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Outline of Program Contents


This is Book 1 of the program and will be referred to as such in the lesson plan.It contains the
following information.
1. All info about the iBT including rules, description, scoring, content
2. How to use the course
3. 8 week lesson plan and schedule
How to Use This Book
Refer to the lesson plan and use this book as instructed in conjunction with the Longman iBT
Preparation Course textbook. Both books contain material for each part of the course. Book 1
contains information and strategies from my teaching experience.
There are 2 vocabulary lists included in the program to be studied and tested by the 8 vocabulary
tests also included in the package.
The grammar textbook is for use in teaching sentence structure and TOEFL grammar as outlined in
the lesson plan.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Explanation of the iBT p. 4 - 5
Strategies for the iBT Reading p. 6 - 15
Strategies for I BT Listening p. 15 - 26
Strategies for I BT Writing p. 26 - 41
Strategies for I BT Speaking p. 41 - 49
Prefxes, Roots and Suffxes p. 50 - 52
Lesson Plan and Schedule p. 53 - 54
Vocabulary p. 55- 56
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EXPLAINING THE iBT
The Test
The nternet-based Test of English as a Foreign Language (iBT) measures English profciency.
Scores for this test help admissions staff in universities where English is the language of instruction to
assess students English language skills. They can then determine students capability of studying in their
chosen program. Students with English as a second language can take the iBT to gain admittance to over
5,000 universities around the world.
Test Features
The iBT tests all four English language communication skills: reading, writing, speaking and
listening with emphasis on language used for functoning in an academic setting.
The iBT is given via the internet at test centres around the world.
The iBT tests each skill both independently,
- write a 300 word essay based on opinion, preference or comparison (30 minutes)
- speak, answering a question based on opinion, preference or comparison
- read a passage and answer multiple choice questions
- listen to a passage and answer multiple choice questions
and in combination.
- read a passage, listen to a lecture and write a 200 word essay answering a question
based on the relationship between both passages (20 minutes)
- read a passage and listen to a passage and speak in response to a question based on
the relationship between both passages
- speak by listening and then answering a question based on the listening passage
The iBT is completed in four hours of one day.
Unlike the Computer-based TOEFL, the iBT not only allows, but encourages students to take
notes on any section of the test and to use the notes to answer any of the test questions.
Students can view their iBT test results on-line 2 - 3 weeks after taking the test in addition to
receiving a hard copy of their score by mail.
iBT Test Format
Section Number of Questions Time Allowed
Reading 3- 5 passages, 12 - 14 questions each 60 - 100 minutes
Listening 2- 3 conversations, 12 - 14 questions each
4- 6 passages, 6 questions each 60 - 90 minutes
Break --------------------------------------------------------- 5 - 10 minutes
Speaking 2 independent and 4 integrated tasks 20 minutes
Writing 1 integrated skills essay (200 words) 20 minutes
(Reading, Listening, Writing)
1 independent essay (300 words) 30 minutes
(Writing an opinion, preference or comparison)
The topics and questions have an academic focus to ensure that the students can demonsxtrate
their ability to function in a university environment.


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Scoring: Reading 0 - 30 Speaking 0 - 30
Listening 0 - 30 Writing 0 - 30 Total Score 120
When marking essays in class, score them out of 5
When marking speaking in class, the score is out of 4
For more detailed information about the test, refer to The Offcial Guide to the New TOEFL iBT from ETS,
The Educational Testing Service, the creator of the iBT.
How to be an Effective iBT Teacher
Skills required:
Grammar - a complete knowledge of:
- subject / verb agreement and all verb tenses
- gerunds and participles and their functions
- clauses (main, adjective, adverb and noun) and their reduction
- the passive voice
- conditionals and the subjunctive
- articles
- countable and uncountable nouns
- inversions
- reported speech
This course package contains information and instruction on how to master and teach these essentials of
grammar as they apply to success in scoring high on the iBT test.
Teaching skills that include the following:
- thorough knowledge of the iBT test and the ability to impart this knowledge to the students
- the ability to manage time and to teach students to do likewise
- the ability to solve problems in a timely, creative and effcient way
- the ability to analyze and teach extremely diffcult concepts so that they are easily
understood
- the ability to teach effective pronunciation
- strong work ethic and the desire to help students achieve their goal
- the ability to encourage and motivate
Teaching Objectives
- teaching students to fnd the structure and main idea in the reading, listening, speaking
and writing material
- teaching students to summarize, paraphrase and take good notes
- teaching students to communicate effectively in speaking and writing by instructing them
in the use of the essay systems and reported speech
- teaching students to anticipate questions and strategies used by test takers
- teaching students the most important strategies to master the iBT
This course package will instruct professionals who want to teach the iBT how to meet these objectives by
supplying them with a sound theoretical basis, supported by the newest and best cutting-edge strategies for
success on this challenging test.
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STRATEGIES FOR THE iBT
READNG 3- 5 passages, 12 - 14 questions each, 60 - 100 minutes
There are 3 - 5 reading passages of approximately 700 words each, and the student is advised to scan
each passage for important ideas or concepts, not to read the whole passage word for word. Time is best
served by scanning the passage, making brief notes, and going immediately to the questions, taking them
back to the passage to search for the relevant material for response. This is the best way to get the meaning
of the entire passage. It is also important for students to understand the structure of each passage.
Common organizational structures are: Defnition / Classifcation, problem / solution, cause / effect and
comparison / contrast. The following is a list of the question types in the reading section of the iBT along
with particular strategies for their solution.
MAN DEA (0 - 1 questions each set)
n order to fnd the main idea, use the following strategies.
1. Focus on the frst few lines of the passage, studying them carefully for meaning and the main idea.
2. Scan subsequent paragraphs for repetition of what they consider to be the main idea.
3. Read the last few lines of the fnal paragraph which sometimes contain a repetition of the main idea.
4. Be aware of any change of thesis signaled by words such as however or but.
5. Be aware that there are several types of reading passages:
- history or biography (watch for dates becoming later as the passage progresses)
- comparison or contrast (watch for signal words or phrases such as on the other hand, in contrast,
conversely)
- explanation of a problematic phenomenon or event and one or more suggested solutions.
1. VOCABULARY-- Locating Synonyms and Antonyms (3 - 5 questions each set)
f students are unfamiliar with the meaning of the words or phrases, in order to fnd appropriate synonyms
and antonyms, use the following strategies.
1) Look for the same part of speech as the highlighted word or phrase.
e.g. part of speech - adjective
The choreography in West Side Story is an exciting addition to a musical that is commonly
believed to be a thrilling experience in the theater. (Find a synonym for exciting.)
answer: Exciting is an adjective describing the noun addition, and thrilling is also an adjective,
so thrilling is probably the desired synonym.
e.g. Paul scoured the pots in his kitchen, and after he cleaned them all, he went to bed.
(Find a synonym for scoured.)
answer: Scoured is the simple past verb in the verb phrase scoured the pots. It takes a direct
object, the pots, and cleaned is a simple past verb in the verb phrase cleaned them.
It takes the direct object them, so cleaned is probably the desired synonym.
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2) Look at the word or phrase in context (its surroundings). Is the context positive or negative?
e.g. If you want to make a person who is obsessed with personal appearance unhappy, say
something derogatory about the outft that person is wearing.
The word that is closest in meaning to derogatory is:
insulting
complimentary
positive
supportive
answer: Insulting is the only negative word that fts the context of the sentence, and a negative
synonym is called for because of the word unhappy.
3) Look for the word, phrase or clause that immediately follows the highlighted word. Any large,
unfamiliar, scientifc or technical vocabulary word will usually be explained by an adjective clause,
or an adjective clause reduction, preceded by a comma or a dash. (See the grammar book in
this package p. 64 - 73 to learn about adjective clauses and how to reduce them.)
e.g. A soliloquy, which is a passage spoken alone by an actor, is a common dramatic device used
by Shakespeare in the plays.
Which is a passage spoken alone by an actor is an adjective clause that defnes the term
soliloquy.
e.g. A soliloquy, a passage spoken alone by an actor, is a common dramatic device used by
Shakespeare in the plays.
A passage spoken alone by an actor is an adjective clause reduction that defnes the
term soliloquy.
e.g. A soliloquy - a passage spoken alone by an actor - is a common dramatic device used by
Shakespeare in the plays.
- A passage spoken alone by an actor- is an adjective clause reduction that defnes the
term soliloquy and is enclosed in dashes instead of commas.
4) Look at the prefxes, suffxes and roots of the highlighted words to try to fgure out their meaning.
See p. Of this book for a complete list of prefxes, suffxes and roots.
5) Look for a synonym that helps the writer to avoid repetition.
n English, it is preferable to avoid repetition in writing and speaking. This is helpful in fnding
synonyms for words that students dont know or understand. A word is used in a sentence, and to
avoid repetition, in the next sentence, in order to refer to the same word or concept, it is customary
to use a synonym.
e.g. The cast and crew of the popular television show went on hiatus for one month. This
vacation allowed them to rest and refresh themselves.
(Find a word that means the same as hiatus)
answer: In order to avoid repeating the word hiatus, the synonym vacation is used.
2. REFERENCE QUESTIONS (0 - 2 questions each set)
1) Personal Pronouns
Another way to avoid repetition in English is to use personal pronouns. On the test, students are
required to click on the word or phrase to which a certain pronoun refers.
e.g. Many people are familiar with the smoke alarm device. It is ubiquitous in that it is found in
every home or apartment.
(What do It and it refer to?)
answer: It and it in the second sentence refer to the smoke alarm device and these two
personal pronouns help to avoid repetition in the sentence.
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e.g. Freud is considered to be the father of psychoanalysis. He is responsible for the discovery
of the three main psychic mechanisms. He referred to them as the ego, id and superego.
(What do He and them refer to?)
answer: He in the second sentence refers to Freud, and them refers to the three psychic
mechanisms, and these two personal pronouns help to avoid repetition in the sentence.
2) Demonstrative Pronouns
The demonstrative pronouns are this, that, these and those and are used to point to specifc persons, things
or activities in order to avoid repetition.
e.g. The professor was upset with the lack of effort in the class, and he spoke in a loud, angry
tone. That was the frst time he had ever raised his voice to the group.
(What does That refer to?)
answer: That refers to the frst time. A demonstrative pronoun points to something specifc without
restating It.
e.g. The rivers in Canada are not as long as those in Asia or Africa.
(What does the demonstrative pronoun those refer to?)
answer: Those refers to rivers. In an equative or comparative, a demonstrative pronoun is used in
order to avoid repetition.
e.g. She tells her students to read a particular historical novel to help them with their course.
She tells them that this is valuable reference material. (What does the demonstrative
pronoun this refer to?)
answer: This refers to the historical novel as valuable reference material. The demonstrative
pronoun this is used here in order to avoid repetition.
3) Relative Pronouns
A relative pronoun introduces an adjective clause as a subject or object which refers back to the noun or
pronoun that the clause describes.
e.g. The fact, which no one seems to realize, is that the planet is in grave danger from pollution.
(What does which refer to?)
answer: The relative pronoun which introduces the adjective clause which no one seems to
realize and takes the place of the word fact.
e.g. Bach was one of the greatest composers who ever lived.
(What does who refer to?)
answer: The relative pronoun who introduces the adjective clause who ever lived and refers to
the person, Bach.
e.g. Mary is the student to whom he gave the book.
(What does whom refer to?)
answer: The relative pronoun whom introduces the adjective clause to whom he gave the book
and refers to the person, Mary.
4) Possessive Adjectives and Pronouns
Possessive adjectives and pronouns are used in order to avoid repetition.
e.g. Gallileo was persecuted for his belief that the planet Earth was not the center of the
universe.
(What does his refer to?)
answer: The possessive adjective his refers to Gallileo and helps to avoid repetition of the name.

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e.g. Queen Elizabeth 1 never found true love in her life, so although she wielded great power, the real
happiness she sought was never hers.
(What does hers refer to?)
answer: The possessive pronoun hers refers to Queen Elizabeth 1s and helps to avoid repetition
of the name.
3. INFORMATION QUESTIONS (3 - 6 questions each set)
Some questions focus on information about facts and specifc details in each passage. A good
strategy for this type of question is to fnd the key words in the question and scan the passage for these
words. Once the key words have been found, read the factual information surrounding them in order to
answer the question. Students are told the number of the paragraph where they will fnd the answer.
e.g. Todays lecture will look at Archeoastronomy as it pertains to the study of Native American
perspectives and astronomical phenomena. This method of study has centered on such
areas as meteors and comets as they are explained in the folklore of North American tribes
such as the Sioux and Pawnee.

