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The Australian Centrefor Egyptology:Reports8

THE TETI CEMETERY AT SAQQARA


VolumeI and Ka-aper Others The Tombsof Nedjet-em-pet,

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N. Kanawati and A. Hassan

N. by With contributions P. Bentley,A. Cavanagh, Charoubim, E. N. S. A. McFarlane, Shafik.K. Sowada, Thompson, Victor

THE TETI CEMtrTtrRY


AT SAQQARA
VolumeI The Tombsof Nedjet-em-pet, Ka-aper andOthers

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The AustralianCentrefor Egyptology Reports: 8

THE TETI CEMETERY AT SAQQARA


Volume I The Tombsof Nedjet_em_pet, Ka_aper Others and

N. Kanawati and A. Hassan


With contributions N. ?V J Bentley,A. Cavanagh, Charoubrm, A. McFarlane, Shafik,K- S;i;;u,-E. S. Thonlpson, Victor N.

Australian Centre Egyptology l-or Sydney.I 996

@ N. Kanawoti and A. Hasscrn1996. All rights reserved ISBN: I -86108-2s9-3

Egyptology Centre.fbr Publishedby: TheAu,strctliun Macquarie University,North Rytle,N.S.ly. 2109,Australia Printed by: Adept Printing Pty.Ltd. N.S.W.2200,Austrul.ia Avenne,Bnnkstotvn, I3 Clements Distributedby: Aris tmd Phillips Lttl. ChurchStreet,Wunninster,Wilts, Englcrnd

CONTENTS

PREFACE ABBREVIATIONS THE MASTABA OF NEDJET-EM.PET THE BURIAL OF IBI THE MASTABA OF KA.APER INSCRIBED OBJECTS AND FRAGMENTS APPENDIX: THE MASTABA oF GEREF/ITJI INDEX PLATES

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3l 35 53 69 75 17

.5

PLATES
Gcneralview of thc ccmetcryto thc north of T e t i ' sp y r a m i d to Location of rccent cxcavations thc norih 2 p o1'Tcti's yramtd 3 . Ncdjet-cm-pct ( a ) E n t r a n c e .l i n t e l (b) Entrancc, drum (c) Roont I. north willl and Ibi 4 . Ncdjet-crn-pct e ( a ) I b i , l a l s cd o o r s( r o o m I V . N e d j c t - n t - p c t ) ( b ) N e d j c t - e m - p er o o m V ' n o r t h w a l l t. (c) Ncdjet-cnr-pct. shaft 6 door roorn V. l'alse 5 . Nedjct-crn-pet. room V, north wall (detail) 6 . Nedjct-em-pet. '7. toorn V. north wall (dctail) Ncdjet-cm-pct. Ncdjet-cm-pct,sarcoPhagus a1. (a) Intcrior ( b ) I n t e r i o r ,s i d c 2 ( d c t a i l ) skelctalrctnainsin thc Nedjct-em-pet. 9. s a r c o p n a gs u I 0. Ncdjct-cm-pct.finds I l . N c d j e t - c r n - p efti.n d s I 2 . I b i ( r o o mI V . N e d j c t - e t n - P e t ) (a) Southcrnfalsedoor (b) Northcrn l-alsc dotir I 3 . I b i a n d K a - a P e rf.i n d s ol' I zl. Thc mastaba Ka-apcr,gencralvicw I 5. Ka-aper,ctltrilnce I 6. Ka-apcr,cntrance,north .iamh north -iamb(dctail) I 7. Ka-apcr,el)trancc. I E. Ka-aPcr,cntrancc (rt) Nollh thickttcs: ( (b) North thicknessdetail) I 9. Ka-aper,cntrancc (a) Souththickncss ( ( b ) S o u t ht h i c k n c s s d c t a i l ) rrlotn II I, lalsc doot' 2 0 . Ktr-aper, , 2 1 . K a - a p c r r o o n i l l l , f a l s ed o o r n i c h e 'n o r t h thickness 22. Ka-apcr,roonl III, [alsedoor niche (a) South thickness ( b ) S o u t hj a m b 2 3 . K a - a p c r .s i r r c o P h a g u s ( a ) S i d c3 ( b ) S i d eI 11 doors Inscribedobjccts. 1'alsc o 2 5 . I n s c r i b e d b j c c t s .f a l s c d o o r s 2 6 . I n s c r i b e do b j c c t s .o l ' l c r i n gt a b l e s tablcs objccts, ol-f'cring 2 1 . Inscribecl 2 t t . Inscribed l-ragmcllts 2 9 . I n s c r i b c dl r a - u m c n t s 3 0 . lnscribed fragments 3 1 . I n s c r i b e dl r a g m c n t s 3 2 . Inscribcd fragmcnts 3 3 . Inscribed l'ragnlcnts - ) + . Inscribcd iragmcnts 3 5 . Gercf, false door , 3 6 . N c d j e t - c m - p e tP l a n s scctlons 3 7 . Ncdjct-ern-Pet, sections . 3 l J Ncdjet-crn-pet. 3 9. Necljct-crn-pet (a) Entrance,intcl l (b) Entrancc, clrum (c) Entranccto room lll, rvestcloor thickness (d) Roorn l, wcst wall ( c ) R o o r nI . n o r t h w a l l V, rt)or11 l'alsccloor 40. Ncdjct-crn-pct. ,1I . Ncdjet-crn-pet, room V (a) North rvall (b) Fragmcnts room V, north rvall (dctail) 42. Ncdjct-ern-pcl, ,13. Necljct-crn-pct, intcrior sarcophagus ( h a n dc o P Y ) (a) SideI ( b ) S i d c2 (c) Sidc 3 l.inds + + . Nedjct-cm-pct, lbi (room lV. Ned.ict-cm-Pct) (a) Southcrnl'alse door (b) Northcrn l'alscdoor 4 6 . Ibi and Ka-rpcr, l-inds 11 Ka-apcr.plln and scction 4 u . K a - a p e r .s c c t i o n s , 1 9 . Ka-apcr,t:ntnutcc ( a ) S o u t hj a r n b ( h ) N o r t hj a m b 5 0 . Ka-aper,cntrancc (a) Souththickncss (b) North thickncss door room lll. l'alse 5 l Ka-uper, 5 2 Ka-apcr,room III, sidesof false door (a) South (b) North room lll, l'alscdoor niche 5 3. Ka-aper. ( a ) S o u t ht h i c k n e s s (b) North thickness door niche 54. Ka-apcr,roorrrlll, I'alsc ( a ) S o u t hi a m b ( b ) N o r t hj a m b s 55. Ka-apcr, arcophagus (a) Lid, sidcI (b) SiclcI ( c ) S i d c3 (d) Side 1, interior - 5 6 . l n s c r i b c do b j c c t s ,s t 6 l c n i a i s o n (a) FaEadc (b) Ilack (c) End l 5 7 . I n s c r i b c to b j c c t s ,f a l s ed o o r s tablcs 5 8. lnscribcd objccts,of'l'erin-u 59. lnscribcd l'ragtncnts (r0. Inscribedragntcnts f l 6 1 . I n s c r i b e d' r a g t t t c n t s (r2. Inscribedragmcnts f nts 6 3 . Inscribcdl'ragme fragmcnts 6'1. Inscribecl (r5. Gcrcf. falscdoor

PREFACE AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


The reign of Teti and the early Sixth Dynasty repl'esent interesting an ancl periodin Egyptian ir.nportant historywhich witncssed religious and administrativc r e f o r m s ,f o r e i g n a c t i v i t i e s , n u s u a le v e n t si n t h e p a l a c ca n d r n a j o r a r t i s t i c u achievements. However,our understanding this period is restricted of dr-re the to incomplete excavations and/ordocumcntation the Teti Cemetery.While someof of the brilliantly decorated mastabas the north of the pyrantidof Teti are accessible to or at leastavailableto scholars publications, in othereqr-rally importantmastabas remain partly or totally unpublishcd.In addition,an importantsectionof this cemeteryhas neverbeeninvestigated and lies unclera mound o[ sandand deblis (see resulting fiom earlierexcavations Pl. 1). The present excavation the north of Teti'spyrarrid is a.joint projcctof the to Australian Centrefor Egyptology andtheEgyptian Supreme Councilof Antiquities. Its aimsare: a) to carryout an archaeological surveyof the cet.netery Teti and tcr of producea detailedmap with tomb locations;b) to excavate areadeflnedon the the eastby the temenos wall of the pyrarnicl Quecnlpr-rt. the westby the mastaba of on of Shepsi-pu-Ptah on the sor-rth the mastaba Ncl-er-seshern-Ptah;to and by of c) fully publishthe results our excavations wcll as complete of as reports certain of known mastabas this areawhich havenot reccivecl attention in the they descrve;d) to undertake synthesis a stucly o1'thematerialfhm this ccmeterypertaining the to Old Kingdomas well as laterperiods.This will include detailed a cxamination olthe humanremains, DNA analysis, carbondatingof certainorganicmaterials and a studyof theceramics otherobjccts and discovercd. T h e e x p e d i t i o nb e g a n i t s w o r k i n 1 9 9 4 l v i t h t w o s e a s o n sM a y - J u n ea n d , November-December. third season A was conducted November-December in 199-5.The currentvolumerecords thc Old Kingdomtombsand finds so lar all cleared. The level abovethesetombscontained nllmcrousburialsof latcr periods which belonged modestofficialsand their families. Materialfiom theseburials to will appezr a separate in volumenow in preparation. In 1995a grid system was intrclduced which dividedthe cun'ent excavation site into squares 5m. x 5m. takingthc north-east of cornerof the mastaba Kt-gnt-rt.j of point to the grid. Beginning as a starting with the square closest that mastaba, to the divisions the N-S line weregivenalphabetical on lctters starting with A, while the divisionson thc E-W line wereassigned arabicnumerals starting with l. Fron-r 1995all finds were located this grid. on In recording ceramic objects, numberof vcssels a wele examined recordecl and as accurately possible, as notingthe shape, surface I'inish, decoration technology. and The colourdescriptions based MunsellSoil CrilourCharts(reviscd 1994, are on ed. New York) and the fabricsareclassified accordance in with the ViennaSystem(D. Arnold and J. Bourriau,An Introdttc'tion Ancient Egv-ptuirt to Pottery [Mainz, 19931, 168). Potswerecxamined undera i0x handlenson a fi'esh brcak,althor"rgh appropriate sections were not alwaysvisible on contplete vessels. For these, approximate fabric designations given. are

Abbreviations used in the text elre as follows. unless otherwise noted: H = maximumheight;W = maximurnwidth; L = maximumlength;D = diameter; Th = thickness. generous financialsupportfrom During the courseof our work we received cor"rld nevcrhavebeenaccomplished. withoutwhich this pro.ject variousinstitutions is to Geographic Society,the appreciation extended the Naitional Our most sincere Egyptian SupremeCouncil of Antiquities,thc AustralianResearchCouncil, fbr Universityandthe RundleFoundation EgyptianArchaeology. Macquarie of cooperation the Egyptian SupremeCouncil of The continuedand valr,rnble In special thanksareextended Antiquitiesis gratefullyacknowlcdged. this respect Dr. Professor Abd el-HalirnNour el-Din, and to the Director to the Chairman. Dr. Zahi Hawass. Thernks also due to the are Generalof Giza and Saqqara, Mr. MohamedHagras, Mr Directorsof Antiquitiesat Seiqqara, YehyaEid and now personnelfor their supportand help. We are most and to the inspectorate received from our appreciativeof the compctentand unsparingassistance and Mr. Ezatel-Gendi, Mr inspectors, Nour el-Din Abd el-Samad accompanying our who greatlyfacilitated field work. to their on team assisted site and it is a pleasure acknowledge A very dedicated Miss Trercey Dr. rolesand contributions. AdeI Abd el-Aziz (Fayr-rm), individLral University)actedas Mr. Paul Cowie and Miss JaneRoy (Macquarie Callaghan, field supervisors.The epigraphicwork was carriedout by Dr. Ann McFarlane, Shafik (Sohag). University)and Mr. Sarneh Thompson(Macquarie Mrs. Elizabeth of by finds were recorded Ms. Karin Sowada(University Sydney),and the The University). Mr. Alan Cavanagh humanremainsby Mr. PaulBentley(Macquaric (Newcastle) took chargeo1'the surveyingand the and Mrs. Delma Cavanagh and Miss Tracey Callaghan Mrs. Gael Callaghan measurements. architectural work. lor (Macquarie wcre responsible theconservation Univcrsity) to our We would like to express deepappreciation all who were involvcd in the p r e p a r a t i o n f t h i s r e p o r t . M r . P a u l B e n t l e y ( M a c q u a r i eU n i v e r s i t y )w a s o for responsible writing the scctionon hurnanremainsand Dr. Ann McFarlanc a l ( M a c q u a r i eU n i v e r s i t y ) f o r t h e a r c h i t e c t u r ad e s c r i p t i o n s n d t h e c o l o u r on conventions.Ms. Karin Sowada(Universityof Sydncy)wrote the sections and inscriptions finds and drew the pottery. The final line drawingsof the scenes (Cairo)and Mr. Sarneh Shaflk (Sohag). by were executed Mr. Nabil Charoubim and are drawings the work of Mr. Alan Cavanagh Mr. Kas Sroka, The architectural Newcastle) of Mr. NaguibVictor (Sydney). and (Cashmere Marler & Cavanagh, and Mr. Nasser elAbd by wereprovided Mr. Mr-rstafa el-Maqsud The photographs (Egyptian Cairo). Thc llnal artworkfbr this volumc Mnseurn, Din Abd el-Monem by was prepared Mrs. Joan Pollctt and Mrs. ElizabethThompson(Macquarie fiom with assistance Miss JoanBcck,Dr. was University).The manuscript eclitcd, Thompson, and produced Bright, Mrs. JoanPollettand Mrs. Elizabcth Desmond printingby Dr. Ann McFarlane. fbr Hassan

Nacuib Kanawati and

ABBREVIATIONS
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r907).
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Mariette, Mustubas: Mariette,A., Le.r' ) M6langes: Mllunge.s Gttmal Etltlin Mokltrrr, 2 vols. (Cairo. l 9 t i . s. des In.stittrts Orient'fltrscluurg. f;{IO: MitteiLungen .fiir MMJ der Ag,t'pter r.t tr J rc P e r e p e l k i n ,P r i t ' o t e i g e n t t r r .P : r c p e l k i n ,' J . , P r i t ' t L t t ' i g t t r t t r . trlar. iVor.stellurtg (Tijbingcn' l9U6)' trans.R. Miiller-Wollernlann Reir'h.s, rles,[.\rcn ( . M.F , r P e t r i e .A t h r i b i s : 'P' ctt1i'ct,W .r a p l t i.L A r l t r i b i . r l - o n c l o n I 9 0 l l ) . l r t tg u l B i b l i o g r a p h t ' : P o r t c r .B . - M o s s , R . , T o p o g r a p l r i c a l Porter - Moss, g,s Reliefsuntl Puintin (Oxlbrcl, l92l -52: Bib!iograp16'rf Attt'ientEgt'lttitut Hierttglt'phiLTe-xts, c s c c o n d d .J . M d l c k , 1 9 6 0 - ) . K i t P o s e n e r - K r i 6 g e r- d c C e n i v a l ' ' l - h e \ b u S i r P t t p l r . P o s c n c r r i 6 g c r ,l ) . c l c C e n i v a l ,J TlrcAbu Sir Pctptri(Lonclon,l96tl). Fifth Serias, Museunt: L., Hieratic Pttpl'ri in the Briti.sh (r ttl Quibcll,J. E., E.u'ttt'tttictttsS u t l r l u r u , v o l s .( C a i r o ,1 9 0 7 - 1 9 2 3 ) . Quibelf, Sutlqarct'. P v r u n r i d ,N o r r l t S i d . Q u i b e l l - I i i y t e r . T e t i N o r t h : Q u i b c l l .J . E . H a y t c r .A . G . K . . ' l - e t i ( C a i r o ,1 9 2 7 ) . n Rankc. H., Di e altti gt'ptiscltenPe rsrtne n utnen, 3 vols. (Gliickstadt, Ranke, Personettttlnrcrt'. 1935-11). R o b i n s , P r o p r t r l i o nc m d S l Y l e : Robins, G., Proprtrtiort ttnd Style in Ant'ient Egt'TtticutArl (London,1994). R o c c a t i , L i t t i r u t u r e ' . R o c c a t i ,A.. Lu littirctture ltistrtrique sous l'Ancien Ertrpire /gtltticn ( P a r i s ,1 9 8 2 ) . Roth. Palace Attentlunt.r: Rctth.A. M.. Girtt Mttslabu', Vttlunte6: A Centeteryol Pol(tce Attendants(Boston,I 99-5 ). Kultur. i.schen n SAK: Srurlie zur Alttigt'1tt , o ( A Sethe. Urfr.: Scthe.K., (/rkundent l e , y I t e n R e i t ' l t e . s .r,,1 l s . L . c i p z i g1 9 3 2 - 3 3 ) . of . Sinrpson, Qar uncl /r/a: SirnPsonW. K.. The Mastrtbrts Qar cntl ldu: G7 l0l tnd 7102 (Boston, 976). 1 I)art I W. Simpson, WeisternCemetert".Sirnpson, K.. Mustrtbosrtf tlte WasternCentetert': ( B o s t o n ,1 9 t 3 0 ) . o.l'Eglpt in the Old Kingdotrt Strudwick, Atlministratiorl: Slrudwick,N., T/rcAtlnini.vtration (t,ondon. 98-5). 1 E.tcavution, Ubclaker,D.H., HuntanSkeletulRenrttins: Rentcins'. ijb"luk"., HunrcutSkeletctl 2 o ( S r n i t h s o n i aIn s t i t u t i o n u b l i c a t i o nN { a n u a l s n A r c h a e o l o g y : P , n In Arrnlr.si.i. terDretatioil D Washington . C.. l9u4). (Cairo, r Vaf loggia, M edorL'N efer'. V a l l o g g i a , B t L l t t t L ( M L t . \ t ( t l ,r(ltr 'M r ' t l , , r rN t . l c . 2 vols. l9tt6). Vandier. M antrel'.Vandier ManueI tl'ur<'It(olttgie{gt1ttienne, 6 vols. (Paris, r 9 - 5 2 - 7 8 ) . Wb: Erntan.A. - GraPow, (eds.), lVdrrerbuch tler tigt'ptischen Sprctche, 6 vols.(l-eipzig, ; 1 9 2 6 -l3 n e wc d . l 9 7 l ) . Z i b e l i u s , S i e d l u n g e n : Z i b c l i u s ,K Agyptist'he Siedlungen nat'lt Tc.rten des AIten Reiclte's (Wicsbadcn, l97U). Ziegler, Cataloguetles sti/es: Zieglcr. C., CtnaLttgucdes stiles, peintures et relie.fsdgtlttiens de l'AncienEnpire et de lu Premi\re Plriode lntermidiaire (Paris' 1990)

