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: John Stillwell

, (
)

, ,

( (AMS)

(in context)

Mathematical Review

), ,

, ,

, Oystein Ore

(Number Theory and Its

, ,

History, 1988) , :

,
, , Morris

Kline (Mathemati-

cal Thought from Ancient to Modern

, ,

Times, 1972) , ,

[Ore 1988,

(a historical introduction to

p. v]

mathematics),

John Stillwell

(Mathematics and Its History, 1989)

, ()

, :

:
54

55

Stillwell

, ,

[Stillwell 1989, p. vii]

() (

,
, ,
[Stillwell 1989, p. vii]
,
(organic
whole), Richard Courant
Herbert Robinson
? (What is Mathematics? 1953)
, ,

, ),
Stillwell
,
,
,
,

. ,

, ,

Kline ,

, Stillwell

? ,

(primary

source), , ,

, , Ivor

Grattan-Guinness

(The Rainbow of Mathematics)

, (mathematics in con-

text)

[Grattan-Guinness 1998; 1999a]

(Biographical Notes) ,

, ,

( 1948 ),

, :

, ,

(Pythagoras) (Eu-

clid) (Diophantus)

(Archimedes) (Tartaglia)

56 25 2 90 6

(Cardano) (Viete)

, J. J.

(Descartes) (Desargues)

Sylvester

(Pascal) (Wallis) (New-

(the father of current Algebra) [Setman

ton) (Leibniz) (Gre-

& Mizzi 1997]

gory) (Euler) (Fermat)

, Stillwell ()

(Abel) (Jacobi)

() ,

(The Bernoullis, James,

John Daniel) (DAlembert)

Stillwell ,

(Riemann) (Lagrange)

(Cauchy) (Harriot)

(Gauss) (Bolyai)

() (infinitesimal)

(Lobachevsky) (Galois)
(Poincare) (Godel)
(secondary source)
, , ,

(minor) ,

, Stillwell , !
Stillwell
( ) ,

Stillwell

, , Stillwell
,
, :

P. L.

Wantzel 1837
,
, (Galois theory) , ,
Wantzel
1882

F. Lindemann Stillwell

( ),

, Lindemann

, Stillwell

, ,

, Stillwell

),

57

, (Lie

, (anachronistic)

groups) (functional analysis)

, ,

, ,

, ,

1.6 , ,

()

, : ,

. (I):

(incommensurables) , ,
,

, ,

:

1) ; 2) ; 3)

) ()

; 4) ; 5) ;

6) ; 7) ; 8) ;

9) ; 10) ; 11)

; 12) ; 13) ; 14)

(The Elements) ,

; 15) ; 16) ;

, Stillwell

17) ; 18) ; 19) ; 20)

(Diophantine equation) ,

(elementary roots)

(strong interconnections)

, ,

, Stillwell

, ,

(Fermats Last Theorem)

(algebraic geome-

try) ,

(algebraic geometry)

58 25 2 90 6

, Stillwell

) [Heath 1956

: (There

vol. I, p. 154]

are infinitely many primes) [Stillwell

5: [Let the following be

1989, p. 29]

postulated:] [That if a straight

(discourse) , Ore

line falling on two straight

lines makes the interior angles

(There is an infinitude

on the same side less than two

of primes) [Ore 1988, p. 65] , Kline

right angles, the two straight

lines, if produced indefinitely,

meet on that side on which

IX 20 : ()

the angles are less than the

(Prime num-

two right angles. (

bers are more than any assigned multi-

tude of primes numbers) [Heath 1956

vol. II, pp. 412-413]

, )

infinitelyinfinitude

[Heath 1956 vol. I, p. 155]

; ,
,
23 ,
(postulate) ,
,
:

, indefinitely
infinitely, ,
,
(the reductio ad
absurdum) (the method of exhaustion),

I.23:

Parallel straight

lines are straight lines which,

, Stillwell

being in the same plane and

being produced indefinitely in

both directions, do not meet

, (

one another in either direc-

) ()

tion. (

59

, (nota-

, Still-

tion)

well

, ,

(Eudoxus)(

) ()

: , ,

()

; ,

, ;