Since no written records were kept, story-telling, cave drawings, animal skin and pottery
paintings explaining the astronomical beliefs of native peoples have been the focus of study
in Archeoastronomy. Although this evidence gives clear ideas of Native American belief,
other forms of record keeping such as rock carving, or petroglyphs, show pictures of what
look like meteors or comets, but no dating of the art is possible, and their subject matter is
open to debate. For example, a famous petroglyph shows a circle with a curved line coming
from it. These carvings have been interpreted as meteors, comets, and even snakes.
Through Archeoastronomy, evidence has been gathered showing that certain tribes believed
that meteors and comets were negative omens foretelling sickness or death in a tribe.

Others believed that meteors were beings who were attempting to escape from enemies
or from some form of danger. In contrast there were some tribes who did not attribute
sinister meaning to meteors and comets. For example, some thought they were the souls
of shamans or even those of ordinary people who were travelling to the afterlife. Other
positive explanations included meteors and comets as stars suddenly moving from one
place to another, or pieces of fre falling from the heavens.
Question: According to paragraph 2, why are petroglyphs not an accurate means of understanding
Native American beliefs concerning meteors and comets? (Choose one of the following
alternatives.)
The images are Native American paintings.
The meaning of the images on the petroglyphs is often ambiguous.
The carved images are snakes, not meteors or comets.
The images on the rock carvings are not the same as those on the pottery and animal skin.
Answer: The key phrase in the question is not an accurate means which is synonimous with the phrase
the subject matter is open to debate. Therefore the answer is #2 because ambiguous means
Unclear or debatable.

4. NEGATVE FACTS (0 - 2 questions each set)
This type of question provides information that contradicts information in the passage, or is not
present at all.
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e.g. Since no written records were kept, story-telling, cave drawings, animal skin and pottery
paintings explaining the astronomical beliefs of native peoples have been the focus of
study in Archeoastronomy. Although this evidence gives clear ideas of Native American
belief, other forms of record keeping such as rock carving, or petroglyphs, show pictures
of what look like meteors or comets, but no dating of the art is possible, and their subject
matter is open to debate. For example, a famous petroglyph shows a circle with a curved
line coming from it. These carvings have been interpreted as meteors, comets, and even
snakes.
Through Archeoastronomy, evidence has been gathered showing that certain tribes
believed that meteors and comets were negative omens foretelling sickness or death
in a tribe. Others believed that meteors were beings who were attempting to escape
from enemies or from some form of danger. In contrast there were some tribes who did
not attribute sinister meaning to meteors and comets. For example, some thought they
were the souls of shamans or even those of ordinary people who were travelling to the
afterlife.
Question: According to passage, certain Native American tribes believed that all of the following were
true about meteors and comets except: (Choose one of the following alternatives.)
Meteors and comets were warnings of sickness or death.
Meteors and comets were entities trying to escape danger.
Meteors and comets were good omens.
Meteors and comets were the souls of individuals traveling to the afterlife.
Answer: #3 is the answer because it is completely opposite to the information in the passage which
states that meteors and comets were negative omens not positive omens.
Question: According to passage, certain Native American tribes believed that all of the following were
true about meteors and comets except: (Choose one of the following alternatives.)
Meteors and comets were the souls of individuals traveling to the afterlife.
Meteors and comets were entities trying to escape danger.
Meteors and comets were warnings of sickness or death.
Meteors and comets were spirits of important people such as royalty.
Answer: #4 is the answer because it is not mentioned at all in the passage.
5. NSERTON QUESTONS (0 - 2 questions each set)
These are questions of logic and continuity. A simple example of the function of this type of question is the
following sequence which is out of order.
e.g. The student is tired. The student awakens totally rested. The student takes a nap.
The correct order is: The student is tired. The student takes a nap. The student awakens totally rested.
A new sentence is presented which must be inserted into a paragraph. There are 4 black squares, one
beside each place where the sentence might be inserted. Students must click on the correct square for
the insertion of the sentence. n order to fnd the correct place for the sentence, check any of the following
strategies.
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1) Signal Words
These are words such as however, in contrast, therefore, frst, second, third, fnally. A sentence that starts
with any of these connecting words follows a logical sequence.
e.g. In contrast, food eaten in North America is high in fat, sugar and calories.
(Where does this sentence ft?)
The diets of most Asian countries are heart healthy due to the inclusion of fsh and fresh
vegetables.
There are obvious benefts to eating Korean,Thai, Japanese or Vietnamese food.
Answer: The diets of most Asian countries are heart healthy due to the inclusion of fsh and fresh
vegetables.
In contrast, food eaten in North America is high in fat, sugar and calories.
There are obvious benefts to eating Korean,Thai, Japanese or Vietnamese food.
The frst two sentences are in contrast to each other and connected by the phrase n contrast.
2) Personal Pronouns
These words refer to nouns in previous or subsequent phrases or sentences. They are used in order to
avoid repetition.
e.g. He is known as one of the fathers of the automobile industry in the U.S.
(Where does this sentence ft?)
One of Americas most famous entrepreneurs was Henry Ford.
The United States has seen many other famous entrepreneurs.
Answer: One of Americas most famous entrepreneurs was Henry Ford.
He is known as one of the fathers of the automobile industry in the U.S.
The United States has seen many other famous entrepreneurs.
The frst two sentences are connected by the personal pronoun He which refers back to Henry Ford.
3) Demonstrative Pronouns and Adjectives
This, that, these, and those are demonstrativ e adjectives as well as pronouns. They connect sentences
logically and help to avoid repetition.

e.g. At one time in history, alligators were hunted almost to extinction.
(Where does this sentence ft?)
For this reason, laws were passed banning the hunting of alligators in the United States.
Consequently, The U.S. alligator population has greatly increased.
Answer: At one time in history, alligators were hunted almost to extinction.
For this reason, laws were passed banning the hunting of alligators in the United States.
Consequently, the U.S. alligator population has greatly increased.
The new sentence is the introductory sentence because this reason in the the second sentence refers back
to the alligator being hunted to extinction.
e.g. Those who were left behind mysteriously disappeared. (Where does this sentence ft?)
Many of the early settlers who came to Roanoke returned to England due to the hardship.
Those who were left behind mysteriously disappeared.
It was generally believed that the settlers were assimilated into the native community, but no
one knew for sure.
Answer: Those refers back to the early settlers, so the new sentence fts as the second sentence.
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Synonyms
Words that have the same meaning are used in order to avoid repetition.
e.g. These aquatic animals are among the largest of the mammalian species.
(Where does this sentence ft?)
Whales are mammals and yet they live in the sea.
There are several types of whales, such as the orca, the blue whale and the hump-back.
Answer: Whales are mammals, and yet they live in the sea.
These aquatic animals are among the largest of the mammalian species.
There are several types of whales, such as the orca, the blue whale and the humpback.
These refers back to Whales, so the new sentence fts in as the second sentence.
6. NFERENCE QUESTONS (0 - 2 questions each set)
This type of question asks students to draw conclusions without direct evidence.
e.g. Through Archeoastronomy, evidence has been gathered showing that certain tribes
believed that meteors and comets were negative omens foretelling sickness or death
in a tribe. Others believed that meteors were beings who were attempting to escape
from enemies or from some form of danger. In contrast there were some tribes who
did not attribute sinister meaning to meteors and comets. For example, some thought
they were the souls of shamans or even those of ordinary people who were travelling
to the afterlife.
Question: It is inferred in the passage that
Meteors and comets were souls travelling to the afterlife.
Meteors and comets were omens of good and evil.
Meteors and comets were observed in the past as they are today.
There was agreement between tribes as to the function of meteors and comets.
Answer: #3 is the answer because it can be inferred that meteors and comets existed in the past as
they do today.
7. RHETORCAL PURPOSE QUESTONS (0 - 2 questions each set)
On the iBT, fnding the structure of a passage is most important. Students have to answer questions that
show the authors intention for what is written. This type of question usually focuses on a logical connective
between sentences or paragraphs.
e.g. Professor: Today, we will review the psychic mechanisms as defned by Sigmund Freud
that we discussed last class. We will begin with any questions you might
have. Yes, Melanie?
Melanie: The ego and the id are pretty easy to understand, but Im having trouble with
the superego. Is it positive or negative?
Professor: Okay, think this will help. Let's redefne the superego in relation to the other
two mechanisms.
Question: Why does the professor say, Okay, I think this will help.
He will explain the concept in a way that she can understand it more easily.
He will help her to explain the concept to the class so they will understand it.
He needs to understand the concept more clearly.
Melanie wants to explain the concept to the professor.
Answer: #1 is the answer because the connective phrase Okay, I think this will help. explains
what the professor will do next.
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8. SENTENCE SMPLFCATON QUESTONS (0 - 1 questions each set)
In this type of question, students must choose an alternative that means the same as a highlighted sentence
in the passage. The correct answer has the same meaning but is stated in a different way. Strategies for
this type of question include fnding synonyms for the key words in the highlighted sentence in addition to
fnding the exact meaning of the sentence.
e.g. Through Archeoastronomy, evidence has been gathered showing that certain
tribes believed that meteors and comets were negative omens foretelling sickness
or death in a tribe. Others believed that meteors were beings who were attempting
to escape from enemies or from some form of danger. In contrast there were some
tribes who did not attribute sinister meaning to meteors and comets. For example,
some thought they were the souls of shamans or even those of ordinary people who
were travelling to the afterlife.
Question: Which of the following best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence.
Incorrect answer choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential
information.
n contrast, certain tribes saw meteors and comets as sinister.
Sinister tribes attributed meteors and comets to other tribes.
Certain tribes did not attribute sinister meteors and comets to other tribes.
Conversely, other tribes did not judge meteors and comets to be evil.
Answer: #4 is the answer because it best restates the meaning of the highlighted sentence.
Conversely is a synonym for In contrast. Evil is a synonym for sinister.
9. PROSE SUMMARY QUESTIONS (1 question per set)
This type of question requires an understanding of the meaning and structure of the passage.
Students must be able to choose 3 out of 6 alternatives that give the most important points that
are connected to the main idea of the passage. Unlike the other questions in the reading section,
this type of question can be worth 1 or 2 points. Choosing two correct answers equals 1 point.
Three correct answers equals 2 points. One correct answer or no correct answers means zero
points.
e.g. Within the life sciences, there is generally some confusion in understanding the
difference between Psychology and Psychiatry. Both disciplines have been a
vital part of 20th and 21st century life as sources of therapy and scientifc study
of human behavior. However, there are fundamental differences between the
two. Psychiatry requires the practitioner to have a medical degree to treat the
psychopathology, whereas psychology focuses on research and etiology of all
facets of human behavior, and no medical degree is required.
Psychiatry had its roots in the late 19th century and came to fruition in the early to
mid 1900s with the groundbreaking work of Sigmund Freud who defned what he
called the three psychic mechanisms: the ego, id and superego. Freud maintained
that the confict between the individual's desires and needs and the demands of a
highly regulated society creates what is commonly referred to as neurosis. This
pathology appears to a greater or lesser degree in people.
A more serious form of mental illness, psychosis, a complete loss of a sense of reality,
was defned by Freud and his successors as having an environmental or a biological
etiology. This type of mental illness might be designated as schizophrenia or bipolar
psychosis and is usually treated with drugs and psychotherapy or with drugs alone by
a psychiatrist, a medical doctor who is a specialist in psychiatric medicine. The main
focus of Psychiatry is to treat mental illness, but there is a branch of this discipline that
specializes in mental health research.
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Psychoanalysis, the talking cure, and a more advanced type of therapy in the treatment
of neurosis, was founded and developed by Freud. It is based on the investigation of
psychic pathology by bringing neurotic conficts into consciousness where both patient
and doctor can deal with them. No drugs are used, as treatment focuses on the patients
verbal descriptions of feelings, dreams and fantasies.
Similarly, drugs are not a component of any of the branches of Psychology which are
based on the research and standardization of human behavior. The different branches
of Psychology include: Cognitive Psychology, which involves the study of human
intelligence; Cognitive Neurology, the study of brain functions; Biological Psychology,
the study of physiology (visual perception); Comparative Psychology, the sudy of animal
behavior applied to human behavior; Experimental Psychology, the scientifc study of
human behavior, experimenting in such areas as operant conditioning; Developmental
Psychology, the study of childrens behavior; Clinical Psychology, the study of human
psychopathology; Assessment Psychology, focusing on psychometric testing; Forensic
Psychology, the study of human behavior post mortem; Industrial Psychology, the study
of human behavior in business; and Social Psychology, the study of the impact of society
on human behavior.
Strategies include focusing on the main verb in the introductory sentence to fgure out the meaning of the
thesis statement
Question: An introductory sentence for a brief summary is provided. Complete the summary by
selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage.
The passage discusses fundamental differences between Psychiatry and Psychology
as applied to human behavior.
1
3
6
Answer Choices
1. Psychiatry and Psychology are disciplines that are based on the study and treatment of human
behavior and Psychic pathology although each has a different focus.
2. Psychoanalysis is a form of psychic therapy that relies on the patients descriptions of feelings,
dreams and fantasies.
3. Psychology is more involved with research and testing all facets of human behavior, whereas
Psychiatry is more focused on the treatment of behavioral pathology.
4. Social Psychology involves the research and study of individuals in society and the effects of
social norms on human behavior.
5. Psychiatry specializes in research of mental illness as opposed to the treatment of psychic
pathology.
6. Unlike Psychology, a medical degree is required to practice Psychiatry due to the fact that only
medical doctors can dispense drugs for medicinal purposes.
Answer: The key point in the introductory sentence is the verb phrase discusses fundamental
differences between Psychiatry and Psychology. Numbers 1, 3 and 6 relate specifcally
to these differences.
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10. TABLE QUESTONS (1 question per set)
This type of question involves recognizing important points and details from the passage and placing them
in their proper context. This means categorizing the details by completing a table. Wrong answers will be
those that do not relate to the passage or are minor points. Students must understand the structure of the
passage, noting which important ideas constitute its framework. Strategies include fnding key words and
concepts in the alternatives and scanning the passage for them in order to fnd any relevant information
which will help togauge their importance.
Question: Summarize information about the differences between Psychiatry and Psychology by
completing the following table. Match the following statements to the particular discipline to
which they relate. The question is worth 3 points. Part marks are possible.
Psychology Select 3 Psychiatry Select 2



