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Oleg Y.

Mazurenko

- Myself a native speaker of Russian, I was born in Uzbekistan (then part of the USSR), and for the past twelve years I have taught English in this country. Dictation+ came about as my attempt to remediate the lack of coherent, purposeful input with regard to teaching writing skills, noticeable in public school ESL textbooks published here. I wrote the course during my last summer holidays and have used it in my classroom throughout the academic year of 2011 / 2012. Most of my students, especially those who have to rely entirely on school for their ESL instruction, welcomed this new addition to our classroom practice, and the course has proved fairly effective as a way to help students improve their spelling, to add new syntactic options to their repertoire, and generally to gain more freedom and flexibility in their written expression in English. The course is free to use for non-commercial purposes, and I hope my colleagues in similar circumstances will find it helpful in their ESL classrooms, too. Best regards and best wishes to everyone, Oleg Y. Mazurenko
4/15/2012

Your feedback is always welcome and much appreciated at olegmazurenko7@yandex.ru

Oleg Y. Mazurenko August 2011

Foreword
Dictation is a supplementary writing course for high-elementary/preintermediate ESL learners of school age. The course includes 20 mini-essays and has been developed with a three-fold purpose in mind: a) to provide input focused on topic-specific target vocabulary; b) to help students improve their spelling; c) to help students develop better writing skills overall. While the first two objectives are to be achieved through dictation (whole essay or selected parts) and subsequent students self-check, the exercises following each essay will highlight effective syntactic patterns necessary to achieve the third. With special terminology kept to a minimum (and always made clear when used), students will also learn in a heuristic way how to write effective introductions, body paragraphs, conclusions, thesis statements and topic sentences. Assuming that such basics as grammatically correct sentences, coordination, subordination, etc. are taught in parallel on a regular basis, Dictation+ will also take students a step further towards developing better writing skills by providing a coherent, meaningful input that will help students to practice what they already know while also becoming aware of slightly more complex syntactic patterns. Introductory and transitional phrases, appropriate use of relative clauses, compound-complex sentences are a natural part of students written expression in their native language, but differences in syntax and punctuation often prove to be a challenge when they attempt an essay in English. It is primarily with these motivated students in mind that the course has been designed, and I sincerely hope that it will help them to make their writing in English as rich and powerful as it is in their mother tongue.

Suggested Procedure:
1. Students write down the mini-essay (or selected parts) as a dictation and receive the worksheets to check their spelling; 2. Students complete the tasks that involve class discussion, focusing on the title and structural elements of the essay; 3. Students complete the tasks focusing on certain areas of English syntax and check the results together.

Extension: students think of more supporting ideas to expand a given miniessay or write one of their own with a different focus; on the other hand, a narrower topic apparent within the mini-essay may be developed into an essay of its own. 3

Words you might need to pre-teach: Unit 4 The Olympics: Unit 6 Smart Shopping: Unit 7 Hobbies: Unit 9 Traveling: Unit 10 Holiday Season: throughout whenever spirit quality mall

competitive

skillful

discover wherever abroad sight-seeing likely

Unit 14 Literature: sparkle erudite unforgettable (explain word formation) dog-eared Unit 15 Movie World: instantly alongside visual silent thoughtful inspire likely The spelling of actors and actresses names can be shown on the b/b. Unit 17 Music and Dance: beyond rhythm border

reflect

voice

vote

perform

Unit 17 Cosmic Questions: experience ancestor mystery interpret spiritual steadily explorer exciting scientific primitive wonder conquest Unit 18 Paint and Stone: respond create interpretation

unique

share

honor

Unit 19 The Environment: depend technology produce furniture vacuum evidently poison ruin harmony switch green (environmentally friendly) Unit 20 Theater: course secret

whereas

edit

breathe

reflect

reach

------------------------------------------------------------------------------ August 2011


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Unit 1

A Central Asian Country


Uzbekistan is one of the largest countries in Central Asia, with a population of about 30 million people. Almost 3 million people of different nationalities live in the capital city, Tashkent. It is modern and beautiful, but it is also rich in history and tradition.

Other Uzbek cities and towns are also famous for their cultural and historical sites. Visitors from all over the world come to see the Registan Square in Samarqand, and Khiva is a real museum city. Tourists and scientists who want to see dinosaur footprints in Tashqurghan also enjoy visiting Uzbekistan on their way to the Hissar mountains. Of course, Uzbekistan is not only famous for its historical sites. There are also many modern schools, universities and language centers around the country. Tourists who make friends with Uzbek people and watch traditional events, for example the celebration of Navruz in spring, can learn many interesting things about Uzbek culture. The climate in Uzbekistan is also very good, with a long summer and short winter. Our people are kind and friendly, and many tourists enjoy visiting Uzbekistan every year. Exercises I True or false? 1 20% of Uzbekistans population lives in Tashkent. 2 In the capital city there are only modern buildings. 3 There are many historical places in Uzbek cities and towns. 4 Many tourists come to visit the Registan Square in Tashkent. 5 Uzbek people welcome tourists who want to learn about their culture.
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II Give the essay a title. Discuss your titles and choose the best one. III Correct and rewrite the false statements. Use them to write your own paragraph about Tashkent. IV Match: Paragraph 1 Paragraph 2 Paragraph 3 Paragraph 4 tells about education and culture gives general information about Uzbekistan and Tashkent tells about the weather and people; also, concludes the essay tells about historical places around Uzbekistan introduction body paragraphs

conclusion

V Find the sentences that express the main idea in paragraphs 2 and 3.

Unit 2

Health Matters

No one likes to be ill, and no one likes the taste of medicine. But do you know that there are home remedies for many illnesses? Hot lemon tea with honey helps to fight off a cold, and a simple massage can make a headache go away. Make a compress and eat some jelly to help your sore throat, and drink herbal tea when you have a stomachache. These simple things help many people to get well sooner. Of course, when you have got flu you must call a doctor and take a tablet of aspirin against high temperature. A bad earache can also be dangerous, so better ask a doctor for help. If your friend has broken a leg playing football, take him to the hospital right away. He may have to stay home for a month before he can go out again. Home remedies are for small problems, but people who are seriously ill should listen to doctors and follow their advice.
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However, we can stay away from hospitals altogether if we choose a healthy lifestyle. Eat fruit and vegetables, sleep well, be careful when you play ball and you will say good bye to your health problems. As for the times when you dont feel very well, just remember those wonderful, tasty home remedies. Exercises I Join the sentences: e.g. Hot tea helps against a cold. A massage can make a headache go away. Hot tea helps to fight off a cold, and a massage can make a headache go away. 1 I help my sister with history. She helps me with math. 2 Our neighborhood is quiet. We always sleep well. 3 Last week I had flu. My brother had a cold. II Write your own sentences like these. How many can you make? III Use the prompts to make up sentences: e.g. massage/headache/go away A massage makes a headache go away. 1 parents/children/brush teeth 2 our coach/us/train hard 3 my dad/me/do homework 4 Sams mom/him/tidy up his room 5 doctors/us/take bad-tasting medicine 6 Johns parents/him/take piano lessons

IV Write your own sentences following the structure. V (for Russian speakers) Read the essay and find the phrases that mean: (paragraph 1) (paragraph 2) ; ; (paragraph 3) VI Find the sentence that expresses the main idea in each paragraph. What do the other sentences do?
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Unit 3

Sports
Many young people around the world are interested in sports, and many want to become professional athletes. Some play football, others do boxing or karate, and still others dream about medals in figure skating. We all agree that all sports are exciting and healthy, but are they always a good thing?

Some parents and teachers say that students who are active in sports do not always have enough time for homework. They say schools offer good PI lessons where students can play ball games or do gymnastics. Some students, however, say that they also want to play tennis or do cycling. Besides, PI lessons are not enough for young athletes who want to win international tournaments. But can they train hard every day and still do well at school? Many students say that sports even help them do better at school because when they feel strong and full of energy, all subjects are easier to study. There are athletes who learn better than some students who never do sports. So, sport can always be good for us as long as we do our homework on time. Exercises I Add sentences: e.g. Many young people are interested in sports. - football/boxing/figure skating Some play football, others do boxing, and still others go for figure skating. 1 Many young people enjoy dancing. tango/hip-hop/traditional dances 2 Many people like to go on a picnic. parks/the mountains/their back yard 3 Many bands played in the concert. country/rap/pop music II Write your own sentences like these. How many can you make?
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III Use who or that to join the sentences: e.g. Some students are active in sports. They do not always have time for homework. - Some students who are active in sports do not always have time for homework. 1 People go on picnics. They dont always clean up their place. 2 Some athletes train every day. They learn school subjects better than other students. 3 There are some other games. We cannot play them in our PI lessons. IV Write your own sentences like these. How many can you make? V Give the essay a title. Discuss your titles and choose the best one. VI The introduction asks a question. Which sentence answers it? Paragraph 2 also ends with a question. Which sentence answers it? VII Do you agree that sports are always a good thing? Write what you think.

