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Air Force Institute Of Technology

Basheer Ibraheem LIGHT TRAINER AIRCRAFT RESEARCH


(AFIT 01)

Engine Sizing, Installation and performance

DEPARTMENT OF AIRCRAFT ENGINEERING

PGD THESIS

Air Force Institute Of Technology DEPARTMENT OF AIRCRAFT ENGINEERING

PGD THESIS Academic Year 2011-2012 Basheer Ibraheem Light Trainer Aircraft Research (AFIT 01) Engine Sizing, Installation and Performance Supervisor:..
This thesis is submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for post graduate diploma
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ABSTRACT This report outlines the Engine Sizing, Installation and Performance of the AFIT Light Trainer Aircraft. The AFIT Light Trainer aircraft Design is a Group Design Project undertaken in order to meet Nigerian Air Forces ambition of self reliance in pilot training whilst still satisfying one of the requirements of the PGD in Aerospace Vehicle Design from AFIT. The first section given in this report is the introduction and background to the project. This is subsequently followed by a literature review into piston engine sizing, engine installation and aircraft performance. The design stages commenced with a comprehensive engine sizing, followed by engine selection and propeller sizing. Installation type was selected based on what the engine was machined for by the manufacturer. The work in progress is engine performance. The designer faced some limitations such as absence of past research articles of similar field of interest.

CONTENTS LIST OF FIGURES................................................................................6 1.0 INTRODUCTION .................................................. 6 1.1 Project Background ................................................................ 7 1.2 AFIT Light Trainer Concept ..................................................... 8 1.3 Project Specifications ............................................................. 9 1.4 Authors Responsibility ........................................................ 11 1.5 Design requirements ............................................................ 11 1.5.1 Certification Requirements ............................................. 12 1.5.2 Functional Requirement ................................................. 12 2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW ............................................................... 13 2.1 Aero Engines ....................................................................... 13 2.1.1 Gas Turbine Engines ....................................................... 13 2.1.1.1 Turbojet..10 2.1.1.2 Turboprop.11 2.1.1.3 Turbofan12 2.1.2 Reciprocating Engine ...................................................... 17 2.2 Light trainer Aircraft Engines ............................................... 18 2.2.1 Selection of Engine Type ................................................. 18 2.2.2 Determination of Engine Size ........................................ 20 2.2.3 Getting the Required Engine ......................................... 21 2.3 Engine Installation ............................................................... 21
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2.3.1 Management of Exhaust Gasses .................................... 22 2.3.2 Management of Cooling Air ............................................ 23 2.3.3 Stability and Control Considerations ............................. 25 2.3.4 Safety Considerations .................................................... 25 2.3.5 Noise Considerations ...................................................... 25 2.3.6 Structural Considerations ............................................... 26 2.4 Engine Mount ...................................................................... 27 2.4.1 Types of Engine Mount ................................................... 28 2.4.1.1 Conical Mounts.24 2.4.1.2 Dynafocal Mounts..25 2.4.1.3 Bed Mounts.26 2.5 Aircraft Performance ............................................................ 31 2.5.1 Introduction .................................................................... 31 2.5.2 Engine and Aircraft Performance. 32 2.5.2.1 Maximum Speed..29 2.5.2.2 Climb Rate29 2.5.2.3 Range30 2.5.2.4 Take off Distance.30

LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1: AFIT Light Trainer Aircraft........................................................9 Figure 2: A Turbojet Engine [18]......................................................14 Figure 3: A Turboprop Engine [18]...................................................15 Figure 4: A Turbofan Engine [18].....................................17 Figure 5: Principles of Piston Engine [18]...................................18 Figure 6: A Bad Way of Mounting Exhaust [6].......................................22 Figure 7: An Improved Way of mounting Exhaust [6]............................23 Figure 8: A Downdraft Cooling *6+.................................................24 Figure 9: An Updraft Cooling [6]......24 Figure 10: A Shock Mount.....................................................27 Figure 11: A Conical Mount........................................29 Figure 12: A Dynafocal Mount............................................30 Figure 13: A Bed Mount...........................................31