1. The treatment of mental illness through psychotherapy and or drugs
2. Research design that explains the behavior of people in society
3. A treatment for neurosis using only research
4. The treatment and study of children
5. The study of the function of all parts of the brain and their effect on behavior
6 The treatment of psychic confict through the analysis of speech, dreams and fantasies
7. The analysis and treatment of business and neurosis
Strategies
1. Read the frst sentence and fgure out the main idea of each paragraph.
2. Match each sentence A to F with the main idea of each paragraph. 3 sentences match main ideas
and 3 do not. Choose the 3 that match main ideas from the paragraphs in the passage.
LSTENNG
There are 4 - 6 lectures with 6 questions each and 2 - 3 conversations with 5 questions each on the listening
portion of the iBT test. Each lecture or conversation is 4 - 6 minutes long. The subject matter is university
related, either administrative or academic since this is the language that will be most used by a university
student. Conversations between students and professors usually involve course requirements, advice about
course choices or changes, clarifcation of course content, or requests for assigment extensions. Conver-
sations between students and university administrators usually consist of non-academic content such as
accounting issues, registration, housing, or parking.
Lectures present academic language with a professor speaking to a class asking questions to individual
students, several students engaging in a class discussion or individual students asking questions of their
professor. Everything students need to know to answer each question is present in the passage. However,
even though ETS says students do not need to have special knowledge of special subjects to answer the
questions, it is a fact that being familiar with vocabulary of the Arts, Life Sciences, Physical Science and
Social Science will ensure a higher score.
14
The Arts
Topics may include:
Architecture
Industrial Design
City Planning
Crafts: all types including carving, knitting, ceramics, folk and tribal art
Cave/rock art
Music/music history
Photography
Literature and biographies of authors
Media
Life Science
Extinction of plants or animal species and conservation efforts
Fish and aquatic animals
Bacteria and one-celled organisms
Viruses
Medical techniques
Public Health
Physiology of sensory organs
Biochemistry
Animal behavior, e.g. migration, food foraging, defensive behavior
Habitats and adaptation of plants and animals to them
Nutrition and its impact on the body
Animal Communication
Physical Science Lectures
Meteorology and oceanography
Glaciers, glacial landforms, ice ages,
Geology, tectonics, volcanoes, earthquakes, plates, continental shifts
Deserts and other extreme environments
Pollution, alternative energy sources, environmental policy
Other planets atmospheres
Astronomy and cosmology
Properties of light and optics
Properties of sound
Electromagnetic radiation
Particle Physics
Media technology
Mathematics
Inorganic Chemistry
Computer Science
Social Science
Anthropology of non-industrialized civilizations
Business management
Mass communication
Social behavior of groups, community dynamics, communal behavior
Child development
15
e.g. Laura: Hi Professor Brooks. Can I have a word with you about my Bio-genetics paper?
Professor: Sure, Laura. Is there a problem?
Laura: Not really . . . I mean, my research has been successful, but I have so much data
that Im having trouble organizing it all into an effective presentation. This paper
is due next week and it's worth 50% of my grade for the year. 'm really concerned.
I thought maybe you might be able to suggest something.
Professor: Well, there is one option. The graduate studies department offers a writing clinic
for undergrad students. Perhaps you could take your research material over there
to Emmery Hall and get some help with your paper.
Laura: Thats a good idea, but I already called, and because its end of term, there are
many students like me asking for help. The instructors are all booked up, so
they dont have time for me. Professor, Ive put so many hours into gathering
my research, I just need a sounding board and a little objective advice about
organizing the information I have.
Professor: Hmm . . . well, there is one more thing. One of my graduate assistants works
over there. could call her and ask her to ft you in for an hour. But, remember,
you are limited to asking brief structural questions about your own material.
Laura: Oh yes, Professor. I totally understand. Thank you so much.
Professor: Let me just give you Lynn's contact information. Her name is Lynn Kramer. 'll
call her and let her know you're interested in setting up an appointmrent. Good
luck with the paper.
Laura: Thanks again, Professor Brooks. See you next class.

1) M-O-D-E-N-T-S organizes notes quickly and accurately, by putting details under the appropriate
heading
Main Idea - the Professor helps his student with her research paper problem
Order - (when there is a history or biography, this heading is used)
Details / defnitions - research paper due next week - worth 50% of fnal grade
- research done but problem with organization of material
- Bio-genetics
- Professor Brooks suggests advice from grad students dept.
- Prof. Brooks grad student will give advice
- Laura should ask structure questions only
Events - paper due next week
Names - Professor Brooks; Laura; Lynn Kramer; Emmery Hall
Time - I hour appointment at Emmery Hall
Structure - problem / suggestion / solution
16
2) When brainstrming, place the main idea (in this case LAURAS PROBLEM) in the center and fll
in supporting ideas around it.
Research paper due worth 50% fnal grade research complete
L. needs help with organization Prof suggests writing clinic
LAURAS PROBLEM
L. cant get an appointment E. Hall Profs student works at writing clinic
Prof offers to help L. get appointment

Laura only allowed structure advice
In both M-O-D-E-N-T-S and Brainstorming, the main idea is the focus, and the supporting statements are
arranged logically.
REMEMBER: The two most important tasks for ALL questions on the iBT are fnding the main idea and
fguring out the structure of the passage.
Basic Comprehension Questions on the iBT
1. Gist Content Questions:
These are questions that deal with the main idea.
e.g. What is the main idea of the lecture?
What is the lecture mainly about?
What is the main topic of the lecture?
Strategies:
1) Listen to the story and the main idea becomes easier to fgure out.
2) Listen for the structure of the passage.
3) When listening to the passage, focus specifcally on the frst one or two sentences you hear.
The main idea can usually be found there.
4) Pay attention to the last lines where the main idea is sometimes repeated.
5) Use your notes, and choose only the most important points.
e.g. Laura: Hi Professor Brooks. Can I have a word with you about my Bio-genetics paper?
Professor: Sure, Laura. Is there a problem?
Laura: Not really . . . I mean, my research has been successful, but I have so much data
that Im having trouble organizing it all into an effective presentation. This paper
is due next week and it's worth 50% of my grade for the year. 'm really concerned.
I thought maybe you might be able to suggest somdething.
Professor: Well, there is one option. The graduate studies department offers workshops for
remedial writing. Perhaps you could take your research material over there to
Emmery Hall and get some help with your paper.
Laura: Thats a good idea, but I already called, and because its end of term, there are
many students like me asking for help. The instructors are all booked up, so
they dont have time for me. Professor, Ive put so many hours into gathering my
research, I just need a sounding board and a little objective advice about
organizing the information I have.

17
Professor: Hmm . . . well, there is one more thing. One of my graduate assistants works
over there. could call her and ask her to ft you in for an hour. But, remember,
you are limited to asking brief structural questions about your own material.
Laura: Oh yes, Professor. I totally understand. Thank you so much.
Professor: Let me just give you Lynn's contact information. Her name is Lynn Kramer. 'll
call her and let her know you're interested in setting up an appointmrent. Good
luck with the paper.
Laura: Thanks again, Professor Brooks. See you next class.
When taking notes try to answer these questions:
Who? Professor Brooks, Laura and Lynn Kramer
Where? Professor Brooks' offce and Emmery Hall
When? 2 days before the paper is due, near the end of the semester
What? What is the story? A student, Laura, has a problem with her rersearch paper, and
seeks help from her Professor. Her paper is due in 2 days, and although she has completed the research,
she is having trouble organizing the material. The Professor suggests she try the university writing clinic,
but she has already done so and could not get an appointment because all the tutors were busy. Professor
Brooks offers to contact one of his grad students who works at the clinic who will help Laura. He reminds
Laura that she is only allowed to ask questions about structur and organization. The Structure of the
conversation is Problem / Solution. The structure becomes more clear when we know the story.
Listen to a lecture on Marie Curie.
Professor: Marie Sklowdowska Curie (1867-1934) was a Polish-born chemist and physicist.
She, along with her husband Pierre, discovered the chemical elements of polonium
and radium, introducing the concept of radiation to twentieth-century science. They
received the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1903 for their work, and Madam Curie, alone,
won it again in 1911.
Marie Curie observed how uranium impresses upon a photographic plate through
a sheet of black paper, and termed this radioactivity. Radioactivity is characteristic
of both uranium and thorium; however, it is far more unpredictable, and therefore
unstable in uranium. The presence of radium in small amounts explained the
radioactivity of uranium. n 1902, Madam Curie was fnally able to prepare a deci-
gram of pure radium salt, and analyzed its atomic weight. From this information,
she was able to proceed in the preparation of metallic radium.
Madam Curie's methods revolutionized science in the 20th century. She invented
means by which to analyze chemicals controlled by measurements of radioactivity,
and these methods have become fundamental for the current chemistry of radio-
elements. Many other elements have been discovered since the work of Curie and
her husband, resulting in a new breed of scientists who continue to investigate the
possibilities of greater varieties of elemental substances on the planet.
Curies accomplishments are even more impressive when one considers the era
during which she lived. Popular thinking was dominated by religion, not science,
in the late 19th and early 20th century at which time it was a very progressive notion
for a person to create an elemental substance when formerly creation was the domain
of God. Very few women at the time elected to pursue careers in science. Hence, a
woman participating in ground-breaking scientifc research and subsequently winning
two Nobel Prizes for her efforts was a rarity in her day and age.
18
Marie Curie ultimately died from overexposure to radiation. However, her efforts were not in
vain because her death and her very successful life afforded new knowledge and data to study
for decades to come. By her example, and from her grave, she continued to stimulate scientifc
curiosity and further formal study of the reality of yet-undiscovered elements.
M Life and work of Marie Curie - main contributions
O born 1867 - discovered the chemical elements of polonium and radium 1902 - introduced
concept of radiation shared Nobel Prize with husband 1903 and won it alone in 1911 - died
from overexposure to radiation in 1934
D her methods revolutionized science in the 20th century
E Nobel Prize
N Marie Sklowdowska Curie, Pierre Curie
T 20th century - 1902 - 1903 - 1911
S Biography - life and work of Marie Curie
Gist-Purpose Questions
These questions contain a unifying theme. For example, when the undergraduate student, Laura seeks
help from her Professor, she and Professor Brooks talk about the research paper and other details, but the
unifying theme of the entire conversation is Lauras problem with her paper.
Professor: Perhaps you could take your research material over there to Emmery Hall and
get some help with your paper.
This suggestion has the purpose of supplying the answer to the problem. Then, Professor Brooks makes a
second suggestion to help.
Professor: Hmm . . . well, there is one more thing. One of my graduate assistants works over
there. could call her and ask her to ft you in for an hour.
The question usually asks Why does the Professor say this?__________________. In other words, what
is his purpose in doing so? This type of question can also sometimes appear in a lecture. In the listening
passage about Marie Curie, the narrator says, Curies accomplishments are even more impressive when
one considers the era during which she lived. Why is this line in the passage? Its purpose is to emphasize
Curies accomplishments as a woman of her time.
3. Detail Questions
These questions involve specifc facts and details from a conversation or lecture. For example, when
Professor Brooks and Laura are conversing about Lauras problem with the organization of her research
paper, there are a number of relevant details to note.
Her paper is due next week, and it's worth 50% of her fnal grade.
Shes completed all the research
Shes having trouble with the organization of the material
She has already called the writing clinic, but the tutors were all too busy
It is the end of term
Professor Brooks teaches someone who works at the clinic and will try to contact her on
Lauras behalf
Laura is only permitted to ask questions about structure and organization at the clinic

