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Unit II a.

Pollution engineering: Types of pollution, Air pollution: sources, effects, technology to combat air pollution and air quality standards. Technology to combat soil pollution: bioremediation, organic farming. 02 Hrs
b. Waste water engineering: Waste water characteristics, primary water treatment technologies, Secondary water treatment technologies: trickling filter, rotating biological contactor, activated sludge process, aeration pond and Tertiary waste water treatment technologies: nitrogen removal, phosphorous removal and disinfection. 02 Hrs

c. Water Resources Management: water recharging, water conservation and management. Drinking
water standards, water purification technologies: flash evaporation, electrodialysis and reverse osmosis, production of mineral water. 01 Hrs

WATER POLLUTION
Water is essential for life. Over 97% of water is present in the oceans but being brackish unfit for human consumption. Only a limited amount of this is available for human use. Triggered by enormous increase in population and shrinking resources per capita availability of water is decreasing. While per capita availability of water in the U.S.A is 400 litres in developing countries it is only a1/4 or 1/5th the amount. Added to the lower availability is the high incidence of pollution of water supplies in the developing world. What is water pollution? A change in the quality of water resulting from human (anthropogenic) activity that is detrimental to sustenance of life is called water pollution. Polluted water is unfit for human use- drinking, swimming or fishing. Contamination is a temporary or incidental change in water quality for the same usage as above. 1. Sources of water pollution a) Point sources: pollutants are discharged from sewers, sewage plants, meat and dairy industries through pipes at specific points into the discharge waters( stream, pond, lake or ocean) b) Non-point sources: pollutants present in soil are carried away as run offs by rain water into streams, rivers or oceans at several points Types of water pollution They are of four types; i) Agricultural wastes- Rain water carries them off as run offs from fields and animal farms. Pollution results from agrochemicals such as fertilizers, organic and inorganic manure/compost, pesticides, hormones and nutrients. Such run offs are rich in nitrogen, organic matter, phosphorous and pesticides. ii) Industrial wastes- Waste water discharges from food, paper, leather, and distillery industries are heavy in terms of organic load. Metallurgical electroplating industries contribute chromium and cyanide. Chemical industries throw up heavy metals, acids, alkalis, salts, drugs and Nuclear reactors pose threat due to radioactive chemical. Pesticide industries contribute insecticides, herbicides rodenticides and fungicides Polymer industries contribute to volatile organic compounds such as vinyl chloride that is carcinogenic. 1

iii)

Domestic sewage- It is 99% water with 1% solids (dry matter). The solids are made up of 70% organic and 30% inorganic chemicals( grits, salt metal oxides) The organic component is made up of 65% protein, 25% carbohydrates and 10% fat/lipids. Besides these it has turbidity due to suspended matter, off or fowl odourous compounds and pathogens (microorganisms causing disease) iv) Natural sources / run offs- Run offs from virgin forests (free of human activities) or those due to earthquakes or cyclones are not considered as pollution. Run offs from villages and urban areas are markedly different in terms of pollutants.

2. Classification or types of pollutants in water


2.1 Oxygen demanding pollutants An important criterion for water quality is the dissolved oxygen or DO in the sample which is usually 8 to 15 mg/L. Do is essential for sustenance of aquatic life. Minimum DO required for aquatic life is 5 mg/L. Polluted waters are heavily loaded with organic matter which get oxidized in natural water bodies and deplete the DO content. This leads to anaerobic condition, eventually death of all the aquatic life. This Oxygen demanding pollutants is a mixture of number of chemical which is measured and represented by two parameters a) Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), and b) Chemical oxygen demand (COD) a. Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), BOD is defined as the amount of oxygen required by microorganisms to decompose or oxidize organic matter in the waste water under aerobic (in presence of air or oxygen) conditions producing CO2 and H2O and non objectionable stable products. Microorganisms (aerobic decomposition) Organic matter + O2 ---------------------------------- CO2 + H20 + New cells + stable products such as N03, PO4, SO4 Under conditions of insufficient oxygen supply the decomposition of organic matter is brought about by an entirely different group of microorganisms producing unstable odourous products Microorganisms (anaerobic decomposition) Organic matter + O2 -------------------------------- CO2 + H20 + New cells + unstable products ( H2S, NH3, CH4 etc) BOD Test: The total amount of O2 required for decomposition or biodegradation of organic matter in waste water or polluted water is of prime concern in assessing the impact of discharging the water sample into the receiving body of water. The time required for complete oxidation would be too long to be practicable. Hence a 5-day BOD test is done at 200C which is the total O2 consumed by microorganisms in the sample during the first five days of biodegradation which is represented as BOD5 200C.