1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Project Background Ab initio flying training aircraft are a class of aircraft specifically designed to facilitate transition of pilots-in-training (student pilots) to pilots [19]. Ab initio flying training aircrafts are characterised by additional safety features which include; forgiving flight characteristics, stiff structure, simplified cockpit arrangement, excess power and good visibility. These characteristics serve to accommodate the mistakes by the inexperienced and enable instructors to allow students more time to correct their own errors which increase learning speed [5]. The above mentioned qualities however are considered together with the operators requirement of cost effectiveness. A cost effective aircraft must have comparatively lower sum of initial investment and operating costs [19]. Additionally, availability of parts and ease of maintenance are major considerations to the operator. In search of a good trainer, the NAF incorporated the Scottish Aviation Bulldog into service in the early 80s for use as trainer. However, the high operating cost, which comprises of cost of fuel and spares made if impossible for the NAF to sustain the use of Bulldog as trainer. Consequently the ABT-18 aircraft was introduced in 1995 to replace the Bulldog. Since then, the air beetle has been the ab initio trainer of the
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NAF. The air beetle is known to have many inadequacies, the major of which are the unforgiving nature of its nose wheel strut, and frequent high cylinder head temperature. These maintenance problems made it impossible for the NAF to sustain local training. Replacing the air beetle therefore, with an easier to maintain, more robust aircraft would assist the NAF to actualize its dream of self reliance in pilot training.

1.2 AFIT Light Trainer Concept The department of Air Engineering, Air Force Institute of Technology is exploring the possibility of designing a light trainer aircraft for the Nigerian Air Force. The project when successful is going to replace the ABT-18 Aircraft currently in service as the ab initio trainer of the NAF. The AFIT light trainer aircraft project considers a two seater low wing light aircraft. It is intended to be an engineering data gathering research to lay the grounds for future development work in subsequent years. The project consists of a number of individual research topics that stand in their own right

Figure 1: AFIT LIGHT TRAINER AIRCRAFT 1.3 Project Specifications The conceptual design of the aircraft has been carried out by a team of instructors. The conceptual design was able to establish all the features of the aircraft. The following are the established parameters and payload configuration of the light aircraft:

SPECIFICATIONS Interior Layout Accommodation and capacity Maximum specified passenger capacity: Configuration: Doors: 2 side by side 1 overhead canopy

Powerplant Type: Capacity: Configuration: Performance: Max take-off weight: Empty weight: Range: Service ceiling: Cruise speed: AERODYNAMIC INFORMATION Lift Characteristics Maximum lift coefficient: Basic wing Max CL angle Stall angle Drag Polar: Cruise condition M = 0.14 1.448 15o 9o 1,066 kg 669 kg 540 nm 10,000 ft 46.96 m/s Piston Engine To be determined Tractor

Sea level take off, undercarriage and flaps extended

Landing gear increment


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1.4 Authors Responsibility The author was primarily responsible for engine sizing (determining power required), engine selection, installation and performance calculation for the AFIT light trainer aircraft. Engine selection is an important part of the aircraft design process. Because the engine size was not determined during the conceptual design, this requires the determination of power required by the aircraft, selecting an engine capable of producing that amount of power, determining how it will be installed and calculating the key performance indicators.

Evidently, certain interface issues are present with components such as fuselage, nose landing gear and systems such as the fuel system and the mass and C.G of the aircraft. Thus, it is paramount to work in collaboration with the various designers with which interface issues exist for synchronization of efforts.

1.5 Design requirements Definition of necessary air worthiness requirements and goals are key aspects of an aircraft design. This provides a means of monitoring the project goals and ensuring that the design outcome is not conflicting with the pre-stated requirements.

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1.5.1 Certification Requirements The marketability and the integrity of a design are ensured by it strict adherence to standard design regulations as documented by the appropriate governing bodies. In this case, AFIT light trainer aircraft is designed in conformity with design requirements of EASA certification Specification for normal, utility, aerobatic and commuter category airplanes (CS - 23) [7]. The air worthiness code of CS 23 is applicable to this class of aircraft as it is an aerobatic aircraft with maximum certified takeoff weight of greater than 750kg (which is the limit for CSVLA), and less than 56kg. The sections of the regulatory document that apply to the power plant are as listed in Appendix A.

