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HEAT TREATMENT Definition: Heat or combination of operations n the solid state to produce it is possible to alter the s of metals

treatment of metals may be defined as an operation involving heating and cooling of metals or alloys i certain desired properties. Only by heat treatment, structure and consequently the mechanical propertie

How is it carried out? 1. Heating of the metal to a pre-determined temperature. 2. Soaking of the metal at that temperature until the structure becomes uni form throughout the section. 3. Cooling of the metal at some pre-determined rate to cause the formation of desirable structures within the metal for the desired properties. Purpose etc Various 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. of Heat Improve Relieve Improve Treatment machinability. internal stresses mechanical properties such as ductility, strength, hardness, toughness,

Change the grain size methods of Heat Treatment Annealing Normalising Hardening Tempering Case hardening Carburising Cyaniding Nitriding Surface hardening Induction hardening Flame hardening Homogenising (or) diffused coatings

6. 7.

ANNEALING Definition: Annealing is a process of heat treatment by which a metallic com ponent/structure (steel) it is heated to a temperature of about (i) 40C above the upper critical temperature (880C-860C) (ii) Soaked at that temperature for a pre-determined time (i.e.) of 1 min/mm thickness. (iii) Cooled very slowly in the furnace itself. Purpose: Refining and homogenising the structure. Reducing hardness. Improving machinability. Removing residual stresses. Producing desired micro structure. To prepare for further heat treatment. Components: All draw gear items IS:5517/93 Gr.35 Mn6 Mo3. Draw bar, Draw hook, Trunnion bent link, etc. Tests carried out at ICF Hardness 220 BHN (Max.) Microstructure ASTM Grain Size 5 to 8 NORMALISING Definition: Normalising is a process of heat treatment by which a metallic c omponent/structure (steel) is

Heated to a temperature of about 40C to 50C above the upper critical temperature ( 880C - 910C) Soaked at that temperature for a pre-determined time (i.e.) 1min/mm (dia.) or th ickness. Cooled in still air (rapid compared to annealing.) Purpose: Produces uniform structure. To remove internal stresses. Produces harder and stronger steel than full annealing. Refines the grain size of steel. Components: 1875/92 Cl.I - Block hanger, Hanger 1875/92 Cl.II - L.S.Seat BG/EMU Collar, Ring, Retaining Ring, Guide, etc. 1875/92 Cl.IV - CP Pin Tests carried out at ICF 1. Hardness Cl.I : 100 120 BHN Cl.II : 120 130 BHN Cl.IV : 175 200 BHN 2. Micro structure ASTM Grain Size Number 5 8 HARDENING Definition: Hardening is a process of heat treatment of steel Heated to a temperature of about 30C to 40C above the upper critical temperature (880C - 920C) Holding at that temperature for specified period (1min/mm thickness/dia) Cooling is suddenly done by quenching in water/mineral oil (Servo-Quench - 11) o r salt solution. Purpose: To develop high hardness to resist wear To improve strength, toughness and ductility Components: Helical springs of various dia (26 mm 47.5 mm dia) Draw gear items: Draw bar, Draw hook, etc. QUENCHING: Medium into which heated springs are plunged (in order to withdraw heat from the objects rapidly) Medium must provide for a cooling rate above the critical value. Types of Quenching Media: Water Oil Salt solutions Quenching Characteristics: Temperature (60C for Oil Bath) The heat of vapourisation Specific heat Thermal conductivity Viscosity (20.5 36.0 CST, FP-175C/min) Agitation Stages of Quenching: Stage-1: Vapour blanket cooling stage: As the temperature is very high, the quenching medium is vaporised at the surfac e of the metal. A thin stable film of vapour formed. Surrounds the hot metal. Heat extraction through radiation. Stage-2: Vapour transport cooling stage:

Vapour blanket is broken intermittently Liquid is allowed to touch the hot metal (spring) Very rapid cooling takes places in this stage. Heat extracted through conduction and convection Stage 3: Liquid cooling stage: Begins when the surface of the spring first reaches the boiling point of the que nching medium. Cooling takes places by convection & conduction. Rate of cooling decreases the temp. of spring Rate of cooling is slowest in this stage. TEMPERING Heating hardened steel below the lower critical temperature (480-520C) Holding at that temperature for specified period (1 min/mm thickness /dia) Cooling of springs (water) Purpose: To relieve residual stresses. Improve ductility. Improve toughness & shock resistance. Reduce hardness. Increase % elongation. To stabilise the structure. Components: Springs. Draw gear items. Tests carried out after tempering: Springs 1. Hardness : 415 460 BHN (Cr-Mo) 380 440 BHN (Si-Mn) 2. EMCD Test : By U.V.Lamp - 100% 3. MPT (Yoke) : To test for crack after end grin ding Draw gear item Hardness Draw hook : 241 285 BHN All other components : 266 302 BHN HARDENABILITY Definition: Ability of steel to become uniformly hard or to harden in depth direction. Depth & distribution of hardness induced by quenching. To enhance the impact strength. Factors affecting hardenability: The quenching medium and method. Composition of the steel. Grain size. Alloying elements. Determination of hardenability: By appearance of the fracture. By the distribution of the hardness along the cross section. By an end quench test. CASE HARDENING Definition: Saturating the surface layer of low carbon steel (0.1 0.18%) (i.e.) (is:1875/92 Cl.I in ICF) with carbon. By this process, the outer layer of the component is converted into high carbon steel Purpose: To increase wear & tear resistance.