Test is performed by placing a sample of waste water in a 300 ml standard well stoppered BOD bottle preferably coated black to prevent access to sunlight(Why?. Because access to photosynthesis will result in release of oxygen and affect BOD values) The sample is diluted to 300 ml with pure water and the mix is well aerated to incorporate as much O2 as possible. The amount of dissolved O2 is measured at the beginning of the experiment and after five days incubation at 200C.by using the O2 electrode or by titration.
BOD5 = DOi - DOf / P, where,

DOi = initial DO of the sample, DOf = final DO after 5days, and P = Dilution fraction = Volume of sample / volume of sample + volume of dilution water. Problem A 10 ml sample of waste water was mixed with enough water to fill a 300 ml, BOD bottle. The initial DO was 9mg./l and final DO after 5days at 20 0Cwas 2mg./L Calculate BOD5 200C. BOD5 = DOi DOf / P = (9 2) mg/L / 10/300, = 210mg./L Release of such waters with very high BOD into a stream would kill all aquatic life. b. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) It is the quantity of oxygen required to chemically oxidize the dissolved organic matter in water. It requires less time to perform compared to BOD test. Oxidation is brought about by potassium dichromate. The sample is treated with known amount of dichromate, acidified and boiled for two hours and cooled. The organic matter is oxidized by consuming dichromate. Catalyst, heat ( CaHbOc) + Cr2O7 + H+ -------------- Cr3+ + CO2 +H20 The remaining/residual amount of dichromate is measured by titration with ferric ammonium sulphate. The difference between the added and the remaining dichromate gives the COD value. COD test is useful in cases of samples containing toxic compounds that are harmful to microorganisms or compounds that are non biodegradable such as phenols, benzene, tannic acid and acid pesticides or that are slowly biodegradable such as cellulose, lignocelluloses, etc. Generally COD values are higher than BOD5 values (Why). Typical untreated domestic waste water has a COD / BOD values of 1.5 to 2.5 and a higher ratio will mean that the waste water is difficult to biodegrade.

2.2 Pathogens
Pathogens are disease-causing organisms. Primary hosts are human beings that harbour these organisms in their intestinal tract. Many have had such infections and recovered but act as carriers of the disease without showing any symptoms. Infected persons or carriers shed these pathogens in their stools and through hands which ultimately find their way into drinking water supplies causing severe epidemics. They enter the human body through the water taken in, grow or multiply in the host(man) resulting in disease or infection.

2.3 Nutrients
Major nutrients that many microorganisms require for growth are: N, P, C, S, Ca, K, Fe, Mn, B and Co. They are normally present in waters in low concentrations. However, they are considered as pollutants when their concentration increases to allow excessive growth of algae (photosynthetic microorganisms) and aquatic plants for example water hyacinth. When this happens the usefulness of water whether for drinking or recreational use or as natural habitat for other living things is severely affected. This process of nutrient enrichment due to entry of polluted water into a body of water is called eutrophication. The resulting excessive growth of algae is called algal bloom. Following this excessive growth the algae eventually die and undergo decomposition (oxidation) which in turn decreases the amount of dissolved oxygen and makes it difficult for the water body to sustain aquatic life forms. Algae and its products from