THE MASTABA OF NEDJET.EM.PET

T H E T ON{ BOW NER AND HER FAMILY


The Tomb Owner NAMES 'Nedjet-en1-pet'. namemay mean'a gift from heaven' or'one The l- Ndt-m-pf I 'her is describcd rn.s <t as The samcname from heaven'.2 who is protected on greatname'in the inscriptions side I o1the sarcophagus. 'Ttt ' . 2- T jt3'Tit', or Tjti+ TITLES of l- hm(t)-ntr Nt mhtjt jnb.s upt rrrut'prtestess Neith, north of her wetll, 'north or as of the wall',5 described of the ways'. Neith is occasionally opener 'opener the ways',6 the combintrtion the two epithets uncommon.T is of br-rt of of 2- hnt(t)-ntr flrut-hr nbt nht'priestess Hathor,lady of the sycatmore'.8 of 3- rlt nsrut'acquaintance the king'.u The name Nit-nt-pt is rare. It is carried,for example,at Giza by the wives of form, NdfAn Ztufrt andMru-kr.7,ll and by the motherof Mrtw-<t1b.t2 abridged than of alsoof Giza,l3who is probablyearlie_r fbr pf, is attested the daughter <rrb, his of in More importantly, the mastaba Mrruu-k;.7 examples.l4 the abovementioned name ryf.t: The mother is depictedwith the name Ndf-tt-pt and the beautiful of infrequency the nameand the beautifulnameand the locationof Nit-m-pt's leaveslittle doubt that the nearthat of Mrrurkr.7's in the Teti Cemetery, mastaba that in her son'stomb N|t-m'pt ts mother. It is noticecl owner was Mrrzu-kt.j's of only given the title rbt nswt, while his wif-eheld the priesthoods both Hatlror

2 3 4 5
6 'l 5 9 l0 ll

l2 l3 l4

l5

l, Pe Rirnke. rsotrettnanten 215:'/. Giza 5, 152. sce For a cliscussion .lunker, l, Ranke.Personennunren 318 19. Ibid.378:25. C J S c ef o r c x a m p l e u n k e r , i z u 2 , 1 6 2 ;v o l . 6 . 2 4 4 , l ' i g . 1 0 4 ;D u c l l ,M e r e r u k o ,p l . 4 6 . i a v J u n k e rG i z a 3 . 2 0 ( t - 2 0 1 ;o l . 4 , 7 ; v o l . 8 , 7 2 ;K a n a w a tc L a l . . S n q q a r1 . p I . 3 6 . , G A s i n L e p s i u sD e n k n t t i l eIrI , 8 7 ; J u n k c r . i z a4 , 1 . . 2 s , d F o r a s t u d yo f t h c p r i e s t h o o o [ ' H a t h o r e cG i l l a n r . I A R C E3 2 I 1 9 9 5 ] . l 9 l ' i . . ; S B r u n n c r , A K I | 9 7 4 1 , 5 8 f ' f 'F i s c h e rV a r i u , 8 n . 1 5 . Giza 5, 251, 259. Hassan, M 3 J u n k e rG i z a9 . 7 0 - 8 3 ,f i g s .2 3 . 3 8 ; F i s c h e r , I O 1 [ 1 9 6 0 1 . 1 0 - 1 2 . , courtcsy the Muscurnof Fine Arts. Boston). of Tomb No. 7766 (infbrmation G J u n k e r , i z t t5 , 1 5 2 .l ' i g .4 4 . Thc type of chair usedby thc tonrb owncr anclhis wil-canclshown on the pancl ol'thc lalsc an with bull's legsand thc cushionbu1no back,woulclsuggest early date. cloor(ibici,iig. 4-5), Mosldbds ltt'1tog(e.r,28. et For thc latterdetailseeCherpion, D u e l l . M e r e r u k t , p l s . 1 5 0 .l - 5 9 .l 6 l . 1 6 6 - 6 7 .

ll

NEDJET_EM_PET

doesnot meanthat the motherdid not enjoy these and Neith.l6 J[is, however, on may indicatean emphasis the positionof Mrrw-b.7's wife, titles at the time, but 'king'sdaughter his body' and who is regularlydepictedin front of of who was a him while the motheris behindhim. The Husband of Nedjet-em-pet that It hasbeensuggested Nit-m-pt, the motherof Mrru-ki./, was possiblythe sameas the wife of Mrw-kt.j of Grza.lT Had the name of the latter'seldestson such survivedin his tomb,it would havestrengthened a likely identification. The Son of Nedjet-em-pet amongthe few inscriptions The nameis not preserved Mrrw-kt.jtS'Mereruka'. as surviving in the tomb of Ndt-m'pt. However,sincesheappears his mothel in the Mrrw-kt.j's largenearbymastaba,le kinshipis safelyestablished. The Daughter of Nedjet-em-pet on She Httt-R<20'Hemet-Re'. is depicted the north wall of room V, claspingher which may from the debrisbelow the scene, fragmentrecovered mother'slegs. A jnufuu(t)Ilntt-R<'hercldestdaughtcr, well belongto her,reads: [ztt.s?]sttsttt(t) one, Hemet-Re'. the honoured The Daughter-in-law of Nedjet-em-pet recovered fiorn the debrisin room V show the Zizitzt'Seshseshet'.Fragments aboveher, each headof a woman and at leastthreevertical lines of inscriptions As Seshseshet'. this nameis not nfr Zizit'her beautifulnarne, ending wrth rn.s in to attributed Ndt-tn-pt on her own lalse door <-tr Mrrru-kt.j's tomb, it seems own wife. The Mrrul-kt.7's of likely that this is a representation the royal princess, that tomb,22 it is possible and in together the latter's frequently two women appear chapel. in wife werealsodepicted his ntother's Mrrzu-kt.jandhis

II

DATING OF NEDJET-EM.PET

Mrru-ks.j's motherand was As statedabove,NQt-m-pt was almostcertainly immediatelyeastof that of is depictedin his tomb. Ndt-nt-pt's mastaba situated of and Spsj-pw-Pth,23 to the north-east that of Kt-gnt-n7, openingin the same appear have to in The main mastabas this cemetery streetas the latter.24 north-south
l6 l1 I8 I9 20 2t 22 23 24 t b i d ,p l s . 4 6 , 8 8 ,l 5 0 . Harpur,Decorotion,14. . l, Ranke,Personennamen 162:27 Duell, Mereruka,2 vols.,passim. |,240:5. Ranke,Personennanten lbict298:t. , D u c l l ,M e r e r u k a ,p l s . 1 5 0 ,1 5 9 ,l 6 l , 1 6 6 - 6 7 Milanges2, 2l()fl. Abder-Raziq, - Moss, Bibliography' pl. -52. 3. Porter

12

NEDJET-EM-PET

been built during the reign of Teti, althoughsome were presumablycompleted lying immedjately the west of that of NQt-m-pt under Pepy I.25 Two mastabas to shouldbe considered.The first belongsto Spsj-pru-Pth26 who, like Mrrw-kt.j,27 and N/r-sim-Pth,2ewas marriedto a womanwith the designation Kt-gm-n.j28 of or ztt nswt nt futfo who might be a daughter a descendant king Teti. Spsj-pwof Pth probablybelongsto the reign of Teti.3l The second mastaba, datedto the same of reign, is that of the overseer Upper Egypt Nj-ktw-lzzj32 who is probably the in of sameindividual mentioned the decree Teti at Abydos.33 date:Reign of Teti, probablylate. Suggested

ilI Pls.36-38.

ARCHITECTURAL

FEATURES

of The tomb of Ndt-m-pf coversa large areaand is composed an entrance roof and a small antechamber vestibule,an opencouft, a corridor or stairwayto the which leadsto the offering chamber. Otherthan blocksof limestoneforming the of entrance doorway,the falsedoor and elements the falsedoor niche in the offering is of small stones chapel,the mastaba constructed black mud brick incorporating part is missingand nothingremainsof the vaulted and piecesof pottery. The upper roofedthe rooms. Few of the internalwalls mud-brickceilingswhich presumably above 1.20m.,so no heightsof walls, ceilingsor doorwayscan be are preserved is provided. The surfaceof the baserock on which the mastaba constructed quite is uneven,and a fill of gravel and sandto level the floor is visible in the offering the chamberand in the areasurrounding main shaft. The brick wall betweenrooms .75m. III and V as well as the side walls of the main shaftextendapproximately floor level of the mastaba. beneath the The streets along the west and north walls were both extensively usedfor later burials and there is also evidenceof intrusiveshaftsin the tomb itself. In the open with a mixture of stone, court and corridor areasare remainsof walls constructed undressed chunks of limestoneand mud brick, most of which were probably of connectedwith intrusive shafts. The reconstruction the original plan is hypotheticalbut the exclusionof someshaftshas beenbasedon severalfactors. walls of the main shaftwhich riseonly .20m.abovethe present Unlike the retaining floor level, the side walls of othersin room III remain to a height up to 1.00m. from room I to room IV and the above the mastabafloor, and interrupt access a offering chamber(room V) which suggest lateruseof the areawhen rubble and
25 26 27 28 29 30 3l 2, Kanawatietal.,SaqqaraI, i0; Lloyd etal.,suqqAraTontbs passirn. - Hayter,Teti Nortlt,20-23; Abcler-Raziq, Milcmges2,2l9lf. Quibcll Duell, Mereruka, pls.21, 46, 51, 64,83, 96. v o n B i s s i n g G e m - n i - k aIi, p l . 2 1 . , 2, Capart,Rue rie totnbeaux pls. 9l-93. 2,221 |-ig. 4,221 l'ig.6. Abder-Raziq Mdlanges , 5 F o r a d a t c i n t h e m i d d l c o l ' D y n a s t y 6 o r l a t e r s c c P o r t e r - MB is s , o g r a p h y ' 3l,t-3 ;B a e r , o bti Title,ll U 68Al. R a n ka n d 32 The mastaba Scc Kanawati al.,Saqqara1,8-9. ct remains unpublishcd. 3 3 G o e d i c k eK c ) n i g l i c h D o k u n t e n t e , 3 T - 4 0 , f i g . J a r n e s , i e r o g l t p t t i c e r t . g , 3 3 , p l . 3 1 . H T e 3; 1 ,

l3

NEDJET_EM-PET havealso debrismay havefilled, at leastpartly,the courtyard.Somebrick courses walls, as has the rnouthof the shaft of /b/ the intrudedon and damaged original alignedE-W which was cut underand into the eastwall of room IV. Five shafts with the to rnay be assumed be contemporary along the southempart of the mastaba walls and apparently within the structural originalbuilding,as they are designed flight of stairsto the roof. reached an adjacent by sideof the same on of Like the eastwall of the mastaba Spsj-ptu-Pth the opposite 's with a of the west and north faEades Ndt-nrpf tomb were decorated street,34 in brick, they havc an average nichcs. Constructed panelling plain compound of of and a depthat the centralnicheo1'.25-.27n. Several the width of .45-.55m. plaster bound a which covered coatof n-rud of nichesretainfragments a whitewash thc walls received sametreatment. that both faEade with straw,and it is possible end wcstwall ancl thrceat the western are Five of theseniches clearlyvisibleon the part of the north wall, against eastern of the north wall. In the lesslvell preserved the can which later shaftswere constructed, be distinguished remainsof two or threeotherniches. N-S x 9.60m.E-W. are superstructure I 1.75m. of The dimensions the mastaba's to still stands 2.35m.,the north of the entrance of Althougha section the faEade to Tlie entrance Ndt-rttwalls cannotbe determined. originalheightof the external 's tomb, like many othersin this part of the Teti cetnetery, placed at the was pf no and end of the fagade.The walls on eithersideare darnaged therefore southern doorwaycan be provided. However,found of lines or measurements the entrance just of during the excavation shaft8, which lies at the SW cornerof the mastaba wide x .16m. were parts of a limestonelintel, 1.054m. south of the entrance, for and high,3-5 drum, .40m.wide x.l35m. thick. Both are inscribed Ndt-m-1tt doorway. of are andundoubtedly elements the entrance The doorway leadsinto room I, a snall chamber2.4Am.N-S x 2.50m. E-W a vestibule. All walls received coat of servedas an entrance which apparently plaster mixed with straw which was overlaidwith a yellow taf-el mud plaster brown and then given a thin layer of creamywhitewash.The NW cornerof the roon is and the westand north to standing a heightof 2.10m., well-preserved, reasonably outlinedin red paint. At the southend of the walls retaina smallportionof scenes two wall is a doorway.50m.wide x .53m.thick within which are preserved east plastered. The doorwayleadsto ol brick ancl in steps.15-.20m. heightconstructed 'corridor',room II, which extendsto the externaleastwall of the a long, narrow and may originally have housedstairsleadingto the roof. It measures mastaba the southwalls of roomsI and II and the E-W x 1.05m.N-S. Between 5.25m. separated walls of mud brick, which by shafts, externalsouthwall are five square probablydateto the originalconstruction. wide x.l5m. deep 1.00m. At the eastend of the north wall of room I a recess of thick, with fragments painteddecoration definesa doorway.65m.wide x .35m. on preserved the west door thickness.The doorwayopensinto room III, a large
34 Quibell - Haytcr,Teti North.20-23. (R 3 5 A t G i z a t h e n o r m a l m a x i m u m s p a no l ' a s i n g l c a r c h i t r a v c s 1 . 2 0 - 1 . 5 0 r n . o t h , P c t l r t c e i Attenclants,l5).

l4

NEDJET-EM-PET

2.60m. area which was probablyan open court. Irregularin shape,it measures N-S on the west wall x 4.10m.on the eastwall x 6.75m.E-W on the north wall of and 5.25m.on the southwall. Therearetraces white plasteron the west,south of and north walls but no evidence any decoration.Cut into the floor of this court, to contiguouswith the north wall, is the largemouth of a shaft giving access the Two srnaller shafts into the rock arelocated the SE cut in buriai apartment. owner's part of the cour-t, the remainsof brick walls standing nearlya metreabovethe and to floor suggest that theremay havebeenother,intmsive,burials. extremityof the north wall of the court, .45m. A narrow doorwayat the eastern .85m.wide x .15m.deep. wide x .60m.thick, is definedon the northby a recess which measures 2.05m.N-S x The doorwayleadsto room IV, a smallantechamber of 1.65m.E-W. The west and north walls retainevidence plasterand red paint of the dado. Two small falsedoorsinscribedfor an official namedlbj were placed to adjacent eachother at the southend of the west wall, and an intrusiveshaftcut underand into the lengthof the eastwall. is access gainedto the offering chamber(room V) through From this antechamber a doorwayat the north end of the west wall. It is .57m.wide x .38m.thick and is .85m.wide x .17m.deep. Both thicknesses retain definedon the west by a recess someplasterand on the north side are the remainsof a paintedscene. The offering 4. chambermeasures l5m. E-W x 2.05m.N-S. Tracesof plasterand paint remain of on the lower part of the eastwall and fragments two figuresand the dadoon the north wall retainsa good southwall, while the betterpreserved largely destroyed in portion of the paintedscenes the two lower registers.Set into the west wall of limestone falsedoor, 1.60m. wide and 2.62m.high, room V is a large inscribed of which has a cavettocorniceand threepairs of jambs. The measurements the lintel L2lm. x .22m.; centralpanel .385m. squarewith side door are: upper x a p e r t u r e s c h . 0 6 mw i d e ,l o w e r l i n t e.l 5 2 m . . l 9 m . ; d r u m . l l m . x . l 0 m . ; o u t e r ea . j a m b s . 2 1 m .x 1 . 9 6 m . m i d d l ej a m b s . 1 6 - . 1 7 mx l . l 2 m . , i n n e r j a m b s. 2 0 m .x ; . one Ll5m.; centralniche 1.00m.x .l lm. On eithersideis preserved courseof .20m.wide and .455m.high, which formedthe sidewalls large limestoneblocks, the of the falsedoor niche,its floor havinga stonepaving l0-.15m.high across entirewidth. Placedon the stonefloor in front of the falsedoor rs a htp offering part and .26m.deepx table .98m.wide x .34m.deepx .225m.high in the western part. .20m.high in the eastern

IV
P l s . 4 c ,3 7 , 3 8 .

BURIAL APARTMENTS

The main shaftis cut into the floor of the opencourt(roomIII). In the SE section have brick retainingwalls of the court two smallershaftswith burial apartments at above the floor level and may have been constructed a later time when the Otherbrick walls in thecourtmay belongto two was no longeraccessible. mastaba and probablywere eitherunfinishedor other shaftswhich haveno burial chamber is Anotherburial apartment in room IV along the eastwall. Five not very deep. are between southwalls of the two with burial apartments, situated verticalshafts, abovethe rock level by roomsI and II and the southwall of the mastaba.Separated

t-)

NEDJET-EM-PET

walls built of brick, thesemay have been part of the original constructionwith probablyfrom the roof. It is suspected the areabetween west walls access that the wall may includeothershafts. No attempt of roomsIII and V and the west faqade was made to clear this areabelow a height of approximately1.00m.above the floor as suchexcavations could haveundermined larse falsedoor and the mastaba the fragile west and norlh walls of the courl. jars, jar standsand bowls of From the burial apartment Nflt-m-pf were recovered modeljars anddishes limestone, well as several of as itemsof of pottery,numerous from the shaft I I in room IV (see alabaster and copper. Threepots were recovered Burial of Ibi) but noneof the other nine shaftsyieldedany finds. in I . Unlike most of the burial apartments the Teti cemeterywhich were accessed the of from the roof of the mastaba, shaftleadingto the burial apaftment Ndt-mpf is locatedin an opencourlyardwithin the mastaba.The mouth of the shaft, 2.15m. a which occupies good portion of the floor areaof room III, measures herefalls considerably below the N-S x 2.25m.E-W. As the bedrocksurface part of the shafthasretainingwalls, ca the floor level of the mastaba, uppermost of high, constructed mud bdsft.36The walls of the shaftcut through .10-75m. vertically to a depth the rock becomenanowerand twist slightly as they descend of 14.60m. At the shaft floor the walls measure1.65m.on the north, 1.85m. on on the eastand 1.30m. the south. The entirewestwall and a goodportionof walls are cut away to provide an opening2.45m. wide x the north and south to into position a 2.25m.high which enabled largesarcophagus be manipulated is in the burial chamber.This chamber not cut at right anglesto the shaftor to Grid North. The ceiling,floor but the mastaba is closelyalignedto the Saqqara while the north and quite evenly cut, althoughnot smoothed, and west walls are measures 5.50m. N-S southwalls haverough surfaces.The burial apartment on the eastside and 4.65m. at the west wall x 3.75m.E-W on the north wall or and 3.20m.on the southwall x2.25m. high. A recess ledgealongthe full 1.40m.,a depthof .llm. and a length of the west wall has a sill heightof heightof .80m.37 Placed in front of, and aligned with, the west wall is a massivelimestone its sarcophagus, head end lying just beneaththe false door in the offering externally2.94m.long x 1.35m.wide chamber(room V). The chestmeasures at the top and 1.39m.wide at the bottomx 1.20m.high. The side walls are are .28m. thick, and the internalmeasurements 2.25m.long x approximately wide lid, still in place, 3.20m.long x 1.38m. is .75m.wide x .80m.high. The reasonably well cut but not x .45m. thick. The exterior of the sarcophagus, has smoothed, no decoration.The interiorwalls are well finishedand a single horizontalline of text betweentwo registerlines is inscribedon the headand two side walls. Outlinedin black paint,the signswere given a coat of cream washbut detailswere neithercarvednor painted. Near the headend on the east
3 6 In shafisat Giza walls constructed of abovethc bedrockaregenerally stonc,and rarcly ol'mud b r i c k( i b i d , 1 8 ) . 3 7 It has been suggested of that a similar recessin thc burial charnber ,nb-nt-r-Hr servcdas a was shelf on which to rest the lid until thc sarcophagus readyto bc scalcd(Firth - Gunn, i'etl Pyr. Cent. l. 16).