To increase the fatigue strength. To obtain adequate hardness on the surface. Components: Bushes of various size Hangers BG, EMU Tests carried out at ICF Hardness (50-60 HRC) Case depth Bush 0.5 mm (min) Hanger 1.5 1.6 mm

Some Basic Aspects related to HEAT TREATMENT: Melting point of iron is 1539C. The solid solution of carbon in a-iron is called Ferrite. a-iron exists at temperatures upto 910C and in the interval from 1400C to 1539C. a so, in the interval from 1401C to 1539C, a-iron exists and is often called as d-i ron. The solid solution of carbon in g-iron is called Austenite. g-iron exists at temperatures from 910C TO 1400C a-iron is body centered cube type and is Ferro-Magnetic. g-gamma iron is face centred cubic type and is weakly magnetic (para magnetic). Iron carbide is called Cementite. Combination of cementite and ferrite is called Pearlite. At the temperature of 723C (AC1) the austenite will contain 0.8% carbon and will decompose at this constant temperature into Ferrite Cementite eutectoid mixture which is called Pearlite. 723C AC1 - is called lower critical temperature. 910C AC3 - is called upper critical temperature. WELDING Welding is a process by which two or more pieces of similar or dissimila r materials are joined together under certain conditions of temperature with/wit hout pressure by establishing inter atomic bonds. Classification of Welding: Broadly classified into two categories 1. Pressure welding 2. Non-pressure welding In ICF, We are using both types. The various welding processes used at ICF for the manufacture of Integral coache s are: 1 Manual Metal Arc Welding 2 CO2 Welding 3 Argo-Shield Welding 4 Submerged Arc Welding (a) Auto welding (b) Semi-auto welding 5 Resistance Welding (a) Flash butt welding (b) Spot welding (c) Butt seam welding MANUAL METAL ARC WELDING: In all arc welding process, the source of heat is an electric arc the temperatur e of which is as high as 5727C. In this process, namely manual metal arc welding, an arc is established between the work to be welded and a metallic wire or electrode, clamped in an electrode holder. The intense heat of the arc melts some of the parent metal and the tip of the el ectrode. The molten metal fills the groove between the edges of the work and, on cooling

forms a weld. The metal electrode will have a flux covering to form a blanket (of gas) around the weld pool, so as to protect it against the harmful effects of atmospheric ox ygen and nitrogen. CO2 WELDING Most reactive gases cannot be used alone as shielding media, but co2 is the outs tanding exception. It is extensively used alone and also as a component in gas mixture, to which it imparts arc action and metal transfer CO2 is widely used in the welding of steel by short circuiting mode of metal tra nsfer. A true spray transfer can be obtained by using gas mixture (argon & co2) and not by co2 alone CO2 welding provides good welding speed and good penetration. In many applications, the shielded weld is far less expensive than argon shielde d welding. CO2 decomposes into co and o2 at arc temperatures, producing an oxidising effect . To avoid oxidising effect and to produce sound welding free from porosity, de-ox idised electrode wire is employed. In ICF, the wire contains high silicon and high manganese, which produces de-oxi dising effect. Chemical composition: %C 0.07 0.15 %Mn 1.00 1.50 %Si 0.65 - 0.85 %S 0.025 (MAX) %P 0.025 (MAX) %Cu 0.2 0.4 (including Copper coating) Advantages: The wire feeding is continuous, thus welding speed can be increased. There is no flux. Hence, there is no need to remove the slag. High welding current can be used by which the weld metal deposited in a given ti me is more. Sound, defect free weldment is possible. Deeper penetration than flux covered electrodes. Disadvantages: Due to shape and size of the gun, it is inaccessible in certain areas. Tendency to spatter is more when arc length is not maintained properly. The weld pool must be covered against strong draught of air. SUBMERGED ARC WELDING Submerged arc welding is divided into two: 1. Automatic submerged arc welding and 2. Semi-Automatic submerged arc welding AUTOMATIC SUBMERGED ARC WELDING In this process, an arc is established under a bed of a high resistance, conduct ive medium, called welding flux. The molten flux floats on the weld pool, protecting it from the atmosphere and o ther gases. As the welding head progresses along the seam, an electric motor actuates a feed roller through a reduction gear unit and electrode wire is uncoiled from a reel , passes between the feed roller and a pressure roller, and enters the arc zone at the rate of melting. At the same time, flux is automatically laid down in advance along the seam and constantly covers the weld pool This process is remarkable for high speeds of welding and high quality of welds.