decomposition contribute to the colour, turbidity, odours and objectionable tastes of water which are difficult to remove, thereby decreasing its acceptability as a source of good drinking water. Three important nutrients required for growth of aquatic species are: carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus in relatively large amounts. Carbon is readily available from various sources e.g., alkalinity (HCO 3, CO3), dissolved CO2 (from atmosphere) and decaying organic matter and so it is not a limiting nutrient. It is usually nitrogen or phosphorus that controls algal growth and therefore they are called limiting nutrients. Sources of nitrogen are municipal waste water, water discharges from agricultural land and nitrogen deposition from atmosphere as acid rain especially near power plants. Certain microorganisms (cyanobacteria and nitrogen fixing bacteria) can take nitrogen from air directly and form ammonia. Some nitrogen may be present in water as nitrate which gets reduced to nitrite by certain bacteria present in waters. Nitrate combines with haemoglobin molecule with greater affinity than oxygen resulting in a disease called methemoglobinemia, commonly referred to as blue baby. Limiting nutrient is phosphorus which enters waters from human faeces and laundry detergents, mainly as sodium tri-polyphosphate (STP - Na5 P3 O10). These slowly releases orthophosphate ion, PO43-: P3O105- + 2H2O 3PO43- + 4H+ Orthophosphate is a form of phosphorus that can be directly assimilated by plants which begins to act immediately as it is released as a fertilizer. Use of phosphorus is banned by several countries in view of its environmental impact.

2.4 Salts
As water flows through soils and rocks it accumulates a variety of dissolved solids or salts on its way to the sea. Salts include cations- Na, Ca, Mg, K and anions Cl, SO4, HCO3. Careful measurement of concentration of these ions gives an idea of the salinity of water. However, a simpler and more commonly used measure of salinity is the concentration of total dissolved solids or TDS. TDS values of waters are as follows: Type of water Fresh water Brackish (salty) water Saline waters Sea water Drinking water TDS mg/L < 1500 <5000 >5000 30,000 34000 < 500

Source of salt in water: Mainly two sources- a) From urban runoffs and industries and,
b)Removal of fresh water by evaporation In reservoirs, ponds and tanks as water evaporates salts are left behind and there is less fresh water available to dilute the sample. Irrigated agriculture especially in arid areas is vulnerable to accumulation of salt due to evaporation.

2.5 Thermal pollution

Power plants generate tremendous amounts of heat from their cooling towers. A typical nuclear plant could warm 150,000 m3/hr of cooling by 100C as it passes through the condenser. If such warm water is dumped into a lake or river the resulting rise in temperature would affect all life in the vicinity. Some fishes such as trout and salmon such temperature increases would spell disaster while for some others exposure to warm water could be beneficial. Another important aspect of thermal pollution is the increase in growth rate at higher temperatures causing an increase in BOD and a lowering of DO.

2.6 Heavy metals


Heavy metals are those having specific gravity greater than 4 or 5. In terms of environmental impact important heavy metals are mercury(Hg), lead(Pb), cadmium(Cd) and arsenic(As). Metals may be inhaled as vapour or ingested (swallowed). Liquid mercury is not very toxic as most of what is ingested is excreted from the body. Mercury vapour, on the otherhand, is highly toxic. When inhaled the vapour is absorbed into the blood stream in the lungs and reaches the brain causing severe damage to the central nervous system. In contrast lead vapour is not harmful but is most dangerous when ingested in its ionic form Pb2+. Heavy metals cause kidney damage. Cadmium, lead and mercury are nephrotoxic metals. Metals can exist in three forms: elemental form, salt form and organic form (bound to organic compounds) and nowadays all forms of these metals are considered hazardous when present in high levels (beyond what is approved by authorities).

2.7 Pesticides
The U.S Environmental Protection Agency defines pesticides as any substance or mixture of substances intended for preventing, destroying, repelling or mitigating any pest. A pest is a living organism that are found where they are not wanted or that causes damage to crops, or humans or other animals. The term covers insecticides, herbicides weedicides, rodenticides, fungicides etc. Some examples: Insecticides: Organochlorines (Chlorinated hydrocarbons) e.g., DDT (para dichloro diphenyl trichloro ethane Organophosphates e.g., Parathionmalathion, diazinon etc, Carbamates e.g., Propoxur, Carbaryl and Aldicarb

Organochlorines are an environmental hazard because they persist in the enviromment for long and so their bioaccumulation increases to dangerous levels to render species extinct. Organophosphates are not persistent but are readily absorbed through the skin, lungs and gastro-intestinal tract. Symptoms include tremors, slurred speech, muscle twitching abnd convulsions. Carbamates are short lived and do not accumulate in the food chains, but have high human toxicity e.g., Propoxur, Carbaryl and Aldicarb. Symptoms are: nausea, vomiting, blurred vision, convulsions and death in extreme instances.