1.5.2 Functional Requirement It can be argued that the correct choice of power plant is half the success of an aircraft design. It does not matter if you build a really efficient structure or have the best aerodynamics if the choice of power plant is poor, then the design will not be successful [5]. The primary role assigned to the aircraft engine is to provide the required thrust to move the aircraft. In addition, there is the need for the engine weight and fuel consumption to be within acceptable limits of todays technology.
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2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Aero Engines Aircraft need some form of power to keep them flying. Since the first powered flight, numerous types and models of engines have been developed. Aviation propulsion system varies according to

construction, configuration and purpose and has gone through several changes over the years. The most popular propulsion systems are Gas Turbine and Reciprocating Engines.

2.1.1 Gas Turbine Engines Most modern passenger and military aircraft are powered by gas turbine engines, which are also called jet engines. The gas turbine engine is essentially a heat engine using air as a working fluid to provide thrust. To achieve this, the air passing through the engine has to be accelerated; this means that the velocity or kinetic energy of the air is increased. To obtain this increase, the pressure energy is first of all increased, followed by the addition of heat energy, before final conversion back to kinetic Energy in the form of a high velocity jet efflux. There are several types of jet engines. They include:

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2.1.1.1 Turbojet Engines The first and simplest type of gas turbine is the turbojet [18]. Turbojet engine derives its thrust by highly accelerating a mass of air, all of which goes through the engine. Since a high jet" velocity is required to obtain an acceptable thrust, the turbine of turbo jet is designed to extract only enough power from the hot gas stream to drive the compressor and accessories . All of the propulsive force (100% of thrust) produced by a jet engine is derived from the exhaust gas.

Figure 2: A TURBOJET ENGINE

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2.1.1.2 Turboprop Engines Many low speed transport aircraft and small commuter aircraft use turboprop propulsion. There are two main parts to a turboprop propulsion system, the core engine and the propeller. The core is very similar to a basic turbojet except that instead of expanding all the hot gasses through the nozzle to produce thrust, most of the energy of the exhaust is used to turn the turbine. The shaft on which the turbine is mounted drives the propeller through the propeller reduction gear system. The propeller produces most of the thrust in a turboprop and the exhaust contributes little thrust. Approximately 90% of thrust

comes from propeller and about only 10% comes from exhaust gas [18].

Figure 3: A TURBOPROP ENGINE


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2.1.1.3 Turbofan Engines A turbofan engine is the most modern variation of the basic gas turbine engine. As with other gas turbines, there is a core engine. In the turbofan engine, the core engine is surrounded by a fan in the front and an additional turbine at the rear dedicated for driving the fan. The incoming air is captured by the engine inlet. Some of the incoming air passes through the fan and continues on into the core compressor and then the burner, where it is mixed with fuel and combustion occurs. The hot exhaust passes through the core and fan turbines and then out the nozzle, as in a basic turbojet. The rest of the incoming air passes through the fan and bypasses, or goes around the engine, just like the air through a propeller. The air that goes through the fan has a velocity that is slightly increased from free stream. So a turbofan gets some of its thrust from the core and some of its thrust from the fan. The ratio of the air that goes around the engine to the air that goes through the core is called the bypass ratio. Because the fuel flow rate for the core is changed only a small amount by the addition of the fan, a turbofan generates more thrust for nearly the same amount of fuel used by the core. This means that a turbofan is very fuel efficient. Most modern airliners use turbofan engines because of their high thrust and good fuel efficiency [16].

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Figure 4: A TURBOFAN ENGINE

2.1.2 Reciprocating Engine A reciprocating aero engine is a fuel-burning internal combustion piston engine specially designed and built for minimum fuel consumption and light weight in proportion to developed shaft power [21]. Reciprocating aircraft engines operate on a four-stroke cycle, where each piston travels from one end of its stroke to the other four times in two crankshaft revolutions to complete one cycle. The cycle is composed of four distinguishable events called intake, compression, expansion (or power), and exhaust, with ignition taking place late in the compression stroke and combustion of the fuel-air charge occurring early in the expansion stroke. These reciprocating
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engines

burn

specially

formulated aviation gasoline and produce shaft power by the force of combustion gas pressure on pistons acting on connecting rods turning a crankshaft. Major parts are the crankcase, crankshaft, connecting rods, pistons, cylinders with intake and exhaust valves, camshafts, and auxiliary operating systems such as ignition, fuel injection or carburetion, and fuel and oil pumps.