SEMI-AUTOMATIC SUBMERGED ARC WELDING As distinct from automatic submerged arc welding, the electrode wire is fed from a supply of reel by a feed mechanism into a holder inside a long flexible condu it. The holder, fitted with a flux hopper, is moved along the seam to be welded manu ally. This process is advantageous on short seams and in places difficult to access. The wire feeding is automatically done and the work is manually carried out and hence it is called semi-automatic submerged arc welding. RESISTANCE WELDING In resistance welding, the fusion temperature is generated at the joint by the resistance to the flow of an electric current passed directly through the work piece. 1. 2. 3. Resistance welding covers many processes of which, the basic ones are: Flash Butt Welding Spot Welding Butt Seam Welding

FLASH BUTT WELDING In flash butt welding, the parts to be welded are secured in the current conduct ing copper clamps of a butt welding machine and are mechanically brought togethe r. As the supply source is switched on, the secondary current of a welding transfor mer passes through the point of contact, generating intense heat there. The ends of the work pieces are heated to a plastic state and are upset mechanic ally to complete the weld. SPOT WELDING In spot welding, the parts to be welded are arranged to overlap each oth er, and the overlapping section is clamped between two copper electrode points. As a current passes from a transformer through the points, localised heating res ults. After the current is switched off, the molten metal solidifies, leaving a welded spot. BUTT SEAM WELDING In butt seam welding, the electrodes are two copper rollers driven by an electri c motor. The parts to be welded are clamped between the roller electrodes. With the rollers rotating and the current switched on and off, a weld is produce d either in the form of a series of closely spaced stitches, or as overlapping s pots, or as a continuous weld nugget. WELD DEFECTS / CAUSES / REMEDIES: Defect / Definition Cause Remedies LACK OF FUSION: A discontinuity in a weld between weld metal and parent metal or parent metal and weld metal. 1. Dirty surface. 2. Improper cleaning 3. Current too low 4. Excess welding speed 5. Unfavourable heat input. 1. Clean the wedge to be welded. 2. Proper cleaning of each bead. 3. Maintain proper current and weld speed. LACK OF PENETRATION: Weld metal fails to fill up to the root or fails to fuse completely with the root face of the parent metal 1. Inadequate joint preparation.

2. 3. 4. 2. 3.

Wrong size of electrode. Low heat input. High welding speed. 1. Proper joint preparation. Suitable size of electrode. Proper heat input and welding speed.

OVER LAP: An imperfection at the toe of the weld caused by overflow of weld metal on the surface of parent metal without fusing. 1. Wrong angle of electrode. 2. Too large deposit in a single run. 3. Faulty electrode manipulation. 1. Keep correct angle of electrode. 2. Use proper size electrode. UNDER CUT: A grove in the parent metal along the toe of the weld. 1. High current. 2. High dia of electrode used. 3. Wrong electrode angle. 1. Use proper current and polarity in case of D.C. 2. Use less dia. electrode. 3. Proper angle of electrode. SLAG INCLUSION: Non Metallic substance that enter / include in the weld metal. 1. Improper Cleaning of welds. 2. Faulty electrode. 3. Wrong current. 4. Rapid rate of welding. 5. Defective weld design. 6. Improper Technique. 1. Proper current and heat input 2. Proper design and technique. 3. Proper cleaning of weld. POROSITIES: Entrapment of gases in the weld metal. 1. Contamination of work piece 2. Excessive moisture pick up in electrode covering. 3. Moisture on work surface. 4. Long arc. 5. Excessive current. 6. High travel speed. 1. Clean joint area. 2. Store electrodes properly. Follow manufacturer re-baking procedure. 3. Use preheating/warm up work piece. 4. Change welding parameter and technique. 5. Use pre-heat. CRACKS: 1. High rigidity of joint. 2. High carbon content of weld metal. 3. High sulphur content in base or weld metal. 4. Hot cracking. 5. Higher hardenability. 6. Hydrogen induced Cracking 7. High residual stresses. 1. Use preheating. Relieve residual stresses. 2. Use proper electrode.