, ,

, Stillwell
,
(Fibonacci) ,
,
, [Fibonacci 1987] ,
, algebra
, (al-

Stillwell

,
,
,

(Viete)
, Stillwell
,

Khwarizmi, ) ,

(Brahmagupta,

, ,

628 A.D.) ,

(de Moivre formula)

, ,

( ),

, ,

, Stillwell

, ,

, Stillwell

, Quadratic Equa-

tionsAngle Division,

, Stillwell

Stillwell:

60 25 2 90 6

, (

(entity), ,

(Apollonius)

Oresme

, Monge

Lacroix

, (elementary geometry)

, Stillwell

(higher geometry) ,

(four-line problem) , ,

, Stillwell

() ,

(David Hilbert) (Foun-

dations of Geometry, 1899)

, ,

, Stillwell

(construction of

equations) ,

3 2 ( x3 = 2)

Bezout

m n mn

, ,

, ,

, ,

, Bezout

, , Stillwell
,

. (II):

(The Arithmetization of Geom-

etry) , Stillwell

, ,

8.1 , Stillwell What

Is Calculus? ,

[ Stillwell 1989, pp.

, calcu-

107-108]

lus calculation ! ,

,

,
(Cavalieri) (Torricelli)
,
,

( 8.4,8.5, 8.6
), Stillwell

61

, Stillwell
()
,
(),
Stillwell
,
8.5 , 8.6
,
, ,
The Calculus of Leibniz , Stillwell

8.4 , StillwellThe Arith-

metica Infinitorum of Wallis,

8.5 Newtons Cal-

, ,

culus of Series, Stillwell

, ,
,

, Stillwell
(A Treatise of the Methods
of Series and Fluxions, 1671),

:

, Stillwell
,
, Zeno
,
,
, Stillwell
,
,

- (Gregory-

Newton interpolation formula) ,

(common Arithmetic),

62 25 2 90 6

(1650s

, ()

1850s) Stillwell

, (Taylors theo-

rem) ,

, Stillwell

, p ,

9.3 (9.3 An Interpolation

on Interpolation)

(torus) (

R[t,

p(t)]dt , R

, ,

e ,

, 1800

(inversion)

! ,

, , ,

() ,

, ,

, ,

, , Stillwell

, (lem-

(combinatorial numbers)

niscate of Bernoulli),

(binomial coefficients)

(James

(figurative numbers)

Bernouolli)

, Stillwell

1694

R
0k dt/ 1 t4

,
,

, ,

, ,

( (genus) 0 1) ,

1,

(additive theorem),

Stillwell , (

Fagnano

1751 12 23 , ,

63

, : ()

Fagnano

R
arc sin x = 0k dt/ 1 t2

() ! ,

, , Stillwell

()

() ()

, ,

, ,

(Mechanical Curves)

1800-1830

, Stillwell

, ,

(elastica)

, ,

, ,

1827 n

n = 2m p1 p2 pk ,

pj n

, Stillwell

n n Still-

well,

, sin n

(5.6) (

5.7 ) ( 7.4 )

(branch point) ( 9.5 ) ( 10.3

) ( 10.611.6 )

Stillwell ,

Stillwell 13.2 13.3

, Stillwell

(The Method)

, ,

Oresme -

, (imaginary solution)

; ()

64 25 2 90 6

the complex domain.) [Stillwell 1987, p.

194] ,

, ,

Bombelli (1572)

,
,q
q

3
2 + 11 1 + 3 2 11 1 4

, Stillwell

, ,

Stillwell ,

, ,

(geometric

representation)

, : ,

, ,
1770 ,

2 3 = 6

. (III):

, ,

(complex projective

Stillwell y =

line)

tan n y = tan ,

, ()

, , tan n

tan (x i)n (y +

() , ,

, Stillwell

, 13.5 5.6

i) = (x + i)n (y i)

y = x(x )(x )

Hadamard :

15.1 , Stillwell

(The

Cotes

shortest route between two truths in the

1714 : ,

real domain sometimes passes through

()

dx/(1 + x)

dx/(1 + x2 ),

65

(isomorphic), ,

()

eix = cos x + i sin x,

(uniformization)

, (Felix

: (cos x + i sin x)

inx

Klein)

cos x + i sin nx

(linear fractional trans-

formation),

() Cauchy-

Riemann ,

, Stillwell

( 15.2 ) ( 15.3 ),

, !