Figure 5: PISTON ENGINE PRINCIPLES

2.2 Light trainer Aircraft Engines 2.2.1 Selection of Engine Type The following factors play a role in selecting the type of propulsion system to be used [6]: 1. 2. Required cruise speed and/or maximum speed Required maximum operating altitude
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3. 4 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Required range and range economy Noise regulations Installed weight Reliability and maintainability Fuel amount needed Fuel cost Fuel availability

10. Specific customer or market demands

Overall fuel efficiency, cost and installed weight often dominate the arguments about the pros and cons of a certain type of propulsion system [6].

Most modern aircraft using engines with up to 450hp output are powered by air-cooled, horizontally opposed, reciprocating engines. The biggest reason for this is cost: other than avionics, the system that contributes most to a vehicles price is its propulsion system, and a turbine engine can cost up to five times more than a comparable piston engine [3]. Additionally, recent years have seen large technological advances in piston engine manufacturing, making them lighter, more powerful, and more efficient. Finally, piston engines are known to have greater flexibility with respect to transient power requirements than
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turbine engines, which not only increases safety, but also performance and efficiency [4]. Because of these factors, many general aviation manufacturers are using piston engines in an attempt to reduce vehicle price and increase the potential market.

The smaller turbine engines that fall below 450hp have failed to meet the low cost and fuel economy necessary to compete with existing reciprocating engines. Therefore reciprocating engines are the cost effective choice for light trainer aircraft like the AFIT Light Trainer Aircraft.

2.2.2 Determination of Engine Size Before choosing an engine for an aircraft, the total thrust (power) required must be known. The thrust-to-weight ratio (power loading for propeller-powered aircraft) and wing loading (w/s) are the two most important parameters affecting aircraft performance [13]. Wing loading and thrust-to weight ratio are interconnected for a number of performance calculations, such as takeoff distance, climb rate and maximum speed. These performances are critical design drivers used to size the engine.

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2.2.3 Getting the Required Engine An aircraft can be designed using some existing engine or a new to-bedesigned engine. However, rarely is a new general aviation airplane design enough incentive for engine manufacturers to go for the time and expense of designing a new engine. This only happens in the case of major military fighter or bomber program [1]. Designer of a general aviation or aerobatic aircraft mostly rely on selecting the best of the existing engines. To do this, the designer determines the performance characteristics he needs and search for an engine that is capable of delivering those parameters.

2.3 Engine Installation Haven decided on the type and the number of engines to be used, the next decision is: how should these engines be installed? There are a number of possible options. The following factors play a role in deciding on the engine installation [6]: 1. 2. 3. 4. Management of exhaust gases Management of cooling air Stability and control considerations Safety Considerations
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5. 6.

Noise considerations, and Structural Considerations

2.3.1 Management of Exhaust Gasses When the exhaust stack is mounted perpendicular to the free stream, it is very bad from a drag viewpoint. Figure 7 shows how this can be improved somewhat. Reference 6, shows that poorly designed exhaust configurations can increase the zero lift drag coefficient of an airplane by 16 percent. By directing the exhaust rearward, drag can be reduced and some thrust can be recovered as well.

Figure 6: A BAD WAY OF MOUNTING EXHAUST PIPE

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Figure 7: AN IMPROVED WAY OF MOUNTING EXHAUST

2.3.2 Management of Cooling Air Most piston engines are designed with the assumption that the cooling air will flow from top to bottom: downdraft, as shown in figure 8. Updraft cooling arrangement, as shown in figure 9, may look good, but can result in the cooling air being heated by the exhaust stack thereby reducing cooling effectiveness. Mismanagement of cooling air can cause drag Increase of up to 9 percent of zero lift drag [6].

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Figure 8: A DOWNDRAFT COOLING

Figure 9: AN UPDRAFT COOLING

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2.3.3 Stability and Control Considerations The stability and control effect that should be considered in a tractor engine is the effect of engine/propeller thrust line location and inclination. In preliminary design, a good rule of thumb is: if the engine disposition differs significantly from that of existing certified airplanes, considerable power effects on stability and control characteristics can be expected [6]. In such cases the safest thing to do is to perform the necessary stability and control calculations before freezing the design.