3. Reduce the heat input and 4. Preheat the job and post om temperature. 5. Use low hydrogen welding 6. Reduce the restraints and te stress relief heat treatment.

minimum joint restraints. weld heat treatment without cooling to ro electrode. change the welding sequence and intermedia

STAINLESS STEEL WELDING The term stainless is the term popularly used for iron alloys containing greater than 12% chromium. This alloy has been discovered by H. BREALY and E. M AURER in 1912. This stainless steel exhibits superior resistance to corrosion th an steels containing without chromium. This corrosion resistance property is imp arted due to the presence of passive film of chromium oxide. This stainless steel is classified broadly into three different categori es. They are: 1 Ferritic Stainless Steel 2 Austenitic Stainless Steel 3 Martensetic Stainless Steel Ferritic stainless steel contains 12 to 16 % chromium without nickel. This Ferritic stainless steel possesses excellent resistance to corrosion, but p oor fabricability, formability, low impact strength. This type is extensively used in vessels for chemical and food industries. Some of the common types are AISI 405, 409, 410S, 430, etc. Austenitic stainless steel contains 18 - 25% Cr and 8 20% Ni with low carbon con tent (0.08%). This type is austenitic at all temperatures and largest variety of stainless ste el used in industry. This austenitic stainless steel possesses excellent properties like weldability, strength at higher temperatures, and stability at cryogenic temperatures. Because of the excellent properties of fabricability (welding) and strength is a ustenitic stainless steel is chosen as the raw material for coach manufacturing. Some of the typical varieties of austenitic stainless steel are AISI 301, 302, 3 04, 316, 305, 309 and 310. Martensitic Stainless Steel contains pre-dominantly 12 18 % chromium and 0.1 1.0 carbon. This alloy has high strength and low toughness. Typical applications are Turbine Blades, Springs, Aircraft fittings, Surgical In struments, Cutlery, etc. Typical varieties are AISI 403, 410, 420 and 431. In ICF, Austenitic Stainless Steel of Type AISI-301 is chosen for manufa cture of stainless steel components of the coaches. Austenitic Stainless Steel to AISI 301Grade Chemical Composition: %C* 0.15 (MAX) %Mn 2.00 (MAX) %Si 1.00 (MAX) %S 0.03 (MAX) %P 0.045 (MAX) %Cr 16.00 18.00 %Ni 6.00 8.00 * In ICF specification, the carbon content is restricted to 0.08% (max) Mechanical Properties UTS - 515 MPa

YST - 350 to 490 MPa (ICF Requirement) % of elongation 40

Austenitic SS exhibits following differences compared to Carbon Steel: Electrical resistance is about 6 times greater. Melting point about 95C lower. Thermal conductivity about 50% lower. Thermal expansion about 50% greater. Because of more electrical resistance and lesser thermal conductivity & melting point, lesser welding current is required for welding of SS. Because of more thermal expansion, tendency for warpage and distortion increases in welding of stainless steel. More tack welds and skip welding required to avoid warpage. Types of welding process used for welding SS components in ICF MMAW Process using SS stick electrodes. GMAW Process (CO2 Welding) using SS flux cored wires. Details of SS welding in ICF: 1. By MMAW Process: Consumables Current parameters Components welded SS stick electrodes to IRS M-28/2002 CL-M4 (Equivalent to AWS: A5.4, Gr E-309L) 2.5 mm 60-80 Amps. 1. Joining of SS trough floor sheets. 2. SS Body Pillar to Side Wall and Sole Bar. 3. SS Lavatory Inlay 2. By GMAW Process (CO2 Welding):: Consumables Current parameters Components welded 1.2mm SS Flux cored wire to AWS: A-5.22, Gr. E-309L 160200 Amps Shielding Med ium: 100% CO2 Gas. Welding of SS Trough Floor to Sole bar, Cross bearers an d Body Bolsters in the Underframes. Problems likely to be encountered in SS welding: Inter-granular corrosion. Hot cracking & micro fissuring in welded joints. Inter-granular Corrosion / Weld Decay: The precipitation of carbon in the grain boundaries as chromium carbides occurs when the Austenitic SS is: 1. Heated in the range of 427C to 870C or 2. Cooled slowly through that range. This precipitation of chromium carbides leads to: Depletion of chromium content along the grain boundaries. Lower corrosion resistance in those areas. Localised intergranular corrosion takes place. Intergranular corrosion depends on: Duration of exposure in the temperature range (sensitisation range). Carbon content. Cooling/Heating Rate. Preventive Measures: Use of extra low carbon alloy. Use of extra low carbon electrode for welding. Use of stabilised electrode containing titanium and columbium. Solution annealing treatment.

Hot cracking & micro fissuring: Occuring in the weld metal/haz during welding/solidification.

The microstructure of weld metal influenses susceptibility to micro fissuring an d hot cracks. Fully austenitic structure more prone to these defects. Prevention: Presence of about 5-10% delta ferrite in the Austenitic SS weld metal reduces th e tendency to form hot cracking/micro fissuring. Controlling of Si, P & S to as low as possible. Measurement of delta ferrite in the austenitic weld metal By using magnetic instrument like ferrito scope. By using schaeffler diagram and weld metal composition. Hydrogen Embrittlement: Also called as cold crack or under bead crack. Due to presence of hydrogen in the weld metal and haz. Hydrogen preferentially diffuses into the areas of highest strain. Exerts more pressure in the joints. When concentration of hydrogen reaches a critical level, crack is initiated. Diffusible hydrogen content in the weld metal should not go beyond 10-15 ml/100g of weld metal. Hydrogen content is measured by using glycerine/mercury bath analysis. Prevention: Use of low hydrogen electrodes (basic coated) Pre-heating of electrodes to remove moisture content. Thorough cleaning of welding surface to be free from oil & grease.