= e

( 15.4 ),

Stillwell

( 15.5 ) , Still-

( 16.2

well y 2 = ax3 + bx2 + cx +

) ( 16.3 )

d, ,

( 16.4 ) ( 16.5 )

Gauss-Bonnet (16.6) ,

Stillwell

, Still-

well Dirk J. Struik

(manifestation),

(Lectures on

Classical Differential Geometry, 1961),

(1997) ,

, , Stillwell

x = f (z) y = f (z)

, f , f

Stillwell 1663

1 , 2 ,

(x, y) = (f (z), f (z)) z +

{m1 + n2 |m, n Z} ,

, , ,

66 25 2 90 6

, ,

, Sac-

17.4 17.5

cheri 1733 ,

, Stillwell

: !

Stillwell

, , ,

Stillwell ,

(Lambert) ,

(1766),
, ,
, :
r 2R sin hr/R
Taurinus
,
(Betrami) 1868
(pseudosphere)
(hyperbolic plane) ,

,
, ! ,
(combination)
( ),
(mathematical objects) ( )
,
,
,
Stillwell
,
( 18.5 )
,
18.1 (The Group
Concept),

, ,

, , Stillwell

, Stillwell Vandermonde

Ruffini

, ,

, ,

(group)

(1777-1855) ,

(1831), , Stillwell

18.3 (The Group Con-

cept) ,

67

(referent)

(Legendre)

, (Arthur Cay-

1794 ,

ley) Dyck ,

()

(1895 )

, Stillwell

19.3 (The

Classification of Surfaces),

, Still-

Stillwell 1850

well 18.4

1880 ,

18.5 (

(Riemann

surface representation) ,

(Mobius)

, (Fe-

lix Klein) ,

(generalized polyhe-

Erlangen (1872)

dron)

() ,

Stillwell:

(orientability),

Erlanger

(Euler characteristic) ,

() , Stil-

, , , Still-

well

well ,

(geometrical topology) ,

19.4 19.5 , Stillwell

(surface topology),

, ()

, ,

Gauss-Bonnet : = 2

19.2 Stillwell

, , ,

, ,

68 25 2 90 6

, 1,

2) (
, 1870 )

Gauss-Bonnet :

3) ,

( 19.7 ) 19.6

4) ?

(covering) ,

(fundamental group)

Stillwell 1989, p. 313

, ,

20.2 ,

(con-

, (closed path)

tunuum hypothesis), ,

(group of homotopy classes)

, (ordinal number) ,

, , ,

(Georg Cantor)

, Still-

well , 20.3

, ,

, (measure)

(point sets) ,

? ,

, , ,

? Stillwell

(Fourier series) ,

Stillwell

(Fourier)

: ,

, , (measure the-

? , Stillwell

ory) Stillwell Har-

(an explana-

nack (1885)Jordan (1892) Borel (1898)

tion):

, Lebesgue

1) ,

(1902) ,

69

, Stillwell

(Turing

machine) ,

; ,

(unsolvability)

(smallness) ,

(continuum hypothesis) ,

(Whitehead) (Russell) 1900

(Principia Mathe-

, (large cardinal number)

matica) , (formal

, Stillwell

language),

1970 Solovay

, ,

, , (computability)

(completeness)

1931

, Stillwell 20.4

(Incompleteness Theorem)

(diagonal argument)

, :

PA(Peano ,

) , ,

: ,

, Con() ( )

! ,

, ,

, Con()

(It is
impossible to compute a list of all computable real numbers);
(It is impossible to compute a list of all com-

, (provability)
(truth) ,
(20.6)
, Stillwell Post 1941
, :

putable functions) ,

(Turing) Post

70 25 2 90 6

PA

, PA

, , ()

(re-

covered) ,

, ,

Con (PA)

, ,

PA ,

: N

,
, PA

Con (PA) ,

(the power of formal proof)
[Stillwell 1989, p. 328]

[ 1996]
,
,
() (
) , ,

,
,

[Kline 1972, p. ix]


, ,

, , (format)

, ,

, ,

1996]

, ,

, ,

, ,

(Felix Klein)