2.8 Volatile organic compounds


In ground water they are the most commonly found pollutants. These chemicals are used as solvents in industrial processes. A number of them are known carcinogens or mutagens. Because they are volatile they

are not found in more than a few g/L in surface waters, but in ground waters concentration can be hundreds or thousands of times higher. Five volatile organic compounds are of concern. Vinyl chloride: carcinogen. Used in the production of polyvinyl chloride resin. Tetrachloroethylene: used as a solvent, heat transfer medium and in the manufacture of chlorofluorocarbons. Causes tumours in animals. No evidence of carcinogenicity in humans. Most commonly found VOC in ground water. Trichloroethylene: Used as a solvent to clean electronic parts to jet engines and septic tanks. A suspected carcinogen. 1,2 Dichloroethane: Used as a metal degreaser in the manufacture of fumigants, varnish removers and soap compounds. Not a carcinogen but high doses can affect central nervous system, liver and kidneys. Common ground water contaminant. Quite soluble and hence difficult to remove by stripping. Carbon tetrachloride: Used in grain fumigants, fire extinguishers and as a Solvent. Toxic when ingested, a few ml can produce death. Relatively insoluble so only occasionally found in ground water

2.9 Radionuclides
Radioactive compounds or radionuclides can occur as pollutants in waters. Their levels in drinking water is regulated by Safe Drinking Water Act. Radon and radium-226 are nuclides commonly found in ground water, while Sr-90 and Tritium are surface water contaminants resulting from atmospheric nuclear tests. The hazard comes not from drinking radon contaminated water but from breathing the gas generated after heating such as in a shower or in a washing machine. Inhaled radon gas is an important cause of lung cancer.

2.10 Oil pollutants


Petroleum products often contaminate water supplies due to oil spills resulting from tanker collisions, leakages from engines of ships and boats and automotive wastes. They are toxic to aquatic life.

2.11 Summary of effects of water pollution


1. Pollutants impart colour, off-odour and off-taste to water rendering it unfit for consumption. 2. Organic matter causes a decrease in DO affecting aquatic life. 3. Release of nutrients into waters leads to eutrophication and algal blooms. Shell fish feeding on toxic algae have caused paralytic shell-fish poisoning. 4. Pathogens as pollutants lead to gastroenteritis and dysentery. 5. Heavy metals cause nephro toxicity. 6. Presence of pesticides,VOC and radio nuclides are harmful; in drinking water supplies and aquatic life.

3. Sewage treatment
Water after use becomes sewage or waste water. Sewage includes all waste waters- from toilets, kitchen and laundry washings, rain water flowing into municipal drains, industrial wastes from citi drains etc. Municipal wastewater is 99.9 % water , balance made up of suspended and dissolved solids: Total solids = Total suspended solids + Total dissolved solids 7

(suspended solids can be removed by filtration ,while total dissolved solids cannot be removed In large metropolitan cities this small percentage of solids may account for more than 1000tons of solids per day. Such waste waters or sewage cannot be discharge into rivers and oceans due to its very high BOD. And are therefore treated to reduce BOD to manageable levels that does little harm to the ecosystem of our environment.

3.1 Sewage treatment


Treatment comprises of: 1) Primary treatment: Based on physical properties of the contaminants and the water 2) Secondary treatment: relays on biological processes, and 3) Tertiary treatment or advanced treatment: a combination of chemical and biological processes. 3. 1 Primary treatment Involves following steps: Raw sewage Screening Grit chamber Primary settling tank Screening is to remove large floating objects(rags, sticks, leaves, plants, small paper boxes, cups etc) to prevent clogging of pipe lines and damage to pumps. Sewage flows into a grit chamber where oil and greasy material can be removed. Flow rate of the sewage is now reduced as it enters the primary settling tank. Suspended solids settle by gravity. Detention times are 2 3 hrs. In this step 50 -65% suspended solids and 25- 40 % BOD is removed. Solids that settles down called sludge is collected for further processing. 3. 2 Secondary treatment Objective of secondary treatment is to further remove BOD and suspended solids beyond what is achievable by primary settling tank. Depends on the number of microbes and the residence time available for microbes to consume the contaminants There are following designs to optimize the treatment a) Trickling filters