Passivation of SS Welded Joints: The corrosion resistance of ss attributed to the presence of fine transparent fi lm of chromium oxide on the surface. The chromium oxide film is refractory and non-porous in nature having melting po int more than 3000C. During welding, the chromium oxide film get damaged in the welded areas. These affected areas have lower corrosion resistance. To reform the chromium oxide film in the affected areas, immediately after weldi ng, passivation is carried out. Method: t. ed. Clean the welded joints and haz with SS wire brush to remove scales and heat tin Apply / swab dilute nitric acid (about 15% V/V) with cloth or brush. After about 15 minutes, wash the applied areas thoroughly with water. During this process, oxidation takes place and the chromium oxide film is restor

WELDABILITY: Weldability of a material (steel) is defined as its capacity to get welded with ease under fabrication conditions to perform the intended servic e satisfactorily. Carbon Equivalent: Carbon Equivalent (C.E.) is a factor which governs the weldability of a material (steel). C.E = %C + %Mn + (%Cr+%Mo+%V) + (%Ni+%Cu) 6 5 15 When C.E. < 0.14 = No special precaution is required. Rutile electr ode is employed. (TITANIUM OXIDE Flux Coating) C.E. between 0.14 0.45 = Use low Hydrogen Electrode

onate) Or Pre-heat the job. C.E. > 0.45 =

(Basic Coated Flux, Calcium Carb Use low Hydrogen Electrode and Pre-heat the job.

Carbon Equivalents of various materials used at ICF: Structural Steel to IS: 2062/99 Grade C.E. Fe410 WA 0.42 Fe410 WB 0.41 Fe410 WC 0.39 Fe410 CuWC 0.39 Corten Steel to IRS M-41/97 C.E. = 0.306 Stainless Steel AISI 301 = 4.350@ AISI 304 = 4.830@ @ Though the carbon equivalent is much more than 0.45, there is no problem in welding because we have chosen the above grades of austenitic variety of sta inless steel, in which case hard martensite is not formed. Main Raw Materials used in coach production: Structural steel to IS 2062 Corten steel to IRS M 41 Austenitic Stainless steel to AISI 301 Structural Steel to IS:2062 (Thickness 6 mm to 32 mm) Chemical Composition: Element % IS 2062 - 99 Fe410 WA Fe 410 WB Fe 410 WC C (max) 0.23 0.22 0.20 Mn (max) 1.50 1.50 1.50 Si (max) 0.05 1.50 0.40 S (max) 0.05 0.40 0.040 P (max) 0.05 0.045 0.040 CE (max) 0.42 0.41 0.39 Structural Steel to IS: 2062 Characteristics IS 2062 - 99 Fe410 WA Fe 410 Tensile Strength MPa (min) % elongation GL 5.65 S0 23 Yield strength Mpa (min) < 20 mm 20 - 40 mm 250 240 250 240 250 240 Bend test (1800bend) R & T Corten Mechanical properties: WB 410 23 Fe 410 WC 410 410 23

No cracking on outside of bent portion

Steel to IRS M 41: Low alloy steel Higher corrosion resistance Higher mechanical properties % Cu 0.30-0.60 0.35-0.60 0.20-0.47 % V 0.05 max

Chemical Composition: % C 0.10 max % Mn 0.25-0.45 % Si 0.28-0.72 % S 0.030

% Cr % Ni

% P 0.75-0.140 % Mo 0.05 max % Al 0.08 max % Nb 0.04 max Total incidental elements (V+Mo+Al+Nb) 0.15 max Corten Steel to IRS M 41 Mechanical Properties: Properties Hot Rolled Cold Rolled Tensile strength Mpa 480 440 % elongation (min) 22 26 Yield strength MPa (min) 340 300 Bend test (180 R&T) No cracking on outside of the bent portion Austenitic Stainless Steel to AISI 301: Thickness used1.6 mm, 2mm, 3.2 mm,4mm, Procured in annealed condition. Chemical composition: C Si Mn Cr Ni P 0.15 max 1.00 max 2.00 max 0.050 Mechanical Properties: UTS 0.2% proof stress % elongation (50 mm GL) 40 min Hardness (in RB) 5mm. S 16-18

6.00-8.00

0.045

515 N/mm2 (min) 205 N/mm2 88 min

Comparison of Physical Properties of Austenitic Stainless Steel & Carbon Steel: Characteristics Austenitic SS AISI 301 Carbon steel Melting point 1400-1450C 1540C Rate of Heat Conductivity: At 100C At 650C 28% 66% 100% 100% Electrical resistance Micro ohm/cm 72.0 1260.0 125 125 Thermal expansion in/in/Cx10-6 17.6 (20-500C) 11.7 (20-628C) Magnetic response Non-magnetic at all temperatures Magnetic to over 705C Details of different welding processes employed in the fabrication of various co ach components: MMAW Process: Roof assembly Side wall assembly End wall assembly Shell assembly (Jig) joining of Roof, Sidewall, Endwall and Underframe GMAW Process (Gas shielded Metal Arc Welding): Underframe Roof Bogie bolster Body bolster LS beam Equalising stay Involves fabrication of:

Head stock complete Bogie frame Bogie frame sub assembly components Viz., side frame, transom, head stock Welding of detail components with bogie frame & BSS bracket, Anchor link brack et, nose (EMU/M), Guide etc. Side bearer Draft Yoke SAW Process: * AUTO welding process involves fabrication of Body bolster LS beam Side frame Inner head stock beam Side bearers * Semi AUTO process involves fabrication of Bogie head stocks Bogie transoms Bearing with LS beam RESISTANCE WELDING: Spot Welding: Involves welding of:Body pillar, Stiffeners, Light rail, Waist rail with side wall s heets Foil Butt Seam Welding Process: Joining of:Roof sheets, Sidewall sheets, Endwall sheets. Flash Butt Welding Process: Pull rods (Brake system). Welding consumables used at ICF with specifications: 1. MMAW Process: RDSO Spec. IRS M28/2002 IRS Class Equivalent AWS specn. Equivalent IS specn. Type of Componen ts Welded 'D' class LH-Type AWS A 5.5 Gr 8018 W -Corten t o IRS M 41 with same material & with steel to IS:2062 (highly dynamic applicatio n) 'D' class Rutile Type -do--do- (semi dynamic appli cation) A2 class Rutile Type AWS A 5.1 Gr 6013 IS 814/91 ER 421x*x* Mild steel to IS:2062 & steel to IS:1875 Cl I & IA (semi dynamic application) A4 class LH type AWS A 5.1 Gr 7018 IS 814/91 ER 534 X*X* Steel to IS:2062 & steel to IS:1875 Cl I & IA IS:2062 (highly dynamic application) M4 class AWA A 5.4 Gr E 309 IS 5206/83 Gr E 23.12 R 26 Stainless AWS 301 with same material & with corten ste el to IRS M-41 and steel to IS:2062 2. GMAW Process: Electrode wire RDSO Specn IS specn AWS Specn Purpose 1.2 mm Copper coated solid wire. IRS M46/ 2003 Class I Gr 5.3x503 AWS A 5.2 Gr E717-12 100 % CO2 Shielding medium IS 6419/96

*Argo shield 82%Ar, 16% CO2, 2% O2

Welding of Mild Steel Components

to I

S: 2062 components. *Bogie frame. 1.2 mm stainless flux cored wire. IRS M 46/ 2003 Class VI --AWSA 5.22 E 309 L 100 % CO2 Welding stainless steel to AISI 301, Corten steel to IRS M41 and steel to IS:2062 1.2 mm SS solid wire. -do-AWS A 5.9 E 309L 98% Ar, 2% O2 -do3. a) SAW Process: Copper coated wire 2.4 mm dia 5.5 mm dia IRS M39/2001 Class W1 For welding of Mild Steel to IS: 2062 components & Steel to IS: 1875 Cl I & IA components. b) Fused type flux IRS M39/2001 Class F1 --4. a) b) RESISTANCE WELDING Process: Spot Welding Process: Non-consumable Truncated/ dome Hardness 121 BHN Butt Seam Welding Process: Non-consumable copper-chromium Hardness 121 BHN Drg. ICF/J&T/2953 & ICF/J&T/2206 shaped copper- chromium alloy electrode. Cr 0.5-0.8% Drg. ICF/SK/223 wheel electrode Cr- 0.5-0.8%

Butt Seam Foil (for Corten Sheets): Specification : IS:513 DD quality Thickness : 0.35 mm Hardness : 165 HV Min. Quality Control tests in CMT Laboratory: 1. Raw materials testing (a) Mechanical Properties: UTS Yield strength % elongation Bend test Hardness Micro analysis Macro examination (b) Chemical Composition by Spectrographic Method Quality Control of Welding Consumables: All welding consumable procured from RDSO approved firms only. RDSO approval based on assessment of capacity and capability of firms and full-f ledged testing & evaluation of electrodes at RDSO. RDSO approval status valid for maximum two years only. Renewal of RDSO approval based on testing & evaluation of fresh electrodes sampl es submitted by the firms at RDSO. * ICF is again short listing the RDSO approved firms based on: Its own assessment of firm. Testing of electrode samples at ICF Laboratory. Practical performance at the shop floor.