19
Regarding the lecture on Marie Curie:
She was born 1867.
She discovered the chemical elements of polonium and radium in 1902.
She introduced the concept of radiation to the 20th Cenury.
She shared Nobel Prize with husband 1903 and won it alone in 1911.
She died from overexposure to radiation in 1934.
Her methods revolutionized science in the 20th century.
Strategies for Detail Questions
1) Avoid choosing minor details. Choose only those that support the important points.
2) Take good notes, and refer to them for details.
3) Use M-O-D-E-N-T-S. An effective note-taking strategy will help to organize all pertinent details.
Answer: The correct answer is #3 because she tells the Professor, . . .my research has been successful,
but I have so much data that Im having trouble organizing it all into an effective prersentation.
Sample Question (Conversation between Laura and Professor Brooks)
e.g. What is Lauras problem?
She cannot do the rersearch for her paper.
She doesn't have enough time to complete her assignment.
Her research is complete, but she is having diffculty structuring her paper.
She needs to get a job at the Emmery Hall.
Sample Question (Lecture on Marie Curie)
e.g. What was Marie Curies famous contribution to Chemistry?
She invented Uranium.
She discovered the chemical elements of polonium and radium, introducing the concept of
radiation
She changed the concept of radiation.
She and her husband won the Nobel Prize twice.
Answer: The answer is #2 which best explains Madam Curie's most famous contributions to 20th Century
Science.
4. Inferring the Speakers Feeling, Attitude or Stance

This information is sometimes not stated directly, so context, the speakers choice of words and how
he /she says them are the only clues. Therefore, it is important to listen to what is said and how it is
said in a certain context and then infer the speakers feeling, attitude or stance.
Strategies
1) Listen for particular words that show feeling attitude or point of view.
2) Listen for the tone of voice which will demonstrate the speakers feeling.
3) Listen to the context. Determine whether it is positive or negative.
e.g. Listen to a conversation between two students.
Carrie: Im all set. Im registered for all my courses, and I got exactly the classes I wanted.
Steve: Youre lucky. I chose an economics class with fewer students so I could ask more
questions and interact with the professor more easily.
Carrie: So, whats the problem?
Steve: Well lets just say, now I know why there are so few students in the class. I didnt
realize that its an accelerated class for fourth year business students, and my major
is Sociology!
20
Carrie: Did you see the Economics for the Social Sciences course in the on-line
syllabus?
Steve: No, I must have missed it.
Carrie: Well, its not in the Business courses, so you wouldnt have seen it if you
were looking under Business courses.
Steve: Right.
Carrie: Anyway, since its a course thats especially designed for students in
Social Sciences, the pace of the course is bound to be slower with more
material relevant to your major.
Steve: True. You Know, it sounds like just what need.
Carrie: I have a full course load, but Im going to take it next term. A friend of mine
says the professor is really interesting.
Steve: Great. 'm going over to the Drop and Add Offce right now and register.
Ill let you know how it goes.
Sample Question 1
How does the man feel about his new Economics course?
He's worried that his Sociology course will be accelerated.
He's worried that the Business clourse is only for fourth year students.
He's worried that he's missed the fourth year economics course.
He's worried that the pace and highly specialized nature of the course will be too diffcult.
Answer: The correct answer is #4 because although he does not say hes worried, he gives reasons
why he should be worried. So we can infer that he feels this way.
Sample Question 2
Why does Steve say this?
Well lets just say, now I know why there are so few students in the class.
He wants to imply that there is something wrong with his choice of classes.
He wants to imply that there are few students in the class
He wants Carrie to know that there are few students in the class.
He wants to imply that he did not know there would be few students in the class.
Answer: The correct answer is #1 because although he does not say that this is the wrong class for
him, he implies it.
e.g. Listen to a lecture in a History class.
Professor: In the history of the world, there have been stories of great battles fought by greatly
outnumbered Armies facing impossible odds, and none is more inspiring than the
Battle of Thermopoly, in which a small garrison of three hundred Spartan soldiers
held off a Persian army of nearly a million men and might have ended an entire war
between Greece and the invading Persian Empire had they not been betrayed by a spy.
n 499 B.C., the territories along the Greek coast, specifcally the city-state, Miletus,
lead a revolt against their Persian conquerors. The rebel city-states received help from
Athens and a victory in the provincial capitol of Sardis encouraged other conquered
Greek cities to rise up as well, but their hope that Sparta would come to their aid
was in vain. Sparta was dealing with its own social upheaval and could not spare
the time or man-power.

21
However, in 481 B.C., in Athens, the Greek city-states formed the League of Hellenes,
lead by Sparta, to repel the Persian invaders. n 480 B.C., the Persian feet arrived,
and the war began. Sparta, apart from being one of the fercest warrior societies in
the known world, was also a deeply religious and superstitious city-state, and its
warriors refused to fght until after an upcoming religious festival.
Nevertheless, the King of Sparta, Leonidas, realizing the vital importance of repelling
the Persians, led a small army of 300 men, his personal guard, to join Athens and
the rest of Greece in the battle, with the promise that a much larger Spartan army
would follow as soon as the religious council approved. The 300 Spartans positioned
themselves in the Thermopolis Pass, a narrow mountain route through which the
Persians had to travel. This was the Spartans greatest weapon, and where they,
outnumbered, would be able to maneuver easily and defeat thousands of the enemy.
The Persian army were trapped, unable to maneuver, and disadvantaged by their own
size. Attempts to defeat the Spartans were met by a series of crushing defeats by the
small Spartan group that demoralized the massive Persian army.
Finally, however, a Greek traitor informed the Persians as to a secret trail which helped
them access and destroy the small Spartan army. During this time, Athens was building
up its navy and defeated the Persian navy in the Battle of Salamis, a decisive battle that
ended the war.
This tale has been told and retold down through the centuries and remains one of the
truly great examples of courage, brilliance and tenacity. King Leonidas of Sparta and
his band of 300 brave guards might have achieved the impossible against an army of
One million had it not been for betrayal.
Sample Question 1
What is the author's opinion of King Leonidas and the Spartan garrison?
The author believes them to be impossible.
The author believes that they defed the odds due to their courage and tenacity.
The author believes they would not have defeated the Persians without the traitor.
The author believes they could never have beaten the massive Persian army.
Answer: The correct answer is #2 because the author says . . . the truly great examples of courage,
brilliance and tenacity. in the conclusion.
Sample Question 2
Why does the Professor say this about the Battle of Thermopoly? . . . there have been stories
of great battles fought by greatly outnumbered armies facing impossible odds, and none is more
inspiring than the Battle of Thermopoly, . . .
To show that many battles have been fought at Thermopoly
To show how impressive the small group of 300 Spartans were at the Battle of Thermopoly
To show how many impressive battles were fought between outnumbered armies
To show that only a large army could win at Thermopoly
Answer: The correct answer is #2 because it shows the speakers positive attitude toward the
Spartan soldiers at Thermopoly
5. Connecting Content Questions
This type of question requires organization of information in the listening passage by identifying
comparisons, cause and effect, agreement or contradiction. It takes the form of a chart.
Listen to a lecture in a marine biology class.
22
Professor: Whales, dolphins and porpoises belong to the order of sea animals called Cetacea.
They are mammals, meaning they are warm blooded, they breathe air and feed their
young with milk from the female. The young (calves) need parental care before they
can be on their own.
Large cetaceans are whales, whereas small cetaceans are divided into dolphins and
porpoises. The differences between the small cetaceans are that the Dolphins have
beaks and small cone-shaped teeth, while porpoises do not have beaks and have
spade-shaped teeth.
Cetaceans are divided into two categories: 1) having teeth (Odontoceti) examples
of which include sperm whales, beaked whales, killer whales and dolphins, feeding
on fsh, squid, and in the case of killer whales on seals or other marine mammals,
and 2) baleen (Mysticeti) having long, sharp, bristled plates which flter out small
organisms from seawater. Marine mammals in this sub-order include the largest
whales, the blue and the humpback whales. One blue whale can consume up to
8 tonnes of krill per day. Whereas baleen whales have two blow-holes, the
Odontoceti have one.

Cetaceans have ears capable of very sensitive hearing, which along with their
ability to produce sounds, is used by many species for echolocation. Echolocation
signals are probably made in the nasal passages and perhaps received through
the melon, which is the rounded structure flled with fatty tissue in the top surface
of the toothed cetaceans head, just in front of the blowhole.
Certain species of Dolphins can sense the addition and location of a teaspoon of
water added to their tank, and can tell the difference between different types of
metal and wood. Echolocation probably provides something resembling a picture
of the object of interest. Whale song, most notably from the Humpback whales, is
described as long complex and repetitive. Finally, whale biologists suggest certain
species may use sound to stun their prey.
The gender of Cetaceans may be ascertained by examining their undersides. In
females, the genital opening is close to the back, while in males it is closer to the
navel. Females also have two mammary slits, one on either side of the genital
opening. Female baleen whales are frequently as large or larger than their mates.
However, male toothed whales are longer and heavier than the females.
Sample Question 1
Put a check mark under the cetacean that matches the description.
Blue whale dolphin sperm whale
Odontoceti
Baleen Whale
Has a beak


23
Answer: Blue whale dolphin sperm whale
Odontoceti \

Baleen Whale \
Has a beak \
According to the passage, a blue whale is an example of a baleen whale. A dolphin has a beak. A sperm
whale is an example of an Odontoceti.
Sample Question 2
Put a check mark under the cetacean that matches the description.
Porpoise dolphin humpback whale
Spade-shaped teeth

2 blowholes

Sharp cone-shaped teeth
Answer: Porpoise dolphin humpback whale
Spade-shaped teeth \

2 blowholes \
Sharp cone-shaped teeth \
According to the passage, porpoises have spade-shaped teeth, dolphins have sharp, cone-shaped teeth
and baleen whales such as the humpack have 2 blowholes.
Strategies for Independent Listening
1. While Listening, organize notes so that terms, details and defnitions are easily associated. Use
M-O-D-E-N-T-S or Brainstorming techniques.
2. Listen for STRUCTURE. Its the most important part of the process.
Take notes on who? why? where? and what?
Who is speaking?
Why is this conversation or lecture taking place? (Purpose) Consistently ask yourself why the
conversation or lecture was written.
Where is this conversation or lecture taking place? (Academic or Administrative)
What is the message? What is the story line? It is most important to understand the story of what
you are listening to.
3. Listen for the MAN DEA which can usually be found in the frst 2 or 3 lines of the dialogue or
lecture. n English writing, the main idea is usually presented at the beginning and then clarifed,
described or proven with evidence as the passage progresses.
24
4. Become the author of the conversation or lecture. As you listen, be able to anticipate or predict
what the questions will be.
5. Keep writing! You will only see one question on the screen at a time, after you hear the passage,
so taking good notes is extremely important. However, taking good notes means focusing on only
important details, those which support important ideas.
WRTNG
On the iBT, the student is asked to write two essays. The frst is a 200-word, integrated skills essay which
combines reading, listening and writing. The second writing task is an independent 300-word essay which
deals with students opinions, preferences, or the ability to make a comparison.
The focus is not creative writing per se, but instead the ability to write an effective, informative essay in a
relatively short space of time. The development and structure of the essay along with an effective use of
language is what is important. Small errors in grammar or spelling will not be considererd important as long
as they do not change the meaning of any idea expressed.
This course offers a system which will help students to write well-structured, advanced-level independent
and integrated skills essays in the time allowed. As with every other part of the iBT, structure is vitally
important. The writing system offered here focuses on structure and the connecting of ideas to create a
strong, informative essay.
The Independent Essay
This essay requires 250-300 words, but if it is longer, students will not be penalized on condition that the
essay stays on point and is not repetitious. Although some instructors advocate 5 paragraphs, I believe
4 to be suffcient. There is a time constraint, and it is more important to write an effective essay in the time
allowed, which is 30 minutes, than a longer one which the student may or may not fnish.
The System
Introductory Paragraph
Background Sentence
Thesis Statement
2 Reasons briefy stated
Plan Sentence (explanation of what the essay will be about)
Body Paragraph 1 (The frst of the 2 reasons stated in the intro paragraph)
Introductory Sentence
Clarifcation Sentence
2 examples
Concluding Sentence
Body Paragraph 2 (The second of the 2 reasons stated in the intro paragraph)
Introductory Sentence
Clarifcation Sentence
2 examples
Concluding Sentence
Conclusion
Summary of proven thesis
Either a prediction or some sort of advice
(The writing template on the next page is a useful practice tool. Make copies for student use.)
25
Introductory Paragraph
Background Sentence ____________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
Thesis Statement _______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
2 Reasons briefy stated _________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
Plan Sentence (explanation of what the essay will be about) ______________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
Body Paragraph 1 (The frst of the 2 reasons)
Introductory Sentence____________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
Clarifcation Sentence ___________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
2 examples ____________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________

Concluding Sentence ____________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
. . . over

26
Body Paragraph 2 (The second of the 2 reasons)
Introductory Sentence ____________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
Clarifcation Sentence ___________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
2 examples ____________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________

Concluding Sentence ____________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
Conclusion ____________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
27
Essay Structure
Background and Thesis Statements
Let us examine the parts of the independent essay starting with the background statement.
This sentence is the frst sentence in the introductory paragraph. t is a general statement that
introduces the main idea or thesis statement.
e.g. Topic: Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? People should never make important
decisions without the advice of others.
The thesis statement (main idea) for this topic is the writers agreement or disagreement with the statement
made in the topic. People should never make important decisions without the advice of others.
n order to fnd a good background sentence, fnd a key word or phrase in the topic, and write a
general statement about this key word or phrase.
e.g. Topic: People should never make important decisions without the advice of others.
Now think about what can be said about important decisions in general.
1) People make important decisions every day.
2) Important decisions are part of everyones life and experience.
This is a good start, but now we must fnd an effective way to begin our background sentence.
Examine the following words and phrases which can be used to introduce a background statement.
In the course of a lifetime; In life; Throughout life; In human experience; In todays world; Today;
n the modern world; Generally; n general; n nature; t has been said; t is said
So, our background sentence could look like this:
In the course of a lifetime, people have to make important decisions.
or,
At certain times in life, people have to make important decisions.
Then, our background statement will introduce the thesis statement which might be:
I agree that they should never make these important decisions without the advice of others.