l6

NEDJET-EM-PET

has meAsllrements .70m. sideof the chesta breakmadebv robbers rnaximum of x .40m. with theeastwall of themouthof shaftI andwith thenorthwall of 2 . Contiguous . T r o o m I I I i s a s h a f i 1 . 1 5 m s q l r a r e . h e b r i c k w a l l s a l o n gt h e e a s ta n d s o r , r t h l.00rn. anclthc shafi does not sidesremaincdto a heightof approximatelv lloor level. extendbclow the present floor clirectly ol tlratbelonging Nit-nt-pt. !,i. to 3 . Shaft3 is cut into thecourtyard N-S anda depthof 5.00ni. At the floor o1' It hasa mouth.92n. E-W x 1.00m. wiclex .95n. high, leacls a the shaft an openingin thc southwall, .9-5nr. to N-S x .9-5nr. .95m.E-W x 2.05nr. high. The floor ol'the burialareamcasuring has thc of burialchamber brokcnthrough ccilingol'thc burialchambcr shaft,l below. which lies irnmediately squarc 4 . A largerverticalshaftin the SE cornerof the court with a rnouth Lzl-5nr. whcrcan opcningin the westwall rock thror-rgh to a dcpthof-5.9-5m. descends shapcd br-rrial chanrbcr.It l.45rn.wide x l.lOrn. high lcadsto an irrcgularly N-S 2.35n-r. on the eastwall and 2.40m.on the west wall x l.90nr. measures on E-W on the southwall and 1.60m. the northwall. The ceiling,now with a of openinginto the burialchamber shafi3, hasa slightdownwardslopc break to ol' alongthewestwall. frorntheentrance give a height 1.00m. part of the north wall of the court appears havebeenlargcly cut to 5 . The eastern shaft-5. The brick walls of the shafi,still of away in the proccss constructing jr-rst over 1.00rn., surround mouth.80m.square a to and standing a heightof o1 beneath f'loorlevelinto thebaserock. the thereis no evidence cLrtting with the southwall of the aligned E-W rvhicharecontiguous 6 . Oneof fivc shafis cornerappeafs havebeenlefi very incornplctc.It to rnastaba, shaft6 at thc SE, E h a s a m o u t h 1 . 2 5 m . - W x l . 3 0 n i .N - S a n d a d e p t ho f 1 . 8 0 m . U n c u t r o c k high remains alongthe northwall, and variouslevelsol.30rn.wide x l.-50rn. in a section rock .4-5m. of wide alongthe eastwall. cuttingareevident squareand a dcpth of Directly wcst of shaft 6, shaft7 has a mouth 1.0-5m. wide hasa ceilingcut at a sharp 2.05m. In the north wall an opening.95rn. gives angle which slopesfrom a heightof 1.05m.to .8-5rn.This entrance E-W at the entrancc shapcd burialareameasllring .95n'r. access an irregularly to and .60m.at the northwall x l.90rn.N-S, with a ceilingslopingdownwardto .70m.at the north wall. square a tnaxirnum and depthof 1.65m.The shaft Shafi8 hasa mouth 1.30m. unllnished.At the bottornof the floor hassevelallevelsandthe cuttingappcars thc lower four coursesol' an oval, domcd strllctllre shaft were preserved of constructed mud brick. It has a maximumlenethof 1.00m.and possiblv burial. a housed contracted a shaft t hats rnouth l.30rn. squareand a depthof 1.4-5m. 9. Also unfinished, part of the southwalls,a triangular scctionof ernd alongthe east Remaining not of uncutrock hasa hcishtof 1.35m.. lar belowthefirst course brickwork.

t1

NEDJET-EM-PET

abuttingthe faqadewall, is a shaft with a 1 0 . In the SW corner of the mastaba,

mouth 1.20m.E-W x 1.30m.N-S which is cut into the rock to a depth of 2.60m. At the floor of the shaft uncut rock along the east and south sides remainsto a height of .50m. An openingin the west wall L30m. wide x N-S 1.7-5m. x .85m.E-W x which nteasufes .90m.high leadsto a burial errea . 9 0 m .h i g h . SeeBurialof Ibi. SCENES AND INSCRIPTIONS

[.

o1-nudbrick. RoomsI, [V and V were The walls of the chapelwereconstructed in executed painting. Both and inscriptions with scenes pllsteredand clecorated to those of Mtti now in the Louvre blaster and decorationare very similar A museum.3S thick layer of plasterlormed of mud and strawwas coveredwitrr a a I'ew millimetresthick, of yellowishargil mixed with sandand somefine, layer, flbre. This was thencoatedwith a thin, smoothcreamypiecesof vegetable smeill Most of the upperpartsof the nes white wash,on which paintedsce wereexecuted. are of and wllls havedisappeared only in thc lowcr registers certainsections scenes of with an accumulation sandand debris The areawas latercovered preserved. gravelwas high) of clean,very compact (approximately -50cm. abovewhich a layer for a New Kingdomtomb built of rnudbrick laiclto providea siahlefoundation of elements stone,most of which and somearchitecturatl walls with a pavement of The pressure weight on the survivingOld Kingdom have now diiappearecl. in some areaswhere the mud brick has yielded and certain walls is evident lintel, The entrance appearance. now havea wavy, undulating horizontalregisters areeach formed of one chamber ,lru* anclthe falsedoor in thc off-ering the entrance and figures,with limited with incisedhieroglyphs block decorated limestone modellingandcletails. The Entrance Pls.3tt, 3b, 39u, 39b. one in The Lintel: jmtlut rn nnjt jmntjt furlnpu Ndt-tn-pt rn ...'the honoured beforeAnubis,Nedjet-em-pet, beautiful]name'..''. [her the westerndesert, read: The Drum: Two linesof inscriptions' ( l ) (1) lmr(t)-ntr"..ltm(t)-ntrNt wpt Turut s s . . . t h e p r i e s t e so f . . . , t h e p r i e s t e s o f ( 2 ) . . . w s j r N d t - n t - p tr n . s n f r T j t Tit'. name, her Nedjet-em-pet, beautiful Neith,op"n"t of the ways(2) ... Osiris, Room I Pls.3c, 39c, 39d, 39e. in in The decoration this room is executed red outlineonly andis now very poorly depicting preserved.On the north wall are the remainsof the two lower registers
38 Zieg.ler, l. des Catalogue, stiles,32-36,123--5

l8

NEDJET-EM-PET

Both the west wall and west door herdsmen leadingoxen in an animalprocession. to sccncs ofl'cring of bearers, alsooutlinedin thickness room III retainfragmentary red. Room V THE DOORWAY partof its originaldecoration. eachol-thc thickness retains In Only the northern preservcd proceeding arc ofl'cring bearers two lower registers two incompletely (no facsirnile). towardsthe insideof the room THE FALSE DOOR Pls.5, 40. in door with a torus Set into a recess the west wall is a monolithiclimestone by mouldingand surmounted a cavettocornice. It was paintedred to simulate retainsomeblue paint. However,the graniteand the figures and inscriptions in coloursaremuch betterpreserved the lower partof the door. The UpperLintel: At the left is a ligureof the ownerholdinga lotusflower closeto her nose whilc sitting on a chair with lion's legs. In fi'ont of the figure are two (l-2) and two vertical(3-4) linesol'hieroglyphs which read:( l) |ttp dj horizontal qrs.tj.sm ltrt-n[r (2) htTttlj nswt htp lrtpzulntj zl.t-ntrjmj zut tpj tlru.fnb t: t-lsr

'(1) An offeringwhich the king givesand an ofl'eringwhich Ndt-m-pt rn.s nfr Tjt place,who is on his Anubis,foremost the divinebooth,who is in the embalming of land (gives), that shebe buriedin the necropolis.(2) An hill, lord of the sacred offeringwhich the king givesand an offeringwhich Osiris,loremostof Busiris gives. May an invocationoffering corre forth for her throughoutthe courseof her one beforethc grcatgod, (4) Nedjet-em-pct, every day. (3) The honoured , b e a u t i f un a m e T i t ' . l The CentralPanel: The tomb owner sits at an offering table ladenwith fourteen her hall'loavesof bread. Sheextends right handto the tablewhile carryinga lotus flower in her left. On one sideof the tableis a cwer in a basinplacedon a stand, 'one is mnbt thousand and on the othersideis writtenfu t lt hnqt fu kt l1ttpd l.1t l.1t of o1'lowl,onc of of bread,one thousand beer,one thousand oxen,onc thousand and of of thousand alabaster one thousand clothes'.Above the sceneis written jmtfuw[t] l1r Wsjr Ndt-m-pt rn.s nfr Tjt 'the honoured one befbreOsiris,Nedjether beautifulname,Tit'. em-pet, lines ( l-2) end with a figure of the owner', The Lower Lintel: Two horizontal Hwt-l.tr nbt nht (2) similar to that on the upperlintel. (1) rbt nsrtttl.utt(t)-ntr of ol' jm:fuwtNQt-rn-ptrn.s nfr Tjt '(1) thc acquaintance the king, the priestess (2) the honor-rred Nedjet-em-pet, beautiful one, her Hathor,lady of the sycamore, name,Tit'.
39 For thc expression hnu r( /11, Wb 3, 391. see firt

(3) n.s prt-furru m brt lrru r<nb3e jmtfuut ntr <t(4) nsu,t dj Wsjrfuntj htp Ddru br

l9

NEDJET-EM_PET

T'he Jambs: Each of the threejambs contains two vertical lines of hieroglyphs and ends with a standingfigure of the tomb owner holding a lotus flower to irir nose. The inscriptionson each of the coresponding right anclleft.jambs are identical.

hontlttrecl s travcl. that her hand/credentialca0 accepled thc god, that the one be by westcrndesertassists her.4l (2) Thc acquaintance the king, the priestess of of Hathor,lady o1'thesycamore, priestess Neith,northof hcr wali. openerof the of the ways,the honottrccl beforeOsiris, one Ned.jet-cm-pct, beautiful he-r name, Tit'.

TheOuterJambs:(l) lJr jnullzut (i hr.sn ispt .l.ttp Wsjr sim.tj.s wnutdsrku)t <_.s_ dj zrnjtjnmtjt <i1tj.s (2) rbt nxut lJnt(t)-ntr lpptnbt nht ttnr(t)-ntr jn tttr r.s Hrut-l.ir jrtb.su\tt tuttut Nt rnftj-t jrntftrt,t wsjr Njt-m-ptt rn.snfr Tjt ,(l) An offering br which osiris gives,that shebe guided urpon sacrcd the i..-,a,lr, uponwhichthe

rt_b_p.sunut nfrku)t nt jmnt ints.tj.sjrtknu.s Thc Middle Jambs:(1) l.ttpdj ltr .n!r jtru nfr u,.rtQ) rlt nsutt l.un(t)-n!rHtut-ltr nbt nlit ltnt(t)-ntr Nt mltjt jnb.s zupt jrru[gzut lnTtruNL_lt-nt-ptt nfr Tjt 'tl) An of1'ering zu.tzut rn.s which rhe greargod lr gives, that she may travel upon the bcautilirl roads of the west, that she be accompanied her kas havingrcached vcry goodold age. (2) The acquaintance by a of the king, thc priestess Hathor,laclyof the sycarnorc, priestess Neith, of the of northof her wall, opener theways,thc honoured befbreAnubis,Ncdiet-emof one pet,her beautiful name, Tit'. The lnncr Jaintrs: (1) rl.1t trxut l.nn(t)-ntrHutt-ltr nbt nltt hnt(t)-ntr Nt ntt.ttjt j n b . s n t p t t u t r t t t ( 2 )m t l . 4 u t u rn l r < t n b j m n t N d t - m - p t r n . s n f r T j t ' 1 1 )i h e j f acquaintance the king, the priestcss Hathor, lady of the sycamore, of of the priestess Neith, north of her wall, openerof the ways, (2) the honourecl of one befbrethe greatgocl,lord of thc west,Nedjet-em-pet, beautifulname,Tit'. her THE NORTH WALL Pls.4b, 6. 7. 11. 12. The upperpart of thc wall hasdisappcarecl only the lower two registers and are partlypreserved abovea banded dado. The top registershowsthc t-eet a large,scatedf'emale of figure wearinganklets, probablyN|t-nt-pt herself, and the renainsof a snrallkneelingl-emale probably claspingthe legs of NtJt-rn-pt. Ft'agments plaster of recovered fiom the debris immediatelybelow this scenepresurnably identify the srnallfigure as [ztf.s?] jmtfirtt(t)!7ttt-R<'hcreldest strtsru(t) claushter, honoured the one,Hemet-Re'.In fiont of the two wontenare sevcralstancls holdingbrcacl, cuts o1rneilt,geeseand vegetables wcll as containers fooclandclrinks.At theeastern of-thc wall as of encl are flve olfcring bearcrs advancing towarcls tomb owncr. In the bottomregister the at leasta l'urther twcnty-four offeringbearers depicted, wcaringshort,tight are all kilts. Sorne wring thc necks ol-geesc. son'rc support with thcir hancls traysol foocl placedon their shoulders, while othersleadon ropcssmall animalsor carry live

4 0 D a v i c sc t a l . ,S u q q A r u T o r r r b,.(s . l ) 4 I L i t . ' g i v c si t s h a n t l s o h e r ' . t

20

NEDJET-EM-PET or alsocarry in their hands, hangingfrom the crooksof their birds. Many bearers or of arms,bagsof food, forelegs oxen,vegetables lotusflowers. guidelines, drawn in red, havesurvivcdwell in the sectiondepicting The arrtist's the offering bearers.Sevenhorizontallincs were drawn,markingthe positionsof the crown of the head,the hairline of the lorchead,the join of the ncck and of the shoulders, armpits,the elbows,the wrists and the lower cLlrve the buttocks, throughthe ear dividesthe body into One axial verticalline passing and the knees. line the thus While the horizontal s extencl entirelengthof the register, two parts.42 at fixing an equalheightto all otfbringbearels,Jlhe velticallinesare positioned on different intervalsdepending the spaccrequiredfor illustratingeach ofl'ering bearerand the itemshe carries. t . tf A l i n e o f t e x t r u n s t h e l e n g t h oh e w a l la b o v e t h e b o t t o m r e g i s tIe r e a d s .: . . s m njuwts nt Trnthtu ...wpt rnpt m pfiutjt m tpj rnpt rn Wtg m lfu Zkr m hb Rkh m wt dt n jm'firut lr nlr ,t jmtbrut furlnpw tpj dzu.fNdt-m-pt r[n].s nfr f jt '... her ... and her towns of the North ..., at thc openingof the year feast,at the at at Thot feast,at the first of the yearfeast, the Wag-l-east, the feastof Sokarand at of the f-east the burning,in the extentof eternityfor the honouredone beforethe her greatgod, the honoured one beforeAnubis,who is on his hill, Nedjet-em-pet, beautifulname.Tit'. from the debriswhich filled room V show the head of er recovered Fragments and womanwearinga flllet and streamer at leastthreeverticallinesof hieroglyphs, It each ending with rn.s nfr Zizit'her beautifulname,Seshseshet'. has been of abovethat this might havebeena represcntation Nf,t-nt-pt'sdaughtersuggested belonged the north wall to but the in-law, the wife of Mrru-k1.7, whether fragments southwall is unknown. or to the opposite THE SOUTH WALL
in Only the feet o1'twoofferingbearers the bottom register and the remains of a The restofthe wall and its sceneshave disappeared. dadoarenow preserved.

The Sarcophagus Pls.8, 43. o1 Found in sittt in the burial chamberof the main shaft,the large sarcophagus of limestone, one for the chestand anotherfor Nf,t-m-pt was cut fiom two blocks nor on well cut, but neithcrsmoothed inscribed the lid. Both blocksarereasonably with a line of are the outside. The insidesurfaces betterfinishedand are inscribed 2 in hieroglyphs black ink only on eachof sidesI (east), (west)and 3 (north). were corrected, also in black ink, but that the initial inscriptions Thereis evidence changedownership. Such there is no reasonto believethat the sarcophagus
1 2 F o r t h e s t u c l yo f t h c s c g u i d e l i n c ss c c I v e r s e n ,C o n o n o n d P r o p r t r t i o n s ,2 ' / l I . , R o b i n s , le, Proportion and Sty 64|l'. 43 The present by on in dilf'crcnce thc hcightof certainl'igures this wall was causcd thc apparent prcssure the accuntulated sandanddebrisas wcll as the wcightol-latcrbuildings. of

2l

NEDJET_EM_PE'I

of of corections canbe seenin the repetition the sign l, in nsut, the replacement with that of .s in !p[fl.s on side 2 andin the re-writing of the sign f in the suffix .rf jmtfurut side 3. In all threecases originalsignsare slightly lighter in colour the on which appearto have been inked a secondtime, than the rest of the inscriptions ofchecking andcornecting. perhaps thecourse in by Ancient tomb robbersgainedentry to the sarcophagus breakingthroughthe top which damagedthe inscriptionsin this section. of the northernend of side 1,aa presumably crushed during the process cutting of However,otherthan small areas with fiagmentsfrom the reconstructed throughthe stone,the text can be completely found amongthe rubblein the burial chamber.No facsimileof the missingsection was but insidethe sarcophagus feasible, a handcopy of the textswas inscriptions produced. Side 1: l.ttpdj nswt futttjzh-ntr jmj wt tpj dru.frtb tt dsr qrs.tj.sm hrt-ntr jmtfowt 'An offeringwhich the king givesand the foremost furnlr g Tjtj rn.s <)Nf,t-m-pt of the divine booth,who is in the embalmingplace,who is on his hill, lord of the the one before that land (gives),45 shebe buriedin the necropolis, honoured sacred the greatgod, Titi, her greatname,Nedjet-em-pet'. nfv Side 2: htp dj nsrutnb Ddu bp[.fl.546 hr wtwt jptf nfr(w)t bppt jmtfuwthr.sn 'An offering which the king gives and the lord of Busiris (gives),that Ndt-m-pt she may travel well upon thesebeautiful roads,upon which the honouredones travel,Nedjet-em-pet'. ''fhe of acquaintance the king, the honoured Side 3: rfut nswt jntfuwt NQt-m-pt o n e .N e d j e t - e m - p e t .

VI

COLOUR CONVENTIONS

All walls were given a coat of black mud plasterwhich was coveredwith a yellow plaster mixed with fine vegetablefibre, and preparedfor painting with a thin outlinedin red are found on the north wash. The remainsof scenes creamy-white and west walls of room I and on the westjamb of the door leadingto room III. (room V) and fragments in are wall scenes preserved the otferingchamber Painted abovethe dado in room IV indicatethat this room was also of colour surviving decorated. In the offering chamberred guidelines,vertical and horizontal,are remainingon the north wall. presentin both of the registers

IA

46

where attemptsto break into thc sarcophagus of Comparc with the sarcophagus Kr(.j)-<pr(rp), places. scparate were madeat three of Althoughthc epithcts Anubis arc given,thc nameof'thc god is ontittcd. The sarncis lbund , O s i r i s o n s i d e 2 . I n t h i s c c m e t e r yM r r w - k t . j , N y ' - s i r r - R ' a n d l J n t i - k t . i i n t h e c a s co f of and/oron thc walls of'theirburialchanbersthc names the two sarcophagi on inscribed thcir F p h o n e t i c a l l yb u t w i t h n o d e t c r m i n a t i v e(s i r t h - C u n n , 7 ' e t iP t ' r . C e n t . 2 ,p l s . , 5 8 , 6 0 ; , gods pls. 4(l\:Kt-gnr-trj .'ndrttb-nt<-Hromittcd KhentiktL, -1.5, Jarnes. Duell, Meret-uko,pls.20l1l.; and refcrredto the godsby their cpithets(Firth - Gunn, Ieti Pyr. Cem.2, pls. 64, the nanres 60;Badirwy,<Anklmfrhor,pl. 80). -58, The sutlix .f was writtcn flrst, thenthc .s in ink.