Unit 4

The Olympics

In the world of sports professionals compete for prizes and money, but the greatest honor for amateurs is an Olympic medal. Every four years the best athletes carry a torch from Greece to light the Olympic flame, and millions of people watch their new records. So, what makes the Olympic Games so special, and how much do we know about their history and true spirit? The first games in the valley of Olympia were so popular that even war stopped when they took place. There were also competitions in music and poetry, but only men could take part in the original games. The Modern Olympics opened the way for women and brought people from different countries closer together. Throughout their history, the Olympic Games have always been a symbol of peace and friendship.
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Today the games have become even more popular, with famous singers and dancers taking part in the opening ceremony. The host country chooses a mascot, and the five rings represent friendship among the five continents. The games have changed with the times, but their true spirit lives on. Exercises I Match: The first games Only amateurs The best athletes take part set new records took place in the valley of Olympia in the Olympic Games every four years

II Use sothat to join the sentences: e.g. The first games were very popular. Even war stopped when they took place. - The first games were so popular that even war stopped when they took place. 1 The book was very interesting. I couldnt stop reading it. 2 The film was very boring. We fell asleep. 3 The night was very dark. We couldnt see anything. III Write your own sentences like these. How many can you make? IV (for Russian speakers) Find the phrases in Paragraph 2 that mean ; ; V Fill in the table: Noun Verb originate VI Find the sentence that expresses the main idea of the whole essay. Why is it important? What title can you give this essay? Adjective competitive Person

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Unit 5

School Uniform
Everyone likes to wear nice clothes, and today they come in all shapes and sizes. Not everyone, however, is happy when it is time to dress for school. Some students feel good about their uniform, but others are strongly against it.

Students who dont mind wearing uniform say that even a simple white blouse made of silk can look good with a blue cotton skirt or trousers if they fit well. Besides, not all families can afford to buy fashionable clothes. At school learning is more important than good looks, and a uniform helps students forget about fashion and think more about lessons. But others say they dont have to dress the same way to do well at school. They feel better in a new pair of jeans, leather jacket or an embroidered shirt. Finding the right size can also be difficult with uniforms, and students often worry that others will make fun of them. As for helping families save money, a uniform can also be quite expensive. So which group is right, and can we ever make all students happy? The truth is, of course, in the middle. Offer an affordable but attractive uniform with shawls, lace collars and elegant suits in all sizes, and everyone will enjoy wearing it. Students in the best universities are proud of their uniforms, and we can be proud of ours, too as long as they suit us. Exercises I Give the essay a title. Discuss your titles and choose the best one.
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II Match the words and phrases below to those underlined in the essay: 1 laugh at 6 there are many to choose from 2 and speaking of 7 like (verb) 3 not expensive but looking nice 8 have enough money 4 feel honored to wear 9 looking good 5 look good on us 10 learn well and get good marks III Choose the correct word: e.g. Some students dont mind to wear/wearing a uniform. Not everyone can afford to buy/buying fashionable clothes. 1 Many people enjoy to watch/watching the Olympic Games. 2 Amateurs want setting/to set new Olympic records. 3 I dont mind to share/sharing my textbooks with classmates. IV Write your own sentences like these. How many can you make? V This essay: a) tells about the history of uniforms b) compares students opinions and suggests a compromise c) argues that all students in all countries must wear a uniform

Unit 6

Smart Shopping

Whenever we go shopping, we want to buy more and better things while spending less money. Advert hoardings with their catchy slogans promise us the best shampoo, the most fashionable jeans, the latest smart phones and all for a bargain price. But can we really get more while paying less, and what to do if our great bargain turns into a great headache? The only way to make things really cheap is to use cheaper materials, so the quality will go down with the price. You may find that you can no longer wear your jeans after the first washing, or your smart phone may stop working after a few days. So the
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best way to find a real bargain is to pay a little more for much higher quality. Still, even with the best clothes or electronics things may go wrong, and we will have to take them back to the shop. Always keep the receipt to show where you bought this product, and call your local Customers Rights Officer if the shop offers no help. And next time you bargain for the best price in your nearest shopping mall, remember that real quality doesnt come cheap. Exercises I Give the essay a title. Discuss your titles and choose the best one. II Match the words and phrases below to those underlined in the essay: 1 easy to remember 4 the thing we bought cheaply gives us trouble 2 there may be a problem 5 really good things are not usually cheap 3 look for a bargain 6 a price much lower than usual 7 a place with many shops under one roof III Which part of speech is the word bargain in lines 3, 4 and 13? IV Use while to join the sentences: e.g. We want to buy more things. We also want to spend less money. We want to buy more things while spending less money. 1 Some athletes train every day. They also do well at school. 2 Many students do homework in the evening. They watch TV at the same time. 3 The Olympics make sports more popular. They also make the world more peaceful. V Write your own sentences like these. How many can you make? VI Choose the correct word. What rule about the verb stop can you see? e.g. Your smart phone may stop to work/working after a few days. Jane stopped at a kiosk to buy/buying a copy book on her way to school. 1 Sarah was walking down the street and stopped to look/looking at a beautiful dress in a shop window.
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2 After a while she stopped to look/looking at the dress and went to a book shop across the street. VII The introduction asks two questions. Which sentences answer them?

Unit 7

Hobbies
Our modern world is very competitive, and students who want to have a good and interesting job in the future must study really hard. We spend most of our day learning subjects and getting ready for tests, but we shouldnt forget that having fun is also important.

Along with studying, leisure activities and hobbies can also lead to a better future because they make us healthier, smarter and more skillful. Sports will help school champions of today to win Olympic medals tomorrow. Collecting stamps or coins will help us learn history, and our classmates who enjoy making bracelets out of beads, carving ornaments on wood or working with metal can later be famous for their art. In our age of the Internet there are also many new and exciting hobbies, and we can easily find friends who share our interests. Summer camps often plan their programs around hobbies, and many future athletes, artists and scientists have fun there while learning new skills. Not all of them will be famous tomorrow, but you can join them and share in their fun today just find a hobby you like.
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Exercises I Give the essay a title. Discuss your titles and choose the best one. II Rewrite the sentences: e.g. Students must study hard if they want a good job. Students who want a good job must study hard. 1 Athletes must train every day if they want to win medals. 2 People should call a doctor if they are seriously ill. 3 Students should find a hobby if they dont feel good about their life. III Write your own sentences like these. How many can you make? IV Join the sentences: e.g. Studying can lead to a better future. Hobbies can also lead to a better future. - Along with studying, hobbies can also lead to a better future. 1 A healthy diet will keep you from getting fat. Sports will also keep you from getting fat. 2 Medicine will help you to get well. Home remedies will also help you to get well. 3 Scientists want to visit Tashqurghan. Tourists also want to visit Tashqurghan. V Find the sentence which expresses the main idea of the whole essay.

Unit 8

Hands-on Geography
In the past most people knew little about other countries because not everyone could travel. Today, however, even school children know geography well, and some of them can even visit the countries they study in class. Students who take part in school exchange programs can see many beautiful places and learn many interesting facts about the host countries.

Most young people want to go to the USA, where they learn that American cities have nicknames. For example, New York, which is situated on the Hudson River, is known as Big Apple. Travel to other
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states, and you will see the gardens of New Jersey, the Great Lakes of Michigan and the cowboys of Montana. Another interesting country to visit is Great Britain. Did you know that their Queen does not rule the country even though she is the head of state? She is also the head of the Commonwealth, the union of the former British colonies. The British flag is also called the Union Jack because it represents the union of the countries that form the United Kingdom. Great Britain and the US are the most popular, but many other countries also invite foreign students every year. Take part in your school Olympiads, and next year you may be one of them, too. Exercises I Give the essay a title. Discuss your titles and choose one you all like best. II Join the sentences, and write your own like these: e.g. New York is situated on the Hudson River. It is known as Big Apple. - New York, which is situated on the Hudson River, is known as Big Apple. 1 Tashkent is situated on the Chirchik River. It is translated as stone city. 2 The valley of Olympia is in Greece. The first Games took place there. 3 Home remedies are good against a cold. They will not help with a serious illness. III Match: Paragraph 1 Paragraph 2 Paragraph 3 Paragraph 4 gives examples about the USA gives general information and states the main idea of the essay rounds up the essay while reflecting the introduction gives examples about Great Britain

IV Use even though to rewrite the sentences: e.g. The Queen is the head of state but she does not rule the country. The Queen does not rule the country even though she is the head of state. 1 Sam took aspirin but the temperature did not go down.
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2 Laura did her best but she couldnt win her tennis match. 3 John showed the receipt for a defective watch but the shop owner offered no help. IV Write your own sentences like these. How many can you make?