Therefore, when we put both sentences together, we have an effective beginning to the introduction of our
essay.
e.g. At certain times in life, people have to make important decisions. I agree that they
should never make these important decisions without the advice of others.
Adding the following phrase for the following reasons sets up the next two sentences of the
introduction, the 2 reasons briefy stated. So our background and thesis statements are as follows:
e.g. At certain times in life, people have to make important decisions. I agree that they
should never make these important decisions without the advice of others for the
following reasons.
Now we're ready to add the two reasons briefy stated.
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2 Reasons (briefy stated)
This part of the introductory paragraph briefy states the reasons for the thesis statement. The two reasons
provide a preview of what is going to happen in body paragraphs #1 and #2.
The two sentences are brief and merely touch on the ideas that will be feshed out in the rest of the essay.
In our introduction so far, we have both a background statement and a thesis statement.
e.g. At certain times in life, people have to make important decisions. I agree that they should
never make these important decisions without the advice of others for the following reasons.
Now it is time to introduce the reasons for our agreement, the main idea.
1) To begin, older and wiser people can help in deciding important issues.
2) Furthermore, others with experience in similar situations can help us make
a more informed decision.
When we add these two reasons to our background and thesis statements, our introduction looks like this.
e,g. At certain times in life, people have to make important decisions. I agree that they
should never make these important decisions without the advice of others for the
following reasons. To begin, older and wiser people can help in deciding important
issues. Furthermore, others with experience in similar situations can help us make
a more informed decision.
Inserting the connectives To begin and Furthermore before and between the two reasons respectively,
improves the fow of the ideas in the paragraph. However, remember that this is an introductory paragraph
and as such, presents thoughts that are brief and conceptual, providing a glimpse of what the body of the
essay will offer. Now it is our task to connect the introductory paragraph with the Body #1paragraph and we
do so by creating the plan sentence. Any one of the following plan
sentences can be used for opinion and preference essays but not for comparison essays.
e.g. This essay will explain these reasons in further detail.
This essay will examine these reasons in further detail.
This essay will explore these reasons in further detail.
This essay will discuss these reasons in further detail.
This essay will expand on these reasons.
The following discussion will focus on these reasons in detail.
The introduction is now complete. Lets examine our introductory paragraph.
e,g. At certain times in life, people have to make important decisions. I agree that they
should never make these important decisions without the advice of others for the
following reasons. To begin, older and wiser people can help in deciding important
issues. Furthermore, others with experience in similar situations can help us make
a more informed decision. This essay will explore these reasons in further detail.
Body #1 Paragraph describes the frst reason mentioned in the introduction. The introductory
sentence must be strong to keep the interest of the reader. For example, a proverb or adage is
a good way to begin the body #1 paragraph.
e.g. t is said that two heads are better than one to fgure anything out.
The clarifcation sentence serves to explain the proverb or adage or any diffcult concept that might be intro-
duced in the introductory sentence. The clarifcation sentence usually starts with that is or
in other words.
29
e.g. In other words, it is preferable to have help when one has to make an important decision.
So when we put the two sentences together, we have a solid introduction to the body #1 paragraph.
e.g. t is said that two heads are better than one to fgure anything out. n other words, it is preferable to
have help when one has to make an important decision.
The next part of the paragraph introduces examples which function as proof of the thesis of the paragraph.
The examples can be personal or general, as long as they support the important ideas presented in the
body #1 paragraph.
e.g. For example, older relatives such as parents, grandparents, or teachers can lend their
experience to such important decisions as the choice of university, career, or investment
opportunity. My father's advice was very important to me when bought my frst car.
Moreover, a favorite professor of mine helped me to choose the best courses in university.
When this evidence is added to the introductory and clarifcation sentences, the thesis becomes stronger.
Moreover is used as a connective to ensure the fow of ideas in the paragraph.
e.g. t is said that two heads are better than one to fgure anything out. n other words, it is
preferable to have help when one has to make an important decision. Older relatives such
as parents, grandparents, or teachers can lend their experience to an important decision
such as the choice of university, career, or investment opportunity. My fathers advice was
very important to me when bought my frst car. Moreover, a favorite professor of mine was
an immense help to me when I was choosing my courses in university.
To fnish the paragraph, an effective concluding sentence is necessary.
e.g. Therefore, believe that a signifcant relative or friend can be helpful to anyone making
an important decision.
Lets examine the complete body #1 paragraph.
e.g. t is said that two heads are better than one to fgure anything out. n other words, it is
preferable to have help when one has to make an important decision. Older relatives such
as parents, grandparents, or teachers can lend their experience to an important decision
such as the choice of university, career, or investment opportunity. My fathers advice was
very important to me when bought my frst car. Moreover, a favorite professor of mine was
an immense help to me when I was choosing my courses in university. Therefore, I believe
that a signifcant relative or friend can be helpful to anyone making an important decision.
Body #2 Paragraph describes the second reason mentioned in the introduction. Again, a strong
introductory statement is needed, but it must be connected to the body #1 Paragraph by an
appropriate connective word or phrase.
e.g. In addition, the good and bad experience of others often assists the decision maker.
The clarifcation sentence performs the same function as in the body #1 Paragraph, to explain the
introductory sentence of the body #2 Paragraph.

e.g. That is, an important or diffcult decision becomes easier with help from others and their specifc
experience.
So when we put the two sentences together, we have a solid introduction to the body #2 paragraph.
e.g. In addition, the good and bad experience of others often assists the decision maker. That
is, an important or diffcult decision becomes easier with help from others and their specifc
experience.
30
So when we put the two sentences together, we have a solid introduction to the body #2 paragraph.
e.g. In addition, the good and bad experience of others often assists the decision maker. That
is, an important or diffcult decision becomes easier with help from others and their specifc
experience.
As in the body #1 paragraph, examples function as proof of the thesis of the paragraph. As we learned, the
examples can be personal or general, as long as they support the important ideas
presented in the body #2 paragraph.
e.g. An example of this was the advice I received from my friend when I was about to lease a new
computer. She informed me of her negative experience with the company I was considering
because she learned too late that it had a bad reputation. She suggested an alternative leasing
company which worked out well.
As in body #1 paragraph, when this evidence is added to the introductory and clarifcation sentences, the
thesis becomes stronger. Another example is used as a connective to ensure the fow of ideas in the para-
graph.
e.g. In addition, the good and bad experience of others often assists the decision maker. That
is, an important or diffcult decision becomes easier with help from others and their specifc
experience. An example of this was the advice I received from my friend when I was about
to lease a new computer. She informed me of her negative experience with the company I
was considering because she learned too late that it had a bad reputation. She suggested
an alternative leasing company which worked out well.
To fnish the paragraph, an effective concluding sentence is necessary.
e.g. Her experience kept me from making a big mistake, and showed that it is wise to allow
people who care about you to share in some of your important decisions.
Let us examine the complete body #2 paragraph.
e.g. In addition, the good and bad experience of others often assists the decision maker. That
is, an important or diffcult decision becomes easier with help from others and their specifc
experience. An example of this was the advice I received from my friend when I was about
to lease a new computer. She informed me of her negative experience with the company I
was considering because she learned too late that it had a bad reputation. She suggested
an alternative leasing company which worked out well. Her experience prevented me from
making a big mistake, and showed that it is wise to allow people who care about you to share
in some of your important decisions.
The conclusion of the essay summarizes the main idea and supporting reasons presented in the
essay.
e.g. In conclusion, making important decisions is common in the life of every human being, and
can be facilitated by paying attention to the advice of signifcant people such as relatives and
good friends. It is always wise to seek good advice for an important decision, and then ultimately,
considering all the available help and suggestions, make the best decision possible.
With the addition of the conclusion, the essay is now complete.
31
Here is the complete essay.
e.g. At certain times in life, people have to make important decisions. I agree that they
should never make these important decisions without the advice of others for the
following reasons. To begin, older and wiser people can help in deciding important
issues. Furthermore, others with experience in similar situations can help us make
a more informed decision. This essay will explore these reasons in further detail.
t is said that two heads are better than one to fgure anything out. n other words, it
is preferable to have help when one has to make an important decision. For example,
older relatives such as parents, grandparents, or teachers can lend their experience to
Such important decisions as the choice of university, career, or investment opportunity.
My father's advice was very important to me when bought my frst car. Moreover, a
favorite professor of mine helped me to choose the best courses in university. Therefore,
believe that a signifcant relative or friend can be helpful to anyone making an important
decision.
In addition, the good and bad experience of others often assists the decision maker. That
is, an important or diffcult decision becomes easier with help from others and their specifc
experience. An example of this was the advice I received from my friend when I was about
to lease a new computer. She informed me of her negative experience with the company
I was considering because she learned too late that it had a bad reputation. She suggested
an alternative leasing company which worked out well. Her experience kept me from making
a big mistake, and showed that it is wise to allow people who care about you to share in some
of your important decisions.
In conclusion, making important decisions is common in the life of every human being, and
can be facilitated by paying attention to the advice of signifcant people such as relatives and
good friends. It is always wise to seek good advice for an important decision, and then ultimately,
considering all the available help and suggestions, make the best decision possible.
The next page provides a template for the 300-word essay system


32
Introductory Paragraph
Background Sentence ____________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
Thesis Statement _______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
2 Reasons briefy stated _________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
Plan Sentence (explanation of what the essay will be about) ______________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
Body Paragraph 1 (The frst of the 2 reasons)
Introductory Sentence____________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
Clarifcation Sentence ___________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
2 examples ____________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________

Concluding Sentence ____________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
. . . over

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Body Paragraph 2 (The second of the 2 reasons)
Introductory Sentence ____________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
Clarifcation Sentence ___________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
2 examples ____________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________

Concluding Sentence ____________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
Conclusion ____________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
34
The Integrated Skills Essay
Students read a short passage, academic in nature, for 3 minutes. In that time, the structure, the main idea,
and the most important ideas of the passage must be ascertained and contained in the notes taken at this
time. The passage will reappear on the screen after the listening passage is fnished.
Then, the listening passage is presented, and notes must also be taken for the structure, main idea, and
most important details of the passage. Although the reading passage will re-appear and be visible on the
screen, students must depend solely on their notes for the content of the listening passage. Students will be
penalized with a very low grade if they merely copy sentences from the reading passage.
The most effective essay will be based on the explanation of the relationship between the reading and the
listening passages because this will best address the question that is asked.
Sample Question 1
In the following sample question, take 3 minutes to read the passage, underline the most important ideas,
and then listen to the lecture, taking careful notes.
Media Effects
There has been a great deal of debate concerning the effects of violence in the
media. However, a great deal of the reasearch seems to support the idea that exposure
to media violence causes increased aggression and violent behavior in young people,
specifcally children and teens. ndeed some researchers go so far as to maintain that
this negative infuence continues to affect the young people in later life.
Research has shown that children who watch violent cartoons are more likely to engage
in more aggressive behavior with playmates. A number of surveys have demonstrated
that children and teens showing a preference for violent media fare show higher scores
on agression indexes than those who enjoy less violent entertainment.
Evidence to date points to an identifcation with violence and violent characters in the
media by children and teens. A study conducted by the Kaiser Family Foundation in
2003 showed that 47% of parents with children between the ages of 4 and 6 years,
reported imitation of aggressive behavior by their children from television. Research
studying effects of violent video games in 2001 showed that teens having only brief
exposure to violent games were more likely to engage in aggressive behavior. Indeed,
there seems to be overwhelming evidence that violence in the media results in
aggressive behavior in children and teens.\
Now listen to a lecture in a Psychology class about the effects of violence in the media on young people.
(Listening transcript)
Professor: Media violence has long been suggested as one of the main contributing
causes of aggressive behavior in children and teens. However, there is
disagreement among the experts concerning this assumption. For instance,
some researchers disagree on the defnition of media violence. There seems
to be a general consensus that media violence depicts harm or the threat of
harm to another individual. However, certain researchers exclude violence
such as that found in cartoon shows due to its comical and unrealistic nature.
Whereas others see it as a major negative infuence on the behavior of children.