* Further, at the time of each supply of the welding consumable, for each batch, the quality of the electrodes is again tested at the ICF laboratory for t he properties of the respective RDSO specifications. Tests conducted on the Welding Consumables: 1. Welding Characteristics:

Arc stability Ease of arc striking Slag control Slag removal Spatter level Ability for positional welding (i.e. Vertical, overhead) Red hotness of flux coating Uniform flux fusion 2. Weld Bead Chemistry (By Spectro) 3. Wire Chemistry (Copper coated wires of CO2 welding & SA W processes) 4. Copper Coating Content (Copper coated wires of CO2 welding & SAW proces ses) 5. Accelerated Storage Stability Test (For assessing the corro sion resistance characteristics of flux coating, copper coating of wire) Cast & Helix: (Copper coated wire of CO2 welding process) CAST = Diameter of one full loop of wire (380 mm minimum) HELIX = Gap between the wire and the ground at the maximum gap p osition (25 mm max.) These two factors are meant for smooth feeding o f the wire. RUNNING PERFORMANCE TEST: Weld bead contour Tendency for undercut Surface defects in the weld bead (i.e. Cracks, Porosities, etc.) Deposition Efficiency: For Low Hydrogen/Basic coated MMAW electrodes. Deposition Efficiency = Weight of the weld metal deposited x 100 Weight o f the core wire used ICF Requirement = 110 129% Diffusible Hydrogen Content in the Weld Metal: For Low Hydrogen/Basic coated MMAW electrodes. Requirement = 10 ml (max) per 100 g of weld metal. Concentricity of flux coating to the core wire for MMAW electrodes Coating Factor: (Ratio of outer dia. of the electrode to the dia. of cor e wire) Heavy Coating : 1.50 2.20 Medium Coating : 1.30 1.50 Light coating : Less than 1.30 Transverse Tensile Test: (To assess the joint strength). Transverse Bend Test: (To assess the soundness of the weld). Root Bend Face Bend Fillet Weld Test: (To assess the penetration) Delta Ferrite Content in Austenetic Stainless steel Weld metal By Ferritometer For Stainless steel flux coated wire & stainless steel stick electrodes. Sieve Analysis Moisture Content for Fused Type Flux used in SAW process. Tap Density Hardness Spot Welding, Butt Seam Welding Chemical Composition Non Consumable Electrodes Chemical Composition Hardness Foil Used Butt Seam Welding Process IN-PROCESS QUALITY CONTROL IN WELDING: * Process control of welding processes Spot Welding Process (Shear/Pull Test)

* * * m *

Butt Seam Welding Process (Pull Test) Flash Butt Welding Process (Pull Test) Radiographic examination of welded joints Magnetic particle examination of sole bars Macro examination of run out samples for fillet welds for inner head bea Analysis of CO2 gas for purity.

RADIOGRAPHIC EXAMINATION: EMU/M Bogie Frame 100% Testing Other Bogie Frame 6% Testing Other Components (Sub-Assembly Components) Upto 4% Testing Vital joints between transom & side frame in Bogie Frames Sub-Assembly Components of Bogie Frame: * Side Frame * Transom * Head stock Bogie Bolster Body Bolster L.S. Beam Inner Head Stock Beams OTHER QUALITY CONTROL ACTIVITIES OF LABORATORY IN WELDING: Process Qualification Report (PQR) for welding processes. Process re-validation of welding processes. Solving of welding related problems occurring at the shops. PERIODICAL EXAMINATION OF WELDERS PERFORMANCE: As per * IS: 7318/74 Part-I (STEEL) and IS: 7318/74 Part-II (Aluminum). . * Mechanical Procedure Order No. 1/2003. CATEGORY OF WELDERS: Welders categorised based on the nature of job: 'A' Engaged in sheet metal welding (Less than 5mm). 'B' Engaged in plate welding (Above 5mm). 'C' Welders engaged in Non-Production Welding. Test will be carried out in welding process (i.e. CO2 welding or MMAW) a s specified in shop requisition letter. GROUP A: A1 A2 A3 GROUP B: B1 B2 rame welding) DETAILS A1 & A2 * Further classified as: - Vertical down hand welding Steel - Overhead Welding - Steel - Aluminum Welding Further classified as: - Plate Welding (without Radiographic Test) - Plate welding with Radiographic Examination(Welders engaged in bogie f

OF TESTS CONDUCTED: - Group Welders Visual Examination: Bead contour Under cut Throat thickness Leg length Surface defects

Stop-start appearance Side bend test for fusion.