Unit 9

Traveling

Traveling has always been important in our life. In the past merchants traveled on camels back to find new ways from Asia to Europe, and now tourists with photo cameras follow the Great Silk Road. Our reasons for traveling have changed, but our modern routes still lead us to new and exciting discoveries. Countries famous for their cultural and historical sights welcome millions of tourists every year. People from all parts of the world come to the USA to watch the amazing New York skyline, walk on the Golden Bridge in San Francisco, or see the huge faces of American presidents on the Rushmore Mountain. Others want to see the Big Ben in London, the Eiffel Tower in Paris or the Great Wall of China. Central Asia is also rich in history, and tourists who come to Uzbekistan say that our cities and wildlife are even more beautiful than they thought. Uzbek people are friendly and caring, and we welcome foreigners who respect our culture and traditions. Next year we may visit our new friends and discover many exciting things about their countries, too. Exercises I Give the essay a title. Discuss your titles and choose the best one. II Which sentence a) states the general idea? b) supports the general idea? c) states the main idea of the whole essay?
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III Find the topic sentence of Paragraph 2. Now read the conclusion. Which sentence links it to the introduction and how? IV Choose the correct word: e.g. The New York skyline offers amazing/amazed views. Tourists are amazing/amazed to see the New York skyline. 1 Tourists make exciting/excited discoveries. Tourists are exciting/excited about traveling. 2 The film was very boring/bored, and everyone fell asleep. I started to read a book but got boring/bored after ten pages. 3 All hobbies are interesting/interested in their own ways. My friends are interesting/interested in sports. V Which animals can you use for traveling? Make sentences: e.g. Merchants traveled on camels back. dog pig horse crocodile elephant bear donkey tiger deer tortoise whale alligator giraffe lion anaconda peacock

Unit 10

Holiday Season
Many people love summer because it is a great season to travel. In the past not everyone could visit a foreign country, but now even school students can go wherever they like. Traveling has become much easier, and many people choose to spend their summer holidays abroad.

Every year countries around the world welcome millions of holidaymakers, offering sight-seeing tours and exciting summer activities. In Great Britain you can visit the National Marine Aquarium in Plymouth and watch skilled divers feed sharks by hand. Go to the USA, and you can enjoy the amazing views of the Grand Canyon or take part in a Hawaiian feast with hula dancing. Parks on the Gold Coast of Australia
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will let you cuddle a koala while offering a full-day entertainment with roller-coasters and many other attractions. Wherever you go, you are likely to have the time of your life. Uzbekistan also has many wonderful places to offer. You can visit our historical sights or go on a hiking trip to the Chimgan mountains if you like camping. But whether you are traveling abroad or around Uzbekistan, make sure you have good traveling companions and you will have a holiday to remember. Exercises I Give the essay a title. Discuss your titles and choose the best one. II Match the words and phrases below to those underlined in the essay: 1 the greatest fun you have ever had 5 from morning till night 2 to any place 6 will probably 3 see that you have 7 in foreign countries 4 walking in wild places 8 trips to see famous places III Join the sentences: e.g. Many countries welcome holidaymakers. They offer great sight-seeing tours. - Many countries welcome holidaymakers, offering great sight-seeing tours. 1 Our language centers welcome thousands of students. They offer courses in English, Arabic and Chinese. 2 Many students spend time in our library. They study for exams or just read for pleasure. 3 Most students in our class lead a healthy lifestyle. They eat fresh fruit and exercise in a gym. IV Write your own sentences following the structure in ex.II and III. V The purpose of this essay is to give information about a) holidaying in Europe b) great ways to spend summer holidays c) visiting historical sights d) the National Marine Aquarium
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Unit 11

Public Holidays around the World

Every country has its own national holidays and festivals that tell us about the countrys history, culture and traditions. Some holidays are popular around the world, and others are only celebrated in a particular region or country. For example, the New Years Day is celebrated in all countries but Christmas is only popular in the West. People in Great Britain celebrate Guy Fawkes Night on November 5th, but many people in other countries may not even know about it. The most important national holiday in each country is the Independence Day, and people usually celebrate it by beautiful fireworks, concerts and dance shows around the country. Popular festivals like Navruz in Uzbekistan or Halloween in North America express the nations customs and traditions. People also cook special food for each festival, like turkey for Christmas or sumalak for Navruz, and they have a lot of fun taking part in traditional games and activities. In all countries and on all continents, national holidays and festivals make our life brighter and more interesting. Exercises I Match the conjunctions with their function: and but or introduces a contrasting idea introduces an option adds an idea

II Use one of the conjunctions to join each pair of sentences: e.g. Mary likes coffee. Mark only drinks tea. Mary likes coffee, but Mark only drinks tea.
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1 Harry loves karaoke. He cannot sing well. 2 Jane made a cake for the party. Sammy brought cookies. 3 We can go fishing on Saturday. We can visit our granny. III Make up and write five sentences with and but or

IV Make up and write sentences: e.g. festivals/our life/bright - Festivals make our life brighter. 1 sugar/tea/sweet 4 rainy weather/people/sleepy 2 new dress/my sister/beautiful 5 reading/students/erudite 3 traveling/our life/exciting 6 sports/people/healthy V Make up and write five sentences using the structure in ex.IV

Unit 12

Paper Power
It may feel surprising that in our electronic age many people still enjoy reading a good old newspaper, but the reason is quite easy to see. While radio and TV tell us about a particular event the moment it happens, a well-written newspaper article helps us to understand the news much better by putting it in a wider context. Magazines can offer even more information because they have more pages, and they are usually very colorful.

Both newspapers and magazines can be serious or fun. Quality papers write about politics, economics and social problems while tabloids offer their readers colorful photos, horoscopes and gossip about popular film stars. Serious magazines, or journals, write about science, technology and business, and popular magazines tell us about sports, music and fashion. There are often pages with jokes and crosswords, and there is always an index to help the readers find the section they want.
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To stay popular with the readers, newspapers and magazines in all countries try to be the first with upto-date political, social and cultural news. So, when you want to learn more about the latest political events, the latest sport records or the latest show of your favorite singer, check out the nearest newsstand you may find just the paper or magazine to help you. Exercises I Use while to join the sentences: e.g. Some people like watching TV. Others enjoy reading a newspaper. While some people like watching TV, others enjoy reading a newspaper. 1 Older people enjoy classical music. Young people like pop and hip-hop. 2 Some students start preparing for a test early. Others put it off until the last day. 3 Popular magazines write about fashion. Journals write about science. II Make up and write five sentences following the structure in ex.I III Use both..and.. to join the sentences: e.g. My mother likes to cook. My sister likes to cook, too. Both my mother and my sister like to cook. 1 The desk is made of wood. The chair is made of wood, too. 2 Christmas is celebrated in winter. The New Years Day is celebrated in winter, too. 3 My mother likes to read quality newspapers. My father likes to read quality newspapers, too. IV Make up and write five sentences like those in ex.III

Unit 13

Modern Media

Today most people cannot imagine their life without radio and television. Reading newspapers is no longer enough; people want to watch the news happen, and this is exactly what international TV channels like BBC and CNN offer. Every country also has its own radio and TV broadcasters covering national and local news.
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But the news is not the only reason why people watch television. TV also helps us relax while we enjoy watching a soap opera, a feature film or a nature program about wildlife in faraway places. When people want to learn more about social problems they watch documentaries, and young children always enjoy watching cartoons. Next to television, radio is also very important in our life. People can listen to a news update while driving to work or call a talk show host and voice their opinion on important problems. In some parts of the world radio can even help schools to teach children in small villages throughout the country. On the other hand, many young people want to become radio or TV journalists, and some schools offer their students classes that teach radio and TV production, complete with control rooms and studios. Do you see your future as a famous radio or TV host? Start a simple radio station in your school today, and it may be the first step on your way to an interesting and exciting career. Exercises I Choose the correct verb: e.g. She said she wanted to become/becoming a TV host. 1 I asked her if she would like listening/to listen to a concert on the radio. 2 Sam said that he had enjoyed to watch/watching a documentary last night. 3 Many young people say they want to work/working as a TV journalist. II Make up and write five sentences with the verbs want, would like, enjoy.
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III Use while to rewrite the sentences: e.g. Some people like to sing as they are taking a shower. Some people like to sing while taking a shower. 1 Some people like to read as they are having breakfast. 2 Peter likes listening to the radio as he is driving to work. 3 Ann and Jill enjoy eating pop-corn as they are watching TV. IV Find the topic sentence (the sentence which states the main idea) in each paragraph. V Find introductory/transitional phrases in paragraphs 3 4. Now read the last sentence in paragraph 1 and the first sentence in paragraph 2. How is the transition made here? VI Can you give the essay a title? What makes a title effective? Work in groups and discuss the title in Unit 2.

