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Antitumor activity Tumour promotion is considered to be an important factor in the chemical induction of cancer.

GA but not GL exhibits a significant and specific antitoumour promoting activity by inhibiting the binding of tumour promoters to test cells. the mechanism may involve inhibition of protein kinase C GA inhibits the growth of cultured mouse melanoma cells but is cytostatic and not cytotoxic. it also induces phenotypic reversion - that is, the cancer cell becomes more like normal cell. GA inhibited ear oedema and ornithine decarboxylate activity induced by croton oil in mice. it also protected rapid DNA damage and decreased the experimentally induce, unscheduled DNA synthesis, which demonstrate a potential chemopreventive activity. (although not stated, it is like the GA was administered by injection). Oral Administration of 1 % water extract of licorice to mice protected against lung and forestomach tumorigenesis induced by chemical carcinogens. Chronic oral feeding of GL to mice also resulted in substantial protection against skin tumorigenesis. Topical application of GA affected decreases in skin tumour-initiating and promoting activities in mice Licorice extract showed antimutagenic activity against ethyl methanesulphonate and riboselysine in the salmonella / microsome reversion assay. Licorice extract decreased the mutation frequencies induced by a series of well known mutagens and carcinogens in vitro over a range of concentrations in the Salmonella assay. Antiviral activity GL but not GA inhibits virus growth and in some instances inactivates virus particles. It has been shown to be particularly active against herpes simplex virus' varicella zoster virus, human herpes virus, and human immunodeficiency virus. Glycyrrhizin also induces interferon production in vivo and in vitro but GA has only weak activity. Indigenous GL (isolated from licorice) was a more potent antiviral agent than licorice and synthetic GL (ammonium salt of glycyrrhizic acid) for japanese encephalitis virus in vitro. Intraperitoneal administration og GL reduced morbidity and mortality of mice infected wih lethal doses of influenza virus. with oral ingestion, GL is converted to GA, therefore oral doses of GL (or licorice) will not have systemic antiviral effects after injection but this mode of application is not relevant to herbal medicine. However both GL and licorice will be active as topical antiviral agents, especially for herpes simplex and shingles in vitro studies have indicated that the antiviral agent idoxuridine (IDU) penetrate skin move effectively when incorporated in a glycyrrhizin gel than a commercial IDU ointment Antioxidant activity six constituen isolated from licorice demonstrated very potent antioxidant activity toward LDL-cholesterol in vitro. The constituents were four isoflavans ( including glabridin which

was the most abundant and most potent antioxidant) and two chalcones. The isoflavone formononetin was inactive. Both licorice extract and glabridin protected LD cholesterol against peroxidation in vitro and ex vivo in humans and in atherosclerotic apoliprotein E-deficient mice. In the ex vivo study, LDL-cholesterol isolated from plasma of 10 normolipidaemic subjects orallu suplemented for 2 weeks with 100 mg of licorice per day was more resistant to oxidation than LDLcholesterol isolated before licorice administration. Other Activity Carbonoxolone enhances the defence mechanism of the bladder and inhibits bacterial adherence to the injured urothelium. Glycyrrhetinic acid demonstrated a strong, dose dependent inhibitory effect on histamine synthesise and release in cultured mast cells. it also inhibited the trans-differentiation of the cells. oral doses of GA have an antitusive effect similiar to codeine . In chinese medicine' licorice is considered to have an antitoxic activity and the protective effect of GL against saponin toxicity has been demonstrated. liquiritin, the glycoside mainly present in licorice root, is inactive as a spasmolytic. However, on hydrolisis, which occurs with the application of heat.it is cinverted to isoliquiritigenin which has strong spasmolytic activity. Isoliquiritigenin was strongly active as an inhibitor of monoamine oxidase, whch may have implications for use of licorice in depression. Licorice extract inhibited both xanthine oxidase and monoamine oxidase in vitro Isoliquritigenin inhibited platelet aggergation in vitro with activity comparable to that aspirin. It also showed antiplatelet activity in vivo. Isoliquiritigenin appears to be the only aldose reductase inhibitor with a significant antiplatelet activity' which maybe of benefit prophylaxis of diabetic complications. Oral administration of licorice extract 97,5mg / kg per day, 7days) dramatically reduced sorbitol levels in red blood cells of diabetic rats without affecting blood glucose levels significantly. Licorice therefore inhibits aldose reductase after oral doses. Oral administration of licorice reduced hyperphagia and polydipsia in diabetic mice compared to control. there was no effect observed on hyperglacaemia or hypoinsulinemia, Licorice extract' administered by mouth or intravenous injection, caused choleretic activity in rats