Consist of large circular tanks filled with a bed of fist sized rocks or moulded plastic. A circularly rotating arm sprays the treated sewage over the bed of rocks. The spaces between the rocks allow enough air to circulate and maintain aerobic conditions. Microorganisms in the sewage utilize or decompose organic matter in presence of air and grow forming a biofilm on the rocks. The biofilm is actually a slimy layer that consists of mostly bacteria, although other organisms such as fungi, algae, protozoa, worms, insect larvae and snails may also be present. The accumulated slime (biofilm) on the rocks occasionally slides off the rocks and settles at the bottom forming sludge. The sludge along with the treated waste water enters the secondary settling tank. The sludge settles down and is removed. Trickling filters remove 80 85 % of BOD. Although less effective than Activated sludge process, it is less troublesome. However, flow rate must be controlled since with slowing of the rate of flow, the film on the rocks may dry up reducing the efficiency of the process. (Note that there is actually no filtration here; the word trickling filters is a misnomer).

b. Rotating Biological contactors (RBC) It consists of a series of plastic discs 3.6 m diam mounted on a central shaft.(Fig.3) The discs rotate slowly with their lower 40% portion submerged in the pretreated waste water or sewage. Biofilms, mostly of bacteria, develop on the discs. As the discs rotate the biofilms in the submerged portion absorb the organic nutrients and when the discs are not submerged they are exposed to O2 and the biofilm will oxidize the organic matter and reduce BOD. By employing several RBCs in series reduction of BOD to levels exceeding that obtained in conventional Trickling filters can be achieved. c) Activated sludge process The key to the process is the aeration tank. The treated waste water from the primary settling tank enters the aeration tank along with a mass of sludge from the secondary settling tank. The sludge contains a large number of active aerobic sewage(organic matter) metabolizing organisms that decompose sewage to H20 and CO2. Hence the name activated sludge process. Bacteria belonging to the family Zoogloea are important members of the community of organisms in the sludge. These organisms grow in the aeration tank forming a fluffy, slimy and flocculant biomass, called zoogloeal mat. The organic matter in the sewage is incorporated into the zoogloeal mat which settles down. More organic matter is removed by this settling process than by the oxidation process in Trickling filters. Aeration is usually done for 4-8 hrs. From the aeration tank the floc plus the treated sewage is taken to settling tanks where the floc settles down. The treated sewage or effluent is disinfected with chlorine and discharged. d) Oxidation ponds These are large, shallow ponds, 1 to 2 m deep. Raw or partially treated sewage is fed into these ponds, where it is decomposed by microorganisms. The decomposition taking place near the surface of the ponds is aerobic, while that near the bottom is anaerobic. Algae growing near the surface generate oxygen as a result of photosynthesis which aids in aerobic decomposition.

Lagoons are deeper ponds which are mechanically agitated by paddle type wheels. Ponds are easy to build and manage and their efficiency matches that of conventional biological treatments (TF or ASP) but at lower cost. While raw sewage can be directly taken to oxidation ponds, the effluent may not meet the EPA secondary treatment guidelines of BOD5 of 30mg/L and presence of suspended solids(algae). They are simple and very effective in destroying pathogenic microorganisms, making these ponds especially useful in developing countries. However, it is best to use them to augment secondary treatment, in which case they are called polishing ponds.

3.3 Tertiary treatment Primary and secondary treatments do not remove all the biologically degradable organic matter. For instance, effluent from secondary treatment may contain ~50% of the organic matter and 70 % of the original phosphorus. Discharging such an effluent into a lake or river would prove catastrophic to aquatic life. Tertiary treatment is given to remove nitrogen and phosphorus nutrients from the effluent. Nitrogen removal Only about 30% N2 is removed in secondary treatment. Organic N2 is broken down to ammonia by microorganisms and to remove ammonia it has to be oxidized which requires O2, which in turn creates a decrease DO. To avoid these O2 depletion and eutrophication problems, treatment plants have to be provided with additional facilities to achieve higher rates of N2 removal. Overall process for N2 removal is achieved by nitrification / denitrification as follows: Nitrosomonas NH4 + 2O2 -------------------- NO2- + 2 H2O Nitrobacter 2NO2- +O2 ---------------------- 2NO3Anaerobic denitrifying bacteria 2NO + organic matter ---------------- N2 + CO2 + H2O
3-

Organic matter is converted to harmless N2 gas. Phosphorus removal 70% P is still present in the effluent after primary and secondary treatment. In biological materials all P gets converted to ortho phosphate, PO43-. Phos[phate is removed by precipitation with alum, [Al2(SO4)3] or lime, Ca(OH)2 forming AlPO4 or Ca3(PO4)2.