Unit 14

Literature

PlayStation games and the Internet may be the most popular kinds of entertainment today, but literature is still an important part of our life. Your parents will probably tell you how your granny read them a fairy tale every night and they might even show you the old, dog-eared book. These days even the youngest children may spend most of their time playing computer games or chatting on their mobile phones, yet there is still nothing like a colorful story book at bedtime to make their eyes sparkle with a new light. Of course, it is not only children but also their parents who enjoy good literature. Men and women alike find pleasure in reading poetry, science fiction or famous autobiographies to become more erudite and make their cultural life richer. Even after a long day at work, many people still choose to relax reading a popular novel or detective
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story instead of spending the whole night in front of a TV. It is these people and their interest that have kept literature alive in our new technological age. In spite of the skeptics who say that books will soon die out because of new electronic media, the Internet has in fact helped to make reading more popular. Now anyone can read free electronic books even on a smart phone, and the unforgettable characters created by classics of world literature still find their way to the hearts of new readers. Thousands of new titles are also published on paper every year, and whatever developments in electronics the future might bring, chances are your childrens eyes will also sparkle as you help them read their first bedtime story. Exercises I Give the essay a title. Compare your titles and choose the best one. II The modal verbs may and might express possibility. Which of them is stronger? Choose may or might to fill in the gaps: 1 Oh, no! I forgot my cell phone on that park bench. I was waiting for Joe there about three hours ago. Why dont you go back and look around for it anyway? It _____ still be there. 2 I dont know what to do about the history test. Ive missed five lessons, and I havent really read the book. Dont panic, we have two more weeks. You ____ still have enough time to prepare if you start now. III Use the words to fill in the gaps: strong coffee ice cream beef steak 1 There is nothing like to cool you down on a hot summer day. 2 There is nothing like when you are really hungry. 3 There is nothing like to keep you awake at night. IV Make up three sentences following the structure in ex.III V Use chances are and the words below to make up sentences: e.g. Mary plays beautifully, and she practices piano every day. Chances are she will become a famous concert pianist.
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ballerina

football player

writer

journalist

history teacher

1 Sam goes to football practice every day, and loves the game. 2 Lily has a dance class twice a week and a two-hour home practice every day. 3 Jane loves to write, and she has written a lot of funny stories about school. 4 Sarah writes for her school newspaper, and her articles are very popular. 5 Tom knows history very well, and he loves telling his classmates about it. VI Make up and write three pairs of sentences like those in ex.V VII Join the prefixes, roots and suffixes to make up adjectives: e.g. un forget (t) able = unforgettable un in im dis dispute touch question move determine trust pass - ful ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________

- able

- ible

VIII Now use the adjective to fill in the gaps: 1 In the world of computers, Apple and Microsoft are ___________ leaders. 2 Silly stories in some tabloids make people __________ of all newspapers. 3 In mathematics some values are _______. For example, X is approaching zero. 4 Science is not about learning ________dogmas. It is about learning how nature really works. 5 The law means nothing if it is only used to punish the poor while the rich are___________. 6 This wardrobe is so heavy it is simply __________. 7 Some mountain roads become __________ in winter time. IX Use these adjectives to make up your own sentences. X Make up sentences, e.g. It is not only children but also their parents who enjoy literature. 1 writers/readers/keep literature alive Make up and write your own 2 students/teachers/learn every day sentences following the structure 3 talent/hard work/is important
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Unit 15

Movie World

While great writers tell their stories in words, great filmmakers show their stories. We read a novel, and we imagine the events and the characters; we watch a film, and we instantly find ourselves in the action, living through the events alongside our heroes. Films, with their great visual power, are as important as literature, and cinema has long become a part of our cultural life. But how and where did it all begin, and will cinema still be important in our future? The first motion picture studio opened in Hollywood in 1911, and it was there that the first silent, black-and-white films were made. Sound and color soon followed, taking Hollywood to a new level with its comedies, thrillers, action and adventure films. This long-standing tradition, along with the beautiful scenery, has made Hollywood studios the best in the world. Many film stars have also found their first fame and fortune in Hollywood. From silly yet so human Charlie Chaplin to funny but thoughtful Robin Williams, from beautiful and tragic Marilyn Monroe to young and optimistic Vanessa Hudgens, Hollywood stars have inspired many young people around the world to become actors, directors or producers. And as long as we are moved by their powerful stories, the art of cinema is likely to shine, with Hollywood at the heart of its magic.
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Exercises I Group work: Discuss possible titles for the essay and choose one. Compare your title with those offered by the other groups and choose the best title. II Make up sentences with asas: e.g. Films are as important as literature. beautiful important dangerous smooth cold heavy 1 sports/studying 2 Mary/her sister 3 spiders/snakes 4 some plastics/glass 5 Arctic summer/African winter 6 a ton of cotton/a ton of steel

III Make sentences with as long as., is(not) likely to.: e.g. As long as we are moved by powerful films, the art of cinema is likely to shine. 1 keep studying hard/get good grades 4 learn new things/keep making progress 2 eat fruit and vegetables/stay healthy 5 eat only hot-dogs/stay healthy 3 keep smoking/do well in sports 6 keep training/get good results IV Make up and write your own sentences like those in ex.III V Two question are asked in the introduction. Which sentences answer them?

Unit 16

The Sounds of Music

The power of art goes beyond language, and music, like no other art, can speak to people of different cultures. Unusual rhythm or beautiful melody can move people in very special ways, touching their hearts and waking up feelings and emotions that no words can ever express. Japanese people may cry as they listen to Italian opera, and people in Finland may live to the hot rhythms of American jazz. The art of music crosses all borders, helping us to understand the heart and soul of other nations.
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All people are different, and many different styles have also developed in music. Folk and country styles reflect the roots of the nations culture while pop, rock and hip-hop give voice to young people who live in big modern cities. Classical music is taught in conservatoires, and works of great composers are performed by famous soloists and orchestras around the world. To celebrate the music they love, thousands of fans go to popular festivals held regularly in many countries. International song competitions like Eurovision are broadcast on TV, giving people a chance to vote for their favorite singers. Classical or popular, music has always brought people together in fun, friendship and love. Exercises I Group work: Discuss possible titles for the essay and choose one. Compare your title with the other groups and choose the best one. II Join two sentences into one using participle phrases: e.g. The art of music crosses all borders. It helps us to understand other nations. Crossing all borders, the art of music helps us to understand other nations. The art of music crosses all borders, helping us to understand other nations. 1 Newspapers put the news in a wider context. They help us to understand the news much better. 2 Sound and color changed the art of filmmaking. They took Hollywood films to a new level. 3 Web publishers offer free electronic books. They help young generations to discover the power of reading. III Join two sentences into one using infinitive phrases: e.g. Fans go to popular festivals. They want to celebrate the music they love.
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Fans go to popular festivals to celebrate the music they love. To celebrate the music they love, fans go to popular festivals. 1 Tourists want to learn different customs and traditions. They take part in national holidays and festivals. 2 Japanese people listen to Italian opera. They want to understand the Italian soul. 3 All newspapers want to be popular. They try to be the first with up-to-date news. IV Write your own sentences with participle and infinitive phrases.

Consolidation: Writing Practice


I Match the elements of an essay to their function: introduction paragraph topic sentence supporting sentences conclusion thesis statement states the main idea of the whole essay tells the reader what the essay is about ends the essay, rounding up the ideas presented in the introduction develops one of the ideas presented in the essay give examples to prove the idea of a topic sentence states the main idea in a paragraph

II Write two supporting sentences to complete the paragraphs: 1 Fresh fruit and vegetables help people stay healthy.
__________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________

2 Smoking is bad for your health.


__________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________

3 Good films are as important as good literature.


__________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________

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III Write a 3 5 sentence summary of each essay (Units 1 6). IV Ask your teacher to help you revise the resulting paragraphs. Choose three of the paragraphs and organize them into your own essay. What title can you give your essay? V Think of the introduction and conclusion for your essay. What will you need to write there? Ask your teacher to help you revise your essay.

