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ABSTRACT Learning a second or foreign language can be incredibly disconcerting to learners especially if they are not exposed to the

target language on a regular basis and are not able to practice the language in authentic situations. The teacher in the English second or foreign language class, however, encounters major challenges in his/her class especially since many of his/her learners lack the confidence to communicate in the target language or to respond to questions class. Consequently, on numerous occasions, one finds that the learners sit passively in the classes expecting the teacher to do most of the talking. If the teacher does not make a concerted effort to enable his/her learners to be active participants rather than passive recipients, his/her learners will be reluctant to use the target language which in this case is English. As a result, learners become disinterested, apathetic and sometimes create disciplinary problems in the class due to communication problems. 1. Introduction The teaching of any language as a second or foreign language constitutes major challenges for the teacher of that language as he/she has to provide the building blocks for the learners so that they will eventually become confident speakers in the target language. It is with this background in mind that this paper intends to highlight the invaluable contribution that drama-in-education can make to the development of oral communication competence of learners studying English as a second or foreign language. The use and application of role play, improvisation and frozen image building or szenisches spiel which from an integral part of drama-in-education will be outlined and explained in detail and practical examples will be provided in order to illustrate how they could be applied to the classroom situation. 2. DRAMA-IN-EDUCATION 2.1 Outline of drama-in-education Since drama becomes a natural means of learning in the developmental history of humans beings , it is evident that this technique could be used effectively in teaching and learning. According to Landy (1982:5) its elements imitation, imagination, role playing and interpretation account for much of a childs learning of language, movement and social behavior. By acting out the roles of the father/mother the child learns what a parent is and what is expected of him/her in his relationship with the parent. 2.2 Advantages of drama-in-education Since drama makes contains demands on a persons imagination, it develops a learners ability to think more effectively. According to Katz (2000) a learner involved in a drama activity will be called upon the practice several thinking skills as: inventing, generating, speculating, assimilating, clarifying, inducing, deducing, analyzing, accommodating, selecting, refining, sequencing, and judging. It is thus apparent from the list of skills identified that drama-in-

education has a significant contribution to make to the development of higher order thinking skills. 2.3 Misconceptions relating to Drama-in-education The crux of drama-in-education is the creation of opportunities for the learners to exercise their creativity within given scenarios in the classroom situation. The focus is on learning within a given context by drawing from the experiences of the learners and by providing them with opportunities to use the second or target language in authentic situations rather than by creating contrived situations which are divorced from their experiences in the real world the creation of these scenarios enables them to use the target language within authentic situations which will ultimately be beneficial to them during their interactions whit mother tongue speakers outside the confines of the classroom. The major focus of drama-in-education in the classroom is on the processes involved rather than the product. However, the processes could lead to a product at a much laterstage which could be staged for an audience. The term theatre-in-education unlike creative drama implies the development of a product, a script that is rehearsed and performed to and audience. The essential ingredients are actors, script and audience. The mission of theatre-ineducation (TIE) is to effect change or to illuminate subject matter through the medium of the theatre. The desired result is: . To change an attitude, thereby leading to a change in behavior . To stimulate intellectual curiosity . To motivate the pursuit of a particular topic or issue It is important to highlight the differences between drama-in-education and theatre-ineducation in order to illustrate that the former does not necessarily lead to the creation of a production for an audience, whilst the focus of the letter is on a production which will educate the audience on a particular issue affecting society at large. 2.4 Using drama in English second language classes Drama-in-education in the English second language class involves the use of improvisation, role play and frozen image building also known as szenisches spiels, amongst others. These techniques will not only make a constructive contribution to the development of the learners oral communication skills, but will serve to develop all aspects of their personality including empathy, confidence, concentration and communication skills. Before language teachers commence with the implementation of drama-in-education techniques in their second language classes, it is imperative that they first focus on initiating the learners into this method by commencing with warm up exercise. Second language learners could be very disconcerted and frustrated if the teachers expectations of them are unrealistic. Thus in order to obviate this scenario the learners should first be exposed to warm up exercise

so that they are able to remain focused on their activities. The warm up exercise could include, amongst others, the following: The participants go crisscross through the room and greet each other in a special mode/ or according to their own culture of greeting: German ( shake hands ), Xhosa, French (cheek to cheek), Japanese (bow with praying hands). The group forms a circle. The facilitator makes eye contact with a person, claps his/her hand, calls out his/her name, walks towards the person and goes behind him/her. Then the person in front continues. The group forms a circle. The facilitator out one of the participants names by using a certain gesture and then moves into the centre of the circle. The whole group copies the gesture and repeats the name at the same time. The next person does the same thing, the whole group copies and so on. Going into pictures: the facilitator gives a cue ( eg shopping centre/ soccer field.. etc ). The first participant who has an idea goes on stage and freezes in a posture which relates to shopping centre. Then one after other they follow with their ideas until the whole group is on stage. They leave the stage in the same order as they came on. 2.5 Techniques involved in drama-in-education The major techniques on which drama-in-education is based include, amongst others, improvisation, role play and frozen image building. These techniques create opportunities for the English second language learner to use the language in a stimulating learning environment which will ultimately have a positive effect on his/her performance in the L2 class. In the ensuing discussion which follows each of these techniques will be explained, their application in English L2 classes will be highlighted and specific examples will be provided to illustrate how they could be applied in the classroom in given situation. 2.5.1 Improvisation 2.5.1.1 outline of improvisation according to McCaslin (1990) the focus of improvisation is on helping learners to discover their own resources from which their most imaginative ideas and strongest feelings flow. Participant gain freedom as self-discipline and the ability to work whit others develops. It is