22

NEDJET-EM-PET

Dado: Redbandaboveyellow, separated blackline,blackto f'loor. by Bandedfrreze: Blocks of red, brightblue and white separated tri-partiteblocks by of black-white-black. Register columnlines: Black. and Skin of malefigures: Cleiu ochrered with darkerred outline. figures: Yellow. Skin of f'emale Hair: Black. Eyes: Brow, eye outlineand iris black. White with red outline. Kilts and dresses: anklcts. Jewellery:Tracesof blue on tomb owner's Footrest:White. for Onewhite;one showsblackwood grainmarking. Stands/tables off-erings: lines. Flat woventrays: White with red diagonal carriedover the crook of an arm retain Woven baskets: Two of the five baskets colourand exhibit a varietyof weaves the six bandsof each in most of their (fiom top) red;bhrewith blackdots;white basket.That in the upperregister: with red hatching; blue with blackhatching; with white hatching; red bluc with black dots; outline and ropc handleblack. That at right in bottom (fi'om top) red; white with red diagonallines; white (black dots register: white u'ith red diagonal lines;white with blackdots;white with rnissing?); lincs;outlineandropcblack. red diagonal with fruit?: Carriedby sixthman fiom right in lower register, Containers container white outlinedin black;Iargefiuit yellow with sn-raller blue fruit (circles) above.both or:tlinedin recl. white ground;basespottedin Containerwith lotustop: Middle of lower register, linesandred verticallines;flower on black;upperpart with blackhorizontal top blue;all outlinedin black. Tall jars: Onered with blacktop; oneblue with blackspots. Jar: White with blackdetailandoutline. Jarcarriedovercrookof arm: White with blacklinesandblackrope. Lotus: Stemred, flower blue. Papyrus: Upper part now white with red outlineand detail;lower portion (below hand)red with blacklinesandoutline. Onions: Stemsandbulbswhite outlinedin red" (oncwhitc) with spotted blackmarkings, hoof Foreleg: Haunchred,leg orange-red yellow. in colletr or,rtlined black. Calf: White with blackmeu'kings, Antelope?:Paleorange-red. Calfs headon treiy: Yellow. Trussed duck on tray: Yellow. ycllow/brown body outlinedin rcd with blue Geese: At right in upperregister, on wing and wing tips blue; tail neartail; black markings brcast; shading f'eathers dark red with blue markingsand black outline;bcak rcd; red legs and in markings. In piled offbringsupperregister with dark red diagonal blue body,rcd head;wing and tail tips red with red andblack lower register, onewith blackf-eet. markings; roundloaf whitewith loal'white with yellowspots; Loaves:r-loafyellow;squarish black spots. spots. on Fruit?: carriedby two offering bearers woven flat tray - white with blr"re o[ top Vegetable?: no colour,stembands yellow andwhite with blackoutline.

L-)

NEDJET-E,M-PET

HieroglyPhic signs incisedon the entrance of Tracesof blue paint remainin several the hieroglyphs that all were paintedthe +, i;;, u,'1.,- and it mav be pl:t"l* l;,";..,'[;, and with all the figure^s inscriptions samecolour. The falsedoor was painted-red in recorded the offering listedbelow atre retainingtracesof biue colour. Afl signs on the north wall and a few are found chamber(room vl; ifr" vast majorit/are from the debris in that room' trigments recovered plaster_ pi"r"i".O on painted wall to the left of the tomb owner'sfeet are Most of the hierogiypil, on the n"orth likely that most of the signs were now white with red fr black outline,and it is colour' beforeapplying given a white undercoat Polychrome A20 tif Dl fJ in red Fleshyellow;kilt whire;staffyellow;outlined black hair anddetails Facerecl;

D39 tr..tr Arm red; t?lt Pot blue White groundwith red rib detailand outline F39 F40

nq ,A

White groundwith red rib detailand outline

Grl t,,,1l.F a c e w h i t e w i t h r e d d e t a i l o n f o r e h e a d ; w i n g s ' t a i l a n d l e g s y e l l o w ;


hockswhitewith blackdots;outlinedin red ancl breast and legsred Yellow with detailseye andoutlineblack;beak G43 \]. eyeandoutline x.':== Yellow with blackhorns, Ig two blackhorizontal Light yellow with fine red dotsandoutlineabove N26 Lj lines N37 E-Blue, outlinedin red - or underblue? red black;centresupport and Boothwhite with postbases ropelashing bottomwhite on blackbase Top yellow with blacksurround; pole on Yellow with blacklashing lowerhalf of

o22 li"jr o32 :' L


'l R8 V4 W3 Wl2

of Tie white,centre ropered' endblue I i red ',t"/'/ Yellow (onewhitc) with cliagonal lines;black outline !l and White with reddetails outline

Y2rt')sdrPirpyrusrollwhitewithreddetail'outlinedinblack;sealblue

Red D2l ' D36


rr11 U -1-1 l ll

D46 Aa2l
I

F35

o29

o34

s2e ll

24

NEDJET-EM-PET

Yellow

uo ='l
White signsoriginallyweregreen it is very likely thatall these

Mrr i
Green v30 '- -7 Blue Nl Black E15 lta,

u|

.,'1,' v28 ?

v:r \--^

Aa

f)

in all outlined black Nl7 '-:'U36

!t*il

w24 0

XI

N35 M

VII Pls.8ct,9.

HUMAN REMAINS

of Humanremainswere foundin the sarcophagus Ndt-m-pt. The wrappingsare are soft with a charredappearance, tissues completelylacking and badly decayed the body was mummified. The boneswere found loose thereis no evidencethat position. The skeletonis that on but lay extended the back in the correctanatomical of a female,the long bonesindicatinga personof between149cm.(4 feet l0 are small and inches)and 153cm.(5 feet) in height.aTThe skull and skeleton is scarsareall small andthe skull architecture smooth gracile,the muscleattachment gynaecoidin shape with sharpedgeson the orbits. The pelvis is unambiguously and proportions,the angle of the sciaticnotch is wide, the obturatorforamen is sulcusis wide and andthe preauricular thanroundin shape small and more angular deep. The individual is likely to havebeenover fifty yearsof age at death. There is of of extremedentalattrition,and 1007o the occlusalsurfaces all remainingteethare to When the molar teethare compared Brothwell'sa8 worn down to the dentine. group. Accordingto Todd's4e theyfall into the45+ age chartfor ageclassification, is this specimen a phase10,which indicates of 10 agephases the pubic symphysis ectohave almostcompletelydisappeared an age of 50+. The cranialsutures 2cm. on the is suture only faintly visiblefor approximately cranially. The coronial with a faint remainderin temples,the sagittalslltureis almosttotally obliterated,
11 Staturc TrotterandGlcserTablc in Krogrnan Iscan, wcremadctiom thc rnoditled calculations The Hunan Skeleton,308. 48 Bass,HunrunO.steoktgt',239, 153 l'ig. 19 Krcrgman Iscan,The Humun Skeleton, l5l.

25

NEDJET-EM_PET

40Voof its places;the lamboidalsutureis just faintly visitrleover approximately would indicatea personof middle to advanced of the sutures length. The condition this of age.50 However,because the unreliabilityof ageingfrom cranialsutures, wasnotedbut not reliedupon.5l method As stated above there is severedental attrition, in addition to other dental problems. Beginningwith the maxilla,the left first incisor(tooth 2.1) is chipped, and the left canine(tooth 2.3) is worn down to the gum level with the canalexposed aboveit that opensinto the palatalside. Tooth 2.5 is just and a periapicalabscess abovetooth 2.6 which has eroded place,as a resultof a largeabscess holding in abovetooth2.l on the buccal throughthe maxilla on the palatalsideand emerges On side. Teeth2.6 and2.J haveboth beenlost ante-mortem. the right sideof the maxilla,teethl. I and 1.2 areboth worn down to the canal,which hasbeenresealed to the growth. Tooth 1.3is chipped, canalof tooth 1.4is exposed the by secondary beginningat the extentthat the tooth is almosthollow, and thereis a smallabscess to apexof thetooth. Teeth1.6,1.1and 1.8are,tllworn almost the gum level. both first incisors(3.1 and 4.1) are missing,the root canals On the mandible, have resealedand some resorptionof alveolarbone has taken place, leaving a boneis very thin in this area. Tooth 3.6 hasan smoothsurface.Thus the alveolar it, and teeth 3.7 and 3.8 appearto have been lost ante-mortem below abscess to though the condition of the bone makesit difflcult to tell. There appears be with the bone retreatingfrom the roots of the molar teeth. periodontaldisease, Tooth 4.8 is worn to the gum levelandhasa heavybuild-upof calculus. on in There are slight arthriticchanges the cervicalspine,most pronounced C5 in is and 6. Arthritic degeneration nuch morein evidence the thoracicspine,with growthon nearlyall of the rnargins.T7 is slightly wedged lipping and osteophytic growth on the anterior to the anteriormargin and T8 and 9 are fusedby osteophytic onto T 10. There are large longitudinal ligament that is beginningto continue had on osteophytes L 3, 4 and 5. Somearthriticchange begunin the acetabulum. light, giving the is in The pelvis,like all of the otherbones the skeleton, extremely in the right pubis approximately There is a fracture of impression osteoporosis. to that 3cm. from the pubic symphysis, wasbeginning healat time of death. There 2crn.long) on the shaftof the right femurjust inferior to is a crack (approximately to the greatertrochanter. This also appeared be healingat time of death. It is yearswho had a fall andbrokeher pelvis thatthis is a womanof advanced probable pncumonia to beingimmobilised.s2 due diedfiom hypostatic andhip, thenpossibly years(at leastover 50) of is In summarythe skeleton that of a f-emale advanced which would have resultedin who had a little arthritisin the neck,back and hip, that dentalproblems, and somefairly serious somelossof mobility in theseareas,
so Ibid. I lo-23. 5 l F o r a c l i s c u s s i oo 1 - t h eu n r c l i a b i l i t y f a g e i n gl ' r c l m u t u r ec l o s u r c s e eU b c l a k c r ,H u n t a n s s o n R Skeletctl enroins,59-60. 5 2 T h i s w a s a c o m m o nr e s u l to f a b r o k e nh i p o r p e l v i si n p e o p l co l ' a d v a n c e d c a r su n t i l v c r y y b c g a n t o p i n b r o k e n b o n e s t h u s p r e v e n t i n gt h c n e e d l i r r rccent tirncs when surgcons immobilistrtion.

26

NEDJET.EM-PET

TABLE 1. SKULL MEASUREMENTS OF NDT-M-PT

l. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 1. 8. 9. I 0. I l. 12. I 3. 14. I 5. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21 . 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29.

Glabello-occipital length Nasio-occipital length length Basion-nasion Basion-bregma height Maximum cranialbreadth Maximum frontalbreadth Biauricular breadth Biasterionic breadth Basion-prosthion length Nasion-prosthion height Nasalheight right Orbit height, breadth, right Orbit Brjugalbreadth Nasalbreadth Palate breadth Bimaxillarybreadth Zygomaxillarysubtense Bifrontalbreadth Nasio-frontal subtense Biorbitalbreadth Interorbital breadth Cheekheisht Frontal(Nasion-bregma) chord Frontal subtense (bregma-lambda) Parretal chord Partetal subtense (Lambda-opisthion) Occipital chord Occipitalsubtense

l69m m . 168 94 t36 134 tt4 116 105 88 62 45 35 39 IOl 25 64 92e* 25 91 t9 9l 2l I9


113

26
113

26
105 26

* e denotcs cstimatc,whercthe boneis crackedor damaged measurablc thc ncarcst mm. but still accuratelv to

MEASUREMENTS NDT-M-PT OF TABLE2. LONGBOAIE Right Humeruslength Right Humerusheaddiameter Left Ulna length Left Radiuslength Right Femurlength headdiameter midshaftdiameter, Medio-lateral Anteriorposterior midshaftdiameter, Left Femurlength Medio-lateral midshaftdiameter. Anteriorposterior midshaftdiameter, Right Tibia length Left Tibia length

217mm. 39 239 2tl 395 40


z-)

24 395
z_)

24 321 321

21

NEDJET-EM-PET

Sheprobablydied from complications may well haveeventuallyled to septicaemia. resultingfrom a fall and a brokenhip and pelvis,or from septicaemia.

VIII

FINDS

from the burial chamberof Ndfbelow were recovered All of the finds recorded TNE94:l2l which were fbund in clearingthe m-pt exceptthe threeitemsdesignated Period or early Middle shaft. Thesejars probablydate to the First Intermediate to Kingdom; the other finds may be ascribed the lateOld Kingdom. TNE94:102. PIs. 10. 44. jar, Large ovoid storage with a slightly flaring neck and externaltriangularrim; of sealon the shoulder.Wheelto body tapering a pointedbase. Remains a plaster The jar was full of lumpsof dark clay. Complete. H 29.5cm. W l5.0cm. made. D rim 7.0cm. TNE94:103. Pl. 10. jar, with traces plastersealing of on Large storage similartype to TNE94:102, jar was full of coveredin a light beigewash. The shoulder.Probablywheelmade, D Complete. H 32.8cm. W 1-5.8cm. rim light brown substance. a fine-textured 8.5cm. TNE94:101. Pls. 10. 14. jar, with a morebevelledrim. Tracesof Large storage similarto TNE94:102bLrt plastersealingon shoulder. The jar was full of a dark substance.Complete. H 3 1 . 2 c m .W l 7 . 5 c m . D r i m 8 . 8 c m . TNE94:105. Pl. 10. jar, sametype as TNE94:102. Remnants white plastersealing of Large storage rvith a light greenish-grey self-slip.The jar coated andexteriorsurface on shoulder was filled with a dark substance.Wheelmadeof marl clay close to Marl 43. Missingthe neckandrim. H 30.6cm.W l7.2cm. TNE94:106. Pls. 10, 11. walls. Incised base,concavo-convex Jar standwith roll rim and thickened horizontalline aroundthe stand. Matt light grey wash (5YR l11) on surface. visible on body. Crudely wheelmadeand also built by hand; finger impressions H 19.lcm. D rim but complete. edges otherwise Closeto Nile silt 82. Chipped l 4 . 8 c m . D b a s el 3 . 6 c m . TNE94:107. Pls. 10,44. jar wider at thc top thanthe bottom. Convexsidesand squat stand, Fragmentary of thickenedrim. Light grey wash (5YR 7ll) on exterior. Wheelmade Nile silt. H 9 . 8 c m . D r i m l 7 . 0 c m . D b a s e1 5 . 0 c m . TNE94:108. Pls. I 1, 44. (5YR with a plain flaringrim. Light reddish-brown Tall jar stand,straightsides, and someleachingalso wash (5YR 514) exteriorsurface on 614) reddish-brown to by and visible. The standis wheelmade, thentwistedand stretched handwhen the

28

NEDJET-EM-PET

'stretch' marksare visiblein the interior the clay was wet to lengthen object,as Broken at one end' on along with finger ii-rpressions surface. Nile silt 82. H l4.6cm. D rim l2.5cm. TNE94:109.Pl. l0' walls,roll rim at oneend andplain rim at the n*g-"nt of a jar standwith concave of otherl Probablywheeln-rade Nile silt' H 14'5cm' I TNE94: 10. Pls-I 1, 41. slightly llattened, S'rall bowl, with a wicleflat basc,convexsidesand slightly wash (5YR 5/4) on interior anclexterior' rim. Nlatt redclish-brown evertecl with a knif'e. coarse wheelmade,baseunevcnlyknife-cutanil cxteriortrimmecl on Xit" silt C. Cornpletc.H -5.5cm'W l0'3crn' D rinr Nile silt B2 bordering " l 0 . l c m . D b a s c6 . 2 c r n . T N E 9 4 : 1 1 1 P l s .1 1 , 1 4 . . rim. weak red wash Small flaring bowl, with an unevenflat baseand plain of Wheelmade Nilc silt c, with stringsurlace. interior ancl (2.5YR5/4)on exterior complete' H 5'2cm' rim, but otherwise cut base. Missing a fragmentfrom the D rim 9.4cm. D base5.0cm. T N E 9 l : 1 1 2 .P l . l l complete'L I l '5cm' W max' bivalveshell'almost ol'pearl one sideof a mother L2cm. 1 TNE94: 13. Pl. I I. manycomplele: etnd Modeljars of limestone calcite, and remnant ledge jars with flat-toppecl -drilled rims, flat bases, A. Two ovoicllimestone l/3 of height' inside to elbout handleson one sicle. Jai unoierced D base3'Ocm' H 7.5crn.D rim max.4.0cm' ledge rims and flat bascs' Jatrs jars with flat-topped B. Ten ovoicllimestone insideto aboutl14of height' H -5'0-7'5cm' drillecl butwirh slightlyconvex.sidcs' jars,almostcylinlrical in shape C. Ten limestone of leclge'rims.ndcliscbases. Jais clrilledinsideto about ll4 Flat-topped height. H crr.8.0cm. rims and flat bases' jars with llaring tlat-topped D. Two calciteor gypsumnecked 6.7cm. almostll2 of height.H 4.7 ancl Jarsdrilledinsi"de'to cupsof fine basaltand quartz,with flat rims and E. Two flaring straight-sided 3'0crn' cr-rp H cup 2.7cn-r' cluartz bases.53H Uasati drill marksvisibleon interior' D rim 4'ldishes; F. Sixty-fivesmalllirne.stone 6.2cm. I11. (nor illustratetl) TNE94: into a massin the broken now hardened Srnallqu"niity of cobaltbluc pigntcnt, W surfacc'L 6'-5cm' 5'5cm' a bearing red slippecl o1'avessel base

5 3 F o r c x a r n p l c s l ' s i m i l a rc u p ss c cF i r t h - G u n n ' o n e l e r ,P | . 6 9 :I 0 3 7 .

'l-eti . P t ' t C c m . 2 ,p l . l 5 A : V a l l o g g i aM e d o u -

2L)

NEDJET-EM_PET

1 TNE94: 15. Pl. l l. jars and fiergments: Copper with appliedridgearound kohi concavo-convex pot and stickinside, A. Slender Basenow hollow with tracesof white Pot filled with a pink substance. neck. H Probablycore-formed.Good stateof preservation. l0.0cm. substance. W 2.4crn.D rim 2.3cm. D basel.Ocm. jar and B . Onehole-mouthed with high shoulders a flat base. Interioris lined with plaster. Core-formed.Broken. H 6.6cm. W 4.0cm. D rim L2crn. a layer of D base2.9cm. bases, rims andneckpieces, vessels, including fragments copper of C. Numerous in foundscattered the burialchamber. TNE94:l2 L Pl. 11. A. Large taperingovoid bottle with a short verticalneck, thickcnedrim and 5i6) on cxterior. Roughly pointed base.54Worn matt red wash (2.-5YR partiallyhand-built Nile silt C. Cornplete of and probablyalso wheelmade for except smallchipson rim. [I 24.]cm. W I l.3cm. D rim -5.Ocm. bottleof the sametype anclware as TNE94:l2l A. Missing B. Large tapering from neck. H 24.9cm.W 10.8cm.D rim 4.8cm. fiagment typeandwareasTNE94:121A. Missingthe bottleof the same C. Largetapering r i m a n dn e c k . H 2 2 . 8 c m .W 1 l . 4 c m .

54

o during work o n a s e r i e s l ' F i r s t I n t e r m c d i a t e examplcs Quibell lound largerbut cornparablc t o w h i c h thc presentvesselsarc rclated M Period/early iddlc Kingdomtombsat Saqqara (Excavations Saqqu'a2. pl. 39:l, 3, 4). at

30

THE BURIAL OF IBI


I
NAM E

THE TOMB OWNER

'rot'. Iblss
TITLES l- jnj-r jpt nswt 'overseer the royal harep'.-56 of 2- jrj nfr l.ut'keeperof the headdress'.The title i s u s u a l l ya s s o c i a t e d i t h w attendance the kins.-57 on 3- f trj - l th t ' l e c t o rp r i e s t ' . 'sole 4- smr zucti comDanion'.