Unit 17

Cosmic Questions

Look up on a clear night, and you might experience the feeling our ancestors had as they watched the night sky wondering about the mysteries of the universe. They thought of the sun as the life-giving God, and they interpreted the position of stars to explain the events in their own life. Sailors had to learn the way of the stars to find their own way in the open sea. Always driven by our spiritual and practical needs, we have steadily progressed in our conquest of cosmos. Great scientists of the past drew maps of such accuracy that they are still used in astronomy today. First telescopes built with mirrors and lenses allowed astronomers to distinguish different kinds of stars and watch distant planetary systems. From the first accurate model of our Solar System to the first primitive rockets, from the first flight into orbit to planning a mission to Mars, each step in scientific research opened new horizons for space exploration.
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Today even space tourism is real, and weekend trips to the Moon might soon become common. Inspired by famous astronauts, many young people dream of becoming space explorers, and special schools and higher education establishments help them to follow their dreams. The night sky is still full of mysteries, and many new exciting discoveries are still waiting for us in the outer space. Exercises I Give the essay a title. Compare your titles and choose the best one. II Complete the table. Are there verbs and people for all of the nouns? Noun Verb Adjective exploratory Person educator planet astronomical accuracy researcher science tourist interpreter III Find the sentence that states the main idea of the whole essay (the thesis statement). Why is it important for the essay? IV Find the topic sentence in paragraph 2. Now read the concluding paragraph. How does it reflect the introduction? VI Write your own essay on space exploration. What would you like to focus on? Write your thesis statement and list the ideas you need for support. Think of the introduction and conclusion for your essay.
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Unit 18

Paint and Stone


A big part of our human nature is our ability to respond to art. A painting or sculpture allow us to see the world through the eyes of their creator; at the same time, it is our own interpretation that brings meaning to their work. With its unique language of images and emotions, art helps us to share feelings and ideas that go beyond words.

One look at a mans portrait, and his eyes and face expression will tell us more about his character and physical appearance than a whole book. A landscape may help us see the beauty of nature in a new light, and even a humble still life can make us feel happy or sad because it reminds us of certain events or places from our past. When we look at a statue, we honor the memory of a famous person or feel the meaning of an important symbol. Classical or modern, a work of art always speaks to us on many different levels. As we walk around large, quiet halls in museums and art galleries looking at paintings and sculptures exhibited there, we dont only see but also hear and feel. We learn the roots of our culture from traditional ceramics made by folk artists, and we feel the rhythms of the future in modern compositions of abstract art. Step by step we learn the language of art as we listen to it, and what we hear makes our life richer. Exercises I Give the essay a title. Compare your titles and choose the best one. II Rewrite the sentences to make them stronger and more focused:
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e.g. Art has its own unique language, and it helps us share feelings and ideas. - With its own unique language, art helps us share feelings and ideas. 1 Hollywood films use exciting special effects, and they are very popular. 2 Web publishers offer free electronic books, and they make reading more popular. 3 A portrait has visual power, and it can tell us more than a book. III Make up and write three sentences following the structure in ex.II IV Rewrite the sentences following the structure in the example: e.g. We saw something in the dark. It scared us. What we saw in the dark scared us. 1 They received something in the mail. It surprised them. 2 She heard something from outside. It worried her. 3 The traveler saw something in the distance. It gave him hope. V Make up and write three sentences following the structure in ex.IV VI Find the topic sentence in each paragraph. Which of them is also the thesis statement? Read the introduction and the conclusion. How are they linked?

Unit 19

The Environment
Today our life depends on technology. We build factories to produce our clothes, furniture, and paper for our schools and offices. We travel by fast cars and airplanes, and we use washing machines and vacuum cleaners at home. Evidently, technology has made our life much easier

but has it really made our life better?


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We burn oil and coal to power our cars and to produce electricity, causing air pollution in our cities and towns. To make paper, we cut trees and poison our rivers with toxic chemicals, causing deforestation and water pollution. When we remove trees and grass in semi-desert areas, we face desertification and soil erosion. Clearly, our technologies have caused serious damage to our environment. It is clear that no one can stop progress, but can we make progress without ruining our planet? The answer to our problems is clean energy. We must raise peoples awareness of better alternatives to oil and coal. If we want our grandchildren to have fresh air and clean water, we must switch from fossil fuels to renewable sources like solar and wind energy. We must learn to live in harmony with nature, using green technologies of the future to make our life not only easier, but really better. Exercises I Give the essay a title. Compare your titles and choose the best one. II Find the thesis statement and topic sentences. What helps to link the paragraphs? Read the introduction and the conclusion. How are they linked? III Make sentences with the verbs: power face switch IV Match: take care for green activities depend of better alternatives look in technology engage on our environment
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V Use the resulting phrases to make sentences. Use your sentences and add more to write a brief summary of the essay. VI What other renewable energy sources do you know of? Can you write an essay about them? How will you organize your ideas?

Unit 20

Theater

Theater may not be the most popular kind of entertainment today, but it is certainly the oldest. J.B. Priestley, a well-known British playwright, called the theater the ancient but ever youthful parent of all entertainment in dramatic form, the magical place where man meets his image. Indeed, the theater has always been with us even though new media have developed in the course of our history. So, what is the secret that has kept this ancient art form alive? Priestley also compared the theater to a good restaurant and a play, to a specially cooked dinner whereas he saw films, radio and television as standard meals in a canteen. The theater offers us a unique experience because the characters on stage speak directly to us while talented sound and lighting technicians can make every scene of every act feel very real. From funny puppeteers with their high-pitched voice to serious drama where we live through the deepest of human feelings, the theater can reach peoples hearts in a much more personal way.
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Unlike cinema where films can be edited, theater is a live art. Performing live on stage, actors breathe life into their characters, and a responsive audience is part of the magic. After all, it is our image we have come here to meet and while films and books also reflect our life and our problems, in the theater we will always find the clearest of mirrors. Exercises I Give the essay a title. Compare your titles and choose the best one. II Find the thesis statement and topic sentences. Which sentence answers the question asked in the introduction? III Use the prompts to make sentences with unlike: e.g. cinema/theater Unlike cinema where films can be edited, theater is a live art. 1 hamburgers/fresh fruit 2 newspapers/magazines 3 radio/television 4 farm animals/wild animals 5 classical music/jazz 6 horror films/comedies

IV What part of speech is it? Match the underlined words to their function in the sentence: a) adjective b) adverb c) noun

Actors breathe 1life into their characters. Theater is a 2live art. Actors perform 3live on stage. V Use the words to make up your own sentences.

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Answer Key & Teachers Guide Unit 1 A Central Asian Country

I True or false? 1 20% of Uzbekistans population lives in Tashkent. False 2 In the capital city tourists can only see modern buildings. False 3 There are many historical places in Uzbek cities and towns. True 4 Many tourists come to visit the Registan Square in Tashkent. False 5 Uzbek people welcome tourists who want to learn about their culture. True II Give the essay a title. Discuss your titles and choose the best one. Discuss the students suggestions with the class and help them choose the best title. III Correct and rewrite the false statements. Use them to write your own about Tashkent. Check students sentences and guide them as they write their paragraphs. IV Match: Paragraph 1 Paragraph 2 Paragraph 3 Paragraph 4 gives general information about Uzbekistan and Tashkent tells about historical places around Uzbekistan tells about education and culture tells about the weather and people; also, concludes the essay introduction

body paragraphs

conclusion

V Find the sentences that express the main idea in paragraphs 1 and 2. Paragraph 1: Other Uzbek cities and towns are also famous for their cultural and historical sites. Paragraph 2: Of course, Uzbekistan is not only famous for its historical sites. 38

Unit 2

Health Matters

I Join the sentences: e.g. Hot tea helps to fight off a cold. A massage can make a headache go away. Hot tea helps to fight off a cold, and a massage can make a headache go away. 1 I help my sister with history, and she helps me with math. 2 Our neighborhood is quiet, and we always sleep well. 3 Last week I had flu, and my brother had a cold. II Write your own sentences following the structure. How many can you make? Check students sentences and offer correction when needed. III Use the prompts to make up sentences: e.g. massage/headache/go away A massage makes a headache go away. 1 parents/children/brush teeth - Parents make children brush their teeth. 2 our coach/us/train hard - Our coach makes us train hard. 3 my dad/me/do homework - My dad makes me do homework. 4 Sams mom/him/tidy up his room - Sams mom makes him tidy up his room. 5 doctors/us/take bad-tasting medicine - Doctors make us take bad-tasting medicine. 6 Johns parents/him/take piano lessons - Johns parents make him take piano lessons IV Write your own sentences following the structure. Check students sentences and offer correction when needed. V Read the essay and find the phrases that mean: (paragraph 1) get well (paragraph 2) he may have to ; ; (paragraph 3) stay away from hospitals; say good bye to your health problems; as for VI Find the sentence that expresses the main idea in each paragraph. What do the other sentences do? Paragraph 1: But do you know that there are home remedies for many illnesses? Paragraph 2: Home remedies are for small problems, but people who are seriously ill must listen to doctors and follow their advice. Paragraph 3: However, we can stay away from hospitals altogether if we choose a healthy lifestyle. Eat fruit and vegetables, sleep well, be careful when you play ball and you will say good bye to your health problems. 39