aktivitas antitumor
Promosi Tumor dianggap menjadi faktor penting dalam induksi kimia dari kanker. GA tetapi bukan GL yang menunjukkan aktivitas antitumour secara signifikan dan spesifik mempromosikan dengan menghambat pengikatan promotor tumor untuk sel uji. mekanismenya mungkin melibatkan penghambatan protein kinase C GA menghambat pertumbuhan sel melanoma dari tikus uji tetapi merupakan sitostatik dan bukan sitotoksik. Selain itu juga menginduksi pengembalian fenotipik, membuat sel kanker menjadi lebih seperti sel normal. GA menghambat edema telinga dan aktivitas decarboxylate ornithine yang disebabkan oleh minyak puring pada tikus. Hal itu juga melindungi kerusakan DNA yang cepat dan menurunkan induksi eksperimental, sintesis DNA yang tak terjadwal, yang menunjukkan aktivitas kemopreventif potensial. (meskipun tidak dinyatakan, hal itu GA seperti diberikan melalui suntikan). Pemberian secara oral ekstrak air 1% dari licorice untuk tikus melindungi dari tumorigenesis paru dan forestomach yang disebabkan oleh zat kimia karsinogen. Makan mulut kronis GL untuk tikus juga menghasilkan perlindungan substansial terhadap tumorigenesis kulit. Aplikasi topikal GA terpengaruh penurunan kulit tumormemulai dan mempromosikan kegiatan pada tikus Ekstrak licorice menunjukkan aktivitas antimutagenik terhadap etil methanesulphonate dan ribosa-lisin dalam salmonella / uji reversi microsome. Ekstrak licorice penurunan frekuensi mutasi disebabkan oleh serangkaian mutagen dan karsinogen dikenal secara in vitro pada rentang konsentrasi dalam uji Salmonella Antivirus kegiatan GL tetapi tidak menghambat pertumbuhan virus GA dan dalam beberapa kasus inactivates partikel virus. Telah terbukti sangat aktif terhadap herpes simplex virus varicella zoster virus, virus herpes manusia, dan human immunodeficiency virus. Glycyrrhizin juga menginduksi produksi interferon in vivo dan in vitro tetapi GA hanya memiliki aktivitas lemah. Adat GL (terisolasi dari licorice) adalah seorang agen antivirus lebih kuat dari licorice dan GL sintetis (amonium garam asam glycyrrhizic) untuk virus ensefalitis jepang in vitro. Intraperitoneal administrasi og GL mengurangi morbiditas dan mortalitas mencit terinfeksi wih dosis mematikan virus influenza. with oral ingestion, GL is converted to GA, therefore oral doses of GL (or licorice) will not have systemic antiviral effects after injection but this mode of application is not relevant to herbal medicine. However both GL and licorice will be active as topical antiviral agents, especially for herpes simplex and shingles in vitro penelitian telah menunjukkan bahwa agen antivirus idoxuridine (IDU) menembus kulit bergerak efektif ketika dimasukkan dalam gel glycyrrhizin dari salep IDU komersial aktivitas antioksidan

enam konstituen terisolasi dari licorice menunjukkan aktivitas antioksidan yang sangat ampuh terhadap kolesterol LDL secara in vitro. Konstituen empat isoflavans (termasuk glabridin yang merupakan antioksidan yang paling melimpah dan paling ampuh) dan dua chalcones. Para formononetin isoflavon tidak aktif. Kedua ekstrak licorice dan glabridin dilindungi kolesterol LD terhadap peroksidasi in vitro dan ex vivo pada manusia dan tikus apoliprotein aterosklerotik E-kekurangan. Dalam studi ex vivo, LDL-kolesterol diisolasi dari plasma 10 subyek normolipidaemic orallu dicampurkan selama 2 minggu dengan 100 mg per hari licorice lebih tahan terhadap oksidasi dari kolesterol LDL diisolasi sebelum pemberian licorice. liquiritin, glikosida terutama hadir dalam akar licorice, tidak aktif sebagai spasmolitik. Namun, pada hidrolisis, yang terjadi dengan penerapan heat.it ini cinverted untuk isoliquiritigenin yang memiliki aktivitas spasmolitik kuat. Isoliquiritigenin adalah sangat aktif sebagai penghambat monoamine oxidase, whch mungkin memiliki implikasi untuk penggunaan licorice dalam depresi. Ekstrak licorice menghambat baik xanthine oxidase dan monoamine oxidase in vitro Isoliquritigenin menghambat aggergation trombosit in vitro dengan aktivitas yang sebanding dengan aspirin yang. Hal ini juga menunjukkan aktivitas antiplatelet in vivo. Isoliquiritigenin tampaknya menjadi penghambat reduktase aldosa hanya dengan aktivitas antiplatelet yang signifikan 'yang mungkin profilaksis manfaat komplikasi diabetes. Pemberian oral ekstrak licorice 97,5 mg / kg per hari, 7days) secara dramatis mengurangi tingkat sorbitol dalam sel darah merah tikus diabetes tanpa mempengaruhi kadar glukosa darah secara signifikan. Licorice karena itu menghambat reduktase aldosa setelah dosis oral. Oral licorice berkurang hyperphagia dan polidipsia pada tikus diabetes dibandingkan dengan kontrol. tidak ada efek diamati pada hyperglacaemia atau hypoinsulinemia, licorice ekstrak diberikan melalui mulut atau injeksi intravena, disebabkan aktivitas koleretik pada tikus