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TEACHING AS A PROCESS IN CURRICULUM Teaching is a process of imparting knowledge and skills required to master a subject matter.

The process of teaching replicates the process of curriculum. The implementation phase of curriculum development is the actual teaching and experiencing of a curriculum.

PLAN

IMPLEMENT

EVALUATE

Feedback and Reflections

The planning phase includes decision about: The needs of the learners. The achievable goals and objectives to meet the needs; The selection of the content to be taught; The motivation to carry out the goals; The strategies most fit to carry out the goals; and The evaluation process to measure learning outcomes. On the basis of the diagram, basic assumptions can be made. These assumptions are: That teaching is goal-oriented with the change of behavior as the ultimate end; That teachers are the ones who shape actively their own actions; The teaching is rational and a reflective process; and That teaching by their action can influence learners to change their own thinking or desired behavior, thus teaching is a way of changing behavior through the intervention of the teacher. To further clarify, what teaching is all about there are some indicators which can use to guide in the process of good teaching. Good teaching is one that is well planned and where activities are interrelated to each other. Good teaching is one that provides learning experiences or situations that will ensure understanding, application and critical thinking. Good teaching is based on the theories of learning. Good teaching is one where the learner is stimulated to think and reason. Good teaching utilizes prior learning and its application to new situations. Good teaching is governed by democratic principles. Good teaching embeds a sound evaluation.

3. Problem-Centered Design Generally, problem-centered design draws on social problems, needs interest and abilities of the learners. a) Life-situations design It uses the past and the present experiences of learners as a means to analyze the basic areas of living. Based on Herbert Spencers curriculum writing, his emphases were activities that sustain life, aid in rearing children, maintain the individuals social and political relations and enhance leisure, tasks and feelings. The connection of subject matter to real situations increases the relevance of the curriculum. b) Core design It centers on general education and the problems are based on common human activities. The central focus of the core design includes common needs, problems, and concerns of the learners. Popularized by Faunce and Bossing in 1959, they presented ways on how to proceed following a core design curriculum as follows: 1. The problem is selected by either the teacher or students. 2. A group consensus is made to identify the important problems and interest of the class. 3. Problems are selected on the basis of developed criteria for selection. 4. The problem is clearly stated and defined. 5. Areas of study are decided, including dividing the class by individual group interest. 6. Needed information is listed and discussed. 7. Resources for obtaining information are listed and discussed. 8. Information is obtained and organized. 9. Information is analyzed and interpreted. 10. Tentative conclusions are stated and tested. 11. A report is presented to the class on an individual or group basis. 12. Conclusions are evaluated. 13. New avenues of exploration toward further problem solving are examined.