2.3.4 Safety Considerations AII engines and other heat generating equipment must be isolated from the rest of the airplane by means of firewalls and/or other suitable shrouds. This requirement is of great importance in isolating engines from fuel tanks. Fire walls should be made out of stainless steel and/or titanium [6].

2.3.5 Noise Considerations Airplanes and their engines create a substantial amount of both interior and exterior noise. The interior noise levels should not be so high as to cause discomfort to the passengers or to make safe operation by the
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crew impossible. The exterior noise levels should meet the requirements of Certification Specifications for Aircraft Noise CS-36. These requirements impose severe restrictions on the type of engine and/or propeller technology which can be utilized.

2.3.6 Structural Considerations The structural consideration that plays an important role in the integration of the propulsion system into the airframe is the transmission of thrust into the airframe [6]. To transmit thrust forces into the airframe it is necessary to have a number of 'hard points' where the engine is physically attached to the airframe. The number of these hard points depends on the type of engine used. Figure 12 shows an example of the principal method used to mount piston engines in airframes. This is accomplished with a truss (usually made of welded steel tubes).

It is important to note that the attachment (mounting) points on the engine itself cannot be changed easily. Their location depends on the internal design of the engine which is determined by the engine manufacturer. Changing these attachment points is very expensive [20]. Also, since most piston engines transmit significant vibrations into the
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airframe it is essential to use some type of shock mount(s) to reduce these vibrations.

Figure 10: A SHOCK MOUNT

2.4 Engine Mount The engine mount is primarily used to connect the engine to the airframe or fuselage. Some of its secondary features are to distribute the weight of the engine and spread the torque and vibration generated by the engine [20]. Most engine mounts are made from tubular steel chrome-molybdenum welded together. This is a lightweight and strong construction. After welding, the structure is sandblasted and power-coated in bright color, which makes it easy to spot any cracks should they develop. The engine is not bolted directly onto the mount; this would result in vibrations from the engine to the aircraft. Instead, rubber shock mounts of varying strength and thicknesses are used. This dampens the vibration and movement, giving a much smoother flight and running
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engine. Any fatigue due to vibration is also not a factor with this construction.

2.4.1 Types of Engine Mount Most four cylinder engines today use mounts that look similar. The engine is bolted to the mount at the back or at the underside of the engine. The common types of piston engine mount are conical, dynafocal and bed mounts.

2.4.1.1 Conical Mounts This is the easiest mount to fabricate. It has four attach point for the engine and usually four points to bolt the mount to the firewall. The engine mount points are parallel with the firewall, so there is no awkward angle when installing the engine bolts and shock mounts. The disadvantage of this type of mount is that it is not effective in cushioning vibration and engine torque [20].

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Figure 11: A CONICAL MOUNT

2.4.1.2 Dynafocal Mounts These are the best types of mounts, and they do a perfect job of cushioning the vibrations and movements from the engine. Dynafocal mounts also produce lower cockpit noise. However, they are more expensive to build and construct [20]. The engine is held in four attach points (located in a ring), under a certain angle and point to the center of gravity of the engine. During welding this angle must be held in perfect alignment or else the four bolts will not fit when installing the engine in the mount.

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There are two types of dynafocal engine mounts: Type 1 and Type 2. Type 1 is used in Lycoming engines up to 180 hp and the type 2 is used in the IO-320 and IO-360 model engines from Lycoming [20].

Figure 12: ADYNAFOCAL MOUNT

2.4.1.3 Bed mount In a Bed mount, the engine is mounted using four points underneath the crankcase and then hang to the firewall, as shown below:

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Figure 13: A BED MOUNT 2.5 Aircraft Performance 2.5.1 Introduction Performance is a term used to describe the ability of an airplane to accomplish certain things that make it useful for certain purposes [22]. For example, the ability of the airplane to land and take off in a very short distance is an important factor to the pilot or operator who operates in and out of short, airfields. The ability to climb fast, carry heavy loads, fly at high altitudes at fast speeds, or travel long distances are essential performance parameters for operators. The main elements of performance are the takeoff and landing distance, rate of climb, ceiling, payload, range, speed, maneuverability, stability, and fuel economy. Some of these factors are often directly
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opposed: for example, high speed versus shortness of landing distance; long range versus great payload. It is the compromise between two or more of these factors which dictates differences between airplanes and explains the degree of specialization of modern airplanes. Therefore, whenever the question of aircraft performance is asked, what the questioner wants to find out are: How fast can the airplane go? How high can it go? How fast can it climb? How far can it travel without refueling? What length of airfield is required to operate it?