II

DATING OI' ItsI

Although lbj settwo falsedoorsinto the west wall of room IV of Ndt-m-at's chapel,their relationship, any existed, not known. The positionof the false if is doors,at floor level of the room,may suggest thatthe chapelof Ndt-nt-p;/was still perfectly cfear and accessible.The shapeof lbj's false doors is common in the cemetery,-58 thereis no justification clating suchexamples the end of the and in all to Old Kingdom or later.-5e inscribecl The framearoundthe northerndoor and the Tshapedpanel of both doorsare found in the falsedoor of ppjj-etdj.60 rnostprobably the I.6l It is interesting the unuiual long flntj-k\.j's son,clated_to reigno1'Pepy that pleated kilt worn bVlbjon the southern falsedoor is attested the tomb of ldw ot in Giza, also datedto the reign of Pepy 1.r,2It remainsuncertain whetherthe burial apartment into the floor of this room oppositethe falsecloors cut was associated with Ibi or is intrusive andof a slightlylaterdate. Suggested date: Reignof PepyI, or later.

-5 Ranke,Personennctmen 5 1,20:10. o| :6 For a stucly this titlc seeJuuker.Gizu I, l2zl; vol. ll. l2l-2r). 57 Seeibid 10, I t l; Helck,Beomtentitel, 42. - 5 8 S e ef b r c x a m p l e F i r t h - G u n n ,T e t i p y r . , C e t r t . , 2p a s s i r r ;K a n a w a tet al., Saqtlara, 2 vols., , i passim. 5 9 A s c l o e s t r u d w i c kJ E A 1 3 ( l g } i ) , 2 1 j . S , 6o Jnmes,Khentikct, 42. pl. 6l Strudwick, Aclninistration,18. 62 Simpson, Qctrand lclu. fig.31.

3r

IBI

III Pt. 36.

BURIAI, APARTMENT

in A shallowverticalshafi (shaft l1) was excavatcd room IV of NQt-rrt-pt's the opposite two falsedoorsof lbj placcdinto thc brick-worko1'thewcst chapel, w a l l . l t s m o u t h i s c u t i n t o t h e f l o o r a l o n g t h c l e n g t ho f t h e e a s tw a l l o f t h e extending underboth thc eastand southwalls. In order to itvoid antechamber, lowercolrrscs ol-thcniudbrickwalls.this shaffwasnot the undermining remaining nlcasurelnents cletails be provided. It or can so excavatcd f'ewprecisc completcly 2.20n. N-S with a deepstepdown at the southend, and the eastand measures but roughlycut. At the shaftfloor an irrcgularlyshapccl west walls are straight of for we burial areaextencls stwardunderthc l-loor the antecharnber approxirnately not ancl of 1.50m.The shape this shafi,rcctangular shallowwith a burialchamber from the others the tomb of Ntlt-ntin diff-erent thc chapelfloor, is cluite far beneath depth. It is quitepossible that a mouthandgencrally greater pf which havea square of not it rnaybe datedslightly,although much,laterthanthe originalconstruction this mastaba.

IV Pls. 4u. 12. 45.

SCENES AND INSCRIPTIONS

falsedoorsare inscribedfor The two small limestone lbj. Both are of the type of corniccandretainsc'rn-tc their originalcoatsof with a torusmouldingandcavetto the southern door including fiatnehasa wiclthof .56m.and is white plaster.The wide x .77m. high. The northern .39-5m. .18m. thick; the door itself measr-rres high,hasa wiclthat the baseof on base.06n-r. door,.06m.thick andplaced a stone of .43rn.and at the top of .46rn.with a heightof .5,5rn.With the exception the relief,the decoration I'alse door,which is in raised on scene the panelof the south on both doorsis incisedwith minimumintcrnaldetails.No coloursarepreserved. The Southern lralse Door 'An invocation The Upper Lintel: prt-furutnt63stnr ructjjrj rfr htt firj-lrbtlbj ss, ol-theheaddre the lectorpriest,Ibi'. the of off'ering thc solecompanion, keeper 'The honourcdone beforeAnubis, The Lower Lintel: jrtttfuru lnpw tpj du.f lr who is on hishill'. table. One horizontaland onc The CentralPanel: Thc owner sits at an of1'ering ( l) t bt ltnqt ly ryd $ (2) n jmsltu lbj '(l) Bread, re velticalline of inscriptions ad:
63 Fcrrthe lbrmula prt lru lf ... see Lapp. Op.feftormel. $68, l60fi. For other cxantplcssce F i r t h - G u n n , Z e l l P t ' r . C e n t .2 , p l . 7 3 :l : S i r n p s o r t , u r u t d l d u , l ' i g .3 2 ; K a n a w a t ic t a l . , Q Ju K s, S l S a q q 4 r cIt, p 1 . 2 3 ; E l - K h o u - i K a n a w a t i , a q t 1 u r a 2 . 1 t l . 2 2 ; . l a m ch e n t i k c t , p l . 1 2 ; n k e r . t G i z , a1 , f i g . 8 ; v o l . l l . l i g . 4 0 . I t i s i n t c r e s t i n gh a t t h e s ec x a m p l c ss h a r cs o t t t cp o i n t so f i a s i r n i l a r i t y n d t h a tt h e r n o s tl i k e l y d a t co l ' a l l o 1 ' t h c m s t h c r c i g no f P e p yI . W h i l e t h i s l i r r r t r conlmonat that tirnc. to to nilt was perhaps rcstricted this rcign. it appcars havebccn ntclre

32

IBI

(2) fowl, one thousand, for the honouredone, one thousand, beer,one thousand, Ibi'. one columnof hieroglyphs endingwith a The OuterJambs: Eachjamb contains standingfigure of the owner, wearinga long, pleiitedkilt. The figure on the left while that on the right holdsa foldedcloth in the left holdsa staff and a sceptre, 'The hand. Inscribedon the right jamb is: jnulro br ntr <t nb pt smr uctj lbj thc honouredone beforethe greatgod, lord of heavcn, solecompanion, Ibi'. The 'May left.jamb reads: prt-ftrnt n sflIr ructjjrj nfr l.ut furj-l.tbt an invocation lbj the the off'ering come forth lor the solecompanion, keeperol-theheaddress, lector priest,Ibi'. The InnerJambs:Eachjarnbcarriedonc columnof text. The right reads:artr ru<tj 'The solecompanion, lectorpriest,the honoured the one, Ibi'; hrj-fbt jmtlw lbj 'Thc solc companion,the keeper of thc and the left: sffir rl<tj jrj 4, lut lbj Ibi'. headdress. The Northern False Door ( the across top of the fiarr"rel) continucdown the left The Frame: The inscriptions (2) and end with a standingfigure of the owner holding a staff and sceptre. side (3) inscription endingwith a figurelike thaton the left. The right sidehasa separate (1) htp dj nswt lttptu tpj dzu.fprt-furntn smr wctj (.2)jrj nfr htt jmj-r jpt rtszut jmtly.u lr nsrut sntr zuctjlbj (3) jmil3ru fur Wsjr nb Ddw smr roctj furj-l1bt lbj '(1) An offeringwhich the king givesandAnubis,who is on his hill (gives).Miiy come forth for thc solc companion. (2) Thc kceperof the an invocationoff-ering of one befbrethe king, the the headdress, overseer the royal harem,the honoured one Ibi. (3) The honoured beforcOsiris,lord of Busiris,the sole solecompanion, the companion, lectorpriest,Ibi'. 'The sole companion,the The Upper Lintel: smr wctj jrj 4, lrt jntj-r jptt rtsrut the of keeperof the headdress, overseer the royal harem'. jar The CentralPanel: Holclinga perfume to his nosethe ownel sits beforean is offeringtable,to the right of which is a ewer in a basin. Above the scene written jrj (1) sntr zuctj nfr ltt hrj-hbt(2) jnulzu lbj '(l) The solecompanion, keeper the (2) one,Ibi'. of the headdress, the honoured with oneline of hieroglyphs Eachjamb is inscribed endingin a The OuterJarnbs: on figure of the ownerholdingthe staff and sceptre.The inscriptions the standing 'The honoured jamb read:jmtfutufur Wsjr srnr ructjjrj one before right hn lbj "f, Ibi', of the Osiris,the solecompanion, keeper the headdress, while thoseon thc left 'The honourcdone before the king, the solc read: jmt!1w br nsut smr wctj lbj Ibi'. companion, '(l) (2) The sole The Lower Lintel: (l') sntr wctj jntj-r jpt rrszut jrj nfr l.utfurjJ.rbt the of companion,the overseer the royal harem,(2) the keeperof the headdress, lectorpriest'.

33

IBI

jnu'fizu 'The honoured The Inner Jambs: Eachjamb carriesthe inscription one, lbj Ibi', fbllowed by a seated figure of the owner.

FINDS

Three pots were found in the courseof clearing shafi I 1 but thesecannot be regarded necessarily as contemporary with the tomb. TNE94:49. PIs.13,46. jar, Squathigh-shouldered body narrowingto a wide flat base. Oval spout on below thickened collar rim.6a Red washon exteriorsurface.Wheelmade shoulder o f N i l e s i l t , s p o u ta d d e db y h a n d . A l m o s t c o m p l e t e .H 1 4 . 1 c m . W 1 4 . l c m . '7 D base9.5cm. D rim .5cm. L spoutca 2.25cm.D spout3.3-2.5cm. TNE 94:50. Pls. 13, 46" jar Large ovoid storage with roundedbase,short upright neck and thickened evertedrim. Red wash over exterior surface. Probablywheelmade Nile silt. of with.jar. Alnost complete. H 32.5cm. D max. 19.5cm. Mud seal associated H D rim l0.0cm. Mud seal: D 6.5-7.0cm. at centre 3.5cm. T N E 9 4 : 5 1 .P l . 1 3 . jar Large ovoid storage of sametype and ware as TNE94:50. Missing minor complete.H 30.3cm.D rnax.18.3cm.D rim 9.5cm. chiosbut otherwise

64 Squatspoutcd jars areknown in the Old Kingdomin bothcopperand ceramic(Bouniau, Urnnr no. 8-5).In thc Sixth Dynasty,spoutson mctal cxampleswere somctimcslong el-Ga'ah.-52, jars with shortspoutssimilar to TNE94:49 ScepterI, 120,lig.74). Squat and curvcd (Hayes, Pcriod/early Middle Kingdom tombsat Saqqara are also known fiom somcFirst Intcrrncdiatc ( Q u i b e l E x c a v a t i o n s a t S u q q lu r u . 3 2 :l ; v o l . 2 , p l . 3 9 : 1 , 2 . ) , w h i c h c o u l d i n d i c a t e a S i x t h l, ,pl Dynastyto carly Middle Kingdomdaterangefbr TNE94:,19.

34

THE MASTABA OF KA-APER


TIIE TOMB OWNER. HIS FAMILY AND DEPENDENTS
The Tomb Owner NAME Kt(.j)-<pr(w)65'Ka-aper'. nameis consistently The written with I I ratherthan \- -,if The name was rathcr popr-rlar the Old Kingdont,particularlyduring . in Dynasty5.66 TITLES 1- jntj-r l.ttut-zurt'overseer the greatcourt'. T'hetitle appears have been of to with the legaladministration is fiecluently connected and associated that of with jntj-r hwt-utrt is basically hclclin the capital,68 although two hrj-tp ltstut.61 provincialofficials,who probablyalso had a periodof en-rploynent the in Residence. known to havecarricdi1.6e11"r. are titlc in itself docsnot seemto high one.yet in many' be a particularly cascs tenuleilppears 'a f-eature a its as of man'scareer beforehe was promotcdto the yl2isrnlg'.7t) 2- jmj-, zi < ttswt'overseer the scribeso1'the king's clocuments'. of This is as otfice in the scribaladministriition. the considered the most irnportant In Fifth Dynastythe title was probably helclsimr-rltaneouslytwo rncn.one ol' by w h o m w a s t h e v i z i e r . w h i l e t h e o t h e r s u p c r v i s e dt h e d c t a i l s o f t h e From the lateFifth Dynasty, however, titlc was heldonly administration. the by the vrzier,ltan offlcewhichdoesnot appcar thesurviving in inscriptions o1' Kt(.j)-<pr(u). 'overscer thc two fbwl pools'.72 of 3- j*j-, zituj of 4- jntj-r ktt nbt nt nsrut'overseer all thc works of the king'. The holdersof for this title wereresponsible the organisation all works,suchas buildings, of
o) 66 1,338:24. Ranke,Persctnennanren L , S c e f b r e x a r n p l c c p s i u s ,D e n k t n t i l e r T s x t I , 1 2 6 ;M a r i e t t c .M r t . s t a l t u . r 2 l - 2 8 : F i s c h e r . l, vo J N E S l 8 f l 9 . 5 9 1 , 2 3 3 i iH;a s s a n , i z o 2 , l - 5 - 5 - . 5 8 ;l . 6 : 3 , 1 5 5 - 6 2 ; J u n k c r ,i z u 1 , 2 5 . 1v o l . G G ; . c a r 6 , 3 2 . T h c n a m ei s a t t e s t e d n u n r b e o f ' t i r n c si n t h c A b u s i r p a p y r i( P o s e n c r - K r i d g - rD c . n C e n i v a l ,T l t eA b u - S i r P c 4 t t ' r ip l s . 6 2 - 6 3 ,8 2 , 9 6 ) . T h c s a r n c a r n ch a sa l s o b c c n l i r u n c l n i at and otherreccntcxcavations Saqqara Ahusrr. 60; Struclwick. Atlntinistt'tttion. 182.. Helck, Beantentitel, scc Tablc 7, to which rray bc aclclccl prcscnt For a list of holclers ibid, 116-17, thc cascas wcll h i r s t h a t o l ' S i n t - n f r i n t h c T c t i c c m c t c r y( t h c l a t t c r .c x c a v a t c d y t h c E g y p t i a nA n t i q u i t i e s i. s; i 1 O r g a n i s a l i o ns u n p u b l i s h c c lc cn o w K a n a w a tc t a l . .S a q q o r a , 9 ) . n , lf j i 5 ,l l H n r - M n t u ( K a n a w a t iE l - H c t v t ' u v t '- . sp r . l , f i g . 7 ) t m d P 1 t j j " c 1l : r uj b ( . B l a c k r n a M.e i r l . - M c F r r l a n c ,A k l : L . i t i |t.r r3 6 . 2 0 2 , 2 1 6 . p l s . 4 , A : 1 ,I - 5 ) . S e ea l s oK a n a w a t i ltJlJ. As thc titlc was protrably hclclby onc rnanat a tirne (ibicl, Strudwick,Aclninistrcttiorr. j)tpr(zu) probablysucccedcd Wfu ln-Ttj /Nfr-sitrr-Ptl.t, owncr ol' thc ncighbourirrg t89), Kt(. mastaba. W i t h o n l y o n e c x c c p t i o ni,n t h c r e i g no f P e p yI I ( i b i d ,2 1 4 ) . ts W b 3 , 4 8 4 . B a d a w yt r t r n s l a t eh e t i t l e a s o v e r s e e r otfh e t w o f b w l p o n d s( . A n k h n f a h o r , 5 ( \ ) l0). of'thc two pools(Kfterrtifta, as and James oversccr

61 68

69 1O

7| 72

KA-APER

crafls,etc. The title was heldby viziersand at the sametime by at agriculture, the who assisted vizier in his manyresponsibilities.T3 lJastone non-vizier 'overseer the workcentre'.7a tol"rerelatedin The title appears of jrnj-r gs-pr 5of the imj-r ktt nbt nt nswt,75and might roi"" way to the responsibilities of an represent earlierstage Kt('i)*pr(w)'scareer' this prince'. With a few exceptions, rank is usuallyheld by jrj-prt 'hereditary 6of otherexamples non-vizierholdersof the title are known uiri".t. Howevir, in the Teti cemetery./o 'count'. 7 - lzrff-< 'privy to the secretof the houseof morning'. The title6lrj-sitt n pr-dutt opp"u.. to have beenheld by a rathersmall and speciallyfavouredgroup of on attendance the king in with personal men within the royal court concerned the houseof morning.TT relatedto the g- thrj-slitt tt ttsrttt'privy the sccret the king'. The title seems of to one. preceding l0- hrj-l.rbt'lector Priest'. tt - llij-tp nxut'royal chamberlain'.78 in with markedadvancement Kt(.j)*pr(ru)'scareermay be tracedin two stages or titles. Nowherein his offbringchamber on his both ttis honoriflcanclfunctional particularly important are sarcophagus the ranks of jrj-pct and httj-<.or.the administrariveoffices of jrnj-r'zi i nxut andjmj-r ktt nbt nt nxut mentioned. to on in They are inclucled the insciiptions the entrance the tomb wherethe rank of blocksis also ttre qualityof reliefson the entrance emphasised. iri-irt is especially fir'superiorto thatin the offeringcharnber. The Son of Ka-aPer NAME Ihjjle 'th\''

TITLES of l- jmj-r gs-pr'overseer the workcentre" "hrj-tp 'royal chamberlain'. nsztrf 2jamb with the designation in He appears front of his fatheron the right entrance 'his eldestson'. Anotherfigure,wearinga panther's skin, is only partly zt.f sm'sw
Adnrinistratittn.2-39' 13 Kanawati,Gtt,ernntentttl .3c) Refornrs.25-21 n.44;Strudwick, '74 - G u n n t r a n s l a t eg s - p r a s ' r o y a ld o n r a i n s('. T e t iP v r . C e n t .l , s F i s c h e rM M J , 1 5 9 - 6 0 . F i r t h , (Literctture 20), and bothJunkcr(Gi:rt 5"1U' l9ll) and l' 107),Lichthcirn1s'districtol'ficials' T5 16 j'7 193) Roccati(Litty'rctture, as'aclnlinistration'' S t r u d w i c kA d m i n i s t r a t i r t n , 2 2 2 . , pls' l7, N l F o r i n s r a n c c j , k n u - l z z j ( i b i c1,0 5 )a n d l i f i ( E l - K h o u l i -K a n a w a t iS a q q a r t t 2 , 2 5 - 2 6 ,

t9). D e n d e r t t 1 3 7 - 3 8 .J a t n e s , F ; B l a c k m a nJ E A 5 l l 9 l 8 l , 1 4 8 - 6 5H c l c k ,B e a n t e n t i t e l , 4 3 ; i s c h c r , , 'Keeper the sccrcts (Khentikr, l0). ol'thc Bathroon'r' of it trirnslates as 1 8 H e l c k .B e l n t e n t i t e l ,6 0 ' 1 0 5 . '79 l'44'.22' Rankc.Personennunen

36

KA-APER

preserved the samepositionon the lelijamb. This may rcpresent same,or in the another son,but no inscriptions survived. The Dependents of Ka-aper NAME 'ldu' . I dzuso TITLES l- jmj-r pr 'overseer the house'. of 2- jmj-r sir 'overseer the linen'. of 3- shd hnrkt'superintendent the ka-servants'. of He is depictedfacing Kt(.j)-<pr(ru) the right thickncss the entrance the on of to tomb. NAM E Nszu8l'Nesu'. TITLE of lrp zh'director the food-hall'. He is the only off-ering bearerdesignated namein the ofl-ering by chamber.