Unit 3

Sports

I Use the prompts to add sentences: e.g. Many young people are interested in sports. football/boxing/figure skating Some play football, others do boxing, and still others go for figure skating. 1 Many young people enjoy dancing. Some like tango, others dance hip-hop, and still others learn traditional dances. 2 Many people like to go on a picnic. Some go to parks, others to the mountains, and still others make a picnic in their back yard 3 Many bands played in the concert. Some played country, others rap, and still others pop music. II Write your own sentences following the structure. How many can you make? Check students sentences and offer correction when necessary. III Use who or that to join the sentences: e.g. Some students are active in sports. They do not always have time for homework. Some students who are active in sports do not always have time for homework. 1 People who go on picnics dont always clean up their place. 2 Some athletes who train every day learn school subjects better than other students. 3 There are some other games that we cannot play in our PI lessons. IV Write your own sentences following the structure. How many can you make? Check students sentences and offer correction when necessary. V Give the essay a title. Discuss your titles and choose the best one. Discuss students suggestions and help them choose the best title. VI The introduction asks a question. Which sentence answers it? Paragraph 2 also ends with a question. Which sentence answers it? 1 So, sport can always be good for us as long as we do our homework on time. 2 Many students say that sports even help them do better at school because it is easier to study all subjects when they feel strong and full of energy. VII Do you agree that sports can always be good for us? Write what you think. Discuss the question with the class, monitor writing, and check the students papers later. Give specific feedback (opt. peer editing in stronger classes) 40

Unit 4
I Match: The first games Only amateurs The best athletes

The Olympics
took place take part set new records in the valley of Olympia in the Olympic Games every four years

II Use sothat to join the sentences: e.g. The first games were very popular. Even war stopped when they took place. The first games were so popular that even war stopped when they took place. 1 The book was very interesting. I couldnt stop reading it. The book was so interesting that I couldnt stop reading it. 2 The film was very boring. We fell asleep. The film was so boring that we fell asleep. 3 The night was very dark. We couldnt see anything. The night was so dark that we couldnt see anything. III Write your own sentences following the structure. How many can you make? Check students sentences and offer correction when necessary. IV Find the phrases that mean took place take part throughout V Fill in the table: Noun competition origin Verb compete originate Adjective competitive original Person competitor originator

V Find the sentence that expresses the main idea of the whole essay. Why is it important? What title can you give to this essay? Throughout their history, the Olympic Games have always been a symbol of peace and friendship. The sentence that expresses the main idea of the whole essay is called the thesis statement, and it is important because it gives the essay a focus. Discuss the titles suggested and help the students choose the best one. 41

Unit 5

School Uniform

I Give the essay a title. Discuss your titles and choose the best one. Discuss students suggestions and help them choose the best title. II Match the words and phrases below to those underlined in the essay: 1 laugh at make fun of 6 there are many to choose from 2 and speaking of as for they come in all shapes and sizes 3 not expensive but looking nice 7 like (verb) feel good about affordable but attractive 8 have enough money can afford 4 feel honored to wear are proud of 9 looking good good looks 5 look good on us suit us 10 learn well and get good marks to do well at school III Choose the correct word: e.g. Some students dont mind to wear/wearing a uniform. Not everyone can afford to buy/buying fashionable clothes. 1 Many people enjoy to watch/watching the Olympic Games. 2 Amateurs want setting/to set new Olympic records. 3 I dont mind to share/sharing my textbooks with classmates. IV Write your own sentences following the structure. How many can you make? Check students sentences and offer correction when needed. V This essay: a) tells about the history of uniforms b) compares students opinions and suggests a compromise c) argues that all students in all countries must wear a uniform

Unit 6

Smart Shopping

I Give the essay a title. Discuss your titles and choose the best one. Discuss students suggestions and help them choose the best title. II Match the words and phrases below to those underlined in the essay: 1 easy to remember catchy 2 there may be a problem things may go wrong 3 look for a bargain want to buy more and better things while spending less money 4 the thing we bought cheaply gives us trouble our great bargain turns into great headache 5 really good things are not usually cheap quality doesnt come cheap 6 a price much lower than usual a bargain price 7 a place with many shops under one roof shopping mall 42

III Which part of speech is the word bargain in lines 3, 4 and 13? line 3 adjective line 4 noun line 13 verb IV Use while to join the sentences: e.g. We want to buy more things. We also want to spend less money. We want to buy more things while spending less money. 1 Some athletes train every day. They also do well at school. Some athletes train every day while doing well at school. 2 Many students do homework in the evening. They watch TV at the same time. Many students do homework in the evening while watching TV. 3 The Olympics make sports more popular. They also make the world more peaceful. The Olympics make sports more popular while making the world more peaceful. V Write your own sentences following the structure. How many can you make? Check students sentences and offer correction when needed. VI Choose the correct word. What rule about the verb stop can you see? e.g. Your smart phone may stop to work/working after a few days. Jane stopped at a kiosk to buy/buying a copy book on her way to school. 1 Sarah was walking down the street and stopped to look/looking at a beautiful dress in a shop window. 2 After a while she stopped to look/looking at the dress and went to a book shop across the street. The rule: infinitive after the verb stop tells us that the person stopped doing something else s/he has been doing because s/he wants to do the action expressed by the infinitive, e.g. Sarah was walkingand stopped to look; gerund tells us that the person stopped doing the action expressed by the gerund, e.g. she stopped looking and went NOTE: The verb start is not affected by gerund or infinitive use.

VII The introduction asks two questions. Which sentences answer them? 1 So the best way to find a real bargain is to pay a little more for much higher quality. 2 Always keep the receipt to show where you bought this product, and call your local Customers Rights Officer if the shop offers no help. 43

Unit 7

Hobbies

I Give the essay a title. Discuss your titles and choose the best one. Discuss students suggestions and help them choose the best title. II Rewrite the sentences: e.g. Students must study hard if they want a good job. Students who want a good job must study hard. 1 Athletes must train every day if they want to win medals. Athletes who want to win medals must train every day. 2 People should call a doctor if they are seriously ill. People who are seriously ill should call a doctor. 3 Students should find a hobby if they dont feel good about their life. Students who dont feel good about their life should find a hobby.

III Write your own sentences following the structure. How many can you make? Check students sentences and offer correction when needed.

IV Join the sentences: e.g. Studying can lead to a better future. Hobbies can also lead to a better future. Along with studying, hobbies can also lead to a better future. 1 A healthy diet will keep you from getting fat. Sports will also keep you from getting fat. Along with a healthy diet, sports will keep you from getting fat. 2 Medicine will help you to get well. Home remedies will also help you to get well. Along with medicine, home remedies will also help you get well. 3 Scientists want to visit Tashqurghan. Tourists also want to visit Tashqurghan. Along with scientists, tourists also want to visit Tashqurghan. V Find the sentence that expresses the main idea of the whole essay. Along with studying, leisure activities and hobbies can also lead to a better future because they make us healthier, smarter and more skillful. 44

Unit 8

Hands-on Geography

I Give the essay a title. Discuss your titles and choose the best one. Discuss students suggestions and help them choose the best title. II Match: Paragraph 1 Paragraph 2 Paragraph 3 Paragraph 4 gives general information and states the main idea of the essay gives examples about the USA gives examples about Great Britain rounds up the essay while reflecting the introduction

III Use even though to rewrite the sentences: e.g. The Queen is the head of state but she does not rule the country. The Queen does not rule the country even though she is the head of state. 1 Sam took aspirin but the temperature did not go down. The temperature did not go down even though Sam took aspirin. 2 Laura did her best but she couldnt win her tennis match. Laura couldnt win her tennis match even though she did her best. 3 John showed the receipt for a defective watch but the shop owner offered no help. The shop owner offered no help even though Sam showed the receipt for a defective watch. IV Write your own sentences following the structure. How many can you make? Check students sentences and offer correction when needed.

V Join the sentences, and then write your own: e.g. New York is situated on the Hudson River. It is known as Big Apple. New York, which is situated on the Hudson river, is known as Big Apple. 1 Tashkent is situated on the Chirchik River. It is translated as stone city. Tashkent, which is situated on the Chirchik river, is translated as stone city. 2 The valley of Olympia is in Greece. The first Games took place there. The valley of Olympia, where the first Games took place, is in Greece. 3 Home remedies are good against a cold. They will not help with a serious illness. Home remedies, which are good against a cold, will not help with a serious illness.