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Trickling Filters

Rotating Biological Contactor


4. Disinfection
Disinfection is accomplished both by filtering out harmful microbes and also by adding disinfectant chemicals in the last step in purifying drinking water. Water is disinfected to kill any pathogens which pass through the filters. Possible pathogens include viruses, bacteria, including Escherichia coli, Campylobacter and Shigella, and protozoa, including Giardia lamblia and other cryptosporidia. In most developed countries, public water supplies are required to maintain a residual disinfecting agent throughout the distribution system, in which water may remain for days before reaching the consumer. Following the introduction of any chemical disinfecting agent, the water is usually held in temporary storage often called a contact tank or clear well to allow the disinfecting action to complete. 4.1 Chlorine disinfection The most common disinfection method involves some form of chlorine or its compounds such as chloramine or chlorine dioxide. Chlorine is a strong oxidant that rapidly kills many harmful microorganisms. Because chlorine is a toxic gas, there is a danger of a release associated with its use. This problem is avoided by the use of sodium hypochlorite, which is a relatively inexpensive solution that releases free chlorine when dissolved in water. Chlorine solutions can be generated on site by electrolyzing common salt solutions. A solid form, calcium hypochlorite exists that releases chlorine on 11

contact with water. Handling the solid, however, requires greater routine human contact through opening bags and pouring than the use of gas cylinders or bleach which are more easily automated. The generation of liquid sodium hypochlorite is both inexpensive and safer than the use of gas or solid chlorine. All forms of chlorine are widely used despite their respective drawbacks. One drawback is that chlorine from any source reacts with natural organic compounds in the water to form potentially harmful chemical byproducts trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs), both of which are carcinogenic in large quantities and regulated by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Drinking Water Inspectorate in the UK. The formation of THMs and haloacetic acids may be minimized by effective removal of as many organics from the water as possible prior to chlorine addition. Although chlorine is effective in killing bacteria, it has limited effectiveness against protozoa that form cysts in water (Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium, both of which are pathogenic). 4.2 Ozone disinfection O3 is an unstable molecule which readily gives up one atom of oxygen providing a powerful oxidizing agent which is toxic to most waterborne organisms. It is a very strong, broad spectrum disinfectant that is widely used in Europe. It is an effective method to inactivate harmful protozoa that form cysts. It also works well against almost all other pathogens. Ozone is made by passing oxygen through ultraviolet light or a "cold" electrical discharge. To use ozone as a disinfectant, it must be created on-site and added to the water by bubble contact. Some of the advantages of ozone include the production of fewer dangerous byproducts (in comparison to chlorination) and the lack of taste and odour produced by ozonisation. Although fewer by-products are formed by ozonation, it has been discovered that the use of ozone produces a small amount of the suspected carcinogen bromate, although little bromine should be present in treated water. Another of the main disadvantages of ozone is that it leaves no disinfectant residual in the water. Ozone has been used in drinking water plants since 1906 where the first industrial ozonation plant was built in Nice, France. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has accepted ozone as being safe; and it is applied as an anti-microbiological agent for the treatment, storage, and processing of foods. 4.3 Ultraviolet disinfection Ultraviolet light is very effective at inactivating cysts, in low turbidity water. UV light's disinfection effectiveness decreases as turbidity increases, a result of the absorption, scattering, and shadowing caused by the suspended solids. The main disadvantage to the use of UV radiation is that, like ozone treatment, it leaves no residual disinfectant in the water; therefore, it is sometimes necessary to add a residual disinfectant after the primary disinfection process. This is often done through the addition of chloramines, discussed above as a primary disinfectant. When used in this manner, chloramines provide an effective residual disinfectant with very few of the negative aspects of chlorination. 4.4 Solar water disinfection One low-cost method of disinfecting water that can often be implemented with locally available materials is solar disinfection (SODIS). Unlike methods that rely on firewood, it has low impact on the environment. One recent study has found that the wild Salmonella which would reproduce quickly during subsequent dark storage of solar-disinfected water could be controlled by the addition of just 10 parts per million of hydrogen peroxide.[13]

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