II

DATING OF KA.APER

In datingthe tomb of Kt(.j)-<pr(zo),its location the so-called'rue tombeaux' in de shouldcertainlybe takeninto account. The datesof the otherthrec tombsin this streethavebeenreconsidered Strudwick, by who reasonably suggests datein the a reignof Teti for Nfr-sim-R<and<n!-rr<-Hr.82 thenemphasises importance He the of the third tomb, that of Wdt-l.u-TtjNfr-sint-Pth/55/,for the daringof the Teti PyramidCemetery, pointingout that the tomb may be dividcdinto two parts,in the first of which the titlesconnect ownerwith the pyramidof Teti, while in the the second theyconnect him with both Teti andPepyL The tomb is accordingly placed in the reignof Teti to earlyPepyI.83 While therecan be no doubtthat someof the building and/ordecoration was carriedout in the tornb of Wdt-ht-Ttj earlyin the reignof PepyI, this shouldnot automatically influence datingof othertombsin thc the cemeteryand particularlythosein the 'rue de tombeaux'. It appears that this
8o Ibid.-54:o. I 8l Ibittr73:r2. . 82 Administrcttion,J5, 100-101, ll2. SccalsoKanawati, Egt'ptitut Atlntitri.strtttion.[60], 152 l-53fl901. Harpur, thcother on hand. thinks thal<nb-nt-<-Hr bc diitccl lateTeti-carly is tn to
83 Pepy| (Dec'oration,213 [314D. Strudwick,Atlministration,lll. This datc is supportcd Hnrpur(Decorcttictn,2JS by SeealsoEditorialfbrewordin JEA (t6 ( 1980). 2.

KA-APER

streetwas initially plannedas a single project, with areasof land allocatedto favouredofficials and royal relativesat almostthe sametime. Howevet, it also started befbreothers, but not by a long time, seemsthat work on certainmastabas perhapsas a result of the owner reachinga ccrtainage or status. Thus while the is and therefbrelater than,that of Nfr-sim-R<, mastaba <nb-m-<-Hr built against, of suggests that he and W{t-ht-Ttjbuilt their tombsat the evidence archaeological The relativechronologyof the tombs of sametime as a singlebuilding project.8a evidence, but Wdrh-Ttj andKt(.j)-<pr(w)is not clear from extantarchaeological the construction his of thereis no reasonfor thinkingthat Kt(.j)tpr(u) started tomb shouldnow long afier his neighbour.The datafiorn Kt(.j)*pr(zu)'s mastaba be considered. as Although not lacking in Dynasty6, the nameKt(.7)-<pr(ru), indicatedabove, doesnot was rnorecommonin the Fifth Dynasty. As for his offices,Kt(.j)-<pr(w) possess sufficientnumberof the titles studiedby Baer in his ranking systemto a The is of allow placinghim in a specificperio6i.tls rnastaba constructed mud brick, 'rue de tombeaux'.Althoughthe falsedoor,its nicheandthe the first as suchin the entranceto the tomb are fbrmed of monolithic blocks of good limestone,and is on the although relief,particularly theentrance, amongthe finestin the cemetery, setsKt(.7)-<pr(ru) apart the use crfmud brick for the externalwalls of the mastaba neighbourin and alsoapartfrom his immediate fi'om the higherofficiiils of Teti,86 'rue de tombeaux',Wf,t-l.tt-Ttj/Nfr-sirn-Pth/Sij. There are, nevertheless, the similaritieswith the latter'stomb. In each,an entry vestibuleopens alchitectural offering chamberin which a northwardinto a small room leadingto an east-west extendsacrossthe width of the west wall in high L-shapedoffering table/bench front of the falsedoor and alongthe northwall.87 as and inscriptions usefr"rl dating criteria. The are Certaindetailsin the sccnes wig of carliestdatedexamples a shor-rlder-length coveringthe earsocculsin tombs of where the cartouche Teti is inscribed. However,this type of wig becomes I and Pepy II.ttE A perfumejar which is held betweenthe popular under Pepy and found mainly in tombs fbrefinger and thumb is a ratheruncommonf'eature isolated examples existfrom laterin datedto the periodlatel'eti-PepyI,8ealthough on of the Old Kingdom.eoThe representation Kt(.j)-<pr(uL) the panel of his false
lJ4 Ibid.2. 85 Rank ancl Title,232ff. This rankingsystemnow nccdscompleterevision(seealso Franke, b J E A 7 9 t l 9 9 3 l , 2 9 1 )a n di s c u r r c n t l y c i n gs t u d i e c l . ll 6 In additionto the vizicrs of'the period,Kt(.j) ,pr(u) shouldbe cornpared withNj-kno-lz:j , stone who was jrj prt jtuj-r Snr jmj-r ki rrlttnt nxpt and who ownecla f'ully decoratecl Adnt i strctriorr,05). in I (unpubl isheclscc Strudwick. rnastaba ; 87 Cirpart,Rue de tonbeuux 2, p|.94 Portcr - Moss, Blbllrlgraphl' 3, pl. -54;and pcrsonal examination. 88 Chcrpion,Mostaba.t ln'pogie.s,57-58. et 8 9 D u e l l ,M e r e r u k u , p l .l l 7 ; J a r n e s , h e n t i k t tp l . 2 l ; C a p a r t .R u e d e t o m b e a u x ,l . 1 0 2( t h i s p K , falsc door is unlikely to bclong 1o a tomb in thc ruc cic lombeaux);Davies er al., Saqqlrct 2, Tontbsl, pl. l2; Sinrpson, Qur onclIdu, fig. 30; Davics,Deir a!-GebrAw'i pl. l7 (lbr reccnt K . t , i d a t i n gs c c K a n a w a t - M c F a r l a n eA k h n t i n r1 , 6 2 - 6 8 ) ; a n a w a t iE l - H t t w a w i s l9 , 2 9 ; A l l i o t , r/e.r 78-81. Tell Edfou l9-13,pl. l4; Ziegler, Ccttctlog,ue .st?1e.r, 9 0 F o r e x a m p l c n t h e t o m b o l ' M r i j - < t( K a n a w a t iE L - H a g n r s 3 , 3 9 . p l s . 4 2 - 1 3 , 4 5 b ; h c d c t a i l , o t i , i s n o t c l c a ri n P e t r i s A t h r i b i s ,p l . l ) .

38

KA-APER

on door seated a chair with bull's legsis curious. This type of chair was gradually superseded that with lion's legs,'rland at the provincialsite of Akhmim, where oy it the changeis documented, is evidentthat it took placeroundthe reign of Teti.e2 the new style with lion's lcgs was already In the Teti cemeteryat Saqqara himself usedit on both.jarnbs his entrance of and fashionable,e3 Kt(.j)-<pr(zu) doorway. The depictionof the chair with bull's legson the panelof the falsedoor n"rore likely to be shownon falsedoors which seems might be due to conservatism thanin wall scenes.94 with the tomb of lfuu at Giza (G7102;0-s rnightbe At this stagea comparison jntj-r lnut-urt. I Ic was useful. Llke Kt(.j)-rpr(u), ldzu wasboth ftrj-tp ttsiut and but not jmj-r zi < nsrLtt, was z! < nxttt fuft-|1r.Neither was he jntj-r ktt nht nt nsutt, but his son Qrr wasjmj-r ktt ttbt andjmj-r zi n ktt nbt.e6 Both Kr(.7),pr(w) andldru represent not chairswith bull's legson their falsedoors,br-rt in the bust statuein the lower part of his of scenes their chapels. ldw has an engaged f'eature abscnt the cascof Kt(.j)*ltr(ru),but is in falsedoor.eTThis highly unusual a his neighbour,Nfr-sim-Ptl.t,has bust statllcin the panelof his falsedoor.esThe of palaeography the faqades the tombsof Kt(.j).pr(ztt) andJdwe'tshowsmany on for similaritiesand the determinatives the oryxesand thc oxcn arc the samein the as ol'fowl arerequested offbrings.l(x) two tombs,wherefive thousands in tomb. The first is that attractattcntion Kt(.j)-<pr(u)'s Two unusualfeatules unlike the majority of officials,and certainlyall the higherones,buried in this cemetery,Kt(.j)tpr(zu) doesnot hold any priesthood.In this rcspecthe may be periocl comparedwith other officials who are likely to date in thc transitional unusual ltature in Kt(.j)*pr(ru)'s I.l0l Thc second betweenTeti-Userkare-Pepy has; of which the faEade his mastaba suffbred.Many tombs in tornb is the damage the the Teti cemeteryhave the namesand l-rcquently figures of their owners throughout torlb and vcry the out; but this was alwaysdonesystematically chiselled thebackground. This is believed carefullyto the signsandfigureswithoutaffecting presllmably a resultof their as tor tomb owners, to be a sort of punishment these
()l 92 93 (Vanclicr. in Kingclonr Mcutue! 1. Fischer,Varict.4. Thc earliertypc rcappcrircd thc Miclclle 84). , K a n a w a t i M c F a r l a n eA k h n t i n t1 , 3 0 . M ac i t I t i s i n t e r e s t i n gh a t e l s e w h c r cn t h i s c e r n c t e r y r t u c h a n g c d / c o r r c c t e d h a i r i n h i s w a l l T s l i o r r b u l l ' s l c g s i n t o I i o n ' sl c g s( l , l o y de t a l . ,S u t l q A r u ' o n r b2 , 1 5 ,p l . c ) ;M a l c k ,D E scenes

94

20il 9er l, 99).

Comparelbr cxarnplcthc type of chair on thc lalsedoor ol'/dru (Simpson. Qar und ldu, l'ig. , 1 0 )w i t h t h a t i n h i s w i i l l s c e n e s i b i d , f i g s . 3 9 , . 1l ) , a n d t h c t y p c o n T f f ' s f a l s c c l o o r ( p l ( S i m p s o n , e s t e r n e n t e t e r y, l ' i g s . l 8 a n c l c r h a p sl 6 ) w i t h t h a t o n h i s w a l l s ( i b i d , i i g s . W C llue de thc l'alse door of' Nfr-si'll-Ptl.tin thc EgyptianMuseum(Capart, 21,23-24). Seealso pl. 102). Tontbeaur, 9 5 Sinrpson, l'igs.3311'. Qar and ltlu, l9tf ., pls. l,5fl'., 9 6 I b i d , 1 8 . F o r a s t u d y f t h c l a s tt w o t i t l c ss c cS t r u d w i c k , t l t n i n i s t r u t i o n . 2 0 l l t . , 2 l l l . A o ()'/ and ldu, pl.29. Simpson, Qar 9 8 Capart,Rue cletontbeaux, 9zl-96. pls. 9 9 Sirnpson, ond ldu, lig.33. Qar 1 0 0 For a commenton thc numbcrof'lbwl requcstcd of1'erings Lapp, Op.fulornrel, scc lbr $211 - Kanawati, el-Anrurna,24. El-Khouli Quseir Hzjj (lbid, l8fT.) and /ifl Suqqurtt2, Mhl (El-Khouli - Kanawari. Sec lbr exanrple (ibid. 2-51.

KA-APER involvement one of the conspiracies in against Teti or PepyI.102The caseof Kt(.j)<pr(zu) different in that the whole surface,not only the name and figure, was is jamb, andthat the scenes chiselled on the entireupperpartof the southentrance out in and inscriptions the restof the tomb areintact. The exactimplication this is of not clear, but the evidenceseenlsto suggestthat Kt(.j)-rpr(u) lived at the time Teti-Userkare-Pepy when thereappear have beenproblems I, transitional to with succession allegiance. and PepyI. Suggested date: End Teti-early

III Pls. 14, 17, 48.

ARCHITECTURAL F'EATURES

'rue de tombeaux', approximately The mastaba Kt(j)-<pr(w) is locatedin the of and l0 metresto the north of Nfr-sirrt-Ptl.t on the samewesternsideof that street. piecesof brokenpottery ly large of tafel brickswhich incorporate It is constructed x a a n d s t o n ec h i p sa n d m e a s u r e . 3 0 m .. l 5 m . x . 0 7 m . , w i t h s o m ee l e m e n t s t t h e blocks. Internallythe brick cntrance and in the offeringchapelformedof limestone walls were coatedwith a layer.0l-.03rn.thick of Nile niud plasterbound with with a thinnerlayer of creamy somestraw and small stones.This was covered yellow tafel-likeplasterand then finishedwith a coat of fine hard white plaster. on exceptroom VI, but Evidenceof plastcris preserved the walls of all chambers the only evidenceof painteddecorationare traceso1 red colour, apparentlythe on remains threemalefigures, the westwall of room V. of are of superstructure l0.l5rn. N-S x 8.80m.E-W. The dimensions the mastaba so The upper part has disappeared no original heightsof walls, ceilings or that the roomshad vaultedbrick can be provided. It may be assumcd doorways wall, l.20rn.thick,presently stands a maximumheightof to ceilings.The faEade 2.15m.,and that part forrningthe eastwall of room Il is largelydestroyed.The end of the eastwall of the mastaba, jambs, the is entrance locatedat the southern thresholdand intelnal door reccssall fornredof blocks of fine quality white the limestone, were presumably now missinglintel and drum. Both doorjambs as jamb has in arc and thicknesses decorated incisedrelief, but that on the southern in awaywith a very smallportionremaining thelower almostentirelybeenchiselled part. In front of the entrancea stonestep .07m. high spansthe full width of a recess2.40m. wide x .15m. deep. Formed of two blocks of limestoneand .26m.deepat the north the projectingslightly from the brick faEade, stepmeasures threeon end and .22m.at the southend. Into it arecut six smallofferingbasins, ml e i t h e rs i d eo f t h e d o o r w a y .F r o m t h e s o u t ht h e y l . t 1 e a s u r e . l 6 x . . 5 m . x . 0 2 m . x . . d e e p , . l 4 5 mx . 0 7 , 5 mx . 0 4 m . d c e p , . 1 4 m .. 0 5 m .x . 0 3 r n .d e e p , . l 0 m x . 0 6 m . . x x . x . 0 3 m . d e e p , . l 3 m x . 0 7 m .x . 0 3 m .d e e p , . 2 0 m .. 1 - 5 r n .. 0 3 m . d e e p . .15m. doorway,with a southjamb .92rn.wide and a northjan-rb The entrance t w i d e x . 4 5 m . t h i c k a n dh a sa p r e s e nh e i g h to f 2 . 1 0 m . T h e l i n t e l w i d e ,i s . 7 5 m . originallyrestingin two smallledges, the anddrum havedisappeared, latterperhaps
I 02 11"nu*ut-i, idern, l. Saqqarct I I - I 2 Chron.d' Eg. 56 t 198I l. 2031'l'.:

40

KA-APER

. 1 0 m .x . 1 0 m . x . 1 5 m .h i g h , c u t a t t h e t o p o n t h e i n s i d ec o r n e r so f t h e d o o r The entrance relief was cut directlyinto the stonewith no plaster thicknesses. facing,but a small sectionnearthe top of the southdoor thickness was repairedat with a hard white plasterinto which signssubsequently the time of construction blocksarecut to form an internaldoor recess werecarved. The two largeentrance 1.28m.N-S x .52m. E-W on the southside and .62m. on the which measures north side,with a jamb on the southof .15m.and another the north of .28m. on just insidethe north.jamb a socketfor a door pivot, is Cut into the stonethreshold with a diameter .15m.and a depthof .075rn.In both sidewalls of the internal of at door recess a heightof .90m.abovethe floor level areneatlycut holesfor a door a bolt, eachwith a width of .24m., heightof . 18m., anda depthof .10m. (roomI) which mcasures vestibule The doorwayopensinto an entrance 1.80m. N-S on the eastwall and 1.95m.on the west wall x 1.70m.E-W. The present maximumwall heightis 2.45m. At the westendof the northwall a recess 1.00m. wide x .15m.deepand a small stonestepup of .04m.definesa doorway.70m. wide x. 85m. thick. The door leadsto room Il which measures 2.20m.N-S x 1.70m. E-W. At the eastend of the northwall of this chamber doorway.70m. a s w i d e x . 7 0 m . t h i c k ,w i t h a r e c e s o n t h en o r t hs i d e . 9 5 mw i d ex . l 5 m . d e e p g i v e s . , to access the offeringchapel. The offering chamber(room III) is 2.80rn.E-W x 2.75m.N-S and has a present maximumheightof 2.80m. The westwall is occupied a lalsedoor setin a niche by wide x .55m.deep. Both the doorandthe sidewallsof the nichc which is 1.70m. in are formed of large limestoneblocks decorated relief and placed on a stone offering bench. The false door, with two pairs ol' jambs, is l.30rn. wide and the 2.40m.high to the top of the torusmoulding; corniccabovehasdisappeared. of The measurements the door are:upperlintel I .21m.x .29m.;centralpanel.58m. each .05m.wide; lower lintel .68rn.x .20m.;drum x .44m. with side apertures j . r x . 1 4 5 m x . 1 0 m . ;o u t e j a m b s2 . 0 0 m x . 3 0 m . ;i n n e ra m b s1 . 3 - 5 m . 2 6 m . ;c e n t r a l . measure .50m.N-S x .55m. niche 1.22m.x. l45rn. The sidewalls of the recess brokenabovea heightof l.2lrn. and on the north above E-W, that on the soLrth the 2.00m. The stoneplatform,.40m.high and .21m.deep,extends full width of along the west part of the north wall for a length of the west wall and continues 1 . 1 5 m w i t h a d e p t ho f . 5 2 5 m . . (room I) is a doorway.80rn.wide x vestibule In the west wall of the entrance b l . 8 3 m .t h i c k w h i c h i s d e f l n e d y a r c c e s s . 1 0 r n .w i d e x . 1 5 m . d e e p . W i t h i n t h e the first .30m.high x .60m.deepand the second doorwayare two stonesteps, to .20m.high x .35m.deep. The doorwaygivesacccss room IV, a corridor-like 4.70m.E-W x 1.50m. N-S and haser1'loor which measures slopingvery chamber gentlyupwardto the west. Its walls havca prcscnt nnximum heightof 2.25m. wide x .80r.n. thick leadsto room In the middleof the northwall a doorway.-52m. 2.10m.N-S x 1.90m. E-W. Fragmentary traces red painton of V which measures scene. To the the west wall may be the remainsof male figuresin a slaughtering in the southwall hasa sill height.65m. eastof the doorway,a nicheconstructed from the southwall and abovefloor level. The floor of the niche projects.12-5m. measures .55m.wide (E-W) x .70m.deep(N-S). The ceilingis goneandthe back height 1.10m. of wall is smoothed an approximate to

4l

KA-APER

At the southextremityof the eastwall of room V is a half-archdoorway .57m. wide with a height of .75m. at the north thicknessand 1.20m. at the sourh thickness. This small doorway leadsto room VI which measures 2.].om.N-S x .80m.E-W. The functionof this room is uncertain, this is the only chamberin but the mastaba which retainsno traces plaster. ol At the far west end of room IV anotherdoorwayconstructed the north wall, in definedby an entrance recess 1.05m. wide x.l5m. deep,measures.65m. wide x .65m.thick. It opensinto a small chamber (room vII) which is 1.05m.E-w x l.l5m. N-S. To the northof this room is themouthof shaft1.

IV PLs. 48. 47,

BURIAL APARTMENTS

Locatedto the southof the main burial apartment directlybehindthe north and wall of room VII is a small and r,rnflnished shaft with a mouth measurins 1.15m. N-S x.90m. E-w. Presumably was enterecl it fiom the roof level,a--s the shaft walls lined with mud brick standwell abovethe floor level of the mastaba. is cut into thenativerock to a depthof 6.00rn. It wherework appears to havebeenabandoned when its north wall brokethroushinto the SE corner of the shaftof the tomb owner. The main burial shaftis located the NW cornerof the mastaba. at directlvwest of the false door of Kt(.j)-<pr(w) in his offering chamber(room V) ancl presumablywas enteredfrom the rool'. The n-routh the shaft is 2.80m. of square, abovethe levelof the mastaba and floor hasretaining walls constructed of mud brick which are presently preserved a heightof 1.55m. The shaft to descends throughthe nativerock to a depthof 14.00m. the floor of the burial at chamber. It is likely that roughly cut notches the eastwall functionedas on footholds. The upper half of the shaft is well cut throughsandstone banded with shale,but the walls of the lower half, cut in a harderrock formation,are very rough and irregularwith no smoothsurfaces cleancorners. The floor or of the shaftis uneven with largeareas uncutrock remaining the southand of on east,and is partly finishedonly in the northwestsectionwhich slopesdown towardsthe burialcharnber. would appear It thatcuttingin the lower part may have been restricted that requiredin order to lower verticallythe large to limestonesarcophagus Kt(.7)-rpr(ru) of and manoeuvre into the burial it chamber.The entirewestwall and a goodportionof the north arecut away to produce opening an approximately 3.50m.wide and 3.25m.high which gives access the burial chamber. to OrientedN-S at a 40" angleto the westwall of the shaft,the burial chamber is irregularly-shaped incompletely with few smoothsurfaces. measures and cut It 5.50m.N-S on the eastsidex 5.20m.on the westwall x 3.35m.E-W on the north wall and 3.95m.on the southwall. The roughceiling,with many cracks and flssures, slopesslightly downwardto give a heightof 3.20m.at the west wall. The southwall is cleanlycut from the floor level to a height of about .70m.and,abovethis, work was begunto extendthe wall furtherto the south.