35
Experts also disagree on the type of relationship between media violence and
the behavior of children. The disagreement focuses on cause versus association.
Does media violence actually cause aggressive behavior or is there merely an
association between the two with a third factor which acts as a catalyst?
There are several theories which attempt to address these questions. For
example some researchers maintain that children learn to immitate their
heroes from television, movies or video games. Others study the signifcance
of physiological changes caused by watching violence, such as increased
heart rate. Still others hold that a predisposition for violent behavior is triggered
by violence in the media, behavior which is justifed by the violence witnessed
on the screen.
Essentially, researchers such as Andrea Martinez, after her exhaustive study
of the existing research on the effects of media violence on children and teens
for the C.R.T.C. have concluded that most studies support a positive, though
weak, relation between exposure to television violence and aggressive behaviour.
How do the facts in the lecture relate to those in the reading passage?
The next page presents an integrated skills essay template demonstrating the system for writing this type
of essay effectively and in a timely fashion. The essay we will write is based on the reading passage and
lecture discussing the effects of violence in the media. We will use the intregrasted skills essay system to
complete the essay.
The System
Inroductory Paragraph
Background Sentence
Main idea of the reading passage
Main idea of the lecture (listening passage)
Plan Sentence (Main idea of the reading passage + Main idea of the lecture)
This combination essentially makes up the thesis statement for the complete essay.
Body Paragraph 1
Intro statement regarding the reading passage
Examples and details
Statement regarding the lecture
Examples and details
Concluding statement
Conclusion
Summary of the main idea and details

36
The Integrated Writing System
Introductory Paragraph
Thesis Statement (ReadingPassage)________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
Thesis Statement (Lecture) _______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
Plan sentence (Thesis for whole essay) _____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
Body Paragraph
Intro statement regarding the reading passage ________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
Examples and details_____________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
Statement regarding the lecture ____________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
Examples and details ____________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Conclusion ____________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
37
Now, using this system, we will write the essay.
Question: How do the facts in the lecture relate to those in the reading passage?
Introductory Paragraph
Background Sentence
The debate continues regarding the effects of media violence on children.
Thesis Statement (Reading passage)
Studies that show media violence such as that found on television has a profound
effect on the behavior of children and teens.
Thesis Statement (Lecture)
However the lecture asks important questions about this research, casting doubt
on the positive fndings.
Plan sentence (Thesis for whole essay)
This discussion will explore how the critical examination of research on the effects
of media violence on children lessens the impact of the results from these studies.
Body Paragraph
Introductory Sentence (Regarding the reading passage)
According to the reading passage, there is a great deal of research linking media
violence to aggressive behavior in children.
Examples and Details
Existing data points to an identifcation with violence and violent characters in the
media by children and teens. Studies in 2001 and 2003 showed that 47% of parents
with 4-6 year old children reported imitation of aggressive behavior by their children
from television, and teens briefy exposed to violent video games showed a tendency
to more violent behavior.
Introductory Statement (Regarding the lecture)
However, the lecture demonstrates that the results of such research may be questionable
due to differences in defnition of media violence, and theories of cause versus association.
Examples and Details
For instance there is disagreement on whether cartoons depicting violent characters and
actions can be defned as violent. Furthermore, some researchers maintain that children
learn to immitate the violent behavior they see on television, movies or video games.
However, other researchers do not believe in a causal relationship between media violence
and aggressive behavior in children, but rather in an association between the two. Still
others maintain that a predisposition for violent behavior is stimulated by violence in the media.
Concluding Statement
Clearly, there is little agreement among researchers and no defnitive connection.
Conclusion
In conclusion, although much research exists linking violence in the media to aggressive
behavior, a critical view of such research shows some faws which allow for only evidence
of a weak relation between the two.
Here is the complete integrated skills essay.
The debate continues regarding the effects of media violence on children. Studies
that show media violence such as that found on television has a profound effect on
38
the behavior of children and teens. However the lecture asks important questions
about this research, casting doubt on the positive fndings. This discussion will explore
how the critical examination of research on the effects of media violence on children
lessens the impact of the results from these studies.
According to the reading passage, there is a great deal of research linking media violence
to aggressive behavior in children. Existing data points to an identifcation with violence
and violent characters in the media by children and teens. Studies in 2001 and 2003
showed that 47% of parents with 4-6 year old children reported imitation of aggressive
behavior by their children from television, and teens briefy exposed to violent video games
showed a tendency to more violent behavior.
However, the lecture demonstrates that the results of such research may be questionable
due to differences in defnition of media violence, and theories of cause versus association.
For instance there is disagreement on whether cartoons depicting violent characters and
actions can be defned as violent. Furthermore, some researchers maintain that children
learn to immitate the violent behavior they see on television, movies or video games.
However, other researchers do not believe in a causal relationship between media violence
and aggressive behavior in children, but rather in an association between the two. Still
others maintain that a predisposition for violent behavior is stimulated by violence in the
media. Clearly, there is little agreement among researchers and no defnitive connection.
In conclusion, although much research exists linking violence in the media to aggressive
behavior, a critical view of such research shows some faws which allow for only evidence
of a weak relation between the two.
Strategies
The student's task is to fgure out the relationship between the reading passage and the lecture. This
information usually answers the question presented, and forms the basis of the integrated skills essay.
In order to score high on this type of essay, the following strategies are important.
1) Practice fnding the main idea in reading and listening passages.
2) Listen for the story line in the lecture.
2) Summaries
These are probably the most important practice exercises for the iBT. The teacher plays
conversations and lectures. The student's task is to fnd the structure and main idea of each
listening passage and feature them in a written summary. The summary should be no more
than 3 lines, and upon completion, the student reads the summary to the class.
e.g. Listen to the conversation on the next page between two students, and then write a summary of the
main points and story line.
(Listening Transcript)
Listen to the following conversation between two students.
Man: Hi Susan, hows it going? You look a little tired.
Woman: I am! I was up all night studying for my midterm in Sociology today.
Man: Oh, thats too bad, but why did you leave your studying to the last minute?
39
Woman: I didnt! I mean, I did, but it wasnt my fault. Its impossible to get any work
done in my dorm. My roommate is so noisy. She plays music til all hours, and
and if that wasnt bad enough, she talks and laughs noisily on her
phone with her friends.
Man: She sounds pretty inconsiderate. Have you talked to her about it?
Woman: Yes, many times, but she just laughs and tells me that I take things too
seriously. Mike, Im on scholarship. I cant afford to waste time. I need
to study.
Man: What about the library? You could always study there in peace and quiet.
Woman: I know, and believe me, I spend a lot of time there, but the library closes at
ten, and I go back to the dorm to the same noisy situation, and it isnt very
conducive to studying or getting a good nights sleep.
Man: I see what you mean. Well, youre probably going to have to speak to
University administration about changing dorms . . . or roommates.
Woman: I called this morning to make an appointment, and Ill be heading over to
the Housing Offce after the test. 'll let you know what happens.
Man: Good luck at the Housing Offce and with your test.
Woman: Thanks, Mike. See you.
Have the students make a summary of this conversation.
1. Determine the structure of the passage. The types of structures are the following.
Problem / Solution (Problem - stated by one or both of the speakers)
Event or special plans
Discussions of academic issues (Professor / student)
Discussions of academic issues (student / student)
Discussion of administrative problems (administrator / student)
2. Omit all irrelevant details.
3. Keep the verb tense in the simple present as much as possible for the summary.
Summary: Susan explains to her friend Mike that she has problems trying to study because her
roommate is noisy and inconsiderate. As a student on scholarship, she must study
and maintain good grades. Mikes suggests she study at the library, and Susan replies
that unfortunately the library closes at 10 p.m. Mike makes a second suggestion that
Susan try to get another dorm room or roommate. Susan agrees, and says she has
already made an appointment at the housing offce to to try to do what Mike suggests.
SPEAKNG
Students are required to answer 3 types of questions in the speaking portion of the iBT. The frst two are
independent, which means that there is only one skill involved, that is, answering a question giving an
opinion and another stating a preference.
Questions #1 & 2 Independent
The frst question is the independent speaking task which requires students to state their opinion regarding a
specifc topic.
40
Strategies
1. SPEAK SLOWLY! SPEAK SMPLY! The acronym K..S.S. applies. t means "Keep t Slow and Simple."
2. Follow these steps.
A) State your opinion.
B) Give one reason for your opinion.
C) Give 2 examples to support your reason.
D) Give a short conclusion.
Sample Question Answer the following question (from the real TOEFL test) in 45 seconds.
Topic: Name someone whom you respect and admire and tell why you look up to this person. (45 seconds)
Answer: A person that I respect a great deal is a professor who taught me Psychology in
University because he was not only an excellent teacher but was also a very generous
and kind person. For example, he communicated very complex theories and research
to his students so that we understood the concepts clearly. Furthermore, he was always
available to answer questions and give valuable advice in many areas. I will always
remember how much he helped me achieve success both in my Psychology course and
in my life. The world really needs more excellent teachers like him.
The second question type requires students to state their preference regarding a specifc choice.
Sample Question Answer the following question in 45 seconds.
Topic: Do you prefer to have many friends or one or two close friends. (45 seconds)
Strategies
1. Rermember: SPEAK SLOWLY! SPEAK SMPLY! The acronym K..S.S. applies.
t means "Keep t Slow and Simple."
2. Follow these steps.
A) State your preference.
B) Give one reason for your preference.
C) Give 2 examples to support your reason.
D) Short conclusion - make a comparison and repetition of your preference.
Answer: I prefer to have one or two close friends because I can experience important feelings
with them. For example, I have two close friends, and I know we can always share
our deepest feelings. I feel its important to have someone in your life that you can
confde in and trust. My friends and talk about personal problems involving family
or school and larger issues such as career choices or whats happening in the world
in a deep and meaningful way. Although many people enjoy the company of many
friends and less deep personal involvement, I prefer to have one or two close friends.
Note Taking for the Independent Speaking Passages
Strategies
1. Be prepared! Students have only 15 seconds to write notes for their 45-second answer.
41
2. Write 4 words or phrases only - one for each step.
e.g. Qu. 1 (above) Opinion
1. Your opinion Psychology professor
2. Your reason Excellent teacher - kind - generous
3. Examples Good communication - advice
4. Conclusion More teachers
e.g. Qu. 2 Preference
1. Your preference 1 or 2 close friends
2. Your reason deep feelings
3. Examples confde, trust, share
4. Conclusion Others . . . but I . . .
Integrated Skills
Two of the integrated skills tasks are questions 3 and 4, one a conversation, the other, a lecture. For each
question, students read a short passage and then listen to a short passage and then answer a question based
on the relationship between the two.
In Question 3, students read a short passage regarding a new or changed university policy and then listen to a
short passage, usually two students' reaction to the reading passage. Then the student speaks for 60 seconds
usually with a focus on describing the reaction. The picture on the screen is of two students who appear to be
having a discussion.
Strategies
1. Read the passage, scanning for the most important ideas.
2. Find the core (the focus, the main idea) of the reading passage. In the above sample
reading passage, the main idea is Brantly Colleges new policy of adding a copying charge
to all students tuition fees.
3. The question that will be asked is likely based on the listening passage, usually students reactions to
a policy change at a university, so only the most important details from the reading passage should be
included in your answer because many of them are repeated in the lecture.
e.g. Read the following passage in 45 seconds after which time, the passage disappears from the screen.
Brantly College is initiating a new policy regarding the use of the photocopiers
in the university library. Due to the excessive amount of paper and toner being
used by students on a daily basis, for reasons other than academic work, a fee
of $20 will be added to the tuition fees of every student for each semester. This
policy will be put into effect at the beginning of January, the beginning of the winter
semester. Since paper, toner and maintenance costs have increased dramatically
over the past year, Brantly College fnds it necessary to pass some of this expense
along to the students.
42
Listen to the conversation between two students. On a piece of paper, take notes on the main points of the
listening passage.
(Now, listen to a conversation between two students who are commenting on the new policy.)
(Listening Transcript)
Listen to the following reaction to the new policy from two students.
Ken: Hi Amy.
Amy: Hey Ken, on your way to lunch?
Ken: No, 'm heading over to the library. have to photocopy a few pages of lecture notes
I made this morning.
Amy: Did you hear about the new photocopying fee?
Ken: No. What to do you mean? What fee?
Amy: There's a notice in the library that starting in January all students will have a $20 fee
added to their tuition for each semester in order to defray increasing material and
maintenance costs.
Ken: Well that's not fair! rarely use the photocopiers.
Amy: I know. I dont either. My roommate photocopies large portions of textbooks, so in fact,
Im being penalized for her overuse of the facilities.
Ken: know what you mean. see students photocopying everything from resums to street
maps. I only use the machines maybe twice a month for two or three pages.
Amy: Listen, weve got to bring this up at the next student council meetiing. Something has
to be done about it. Tuition fees are high enough; we dont need any extra expenses.
Ken: agree.
Question: How do the students feel about the new policy?
Strategies
1. Scan the conversation passage and fnd the core (the focus, the main idea) of the conversation.
2. Read the question very carefully and then read it again. Be sure to understand the question
completely before you attempt to answer it.
3. The main idea of the passage is the same as the focus of the question. In the sample question, the
focus is the students reaction to the photocopying fee.
4. Create a summary of the most important ideas in the conversation.
Building Skills for Integrated Skills Speaking
One of the best ways to prepare for the speaking in the integrated skills section of the test is to practice
reported speech. Students should refer to the transcript sections of any PBT or CBT TOEFL textbooks to fnd
conversation transcripts which they can read and practice reporting. (p. 96 of the grammar book
included in this program teaches reported speech) Here is a list of verbs students can use when reporting
speech. * Use the simple present tense for the most part when reporting speech for iBT conversations.

