption 0,7 PJ

Trends
Biogas production : +10% / year during the last decade Power production from biogas : +18% / year Landfill gas schemes : +23 MW in 2006 (+33% of capacity) MSW methanization plants :
I 3 plants under operation (150.000 t) I 12 new plants under construction or planned (> 1.000.000 t)
Saint-L Forbach Varennes-Jarcy Angers Metz

Calais

Lille Romainville

Amiens

Blanc-Mesnil

Agriculture sector
I Farm scale plants : 3-4 I CAD : 0
La Martinique

Roanne ClermontFerrand

Bourg-enBresse

In operation In construction Planned

Montpellier

Marseille

New economic incentives


115 110 105 100 95 90 85 80 75 70 0
Price for electricity from biogas Feed-in tariff, revised in july 2006 Biogas plants

Energy efficiency bonus 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0%

Landfill gas

500 1 000 1 500 2 000 2 500 3 000 Power, kW

Biogas plant, < 150 kW el, efficiency > 75 % :

Bonus, /MWh

20%

40% 60% 80% Global efficiency

100%

140 /MWh

Global efficiency = ( Power + Heat* ) / 97% x Fuel * Including digester heating

CAD projects in France


GEOTEXIA LES FERTI-NRJ

JARNY TIPER

PROBIOGAS

CAD projects in France


Project start-up Status Size (Tg) Manure (%) Invest ment (M) 16 Heat use Comments

GEOTEXIA [Brittany]

2000

Permitting

60

50 %

Self-use

Production of a solid fertilizer ; nitrate vulnerable zone Partnership farmers organization / private company Private project, includes 89 farmers for digestate use

FERTI-NRJ [Picardie]

2001

Permitting

38

0%

5,5

Food industry

TIPER [Poitou Charentes] PROBIOGAS [Midi-Pyrnes]

2005

Studies

52

75 %

~7

Food industry, steam and water Food industry

Local association under creation (farmers & municipalities)

2005

Studies

44

75 %

~5

Case-study for the PROBIOGAS programme 10 km biogas canalization Farmerscooperative created

JARNY [Lorraine]

2005

Studies

20

95 %

~5

District heating

Non technical barriers

n : Heat use 1
Renewable heat issues
I I I I I Heat = 50% of final energy consumption Hot water = efficient heat carrier from producer to consumers Distribution => canalizations District heating in France : 3% of the housing ; mainly big cities Heat for industry ; but need for steam (only 17% of the fuel energy can be convert to steam with a gas motor ; and a gas turbine produces less electricity)

Solution
I Development of district heating : European Directive for renewable heat ; longterm financing ; I Looking for heat consumption (housing, services, industry) I Construction of canalizations for hot water or for biogas, according to the distance between the biogas plants and the heat consumers

Non technical barriers

n : Specific biogas canalization 2


Capdenac Gare : food industry, steam consumers Decazeville : district heating, formerly coal, now wood
River L

ot va ll

ey

10 km
PROBIOGAZ CAD project
break

8 km

Tab le of Montbazens

Mean distance from farms to CAD plant : 11 km (real)

River Aveyron valley

Non technical barriers

n : Specific biogas canalization 2


I Investment : 100 k / km I Annual cost : 15 k / km I Heat value : 20-25 / MWh (gas price) + 15-25 /MWh (efficiency bonus) = 35 - 50 /MWh I Profitability limit : 300 - 500 MWh/y per km

20 18 16 14 12 10 50.000 tons 0 2 4 6

Barrier :
I Existing regulation

8 6 4

Solution :
I Working group : security, construction, guideline

2 0 8 10 Heat used, GWh/year


1 Gwh valuable heat = 10.000 tons of biomass

Non technical barriers

n : Specific biogas canalization 2


Heat consumers
Loel&Piriot ; France Champignon ; TIPER CAD SOVILEG [Thouars] Project

Norea Gastronome [Maulon] [Neuil]

Heuliez [Cerizay]

Riblaire BRM Mobilier, Calcia Wagon Automotive,[St Varent] [Airvault] Ville [Bressuire]

Water

Gastronome [Moncoutant]
Steam and water

BTS Industrie [Chatillon sur Thouet] Ville [Parthenay] Couvoir Boy [Allonne]

Gas

Non technical barriers

n : Gas injection to the grid 3


Advantages for biogas injection
I High energy efficiency : not heat losses, few power consumption I Low risk to loose the customer I Production with the stream , no influence of season / night / week-end I Need for a renewable green gas in substitution to fossil gas

Barriers
I Legal status : biogas injection is lawful but not permitted ; specifications from authorities and gas operators are waited I Health issues were cited about the Montech project (landfill gas upgradind): halogenated compound, heavy metals

Solution :
I Expert group of AFSSET (french agency for health and environment at work) since Feb. 2007

Non technical barriers

n : administrative barriers 4
The legislation is unaware of biogas
I No legal norm for the solid digestate, unlike aerobic compost : problem for the commercialization and sale I => AFNOR (french agency for normalization) work group dedicated to digestate from biogas plants, created in 2006

I Regulation concerning hazard for biogas plants is not clear I Regulation concerning specific biogas canalization is not clear

Non technical barriers

n : the involvement of farmers 5


Involvement of farmers in a CAD project : several conditions are required Fertilizing issues
I Prove that digestate is better than slurry (for exemple : N-enrichment by adding protein rich substrates from meat industry) For solid manure systems : I Limit change for slurry spreading (same equipments) I Take in charge the switch to liquid digestate (equipement, storage) I Prove that digestate is better than compost, i.e. mineralization of organic N is favorable

Economic issues
I Prove that CAD option is more profitable than farm-scale project, for each individual case I Fairly share out the benefits between all partners : farmers, waste producers, heat consumers, plant investor I Afford services - storage, spreading - or money for slurry delivering I Dont ask for a fee from farmers : slurry is not a waste (except in N-excess areas)

Non technical barriers

n : CAD operator 6
Need for a specialized developer
I Development costs for a CAD project = some hundreds of k ; duration : 4 - 5 years I Includes : technical studies ; contracting with farmers, food industry, heat consumers, digestate users ; financement ; environmental studies, risks assesment ; planning ; permitting ; contracting with manufacturers I => Specialized business in biogas systems engineering is required, besides partnership with farmers, municipalities, local food-industry I Cross-cutting concerns : energy, waste, agriculture => a new profession

Conclusion

Due to the new feed-in tariffs for electricity, a new age is just beginning for biogas in France. In particular, biogas from agriculture is coming back. Several CAD projects are under development. They will indicate what could be the french way for biogas from agriculture (obvisouly plural).