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Unit 9

Traveling

I Give the essay a title. Discuss your titles and choose the best one. Discuss students suggestions and help them choose the best title. a) states the general idea? b) supports the general idea? c) states the main idea of the whole essay? a) Traveling has always been important in our life. b) In the past merchants traveled on camels back to find new ways from Asia to Europe, and now tourists with photo cameras follow the Great Silk Road. c) Our reasons for traveling have changed, but our modern routes still lead us to new and exciting discoveries. II Which sentence III Find the topic sentence of Paragraph 2. Now read the conclusion. Which sentence links it to the introduction and how? The topic sentence in Paragraph 2: Countries famous for their cultural and historical sights welcome millions of tourists every year. The last sentence in the conclusion links it to the introduction by bringing the focus back to exciting discoveries. IV Choose the correct word: e.g. The New York skyline offers amazing/amazed views. Tourists are amazing/amazed to see the New York skyline. 1 Tourists make exciting/excited discoveries. Tourists are exciting/excited about traveling. 2 The film was very boring/bored, and everyone fell asleep. I started to read a book but got boring/bored after ten pages. 3 All hobbies are interesting/interested in their own ways. My friends are interesting/interested in sports. V Which animals can you use for traveling? Make sentences: e.g. Merchants traveled on camels back. dog pig horse crocodile elephant bear donkey tiger deer tortoise Let students have some fun making sentences about the other animals too, and you can have a productive class discussion. 46

Unit 10

Holiday Season

I Give the essay a title. Discuss your titles and choose the best one. Discuss students suggestions and help them choose the best title. II Match the words and phrases below to those underlined in the essay: 1 the greatest fun you have ever had the time of your life 2 to any place - wherever 6 will probably are likely to 3 see that you have - make sure you have 7 in foreign countries - abroad 4 walking in wild places - a hiking trip 8 trips to see famous places 5 from morning till night - full-day sight-seeing tours

III Join the sentences: e.g. Many countries welcome holidaymakers. They offer great sight-seeing tours. Many countries welcome holidaymakers, offering great sight-seeing tours. 1 Our language centers welcome thousands of students. They offer courses in English, Arabic and Chinese. Our language centers welcome thousands of students, offering courses in English, Arabic and Chinese. 2 Many students spend time in our library. They study for exams or just read for pleasure. Many students spend time in our library, studying for exams or just reading for pleasure. 3 Most students in our class lead a healthy lifestyle. They eat fresh fruit and exercise in a gym. Most students in our class lead a healthy lifestyle, eating fresh fruit and exercising in a gym

IV Write your own sentences following the structure in ex.II and III. Check students sentences and offer correction when needed.

V The purpose of this essay is to give information about a) holidaying in Europe b) great ways to spend summer holidays c) visiting historical sights d) the National Marine Aquarium 47

Unit 11
and but or

Public Holidays around the World


adds an idea introduces a contrasting idea introduces an option

I Match the conjunctions with their function:

II Use one of the conjunctions to join each pair of sentences: e.g. Mary likes coffee. Mark only drinks tea. Mary likes coffee, but Mark only drinks tea. 1 Harry loves karaoke, but he cannot sing well. 2 Jane made a cake for the party, and Sammy brought cookies. 3 We can go fishing on Saturday, or we can visit our granny. III Make up and write five sentences with and but or Students own sentences offer correction when needed. IV Make up and write sentences: e.g. festivals/our life/bright - Festivals make our life brighter. 1 Sugar makes tea sweeter. 2 The new dress makes my sister more beautiful. 3 Traveling makes our life more exciting. 4 Rainy weather makes some people sleepy. 5 Reading makes students more erudite. 6 Sports make people healthier. V Make up and write five sentences using the structure in ex.IV Students own sentences offer correction when needed.

Unit 12

Paper Power

I Use while to join the sentences: e.g. Some people like watching TV. Others enjoy reading a newspaper. While some people like watching TV, others enjoy reading a newspaper. 1 While older people enjoy classical music, young people like pop and hip-hop. 2 While some students start preparing for a test early, others put it off until the last day. 3 While popular magazines write about fashion, journals write about science. II Make up and write five sentences following the structure in ex.I Students own sentences offer correction when needed. III Use both..and.. to join the sentences: 48

e.g. My mother likes to cook. My sister likes to cook, too. Both my mother and my sister like to cook. 1 Both the desk and the chair are made of wood. 2 Both Christmas and the New Years Day are celebrated in winter. 3 Both my mother and my father like to read quality newspapers. IV Make up and write five sentences following the structure in ex.III Students own sentences offer correction when needed.

Unit 13

Modern Media

I Choose the correct verb: e.g. She said she wanted to become/becoming a TV host. 1 I asked her if she would like to listen to a concert on the radio. 2 Sam said that he had enjoyed watching a documentary last night. 3 Many young people say they want to work as a TV journalist. II Make up and write five sentences with the verbs want, would like, enjoy. Students own sentences offer correction when needed. III Use while to rewrite the sentences: e.g. Some people like to sing as they are taking a shower. Some people like to sing while taking a shower. 1 Some people like to read while having breakfast. 2 Peter likes listening to the radio while driving to work. 3 Ann and Jill enjoy eating pop-corn while watching TV. IV Find the topic sentence (the sentence which states the main idea) in each paragraph. Paragraph 1: Today most people cannot imagine their life without radio and television. Paragraph 2: But the news is not the only reason why people watch television. Paragraph 3: Next to television, radio is also very important in our life. Paragraph 4: Start a simple radio station in your school today, and it may be the first step on your way to an interesting and exciting career.

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V Find introductory/transitional phrases in paragraphs 3 4. Now read the last sentence in paragraph 1 and the first sentence in paragraph 2. How is the transition made here? Introductory/transitional phrases: Next to television, . On the other hand, .. The first paragraph ends, and the second paragraph starts with the word news, thus making the transition easier. VI Can you give the essay a title? What makes a title effective? Work in groups and discuss the title in Unit 2. 1 Discuss each title suggested by the students with the class and help them choose the best one. 2 An effective title captures and reflects all the ideas of the essay in an interesting way. Journalists often use alliteration and wordplay in their titles to attract the readers attention to their articles.

Unit 14

Literature

I Give the essay a title Discuss possible titles for the essay with the class, helping the students to see what they should consider when searching for an effective title. II The modal verbs may and might express possibility. Which of them is stronger? Choose may or might to fill in the gaps: 1 Oh, no! I forgot my cell phone on that park bench. I was waiting for Joe there about three hours ago. Why dont you go back and look around for it anyway? It might still be there. 2 I dont know what to do about the history test. Ive missed five lessons, and I havent really read the book. Dont panic, we have two more weeks. You may still have enough time to prepare if you start now. III Use the words to complete the sentences: strong coffee ice cream a beef steak 1 There is nothing like ice cream to cool you down on a hot summer day. 2 There is nothing like a beef steak when you are really hungry. 3 There is nothing like strong coffee to keep you awake at night. IV Make up three sentences following the structure in ex.III Students own sentences offer correction when needed. 50

V Use chances are and the words below to make up sentences: e.g. Mary plays beautifully, and she practices piano every day. Chances are she will become a famous concert pianist. ballerina football player writer journalist history teacher

1 Sam goes to football practice every day, and he loves the game. Chances are he will become a great football player. 2 Lily has a dance class twice a week and a two-hour home practice every day. Chances are she will become a famous dancer. 3 Jane loves to write, and she has written a lot of funny stories about school. Chances are she will become a popular writer. 4 Sarah writes for her school newspaper, and her articles are very popular. Chances are she will become a well-known journalist. 5 Tom knows history very well, and he loves telling his classmates about it. Chances are he will become a good history teacher. VI Make up and write three pairs of sentences following the structure in ex.V Students own sentences offer correction when needed. VII Join the prefixes, roots and suffixes to make up adjectives: e.g. un forget (t) able = unforgettable

un in im dis -

dispute touch question move determine trust pass

- ful

- able

- ible

indisputable untouchable unquestionable immovable impassible distrustful indeterminable

VIII Now use the adjective to fill in the gaps: 1 In the world of computers, Apple and Microsoft are indisputable leaders. 2 Silly stories in some tabloids make people distrustful of all newspapers. 3 In mathematics some values are indeterminable. For example, X is approaching zero. 4 Science is not about learning unquestionable dogmas. It is about learning how nature really works. 5 The law means nothing if it is only used to punish the poor while the rich are untouchable. 6 This wardrobe is so heavy it is simply immovable. 7 Some mountain roads become impassible in winter time. 51

IX Use these adjectives to make up your own sentences. Students own sentences offer correction when needed. X Use the prompts to make up sentences with not only..but also..who(that).: e.g. It is not only children but also their parents who enjoy literature. 1 It is not only writers but also readers who keep literature alive. 2 It is not only students but also teachers who learn every day. 3 It is not only talent but also hard work that is important.

Unit 15

Movie World

I Give the essay a title Discuss possible titles for the essay with the class, helping the students to see what they should consider when searching for an effective title. II Write sentences: e.g. Films are as important as literature. beautiful important dangerous smooth cold heavy

1 Sports are as important as studying. 4 Some plastics are as smooth as glass. 2 Mary is as beautiful as her sister. 5 Arctic summer is as cold as African winter 3 Spiders are as dangerous as snakes 6 A ton of cotton is as heavy as a ton of steel. III Make sentences with as long as., is(not) likely to.:
e.g. As long as we are moved by powerful films, the art of cinema is likely to shine.