43
tell wonder state add
explain feel agree complain
instruct is surprised that believe understand
demand answers positively hope remind
insist answers negatively is incredulous recommend
suggest advise offer say
inform ask think comment
remark inquire conclude
Sample Conversation #1:
Customer: This is an attractive coat. Do you have it in blue?
Sales clerk: No, Im sorry, black is the only colour we have.
Example of reported speech #1:
The customer comments that the coat is attractive and wonders if it comes in blue.
The sales clerk answers negatively and explains that black is the only colour they have.
Sample Conversation #2:
Student: 'm having diffculty choosing a topic for my term paper in Ancient History. was thinking
of writing about the Roman Empire, but theres so much. I dont know where to start.
Teacher: Well, why dont you narrow your focus and write about one aspect of the Roman Empire
that interests you?
Example of reported speech #2:
The student complains that shes having trouble choosing a topic for her Ancient History paper because the
topic is too broad.
The teacher suggests she narrow the topic to one aspect of the Roman Empire that interests her.
Integrated Skills Lecture Question
The integrated skills question #4 involves reading a short passage, listening to a short lecture and then
answering a question based on the relationship between the two.
e.g. Read the following passage in 45 seconds. The passage then disappears from the screen.
European honey bees are a valuable resource in the U.S. economy. They are responsible
for one third of the U.S. food production as they pollinate fowers that become fruit and
vegetables, plants and trees. European honey bees produce large amounts of honey and
bees wax for candles, polish, and foor wax. Americans eat about 275 million pounds of
honey each year. Bees pollinate fowers that turn into fruit and vegetables, plants and trees.
A European bee colony produces fve times more honey than an Africanized bee colony.
Listen to a lecture in an entimology class. (Listening Transcript) Read this passage to your class.
Africanized honey bees, apis mellifera scutellata, are native to the Savanna
country of eastern and southern Africa. Introduced into Brazil in 1956, Africanized
bees have spread throughout South and Central America, Mexico and into parts
of the southern United States. They are far more aggressive than European honey
bees in addition to having other negative traits.
Africanized honey bees are easily agitated. They defend their hives with violent
swarming. Having more guards than European honey bees, a threat to the hive is
quickly communicated to rest of the population half of which swarms the intruder

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intensely stinging it. They swarm in greater numbers than do European honey bees
and remain agitated for several hours resulting in death to people and animals. Heat
and humidity are factors which can increase this agitated state. Africanized honey
bees will usually swarm from six to twelve times per year.
Africanized bees serve no useful purpose to humans in that in addition to being hostile
and aggressive, they are warm climate bees and store little honey in their hives. They
consume most of what they gather, and in areas of weak pollen and nectar fow, they
take over hives of European honey bees, mating with the queens and decreasing
European bee populations.
Originally believed to survive only in warm climates, Africanized bees have recently
been found in more northerly climates in the United States, showing them to be more
adaptive to cold weather than was initially thought. Scientists warn that greater numbers
of Africanized bees decreasing European bee populations will have a negative effect on
the U.S. economy.
Sample Question: Summarize the main points of the lecture. How does the information in the listening
passage relate to the information in the reading passage?
Sample Answer: The focus of the answer is the relationship between the reading passage and the lecture.
The lecture provides extra information about bees with a comparison of European honey bees and the more
aggressive Africanized honey bees. Although the European honey bees are valuable for honey and bees wax
and are less aggressive, they are being slowly replaced by the less valuable, more aggressive Africanized
bees which are becoming more and more numerous. This will affect the U.S. economy negatively.
Further Strategies
1. The most important strategy and the key to success is to speak slowly and simply.
2. Use only a little of the reading passage information because the questions usually focus on information
from the listening passage.
3. Practice fnding the main idea of short passages from old CBT TOEFL tapes and CDs. Listen carefully to
the frst two lines where the main idea is often located.
4. Practice saying the main ideas in your own words. Learn how to summarize and synthesize.
5. Practice pronunciation in the class every day.
Integrated Skills
Question #5
Question 5 involves listening to a conversation, usually between two students, and aswering a question in 60
seconds based on the conversation.
Listen to the following conversation between a student and her Biology professor.
Student: Hello Professor Kelly. You wanted to see me?
Professor: Yes, Cyndy. Come in. If you have a minute, Id like to talk to you about your proposal for the
fnal report.
Student 1 Oh. Is there a problem?
Professor: Well, youve chosen a topic thats not really complex enough for a fourth-year student.

45
Student: Really. wanted to discuss the genome research regarding non-specifc genetic material
because I thought it would be really interesting to show how much junk genetic material
exists in the human genome.
Professor: Well, thats my point. An essay outlining all of the recent research on the human genome
might be at an academically higher level.
Student: You mean all the fndings of the new research?
Professor: Yes. For example, including the fndings regarding a gene for depression and other
important results would present a more complete picture of this valuable research.
Student: Yes, I see what you mean. Youre suggesting I explore all the results of the genome
research.
Professor: Precisely. There are some fascinating fndings that impact our knowledge of certain
mental and physical diseases.
Student: Its true. I could really expand my essay by adding a lot more information dealing with
each positive effect of the genome research, but its going to take a lot more time than
Id planned. You see, its Spring Sale week at my uncles store, and he asked if I could
help him out and work evenings.
Professor: Okay, that's fne, but this report is very important too. Your work so far this year has been
quite good, but this could really help to improve your fnal grade and your academic future.
Im sure if you explain that to your uncle, hell understand. You might even offer to work
two hours after class at your uncles store and spend the evenings on your report.
Student: Thanks for the advice Professor Kelly. 'll do my best.
Question: What is the womans problem, and what suggestions does the Professor make to help
her solve it?
Strategies
1. State a summary of the problem immediately.
2. State the suggestions the professor makes, using the following phrases:
The professor suggests she . . .
or, The professor suggests to her that . . .
Notes: - essay needs improvement - no time
- Prof suggests talking to uncle or working less time - 2 hrs.
Answer: A female student, Cyndy, has proposed a topic for a fnal report which the professor
feels is not at a high enough level. She wants to describe one aspect of the latest
genome research, whereas the professor suggests she expand her report by including
all the results such as that of the special gene for depression which was discovered
in the latest research. She tells him she doesnt have the time to do extra research on
the topic because she has to work in her uncles store. He suggests she talk to her uncle
to explain the situation or just work two hours every day and work on her report at night.
She needs a good mark for this report in order to improve her fnal grade for the course.
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Integrated Skills
Question #6
In Question 6, students listen to a lecture and answer the question which follows.
Listen to the passage. On a piece of paper, take notes on the main points of the listening passage.
(The screen shows a picture of a professor or someone speaking to a group.)
Sample Question: Listen to lecture in a Biology class about tracking the migration of the Monarch butterfy.
Professor: Butterfies belong to the insect order "Lepidoptera" from the Greek "Scale Wing.
The wing scales create the colors and paterns of the butterfy's wings and none
are more beautiful than those of the Monarch butterfy.
The migratory patterns of the Monarch butterfy have been studied to a limited
degree by biologists using different marking systems which required a capture
and recapture of the butterfy. To increase both the number of butterfies studied
and the information gained, a new method of tracking their migration has been
proposed. This technique will necessitate volunteers raising Monarch butterfies
in 35 eastern states and provinces.
Deuterium, a stable hydrogen isotope, occurs naturally in rainwater and differs
in content from region to region across North America as a result of climate, and
rain patterns. It has been found in the tissues of shallow rooted plants which
insects feed on, incorporating the deuterium signal into their body parts. It follows
that insects raised in different regions will have different deuterium contents in their
bodies, information that will establish the origins of Monarchs.
n order to use deuterium to trace the Monarch, controlled experiments and feld
studies will be needed. Research has been conducted to defne the hydrogen
dynamics between water, milkweed and Monarch body parts. The feld data has
yet to be completed. Research must be carried out with Monarchs being raised
on naturally occurring milkweeds from the Canadian Maritime Provinces to Texas
under natural conditions away from external infuences that can affect water
conditions. Rural areas are best for rearing the Monarchs. The volunteers who
raise the Manarchs in these diverse regions must send their emerged butterfies
with a sample of the milkweed on which they were raised. The researchers will
then be able to integrate information from a number of subject areas as to the
migrating patterns of the Monarch butterfy.
Question: Using specifc points from the lecture, describe the proposed research to track
the migration of the Monarch butterfy.
Notes: - limited research until now
- description deuterium - present in shallow root plants - pres. in insects bodies
- present in dif. degrees - dif. climates and water amounts
- volunteers raise Monarchs in diverse rural areas of North America
- send emerged butterfies with milkweed to researchers
- controlled studies will show migration of more Monarchs.
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Strategies
1. #6 questions begin with the defnition of a theory, phenomenon, or process, so students state
this frst.
2. This is usually followed by a list of points which students take down in their notes. Summarize
and state these items on the list in order.
3. If the speaker gives a conclusion, summarize it and state it.
Answer: There has been limited information gained from research on the migratory
patterns of the Monarch butterfy. The speaker introduces proposed research
involving volunteers who raise Monarch butterfies in diverse areas of North
America and feed them with milkweed which contains Deuterium. This is a
hydrogen isotope which is found to differing degrees in shallow rooted plants
in North America and Is eaten by insects and present in their body parts. Each
volunteer raises their Monarchs in different areas from the Canadian Maritime
Provinces to Texas and sends the emerging butterfies with the milkweed they
were raised on to the researchers who are then able to tell the origins and
migrating patterns of each Monarch they receive.
Students should get the story of the lecture which is most important, take good notes and use as many
relevant details as possible.