A)

KA-APER

The west wall and a small sectionat the west end of the north wali are quite 1.00m.abovethe floor level. The floor well cut to a heightof approximately area has been levelled and smoothed only in the area surrounding the is Beneaththe sarcophagus a well cut pit .80m.E-W x 3.60m. sarcophagus. N-S x .55m.deep. To the eastof and parallelto the pit a sectionof the floor of with maximummeasurements .60m.wide at the southend and 2.35m.along part and .22m.tn cut to depths .45m.in the western of the west sideis cleanlv the eastempart. of Restingon loose stonesand rubble abovethe pit is the large sarcophagus Kt(.j)*pr(w), cut from good quality limestone,but with the surfacesonly by roughly finished. Foundempty and damaged tomb robbersthereare several particularlyat the northernheadend wherepieces breaksin the sarcophagus, were recovered have also beenbrokenfrom the lid. Most of thesefragments to enable a completerecord to be made of the during the excavations and inscriptionsincised on the sarcophagus its lid. The chest measures externally3.10m. long x 1.63m.wide x 1.40m.high. The internal are 2.22m. long x .70m. wide x .66m. high, with the measurements of thicknesses the four sidesvarying from .40-.50m. The lid has a width of 1.63m. and an averageheight of .56m.; the length cannot be accurately as measured the norlh end is missins.

SCENES AND INSCRIPTIONS

but and of The chapelis constructed mud brick, thenplastered whitewashed, the red colour, perhapsthe only evidenceof painted decorationare fragmentsof on remainsof male figures,preserved the westwall of room V. Monolithic blocks doorway,the form eachof the two sidesof the entrance of good quality limestone and the falsedoor nichethicknesses the offeringbench. The architrave falsedoor, and abovethe entrance the corniceof the falsedoor arenow missing.Most of these are blocks receiveddecoration. All inscriptions incisedwhile the figures are in as sunkenrelief with good modelling,and detailsof body muscles, well as the The hieroglyphic signsshow feet,etc,arewell rendered. hands, of structure faces, general, work on the entrance the blocks is far a greatdeal of internaldetails. In superiorto that on the false door and the offering chamber. It is likely that the and fagadewas the last to be decorated,l03 thereKt(.j)-,pr(w) holds higher titles thoseattributedto him on his falsedoor and sarcophagus. than The North Entrance Jamb 4 P l s .1 4 - 1 7 , 9 b . vertical( I -7) and one horizontal(8) lines of by The upperhalf is occupied seven hieroglyphswhich read: ( 1) mrr(zo)ttswt pru mrr(w) Inpw tpj dw.f pu rm! nb hm-b (2) swt.tj.fjhr wtt tn m ld bsft st n(.j) mw (3) rdj n(.j,)t hnqt m ntt m-fut.fn

lo3 5"s also James, Khentiko,13.

43

KA-APER j., nf, n wnn t hnqt mruto4 m:fit.ln r05(4) dcl.kt.tn r.!n zodnto6 <.tnlu m t m nt hnqt (5) fotm r fu m lrp lt m zt bt m sr futtn mniut (6) m ftB-hdln 1r,' nr'irryros bt '(1)

Beloved the king andbeloved Anubis,*to ir onhis hill, is ony p".lon ot. of of a ka-servant who shallpassby this roadin travellingdownstream upstream. (2) or Pour water for me (3) and give breariand beer to me from that which is in your possession.If there are no bread,beer anclwater in your possession 1+; 1t"nen.y 'shall_you with your mouthand makeofferingwith your 1lun6.roothousand say a o1, breadand beer,(5) a thousand /-geese, thousand 1rp-ge"re,a thousand of a or of zf-geese, thousand sr-geese, thousand pigeons, a tnousancl oryxes, a of a of of 16j a thousand oxen and pure incense the ouerGe,of the workcentre, ioyal of for the chamberlain, overseer the greatcourt,(7) the honoured the of one beforethe king, beforeAnubiswho is on his hill, and beforethe greatgod lord of the west'. The horizontalline (8) is a captionidentifyingthe tomb owneras: 'the hereclitary prince,the count,the overseer the workcentre, royal chamberlain, of the Ka_aper,, who is shownseated, facingtowardsthe entrance invoking.il0 The gesture and of his right handmay be interpreted an invitationto the pas"r-Ly to enterhis tomb as and-perhaps present him with offerings indicated as inthe insiriptionsafsys.l r dd.f 'he says',written beforehis face,might ref'erto the words aboveas well as ro thoseon the adjoiningnorthentrance thickness. simjlar invoking figuresare found o.nthe lagades a numberof the large of mastabas the Teti.cemetery.Kt(.j)*pr(ru) sitson a chairwith lion'slegsand low, in cushionedback. He wearsa shoulder-length wig, a beard,a collar, tiracelets, a sashacross chestand. his a-pleated kilt. Like the figureof flntj-kt.jpreserved his on northern entrance.jamb,tt2 Kt{.iS-jrr(zu) invokeswith one handon,inotO,a sceptre in the other. As thereis no evidence a staff nearhis feet on the south iamb it of seemsthat, unlike flntj-kt,j and orhers,tt3 Kt{.i;*rr(ro) js clepicted rh; sourh on jamb invokingbut alsoholdinga sceptre. On a separate baseline in front of the tomb owner standsa small male flsure wearinga shoulder-length wig, a collar,a sashand a pointedkilt. He is identiied as zt.f smsw j*j-, gs-pr hrj-tp nsr.ot jnrl,lw lhjj 'his eidestson, rhe overseerof the workcentre, royal chamberlain, honoured the the one.Ihi'.
'bread, 104 pot the expression becrand watcr'secJantcs, Khentika,39, 6; Lloyd et al., pl. S1c1q[ira Tontb.s . o1.22. 2 105 pn. the usc of m-l3tscc EtJcl, Grtmmrcttik, \797. t , 0 6 r u d n i s e l l i p t i c a lf o r r u d n . k t . [ r r b i d , (i b $ 5 - 5 3 ,) . 107 16. deterntinativis iclcntical c t o t h a t i n t h c t o m b o l ' l r l w a t G i z a , w h c r e t h e a n i n r a li s idcntiflcdas nrrhd (Sirnpson, and ldu,20-21,lig. 33). Qttr l0ti 4n iclentical dercrminarive rherornboI'ldw is idcn-tified in (ibid). asizru 109 1t;t probablynlcansthatthc spokcnworcls shouldbc accornpanied thc apprgpriate by gesture of of lbring (Lloyd et al.,SutlqAra Tonilts 38 n.3). 2, I I0 pur this posturcseeHarpur,Decorcrrion,l2g--10; LA 2, -57-l-g-5. l l I S i l n i l a r l yH a r p u r e x p l a i n st h c d c p i c t i o n s c l f ' t h et o m b o w n c r o n t h e c n t r a n c e h i c k n c s s c s t facingoutwards 'awaiting approach as the (Decoruti.,,53). ol'visitors' I I 2 Jar"r, Khentiko. ol. (t. I I 3 16;,1, -5;Baclaw <Ankhnf pl. y, ahor, t'ig.2-j.

t:.,.r,r1.,! lyj-tp.ttstut.j,yj 0) tpj fir l ht.ut<urt ljfifuw l-rr'nstut Jnpiu .:,!,,:f, Ft.p, (8)jrj-p,t httj-< <tnb l.ntrrt Qzu.J n[r jmj-r gs-pr furj-tpnszutKt(.j)-rpr(u) !7r

AA

KA_APER

The South Entrance Jamb Pls. 14, 15,49a. on Apart from the bottom part of a scene the lower sectionof this jamb, all the inscriptionson the upper part have been completelyremovedby deliberate kilt and survivingin the lower part showsthe pleated chiselling.The decoration is at on feetof the tomb ownerseated a chairwith lion'slegs. Standing his f-eet part perhaps son,wearinga leopard's his skin. of a smallmale figure, The North Entrance Thickness P I s . 1 8 ,5 0 b . (5-6) linesof by The upperhalf is occupied four vertical(l-4) andtwo horizontal text that read: (l) pr.n(.j) m njzot(.j)ht.n(.j) m sptt(.j)jr.n(.j) (2) m{t n nb.s shtp.n(.j)nlr m mrrt.f (3) rdj(.j) t n l.tqrhbsn htjj snu(.j)tt (4) m jwtj tttllnt.fjnk '( Qdnfr wtun nfr (5) jnufuwlr nlr <t(6) jrj-pct jrnj-r gs-pr Kt(.j)*pr(w) l) I came from my province. I carriedout (2) justicefor forth from my town, and descended god with what he loves. (3) I gavebreadto the hungry and its lord, and satisfled clothing to the naked. I broughtto land (4) he who had no ferry-boat. I was one what was good. (5) The honoured one who said what was good and who reported prince,the overseer the workcentre, of Kabeforethe greatgod, (6) the hereditary aper'. with The tomb owner is depictedin the prime of life, but is represented l4 figures.l He with which is mostlyassociated older-looking shoulder, abbreviated and sandals and holds a staff. wears a cap wig, a long, projectingkilt, bracelets ta_cing thickness, outwardswhich, Kt(.j)-<pr(u)is shown here,as on the opposite of conirary to the earlierinterpretation leavinghis tomb,ll5 is now explainedby l6 of awaitingthe approach visitors.l Facingthe at Harpuras standing the entrance, him tomb owneris a smallfigureof a man presenting with ahz-jar. He is labelled: of of j*j-, pr jmj-r sir shd hm-kt ldzu'the overseer the house,the overseer the Idu'. of linen,the superintendent the ka-servants, The South Entrance Thickness Pls. 19, 50a. (5-6)linesof hieroglyphs occupythe upper Four vertical(l-4) andtwo horizontal (l) [jmj]-r zi <nxut jmj-r bt nbt nt nsut (2) hrj-tp nsut jmj-r and read: space j*j-, ziwj (3) brj-hbt l.trj-sittn pr-dutt (4) jmtfuu lr Wsir nb Ddwl t'7 l.tr.ut-wrt '(1) The overseer (5) jmtfuwlr lnpru tpj dw.f (6) jrj-pct jntj-r gs-pr k(.j)*pr(w) of the of of the scribes the king's documents, overseer all the works of the king, (2) greatcourt,the overseer the two fowl of of the the royal chamberlain, overseer the
I Harpur,Decorutiort. 33-34. 3 ; H a s s a nG i z . a , 1 0 1 - 1 0 2v o l . 6 : 3 , , Decoration,53. TontbsI, f ig. 26 sce For thc writing ol'Ddu as Ddru in this cernetcry Daviesct al.,SctqqAra

KA-APER

pools, (3) the lector priest,the one who is privy to the secretof the houseof morning,(4) the honoured one beforeOsiris,lord of Busiris,(5) the honoured one before Anubis, who is on his hill, (6) the hereditaryprince, the overseerof the Ka-aper'. Below the inscriptions a standing workcentre, is figure of the tomb in as ownerdepicted the samemanner on theopposite thickness. Room III: The Offering Chamber THE FALSE DOOR P l s .2 0 , 5 1 . (1-2)and one vertical(3) linesof hieroglyphs The UpperLintel: Two horizontal read: (1) lttp dj nsrut htp lnpru tpj du.f jmj wt nb tt isr (2) htp dj nsrut Wsjr lntj '(l) An offering which the Qdw qrs.tj.f m ftrt-ntr (3) jmj-r gs-pr Kt(.j)-<pr(ru) king gives and an offering which Anubis, who is on his hill, who is in the place,lord of the sacred land (gives). (2) An offeringwhich the king embalming givesand Osiris,foremost Busiris(gives), of that he be buriedin the necropolis. (3) The overseer the workcentre, Ka-aper'. To the left is a figure of the tomb of ownerholdinga staffand sittingon a chairwith bull's legs. The CentralPanel: The tomb owner sits on a chair with bull's legs wearinga wig and ershort,tight kilt. He stretches right hand to an his shoulder-length of offering table with lourtcenhalf-loaves bread and holds in his left hand a perfumejar with his forefingerand thumb. Two ewersin basins,two jars and a is calf s headon a tray are alsodepicted.Above the scene written:jmtlru furnlr <t hrj-tp nsrut k(.j)-rpr(zu)'The honouredonc before the great god, the royal Ka-aper'. chamberlain, is The Lower Lintel: The arrangement similarto thaton theupperlintel,exceptthat and the figure to the left is standingand holding a stailT a sceptre. (1) jntfuru fur (2) jnulw ftr nxut fur nlr <tnb pt (3) jntj-r gs-pr Kt(.j)*pr(zt') '(l) flntj-jmntjut (2) one beforethe king arrd The honoured one beforeKhentiamentiu, the honoured (3) of Ka-aper'. beforethe greatgod, lord of heaven, the overseer the workcentre, The Drunr:Kt(.j)-<pr(w)'Ka-aper'. (3) two vertical(l-2) and one horizontal linesof The Jambs: Eachjamb contains only the tombowner'sname. Below this,in each the containing hieroglyphs, lerst wearinga shouider-length a beard,a collar wig, of case,is a depiction Kt(.j)-<pr(zrr) and a pointedkilt andholdinga staffanda sceptre. (2) The Right OuterJamb: (1) l.ttpdj rtsittt lnpu tpj dru.fjntj ut nb tt lsr lntj spt'(l) (Z) prt-furwn.f m ltrt-nlr jmj-r gs'pr furj-tpnswt jrnj-r l.trut-rurt K:(.j)-,pr(nt) An offeringwhich the king givesand Anubis,who is on his hill, who is in the l8 of embalmingplace,lord of the sacrcdland,forernost Sepal lgives). (2) May an invocation offering come fbrth for him in the necropolis. The overseerof the of the the workcentre, royal chamberlain, overseer the greatcourt,(3) Ka-aper'.
llti p . r r a < J i s c u s s i o nh e p o s s i b l c l o c a t i o nS c p a s e e Z i b e l i u si ,e d l u n g e n . 2 0 g - l l . Z t of of

16

KA-APER

The Left Outer Jamb: (I) htp dj nsut Inpw funtj zh-ntr bp.f hr wtwt jptf (Zl '(1) nfr(w)t nt jmnt lppt jmtfuwhr,snllejtnj-r gs-pr (3) Kt(.j)-<pr(w) An offering which the king givesand Anubis,foremost the divinebooth (gives). May he of travel upon thosebeautifulroads(2) of the west,upon which the honouredones (3) travel,the overseer the workcentre, Ka-aper'. of The Right Inner Jamb: (l) jmtfirubr ntr g nb pt (2) jm{l3w|3rWsjr nb Ddw (3) '(l) The honouredone beforethe greatgod, Iord of heaven,(2) the Kt(.j)*pr(w) honoured one beforeOsiris,lord of Busiris,(3) Ka-aper'. The Left Inner Jamb (l) jmtfuwfurlnpw tpj dw.f (2) jntj-r gs-pr hrj-tp nswt jmj-r '(l) The honoured one beforeAnubis,who is on his hill, Ltwt-rurt(3) Kt(.j)tpr(w) (2) the overseer the workcentre, royal chamberlain, overseer the grezrt the the of of (3) Ka-aper'. court, SIDESOF THE FALSE DOOR Pl. 52. On either side of the false door the traditionaloils are depictedin superposed registers, eachcontaininga jar and the nameof the oil. The north side reads:... '...hknw orl,sft oil,nfunm oll,twtrut orl, hknw sft nhnm trutwt h*t nt ll.mw best Libyan oil'. The southside lists the sameoils, but trttnutis replaced by l.utt 'best o , ? f( 5 cedar il'. THE FALSE DOOR NICHE P l s .2 1 , 2 2 , 5 3 ,5 4 . Two monolithic limestoneblocks,now brokenin the upperpart, form the sidesof is with a large a niche into which the false door is set. Each thickness decorated figure of the tomb owner facing away from the falsedoor, while thejambs of the niche show offering bearers. (Seealso TNE94:F25 which may have originated from the southsideof this niche.) The North Thickness:The uppersectionis partly missing,but the remainingpart ( l s h o w s h r e ev e r t i c a ( l - 3 ) a n dt w o h o r i z o n t a l4 - 5 )l i n e so f t e x t : ( l ) . . . ( 2 ) . . . L t r j t (4) jmtfttobr ntr <t(5) jmj-r gs-pr Kt(.j)*pr(w) '(l) hbt (3) ... fi.trj-slittn nsntt of ... (2) ... the lectorpriest,(3) ... privy to the secret the king, (4) the honoured Ka-aper'.Below this of one beforethe greatgod, (5) the overseer the workcentre, wig. with the staff and sceptre.He wearsa shoulder-length the tomb owner stands pointedkilt. skin anda short, a a collar and bracelets, leopard's showsa is The SouthThickness:The uppersection missing. The lower section and wearinga sashand a short, holdingthe staff and sceptre figure of Kt(.j)-<pr(zu) pointedkilt.

ll9

Lopp, Opfetformel, 579-80

11

KA-APER

in registers The North Jamb: The figuresof four offeringbearers superposed are with cap wig, beardand shortkilt. All carry a forelegof an preserved, depicted all cut ox and possiblyanother of meat. Only the man in the lower registeris labelled of Nesu'. A verticalline of inscription director the fbod-hall, as lrp zh Ns::u'the jrutt m Trnthw Srn'run kt jntj-r n dt120 the explains actionof the men as: ... [pr] '...121 the houseof of gs-pr hrj-tp nsrutKt(.j)-<pr(u,) dt, which is broughtfrom o1' the North and South ['or the ka of the overseer the workcentre,the royal Ka-aper'. chamberlain, to The SouthJamb: Similarin composition the northjamb, only the two lower rcgistersof the southjamb are preserved.In eachis depictedan offering bearer with a shortwig carryinglotusflowersin the right handanddifferentofferingitems the accompanies man in the upperregister.The vertical in the left. A smallgazelle inscriptionbeforethem reads:... n jmj-r gs-pr llrj-tp nswt jntt'ftru nlr g Kt(.j)lr <pr(zu)'... for the overseer the workcentre, royal chamberlain, honoured the the of the greatgod, Ka-aper'. one before The Sarcophagus 23. 28. 55. Pl,s. and is The chestof Kt(.j)tpr(u)'s sarcophagus madeof one block of limestone, Inscriptions exist outside both its lid of ernother, of which werelell unsmoothed. of on side I (east) the lid andthechestandon side3 (north)of the latter,and inside are but All on side 1 of the chest.l22 signsand theruitt-eyes incised, very poorly of unfinished.The left handsection the lid is alsovery and executedl23 presumably rough and partly damaged.If the text was left unfinishedin this sectionit would death. A comparison rather thana premature beendueto superstition haveprobably showsthat and the between titles writtenon the sarcophagus thoseon the entrance to was promoted a higherlevel in his careerafter his Kt(.j)-<pr(w)presumably was inscribed. Certain signs,particularlyhuman ligures in the sarcophagus or sarcophergi, been suppressed inscriptionshave, as on other contemporary of for modified,possibly theprotection the deceased. by Tomb robbersenteredthe sarcophagus breakingthrough in three different s ifd el , a t t h e t o p o f s i d e 3 t o g e t h e r w i t h h l o c a t i o n s , a t t h e t o pto fe n o r t h e r n e n d o side 3 of the lid, and from the bottom of the chest. Two inscribedfragments in recoveredfrom the rubble of the burial chamberhave been incorporated the facsimileof the text inscribedon the siucophagus. by The Lid: The inscriptioncontainsan address Kt(.j)-<pr(u) to the priestsand who areto takechargeof buryinghim, askingthem to secure workers(?) cemetery 'mother',i.e. the chest. The appealis ratherunusual,but his heavy lid on its and are similar inscriptions found on the lids of <tilt-m-<-Hr flnti-kt.i.tz.+The text
I 20 gn the significanccof thc houseof 1f scePercpclkit't, l58ll'. Privuteigentunt, l2l The lacunamay be reconstructcd or thc as'bringing choicclbod by the ka-scrvants', thc likc. 1 2 2 5 i . 1 1 " . a r r a n g e m e ns f c l u n d n t h e s a r c o p h a g u s ' ( n l r n t - < - H r ,w h o i n a d d i t i o ni n s c r i b c d ol o it t h e i n s i d eo l ' s i d e3 ( F i r t h- G u n n ,T e t i P v r .C e r r . l ' 9 8 ) . 123 16" sarncis obscrved the cascol <ttll-m-< (ibid, 99). Hr in l 2 a 1 6 ; , 1 , 9 8 1v.o l . 2 , p l . - 5 u ; J a m eK , e n t i k a , 6 5p l . 3 9 ; S c t h c { . / r f t l.' 2 0 5 ' , , sh f ;