, B. L. van der Waer-

den Dirk J. Struik

71

, [Stillwell 1989,

, , ,

References, pp. 333-362]

(Joseph W. Dauben)

(mathe-

, ,

matics with historical examples),

, ,

[Dauben 1993]

(incommensurables)

, ,

(incom-

mensurable),

, Stillwell,

, Morris Kline

[Aczel 1996, pp. 94-109]

[Kline 1972,

(rational reconstruc-

pp. 68-73] , Stillwell

tion),

, ,

, ,

()

(Kant) , Still-

() ,

well

, , ;

, ,

(potentially infinite) (ac-

tually infinite) ,

[Dauben 1993; Rowe 1996] ,

(infinitesi-

mal) ,

, , Stillwell

, ,

[Boyer

Ore

190-196], ,

Stillwell , Stillwell

, , ,

), , ,

, ,

() ,

),

1959, pp.

72 25 2 90 6

, ,

, Stillwell ,

, ,

( ) ,

, ,

Stillwell

, ,

(2) , ,
,

.
,
;
; ,

, ,
:
( HPM),

! [1999b]

(3) ,

, ,

, /

(4) ,

, ,

, ,

, ,

, !

(5) ,

, ,

(1) ,

: ,

,
,
,
, ,
() ,
,

, ,
, ,

1. Boyer, Carl, The History of Calculus


and Its Conceptual Development, New
York: Dover Publications Inc, 1959.
2. Boyer, Carl, A History of Mathematics,
New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1968.
3. Burton, David M., The History of
Mathematics, An Introduction, Newton, Mass.: Allyn and Bacon, 1985.
4. Cardano, Girolamo, The Great Art,
Cambridge: M.I.T. Press, 1968.
5. Dauben, Joseph, Mathematics: An
Historians Perspective, Philosophy
and the History of Science: A Taiwanese Journal 2(1): 1-21, 1993.
6. Fibonacci, Leonardo Pisano, The Book
of Squares, New York: Academic Press,
INC, 1987.
7. Grattan-Guinness, Ivor, The Fontana
History of the Mathematical Sciences:
The Rainbow of Mathematics, London:
Fontana Press, 1997.

73

8. Hall, A. Rupert, On Whiggism, Ambix


vol. 30: 45-59, 1983.
9. Heath, Thomas L., The Thirteen Books
of Euclids Elements, New York: Dover
Publications, Inc, 1956.
10. Heilbron, J. L., Applied History of Science, ISIS 78: 552-563, 1987.
11. Katz, Victor, A History of Mathematics: An Introduction, New York:
HarperCollins College Publishers,
1993.
12. Kline, Morris, Mathematical Thought
from Ancient to Modern Times, New
York: Oxford University Press, 1972.
13. Nahin, Paul J., An Imaginary Tale:

The Story of
1.
New Jersey:
Princeton University Press, 1998.
14. Rowe, David E., New Trends and Old
Images in The History of Mathematics,
In Calinger, Ronald ed., Vita Mathematica (Washington, D. C.: MAA,
1996), pp. 3-16, 1996.
15. Seltman, Murie and Eddie Mizzi,
Thomas Harriot: Father of English Algebra? The Mathematical Intelligencer
19(1): 46-49, 1997.
16. Stillwell, John, Mathematics and Its
History. New York / Hong Kong:
Springer-Verlag, 1989.
17. Struik, Dirk J., Lectures on Classical
Differential Geometry, Reading, Mass.:
Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., INC,
1961.
18. Struik, Dirk J., A Concise History of
Mathematics. Fourth Revised Edition.
New York: Dover Publishers, INC,
1987.
19. Van der Waerden, B. L., Science Awakening. New York: John Wiley, 1963.

74 25 2 90 6

20. Van der Waerden, B. L., Geometry and


Algebra in Ancient Civilizations. New
York: Springer-Verlag, 1983.
21. Van der Waerden, B. L., A History
of Algebra. Berlin: Springer-Verlag,
1985.
22. , : ,
1996 11 15 , 12-14,
1996
23. , : ICC
,

(,1999) 329-336, 1999a


24. , : ,
HPM , 1-3,
1999b
25. , ,
, 1998
26. ,
, : , 1997