2.5.2 Engine and Aircraft Performance The various items of aircraft performance result from the combination of airplane and engine characteristics. The aerodynamic characteristics of the airplane generally define the power and thrust requirements at various conditions of flight while engine characteristics define the power and thrust available at various conditions of flight. The matching of the aerodynamic configuration with the engine is accomplished by the designer to provide maximum
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performance at the specific design condition; e.g. range, endurance, and climb. Below are examples of engine role in key performance parameters: 2.5.2.1 Maximum Speed The maximum level flight speed for the airplane will be obtained when the power or thrust required equals the maximum power or thrust available from the powerplant. So maximum speed is directly related to the engine capacity. On the other hand, the minimum level flight airspeed is not usually defined by thrust or power requirements. Instead, it is determined by conditions of stall or stability and control problems [22].

2.5.2.2 Climb Rate Climb depends upon the reserve power or thrust. Reserve power is the available power over that required to maintain horizontal flight at a given speed. Thus, if an airplane is equipped with an engine that produces 200 total available horsepower and the airplane requires only 130 horsepower at a certain level flight speed, the power available for climb is 70 horsepower.

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2.5.2.3 Range Performance The ability of an airplane to convert fuel energy into flying distance is one of the most important items of aircraft performance. Range is another performance parameter that is determined partly by the engine; the specific fuel consumption (SFC) of the engine.

2.5.2.4 Takeoff performance The minimum takeoff distance is of primary interest in the operation of any airplane because it defines the runway requirements. The minimum takeoff distance is obtained by taking off at some minimum safe speed that allows sufficient margin above stall and provides satisfactory control and initial rate of climb. To obtain minimum takeoff distance at the specific lift-off speed, the forces that act on the airplane must provide the maximum acceleration during the takeoff roll. The powerplant thrust is the principal force in providing the acceleration and, for minimum takeoff distance, the maximum output thrust should be high. When the wing loading (w/s) of an aircraft and other aerodynamic characteristics are known, the required maximum speed, climb rate and takeoff distance are used to size the engine [1].
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Cranfield University, 2006. 12. KROES, M.J., and WILD, TW. Aircraft powerplants, 7th edition, 2002. 13. RAYMER, D., Aircraft design: a conceptual approach, AIAA education series, 1992. 14. ROLLS ROYCE PLC, The Jet Engine 5th edition, 1996. 15. SADRAEY, M. Aircraft conceptual design Daniel Webster College. 16. MOHSENI, S.M., Preliminary Design of Ultra-High Bypass Ratio Engine for a Short Haul Aircraft, Msc thesis, Cranfield University, 2007. 17. STINTON, P., The design of the aeroplane, Oxford Blackwell Science, Oxford, 2001. 18. WWW.ACCESSSCIENCE.COM 19. WWW.AIRBUM.COM 20. WWW.EXPERIMENTALAIRCRAFT.INFO 21. WWW.PILOTFRIEND.COM 22. WWW.FREE-ONLINE-PRIVATE-PILOT-GROUND-SCHOOL.COM 23. WWW.LYCOMING.COM

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APPENDIX A: APPLICABLE SECTIONS OF CS-23. 1. CS-23.45 PERFORMANCE GENERAL 2. CS-23.51 TAKE OFF APEED 3. CS-23.53 TAKE OFF PERFORMANCE 4. CS-23.75 LANDING DISTANCECS-23.65 5. CS-23.335 DESIGN AIRSPEEDS 6. CS-23.361 ENGINE TORQUE 7. CS-23.363 SIDE LOAD ON ENGINE MOUNT 8. CS-23.371 GYROSCOPIC AND AERODYNAMIC LOAD 9. CS-23.611 ACCESSIBILITY PROVISIONS 10. CS-23.901 POWERPLANT INSTALLATION 11. CS-23.905 PROPELLERS 12. CS-23.925 PROPELLER CLEARANCE 13. CS-23.1121 EXHAUST SYSTEM 14. CS-23.1191 FIRE WALLS

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