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APPENDIX

Prefxes
Prefx Meaning Example
a to, toward ashore, aside
a, an not, without amoral
ab, abs away from absent
ad, ac, ag to adhere
ambi both ambidextrous
ante before anterior
anti against antisocial
auto self autobiography
bene good / well beneft
bi two bicycle
cata down cataclysm
circum around circumference
con, com, co, cog, col, cor together / with convene, co-operate
contra against contraceptive
de from deter
di, dif, dis part, separate divide, disassemble
dis not disrespect
en, em put into enclose, embody
e, ex out, from exit, extract
extra more than, beyond extraterrestrial
il, in, im, ir, un not irregular, unhappy, impossible
in, im into / inside imbed, involved
infra below infrastructure
inter between interfere
intro to introduction
intra within intranet, intramural
mal bad malfunction
meta beyond metaphysics
micro tiny microscope
mis wrong mislead
mono one monologue
multi many multilingual
non not nonentity
ob, oc, of, ops against obstruct, offend
out surpass outdo
over excessive overdo
para beside paralegal
per through permeate
poly many polyglot
post after posthumous
pre before preparation
pro ahead proceed
re again repeat
retro backward retroactive
se apart segment
semi half semi-circle
sub, suc, suf, sug, sup, sur under subordinate, support
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super above superior
syn, sym, syl, sys together synthesis, symbiosis
trans across transmit
ultra highest, best ultramodern
Roots
act do activity, action
ami, amo love, friendliness amity, enamor
annus year annual
aqua water aquarium
anthrop people anthropology
astr star astronaut
audi listening audio
biblio book bibliography
bio life biology, biography
carni meat carnivore
ced, cede, ceed, cess come, go forward proceed, precede
chrono time chronology
cide kill homocide
dict speak diction, dictionary
dorm sleep dormitory
duct lead conductor
ego self egotist
fact make factory
fer carry over transfer, infer
fem woman female
fdel trust fdelity
fex bend fexible
frac, frag breakage fracture, fragment
fuge fee, get away refugee, fugitive
gam marriage monogamy
gen birth, race generation, genus
geo earth geography
gress movement digress, progress
gyn woman gynecologist
herb plant herbivore
hetero different heterogeneous
Hydro water hydraulic
ject throw project
later side lateral
lingua language linguistics
lithos stone lithosphere
Logy study biology
lumin light illuninate
magni large magnify
mania craziness egomania
masc male masculine
matri mother matriarch
mit, miss send transmit
mort death mortality
50
nym name synonym
omni all omnipotence
op eye optics
pater, patri father paternity
path disease pathology
ped foot pedestrian
pel, pulse push away repel
phil positive feeling philosophy
phob fear phobia
phon sound phonetic
port carry portable
pose set / create compose
psych mind psychiatry
quire look for inquire
scend move directionally ascend
scope visual telescope
script writing transcript
sec separate section
sequ follow in order sequence
spect see inspect
solve fx resolve
soph wise philosopher
sui self suicide
sume use up consume
tact touch tactile
tele distance telephone
terre land territory
theo deity theology
tract draw out subtract, extract
vene come convene
vert turn invert
vis see visual
vore eat carnivore
Zoo animal zoology
Suffxes (Noun)
acy, cy condition / quality intimacy, infancy
age activity / result courage, damage
al action / event revival, arrival
ance, ence action / process avoidance, existence
ant, ent means - person / thing applicant, dependent
ate condition potentate
ation action fltration, operation
resulting condition gestation
institution foundation
dom place / realm / domain kingdom
ee person receiving donee, employee
eer working as engineer, career
en plural oxen
er, or performer of some action entertainer, doctor
51
ese people who live somewhere Chinese
language Japanese
ess, tress female poetess, actress (obsolete)
ful amount mouthful
hood condition parenthood
ian, an profession / name musician, artisan, Canadian
ia name Asia, Maria
Illness dispepsia, phobia
ic, ics name of subject for study music, physics, mathematics
id name pyramid
ide element oxide, fuoride
in, ine substance names gelatin, chlorine
ing made of fooring
ion action / condition union, communion
ism belief / philosophy communism, realism
action nepotism, heroism
condition alcoholism
ist person of specifc action artist, typist
or belief anarchist
ite resident socialite
ity condition clarity
collective municipality
ive condition / status captive, executive
let, ette smallness piglet, dinette
ling small / baby sapling
ment condition contentment
ness state of being happiness, loneliness
ocracy form of government democracy, theocracy
ry, ary, er place cemetary, winery
collective machinery
ship condition / being companionship, relationship
ster type of person or thing youngster, prankster
tion, sion condition / activity tension, remission
tive condition relative
y, ie place city, library
feeling amity, emnity, fury
endearment mommy, auntie
Suffxes (Verb)
ate to cause a condition insulate
ed past walked
en to become / to cause harden, strengthen
er action splatter
ify to cause / create a condition clarify, solidify
ing present participle walking
ize to cause / create a condition emphasize, memorize
ure to react positively / negatively treasure, endure


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Suffxes (Adjectives)
Prefx Meaning Example
able, ible worthy, able possible, capable
al, ial, ical quality comical, cordial, musical
ant, ent type of agent omnipotent, pliant
ate type of condition irate
ed possessing learned
en made of wooden
er comparative nicer
ese origin, race Chinese
ful having a lot beautiful
ian traditional / nationality Canadian
trade thespian

53
Teaching Schedule and Lesson Plan
Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday
Reading (Week 1) Listening Speaking Writing Review
Orientation: Explain listening Explain speaking Writing Vocab test #1
Explain the test - Book 1 p. 2 section Book 1 section Book 1 Section Longman
Also Longman book - introduction p. 13 -15 p. 40 Book 1 p. 24 Mini-test #1
Explain the reading section Longman intro. Longman intro. Explain system p.279
Book 1 - p. 4 p. 123 p. 183 Longman intro.
Diagnostic Pre-test (30 min.) Pre-test Pre-test p. 178 p. 237
Longman Book - p. 2 (Approx. 35 min.) (Approx. 20 min.) Pre-test p. 235
Wk 1 vocabulary Bk 1 +
p. 54 + pdf fle (10 words from each)
Reading (Week 2) Listening Speaking Writing Review
Vocabulary & Reference Understanding Independent Independent Vocab test #2
Longman - p. 10 - 23 the gist - Longman Qu. 1 Opinion Essay system Longman
Book 1 - p. 4 - 7 p. 125 - 127 Strategies & Introduction Mini-test #2
Wk 2 vocabulary Bk 1 + Bk. 1 - p. 18 Structure Bk 1 Background p. 295
p. 54 + pdf fle (10 words Taking notes p. 39 - 41 & Thesis
from each) Bk 1 p. 16 - 17 Longman statement
Grammar - ntroduce Vocabulary - Bk 1 p. 186 - 191 Vocabulary
sentence maps - Grammar Bk. And pdf fle Vocabulary - Bk 1 Next 20 words
P. 1 - 7 Have students write Next 20 words and pdf fle Longman topics
sentences using the maps Sentence maps Next 20 words p. 255 - 256
Grammar Bk
Simple Past p. 11 - 12

Reading (Week 3) Listening Speaking Writing Review
Simplify meanings Understanding Independent Independent Vocab test #3
Book 1 p.11 details p. 18 - 19 Qu. 2 Preference Body #1 Longman
Longman exercises Longman ex. Strategies & paragraph Mini-test #3
p. 26 - 28 p. 129 - 135 Structure Bk 1 Longman p. 310
Wk 3 vocabulary Bk 1 + Vocabulary p. 40 - 41 p. 263 - 265
p. 54 + pdf fle (10 words Next 20 words Longman ex. Bk 1 p. 30
from each) Grammar Bk p. 191 - 196 Longman
Grammar Bk Present Perfect Longman ex p. 485 - 487
Past Perfect p. 13 - 14 p. 13 - 14 p. 483 - 484 Vocabulary
Next 20 words Next 20 words
Reading (Week 4) Listening Speaking Writing Review
Sentence Insertion Understanding Integrated Skills Independent Vocab test #4
Book 1 p.8 - 9 function / purpose Qestion 3 Body #2 + Longman
Longman exercises p. 18 Conversation conclusion Mini-test #4
p. 37 - 45 Longman Ex. p. 41 - 43 Bk 1 p. 30 p. 327
Wk 4 vocabulary Bk 1 p. 136 - p. 140 Longman ex. Longman ex.
p. 54 + pdf fle (10 words Vocabulary p. 198 - 205 p. 266 - 267
from each) Next 20 words Vocabulary Vocabulary
Grammar (Review Grammar book Next 20 words Next 20 words
everything done Conditionals Conditionals Modals
so far) p. 48 - p. 53 p. 48 - p. 53 Grammar Bk. p. 29
54
Reading (Week 5) Listening Speaking Writing Review
Factual Information The Speakers Question 4 Integrated Vocab test #5
Book 1 p. 7 purpose Longman ex. Skills Longman
Longman exercises Longman ex. p. 206 - 10 Book 1 Mini-test #5
p. 51 - 56 p. 144 - 152 Book 1 p. 35 - 39 p. 343
Wk 5 vocabulary Bk 1 + Book 1 - p. 19 - 20 p. 43 - 44 Longman
p. 54 + pdf fle (10 words Vocabulary Vocabulary p. 239 - 245
from each) Next 10 words Next 10 words Vocabulary
Grammar Book Passive Voice Passive Voice Next 10 words
Modals (Cont'd) p. 29 Grammar Book Grammar Book Grammar Book
p. 23 p. 23 Adjective Clauses
p. 57

Reading (Week 6) Listening Speaking Writing Review
Negative Factual Information Organization Question 5 Integrated Vocab test #6
Book 1 p. 7 Longman Longman ex. writing system Longman
Longman exercises p. 154 - 157 p. 211 - 221 Book 1 Mini-test #6
p. 59 - 66 Book 1 Book 1 p. 35 - 39 p. 359
Wk 6 vocabulary Book 1 p. 21 - 22 p. 44 Longman
p. 54 + pdf fle (10 words Vocabulary Vocabulary p. 239 - 245
from each) Next 10 words Next 10 words Next 10 words
Grammar Book Grammar Book Grammar Book Grammar Book
Adjective Clause Adjective Clause Adverb Clause Connectives
reductions p. 64 - 73 reductions p. 83 p. 84
p. 64 - 73

Reading (Week 7) Listening Speaking Writing Review
Inference + Rhetoric Matching + Question 6 Essay Vocab test #7
Book 1 p. 10 Ordering Longman ex. Practice Longman
Longman exercises Longman ex. p. 222 - 227 (timed) Mini-test #7
p. 70 - 87 p. 157 - 169 Book 1 Vocabulary p. 380
Wk 7 vocabulary Book 1 Book 1 p. 45 + 46 Next 10 words
p. 54 + pdf fle (10 words p. 21 - 24 Vocabulary Grammar review
from each) Vocabulary Next 10 words
Grammar Book Next 10 words Grammar Book
Connectives p. 85 - 89 Grammar Book Noun clause
Adverb clause p. 92
reductions p. 91

Reading (Week 8) Listening Speaking Writing Review
Summary Information Listening Longman Longman Vocab test #8
Tables post-test Speaking Writing Longman
Longman exercises p. 111 Post-test Post-test Mini-test #8
p. 91 - 107 Vocabulary p. 228 p. 276 - 278 p. 396
Book 1 p. 11 - 13 Next 10 words Vocabulary Vocabulary
Wk 8 vocabulary Book 1 Next 10 words Next 10 words
p. 54 + pdf fle (10 words
from each)
Grammar Longman p. 489
55
VOCABULARY LIST A
abandon benevolent competent (wk 3) determine esteem (6) gorgeous
able bias complememt device evade grade
abolish blanched complimemt dindevise exhaustive graphic
abrupt bland comprehensive dim exhilarating grasp
acclaim blatant compulsary dire extravagant grave
accommodating blend concede discard fable gregarious
acrid bloom concise dismal fabled grim
adapt blow up concrete disperse facet grip
adept blunder confict dispute faint grueling
adhere blunt congregate distinct falter gullible
admonish blurry conspicuous distinguished fancy hamper
adorn bold constant diversity fasten handful
advent bolster contemplate divulge fatal haphazard
adverse bond controversial dogged fatigue hardly
affuent boom convenient domestic faulty hardship
agravate brace conventional dominate feasible harm
aggregate brilliant cope with dominant fee harmful
agile brisk copiousdot downfall feeble harmonious
ailment brittle cordial doze ferocious harness
allot bulky cosmopolitan drab feverish harsh
amazing bully courteous draw fery hasty
amiable buttress covert drawback ftting hazardous
anticipate calamity (2) cozy dreary fagrant hazy
anxious candid crave drench faw heed
appraise capable craving drowsy fee hinder
apt carve craze dubious forage hitherto
arduos casual critical durable foreign hoist
arid categorize crooked dusk forego hue
aroma caustic crucial dwell foremost huge
artifcial cautious crude dwelling forge hurl
astonishing celebrated cruel dwindle fragment idea (wk 8)
astute charming cryptic dynamic fragrant ideal
attain cherish curb eerie (wk 5) fraudulent idle
augment choice curious elderly fundamental illusion
austere cite curt electrify fuse illustration
authentic clash dump (wk 4) elegant fusion imaginary
averse classify daring eligible futile imaginative
aversion clever dazzling elude fuzzy immense
awkward cling debris eminent gag (wk 7) impair
EDIH (wk 2) clog declare emit gala impartial
balmy clue defective enchanting gap implement
ban clumsy defant encounter garrulous incessant
bar cluster delicate endeavor gaudy increment
barren coax delightful endorse genial incursion
barter colossal delusion enhance gentle indifferent
beckon commence demolish ensue genuine indigenous
belligerent commerce dense entice glitter indispensable
benefcial commodity desist era glory indistinct
bland compel detect essential gorgeous induce
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LIST A (Contd)
inept
inexorable
infamous
infnite
infnitesimal
ingenius
ingenuous
inhabit
inhibit
initial
innate
innocuous
intense
intricate
involved
irate
jagged
jeopardy
jolly
jolt
keen
key
knack
*Each week your students should study 40 of these words along with 40 from the list that is included in the
package. (Enclosed pdf fle). Take up and explain 10 words from each of the sources mentioned, and have
each student create a sentence using one of the words (Monday - Thursday). Included in the package there
are 8 vocabulary tests, one a week for 8 weeks. These tests should be done on Friday.
57