1 As long as we keep studying hard, we will get good grades 2 As long as you eat fruit and vegetables, you will stay healthy 3 As long as you keep smoking, you will not do well in sports 4 As long as we learn new things, we will keep making progress. 5 As long as you eat only hot-dogs, you will not stay healthy. 6 As long as we keep training, we will get good results. IV Make up and write your own sentences following the structure in ex.III Students own sentences offer correction when needed. V Two question are asked in the introduction. Which sentences answer them? 1 The first motion picture studio opened in Hollywood in 1911, and it was there that the first silent, black-and-white films were made. 2 And as long as we are moved by their powerful stories, the art of cinema is likely to shine, with Hollywood at the heart of its magic. 52

Unit 16

The Sounds of Music

I Give the essay a title Discuss possible titles for the essay with the class, helping the students to see what they should consider when searching for an effective title. II Join two sentences into one using participle phrases: e.g. The art of music crosses all borders. It helps us to understand other nations. Crossing all borders, the art of music helps us to understand other nations. The art of music crosses all borders, helping us to understand other nations. 1 Putting the news in a wider context, newspapers help us to understand it much better. Newspapers put the news in a wider context, helping us to understand it much better. 2 Sound and color changed the art of filmmaking, taking Hollywood films to a new level. Changing the art of filmmaking, sound and color took Hollywood films to a new level. 3 Offering free electronic books, web publishers help young generations to discover the power of reading. Web publishers offer free electronic books, helping young generations to discover the power of reading.

III Join two sentences into one using infinitive phrases: e.g. Fans go to popular festivals. They want to celebrate the music they love. Fans go to popular festivals to celebrate the music they love. To celebrate the music they love, fans go to popular festivals. 1 To learn different customs and traditions, tourists take part in national holidays and festivals. Tourists take part in national holidays and festivals to learn different customs and traditions. 2 Japanese people listen to Italian opera to understand the Italian soul. To understand the Italian soul, Japanese people listen to Italian opera. 3 All newspapers try to be the first with up-to-date news to be popular. To be popular, all newspapers try to be the first with up-to-date news.

IV Make up and write your own sentences with participle and infinitive phrases. Students own sentences offer correction when needed. 53

Consolidation: Writing Practice


I Match the elements of an essay to their function: introduction paragraph tells the reader what the essay is about develops one of the ideas presented in the essay states the main idea in a paragraph give examples to prove the idea of a topic sentence ends the essay, rounding up the ideas presented in the introduction states the main idea of the whole essay

topic sentence supporting sentences conclusion thesis statement

II Write two supporting sentences to complete the paragraphs: Students own ideas offer correction when needed. Here are some possible ways to complete the paragraphs: 1 Fresh fruit and vegetables help people stay healthy. When we eat oranges, we get a lot of vitamin C while carrots are good for our eyes. A diet of fruit and vegetables can also help us lose weight. 2 Smoking is bad for your health. Nicotine changes your blood, making you addicted to cigarettes, and the tar in tobacco smoke blackens your lungs. Millions of people die of smoking-related illnesses every year. 3 Good films are as important as good literature. When we watch heroes from our favorite books on screen, we feel ourselves part of the action. So, the visual power of films brings great literature to life. III V Help the students revise their summaries and organize their own essays. The complete process will take more than one lesson.
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Unit 17

Cosmic Questions

I Give the essay a title Discuss possible titles for the essay with the class, helping the students to see what they should consider when searching for an effective title. II Find the words to complete the table. Are there verbs and people for all of the nouns? Noun exploration education planet astronomy accuracy research science tourism interpretation Verb explore educate ---------------------------------------------------------------research ------------------------------------------interpret Adjective exploratory educational planetary astronomical accurate research scientific tourist interpretive Person explorer educator -----------------------astronomer -----------------------researcher scientist tourist interpreter

III Find the sentence that states the main idea of the whole essay (the thesis statement). Why is it important for the essay? Always driven by our spiritual and practical needs, we have steadily progressed in our conquest of cosmos. --- The thesis statement expresses all the ideas developed in the essay, bringing everything into focus. IV Find the topic sentence in paragraph 2. Now read the concluding paragraph. How does it reflect the introduction? From the first accurate model of our Solar System to the first primitive rockets, from the first flight into orbit to planning a mission to Mars, each step in scientific research opened new horizons for space exploration. Both the introduction and the conclusion talk about the mysteries of the universe, but in different contexts: the past and the future.

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Unit 18

Paint and Stone

I Give the essay a title Discuss possible titles for the essay with the class, helping the students to see what they should consider when searching for an effective title. II Rewrite the sentences to make them stronger and more focused: e.g. Art has its own unique language, and it helps us share feelings and ideas. With its own unique language, art helps us share feelings and ideas. 1 With their exciting special effects, Hollywood films are very popular. 2 With their free electronic books, web publishers make reading more popular. 3 With its visual power, a portrait can tell us more than a book. III Make up and write three sentences following the structure in ex.II Students own sentences offer correction when needed. IV Rewrite the sentences following the structure in the example: e.g. We saw something in the dark. It scared us. What we saw in the dark scared us. 1 What they received in the mail, surprised them. 2 What she heard from outside, worried her. 3 What the traveler saw in the distance, gave him hope. V Make up and write three sentences following the structure in ex.IV Students own sentences offer correction when needed. VI Find the topic sentence in each paragraph. Which of them is also the thesis statement? Read the introduction and the conclusion. How are they linked? Paragraph 1: With its unique language of images and emotions, art helps us to share feelings and ideas that go beyond words. - - - This is also the thesis statement in the essay. Paragraph 2: Classical or modern, a work of art always speaks to us on many different levels. Paragraph 3: Step by step we learn the language of art as we listen to it, and what we hear makes our life richer. Both the introduction and the conclusion talk about the language of art and our response to it, but with a slightly different focus. 56

Unit 19

The Environment

I Give the essay a title Discuss possible titles for the essay with the class, helping the students to see what they should consider when searching for an effective title. II Find the thesis statement and topic sentences. What helps to link the paragraphs? Read the introduction and the conclusion. How are they linked? Paragraph 1: Evidently, technology has made our life much easier but has it really made our life better? Paragraph 2: Clearly, our technologies have caused serious damage to our environment. Paragraph 3: We must learn to live in harmony with nature, using green technologies of the future to make our life not only easier, but really better. - - - This is also the thesis statement in the essay. The introduction questions the benefits of technological progress, and the conclusion offers an answer and a solution. III Make sentences with the verbs: power face switch Students own sentences offer correction when needed. IV Match: take care depend look engage of on for in our environment technology better alternatives green activities

V Use the resulting phrases to make sentences. Use your sentences and add more to write a brief summary of the essay. Students own sentences offer correction when needed. Help the students to revise their summaries (opt.: peer revision in stronger classes). VI What other renewable energy sources do you know of? Can you write an essay about them? How will you organize your ideas? Discuss the students ideas with the class and help them to work out the best way of organizing their ideas in an essay. 57

Unit 20

Theater

I Give the essay a title Discuss possible titles for the essay with the class, helping the students to see what they should consider when searching for an effective title. II Find the thesis statement and topic sentences. Which sentence answers the question asked in the introduction? Paragraph 1: Indeed, the theater has always been with us even though new media have developed in the course of our history. Paragraph 2: From funny puppeteers with their high-pitched voice to serious drama where we live through the deepest of human feelings, the theater can reach peoples hearts in a much more personal way
- - - This is also the thesis statement, and it answers the question asked in the introduction.

Paragraph 3: After all, it is our image we have come here to meet and while films and books also reflect our life and our problems, in the theater we will always find the clearest of mirrors. III Use the prompts to make sentences with unlike: e.g. cinema/theater Unlike cinema where films can be edited, theater is a live art. Here are some possible sentences: 1 Unlike hamburgers that make us fat, fresh fruit helps us stay healthy. 2 Unlike newspapers, magazines are thicker and more colorful. 3 Unlike radio that we can only hear, television shows us latest news and films. 4 Unlike friendly farm animals, wild animals can be very dangerous. 5 Unlike classical music where everything is written in notation, jazz music is often improvised. 6 Unlike horror films with their scary characters, comedies bring humor to our life. IV What part of speech is it? Match the underlined words to their function. a) 1 noun, life b) 3 adverb, live c) 2 adjective, live

Actors breathe 1life into their characters. Theater is a 2live art. Actors perform 3live on stage. V Use the words to make up your own sentences. Students own sentences offer correction when needed. 58

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