A3 - Group Welders (Aluminum welding) * Visual Examination: Same as in A1 & A2 Butt Joint Transverse Tensile Test * Macro Examination B1 - Group Welders: * Visual Examination: Bead contour Undercut Penetration Protrusion Re-inforcement Start-stop appearance Surface defects * Root Bend Test (for fusion & penetration) B2 - Group Welders: * Tests mentioned for B1 Group * Radiographic Examination (shall conform to IIW Blue Standards). C - Group Welders: * Testing to anyone of the above groups as mentioned in the letter. PERIODICAL EVALUATION OF WELDERS: Periodical evaluation of welders once in a year. Failed welders will be re-evaluated in 15 days. Second time failed welders will be trained in TTC. After training in TTC, Welders will be again re-tested at laboratory. Of late, all welding shops are making history cards for each welder. The History Card contains: * Welder's Name * Token No. * Shop * Group in which he has been qualified * Welding position * Material * Welding process * Result * Rank (Performance Rating) * Date of Test * Next Due Date Of late, based on the welder's performance and quality of the test specimen prep ared by the welder, marks and rating are awarded as follows: Marks Grade 91-100 'A' EXCELLENT 76-90 'B' VERY GOOD 61-75 'C' GOOD 50-60 'D' AVERAGE Below 50 'E' FAIL Pass in Radiographic Test for B2 - Group Welders is mandatory. TRADE TEST FOR WELDERS: * In addition to the periodical evaluation, trade tests for: (a) Trainee Welders. (b) Promotional Welders. * Undertaken in the lab in any one of above groups as specified in the sho p requisition letter.

SS Weld Zone - AISI 301 Parent Metal & HAZ SS Weld Zone Corten Steel Parent Metal & HAZ Weld Zone (AWS 309L) AWS 309L SS flux cored wire undiluted we ld metal

CORTEN Steel Parent Metal M Ferritic SS Parent Metal

AISI 301 Austenitic SS Parent Metal

AISI 409

RESIDUAL STRESSES: Residual stresses in metal structures occur during various manufacturing process es such as rolling, forging, welding, etc. In welding, residual stresses result from thermal strains during heating and coo ling cycles of the weld metal and the adjacent heat affected zone. They occur in all weldment zones at the microscopic level due to restraint of th ermal expansion/contraction and volume changes associated with phase transformat ion. Since residual stresses can affect structural behaviour (some times it may lead to service failures) it is important to do the stress relieving operation. RESIDUAL STRESSES & POST WELD HEAT TREAMENT: Post weld heat treatment is a stress relieving process whereby residual stre sses are reduced by heating the welded structure to 550-650c for a set time depen ding upon the plate thickness EFFECTS OF STRESS RELIEVING (Post Weld Heat Treatment): Reduce residual stresses and improve resistance to brittle fracture. Restores the material properties. Softening of the hardened heat affected zone thereby improving toughness. Improves dimensional stability. Improves ductility. Improves resistance stress corrosion cracking.

STRESS RELIEVING PROCESS AS PER RDSO SPEC C-9202 The temperature of the furnace shall not exceed 315C at the time of welded assemb ly is placed in it. Heat the furnace further to reach 600-650C at a rate of 160C per hour. Soak the job at that temperature for a period of not less than one hour per 25 m m thickness of the plate/job. After soaking, the furnace is switched off, the job is cooled in the furnace its elf upto 315C, at the rate of 100C per hour. After 315C the job is taken out from the furnace and cooled in still air. PRECAUTION TO BE TAKEN: Suitable tie-bars should be used for maintaining critical dimensions. If the job is a bogie frame, it has to be kept upside down in the furnace. The frame/job should be suitably supported to avoid distortion. Furnace should be effectively controlled by using adequate thermo couples. RESIDUAL STRESSES: Residual stresses in metal structures occur during various manufacturing process es such as rolling, forging, welding, etc. In welding, residual stresses result from thermal strains during heating and coo

ling cycles of the weld metal and the adjacent heat affected zone. They occur in all weldment zones at the microscopic level due to restraint of th ermal expansion/contraction and volume changes associated with phase transformat ion. Since residual stresses can affect structural behaviour (some times it may lead to service failures) it is important to do the stress relieving operation. RESIDUAL STRESSES & POST WELD HEAT TREAMENT: Post weld heat treatment is a stress relieving process whereby residual stre sses are reduced by heating the welded structure to 550-650c for a set time depen ding upon the plate thickness EFFECTS OF STRESS RELIEVING (Post Weld Heat Treatment): Reduce residual stresses and improve resistance to brittle fracture. Restores the material properties. Softening of the hardened heat affected zone thereby improving toughness. Improves dimensional stability. Improves ductility. Improves resistance stress corrosion cracking.

STRESS RELIEVING PROCESS AS PER RDSO SPEC C-9202 The temperature of the furnace shall not exceed 315C at the time of welded assemb ly is placed in it. Heat the furnace further to reach 600-650C at a rate of 160C per hour. Soak the job at that temperature for a period of not less than one hour per 25 m m thickness of the plate/job. After soaking, the furnace is switched off, the job is cooled in the furnace its elf upto 315C, at the rate of 100C per hour. After 315C the job is taken out from the furnace and cooled in still air. PRECAUTION TO BE TAKEN: Suitable tie-bars should be used for maintaining critical dimensions. If the job is a bogie frame, it has to be kept upside down in the furnace. The frame/job should be suitably supported to avoid distortion. Furnace should be effectively controlled by using adequate thermo couples.