48

KA.APER

reads:...ltrj-tp ttsrotjmj-[r] hrut-rurtKt(j)-<pr(w) dd.f j fuj-hbt wt rntt ucbt rm! B0 ... (2) ...jj nxut zunnjnul1.lnnfr ftr nlr,t djdj.tn n(.j) s pn l.trmwt.f jqr jnk '(1) ... thc royal charnberlain, ovcrseer the greatcourt, the of Kt(.j)tpr(zu)n mrwt menof theembalming enrbalmer, charnber the and he Ka-aper, says:O lectorpriest, ( 2 ) . . . o f t h e k i n g a n d y o u r h o n o u rt o b e w e l l . . 8 0 m e n [ o f t h e n e c r o p o l i s ] 1 2.5 before the great god, then you shouldplace for me this lid upon its mother, Ka-aper'. excellently.I am the beloved, jrnj-r gs-pr Kt(.j)*pr(ur) 'Ka-aper[zr.rlrf-eyes], Side l: Kt(.j)-<pr(zu) [rudtt-eyesl Ka-aper'. of the overseer the workcentre, Side 3: jmfly.u UJlr nstut jmj-r gs-pr Kt(.j)*pr(zu)'the honouredone before the Ka-aper'. of king, the overseer the workcentre, Side I (inside): jmj-r gs-pr hrj-tp nszut Kt[(.j)*pr(w)l'the overseerof thc Ka-aper'. the workcentre, royal chamberlain,

VI

FINDS

to The tomb of Kt(.j)tpr(w) appears havebeenemptieda numberof times,the 'ruede tombeaux' the at most recentof which was by Loret duringhis work in the a very end of the last century. The fill of the shali contained numberof objects out which arecertainly of context. TNE94:69.Pl. 13. intactbut mostlybroken,all moderately of Assortment smallcoppertools,several on oxidised the tr11nce.l26 with a splayed blunt end andblade. L l2.0cm. W 2.6cm. A. One large adze, ends.String marksare visiblc on the adzeswith roundedblr-rnt B. Five spatulate werehafiedonto a strafl. L 7.8cm. W 2.5cm. narrowends,wherethe objects axes,one edgeslightlyrounded.L 4.8cm. W 4.0cm. C. Six square L W of D. Fragments awls/styli(numberindeterminate). 3.8-7.5crn. 0.2-0.3cm. smallfragments. E,. Miscellaneous TNE9{:70. (not illustrated) andjars, body, baseand neck(?) of fragments coppermodel dishes Numerous oxidisation.Th 0.1-0.2cm. Moderate surface discernible. fragments TNE9{:71. (not illustruted) glaze to discoloured black. H 14.3cm.W 4.0cm. shabti, faience A. Blue-glazed faienceshabti,head and upper torsc'r B. Fragmentof a mouldedblue-glazed wearsa tripartitewig with lappetsovcr indistinct;figr"rre remaining. Features on the shoulders. Some abrasionand discolouration surface. H 4.7cm. W 4.0cm.
I 25 por this expression ref-ercnccs previous in note. scc 126 A sirnilarcollectionof coppcrtoolswas tbundduringACE work at Saqqara l9it3-U,at thc in . i t b o t o m o f ' t h e s h a l ' o f l l . r j - m2 3 . / ( K a n a w a te t a l . , S u q q a r a l , 2 3 , p 1 . 9 , S U 3 : U 8 ) S e c a l s t ' r F i r t h - G u n n .T e l l P t ' r .C e m . l . 1 3 , 1 9 , 2 2 , 2 5 , 3 5 .

49

KA-APER

TNE94:72.Pl. 13. with roundedtops and concaveunderneath. objects, Three circularlimestone jar Traces yellow paintremaining.Complete. of Probably stoppers. A . D 5 . 3 c m .T h l . 6 c m . B . D 7 . 0 c m .T h 2 . 0 c m . C. D 7.5-8.0cmTh l.7cm. . D of Threefragments jar stoppers. 5.8cm. Th max. l.2cm. TNE94:73.Pl. 13. jar. Cylindricalshape flat-topped ledge with slightlyconcave sides, Model calcite rim andflaringbase.Complete.H 5.3cm. D rim 4.2cm. D base3.5cm. TNE94:74. (not illustrated) H sides.D 2.3-2.2cm. L5cm. with concave Stoneobject,circular TNE94:75. (not illustruted) rzn Palegreenstone(feldspar?) -pot amulet. H 0.8cm. W 0.7cm. TNE9(:76. Pl. 13. of container Nile mud with a lid, unfired and small square Roughly-modelled Tracesof powderywhite paint on two sides. Insidethe box was a hand-formed. figureof Nile mud. Figureand lid broken. Box: H 5.8cm. crudehand-formed . L 8 . 5 c m . W 8 . 5 c r n .T h o f w a l l l . O c m :L i d : L 7 . 5 c m . W 7 . - 5 c m T h 0 . 5 c m . TNE9{:77. Pl. 13. from Nile with lid, handmade container small oval shaped Roughly-n-rodelled L mud, unfired. Lid broken,now mended.H incl. lid -5.6cm. 9.9cm. W 6.2cm. T h o f w a l l 0 . 5 c m -l . 0 c m . TNE96:78.Pl. 13. and lid, handmade with rounded corners container rectangular Roughly-modelled of unfired Nile mud. Each side of the box is piercedby two holes about0.5cm. from the rim, possiblyfor threadingto securethe lid. Tracesof white paint or clay plasterremainingon box and lid. Insidethe box was a crudelyfashioned figure, left foot broken and a model clay headrest.All limbs on the figure were visible; prominentmale of and crudedelineation the facial features distinguished now mended.Box: but present.Basecomplete, lid brokenin two halves, genitalia T h o f w a l l s 0 . 9 5 c mL i d : L l 0 . l c m . W 6 . - 5 c m ' . H3.6cm. L9.9cm. W7.0cm. : : I h . o f l i d 1 . 1c m . F i g u r e L 7 . 5 5 c m .H e a d r e s t2 . 8 5x 2 . 2 c m . T N E 9 4 : 1 0 0 .P l s . 1 3 , 4 6 . Squatceramicvesselwith a flaring neck and fluted rim, long spout narrowing foot showingmarksof tripod support. Rounded towardsthe end and recessed blue turquoise from top of neck to shoulder.Very glossy,srnooth handleattached handleand spout broken. from fragments; glaze over exterior surface. N{ended The natureof the glazepointsto an Islamicdatefor this obiect. H 8.5cm. W max. 5 7 . 8 c m . D b a s e . 5 c m .D r i m 4 . 2 c m .

50

KA-APER

TNE94:101PIs. 13,16. with a long spoutnarrowing Squatceramicvessel towardsthe end, flaring rim and a recessed foot. Flat strap handle rvith thumb-restapplied from neck to shoulder.Raisedridge below handlearoundneck. Dark green-blue glazeover indicative an Islamicdate. Spoutbrokenand other exteriorand interiorsurf-aces, of '7.Zcm. wearevident.H 8.0cm. W max. surface D basc5.lcm. D rim 4.'7cm.

-51

INSCRIBEDOBJECTSAND FRAGMENTS
Duringthe excavation seasons 1994-95, of numerous inscribed limestone obiecrs were found in the compact earthand debriswhich filled chupcls and shalisoi the Old Kingdom mastabas and also in the looscr sarrdabovc them. In 1994 the cxpedition focused clearing section on a wherethc mastabaol-Ndt-nt-pf later was found,and the majorityof fragrnents werediscovcred that vicinity. The tomb of in Kt(.j)-<pr(w)was previor"rsly cleared, althoughnot fully recorcled, Loret, hence by very few objectsor fragments wererecovered this area. Unlessotherwise in stertecl the small fragmentsfound in 1994arre from the fill above or in the irnmediate surroundings the tomb of Nf,t-m-pt; only cornplete nearcompleteobjectsare of or given a lnoreexactlocation.A grid systern instigated 199-5 enablcd finds in has the of that season be moreprecisely to located. The inscribed itemsaredividedinto threecategorics arelistedbelow with the and fbllowing ref-erences: TNE (Teti Cemetery North-East); SM (stdlemaison), FD (falsedoor),OT (oif-ering table)or F (fragment) plLrs individualregistration the number. Find spotsof objects foundin thc 1995scason, within the grid systcm, areprovidedin parenthesis the beginning eachcntry. Translations oftered at of are where texts are complete, but transliteration only wherethe contcxt is lacking. Unlessotherwise notedthereareno remaining traces paint. of The greatmajority of the inscribed objects recovered duringthe cxcavations may be datedto the late Old Kingdomand thescare presented below. Numerousother fiagmentswill appearin a future volume devotedto latcr burials and related materials recorded lrom the sameareaof the Teti Cemeterv.

STtI,E MAISON

TNE95:SMl. P|.56. This object,now storedin thc pillaredcourt ol'/5/ which forms part o1'the mastaba his father,<nh-m-<-Hr, found by the EgyptianSurpreme of was Council of presumably thc near vicinity. As a re-publication Antiquities, in o1'this rnastaba is includedin our currentploject,it seerns alsoappropriatc makeknown the prescnt to interesting object. This type of monument, called 'stblemaison'by Jiquier is currentlyotherwise attested only in the cemctcryof PepyII and generally datedto the end of Dynasty6.127 The presence one of tirese of monuments thc Teti in cemetery therefore interest.Thereis no doubtthat the cemetery is of remained in generations useby successive during thc reign of Pepy II and later,and fragment TNE94:F8records cartouche Nef-erkarc. this cemetcry, thc of But limited in area, appears have beentotally plannedand allociitedunder Teti himself, although to were completed somemastabas underPepyI. Later officialsand faniily members had to dig new shafisand add stelacto existingmastabas.The present'stdle maison' in should seen thiscontcxt. be

1 2 7 J d q u i e rO u t l j e b t e n , 2 6 - 3i1 ;c r n , c t r t i t ' t i l i e r . s ' , l 1 2 - 1 e g l c r . t f t u k t g u el e ss t i l e . s , 1 9 1 - g g . , d P Zi4; C t

-53

OBJECTSAND FRAGMENTS

with a rectangular base69cm. is The monument formedof oneblock of limestone long x 34cm.wide at the baseand 3l.5cm. wide at the top of the verticalsides which are 37cm.high. Above this the long sidescurve inward to form an arched thinksthis type of objectrepresents in top, resulting a total heightof 43cm. J6quier room housewith vaultedroof, henceits name.l28Vandier,fbllowing a simple,one and thinks that the object rejectsthis interpretation Miiller, however,reasonably Decoration in mastaba.l29 but a doesnot represent stelaor a house, a miniature on reliefwith little detailis partiallypreserved threesides. incised The Long Side, FaEade with a false door of the type with torus moulding and is The faEade decorated at flankedon eithersideby a figureof the ownerseated an offering cavettocornice, on table.The inscriptions the falsedoor readas follows: offeringcome forth The Upper Lintel: prt-furu n jm:'fuw lhirto'May an invocation Ihi'. one, fbr the honoured

of mnfit n jnt*3ru 'onethousand bread, lmqt fu k:'fut Panel:fu t fut The Central lhj for of of of one thousand beer,one thousand oxen,one thousand clothes the one. honoured Ihi'.
one,Ihi'. The Lower Lintel: jrufurulhj'The honoured of The Left Outer Jamb: j*j-, pr-in'131hrj-hbt jmtfuw Hhittz'The overseer the one,Hehi'. the of department stores, lectorpriest,the honoured The Right OuterJamb:jmtfuto nb.f ... fur The Inner Jambs:jrufutu(Hhj) 'Thehonoured betorehis lord, ...'. one

'lne honoured one,Hehi'.

on To the left of the false door the owner is depictedseated a chair with lion's long wig which doesnot coverhis ear. legs,wearinga shortkilt, broadcollar and a to One of his handsis held clenched his chestand the other is open and extended showingsix loaveson the unfinished, tablewhich is apparently towardsan off-ering noneon the right. Underthe tableon the far sideis a cheston which left half but are piled items of food and aboveare two trays,the lower with threejars and the abovethe sceneread: t l3thnqt fu kt lgt upperwith loavesof bread. The inscriptions 'one thousandof bread,one mt-hd $ is [!t] nmlt n jm:ftru fur Wsjr ll.tj fu rytlfut of of thousandof beer, one thousand oxen, one thousand fowl, one thousandof for one of one thousand clothes the honoured and of oryxes.one thousand alabaster beforeOsiris,Ihi'. in to tablesccne theright of the falsedooris damaged the lower part. The off-ering to in a sirnilarmannel' that on the lefi but also figureof the owneris clad The seated
128 129 13 o l3 I I 32 o u d j e b t e n , 2.1 2, 7v4n,run1435-36. l 1 B o n L " ,P e r s o n e n n a m e,n 4 : 2 0 . , i F o r t h i s t i t l c s e eK a n a w a t - M c F a r l a n eA k h n r i n tl . 2 3 l . 12. 1, Rankc,Personennrunen 254

OBJECTSAND FRAGMENTS

wearsthe sashof a lectorpriestand bracelets.One handrestson his lap and the otheris extended towards tablewith 13loaves bread.Beneath to the lefl area a of it ewer and basin. The 'onethousand fbrmulais identical that on the lcfi side ...' to and is followed by: n jmtftzulr nfr <tnb pt flfuj 'for the honouredone befbrethe greatgod, lord of heaven, Hehi'. The Back Side 'back'sidethe On the opposite only survivingdecoration, the lower lctt encl, at is a smallportionof the legsof a standing malefigurefacingleft andof two columns jmjt-r) ...2) ... m ... in of inscriptions front of him. The signsread:I) ... hrjJ.tbt , l ) . . . t h e l e c t o rp r i e s t t h e o v e r s e e.r. . 2 ) . . . n 1. . . The End A standingfigure of the owner is depictedfacing left and weziring shouldera length, curledwig whichdoesnot coverhis ear,l33 beard, collar,bracelets a a a and projecting, pleatedkilt. He holds a staff and a sceptre and is accompanied one by (l) horizontal and two vertical(2-3) linesof hieroglyphs that read:(l) jmtfuu.t fur The honoured one beforeAnubis,who is on his hill, lhi. (2) The overseer of of the the department stores, lector priest,the honouredone (3) before the great god, Hehi, his beautifulname,Ihi'.

jm{bw} (3)br nlr <tHhj rn.f nfr ll1[j] lhj Inpw tpj dru.f @ j*j-, pr-in<furj-ftbt '(l)

il

FALSE DOORS

The streetbetweenNit-m-pt anclSpsj-ptu-Ptllis iully occupiedby shafts presumably dating betweenthe late Old Kingdom and First Intermediate Period. Theseare characterised small mouthsand are arranged an orderly fashionto by in maximiseuse of the limited space. A numberof small lalse doorsand offering tables were foundin the loosedebrisfilling this street andthe areaabovethe chapel of Ndt-m-pt to a height of 3.0m. It seemslikely that sr"rch inscribedobjects originally belongedto theseshaftsand were moved,perhaps the tirne that this at cemeterywas first robbed. The areato the eastof Njt-m-pt has not yet been completely cleared.The intrusive burials(to be published) were all laterthanthese evenif sometimes they weredug to a lower dcpth. objects, TNE94:FDI. Pls.24.57. The upper part of the false door of Nw-hjj-futot-knuwas fbund near the SW at cornerof NQt-m-pf'smastaba a heightapproximately 2.50m.abovefloor level. cornice, is decorated incisedrelie it Of the type with torusmouldingandcavetto in f (W 47.0cm.)present max.H 38.0cm. of goodstyle. W 44.5cm. cornice

1 3 3 T h i c t y p c b e c a m ep a r t i c u l a r l yl i e q u e n td u r i n g t h e r e i g n so f P e p y l - P c p y I I ( C h e r p i o n . M astabaset hypogdes, 57-58).

55

OBJECTS AND FRAGMENTS

The Upper Linrel: (l) dj l3r ryxutl.ttpdj lnpru prt-furw.ftt+(\ m jtntfuzu nlr <t '( r) (3) Spsj nsrot smr pr 4t! Nzu-hjj-hws-fu7p135 An off-ering which the kiig gives and an offeringwhich Anubisgives. May his invocation ofieringcomefortf, Dl o. an honoured one beforethe greatgod, (3) the nobleman the king, the companion of of the house,l36 \s-[i-ilewet-kau'. To the left is a standing figure of the o*n"r. holdingthe staff andthe sceptre. The CentralPanel: Only the Llpper section preserved, is wherea title and the name of the owner read:... snrr pr Nu-l.tjj-hrut-knu'..., companion the house, the of Nu-hi-hewet-kau'. Date: Dynasty6. TNE94:FD2. Pls.24, 57. Found in the debrisapproximately 2.00m.abovethe centralpart of Ndt-m-pt,s mastaba, falsedoor of Hjj is almostcomplete,exceptfor the cavettocornice the which is partly brokenabovethe torusmoulding. It is decorated incised, in and now weathercd, reliefof poor style. W 3l.Ocm. present 45.0cm. H

TheUpper Lintcl: \t lltp dj nsut dj lnpzu fdru.f tpj prt-furw jmtbwHjjt3i e) n] '(l) jmtlu fur ...Hjj 1 An offering nb.f which kinggives Anubis, is on rhe ancl w'ho
offeringcomeforth fbr] the honoured [his hill] gives. [May an invocation one, Hi, (2) the honoured one beforehis lord ...,Hi'.

The CcntralPanel: The ownersitsat an offeringtableandholdsa perfume close jar to his nose. He is described jmj-r pr Hjj 'Theoverseer the house, as of Hi'. The Right outer Jamb: jnufuu lr lnpw lntj zh-nfr jntj-r pr Hjj 'The honoured one beforeAnubis,foremost the divinebooth,the overseerofthe house, of Hi'. 'fn" The Left OuterJamb: 1nufirufur [Ptl.t?]smr wctj Mnzu-jnw(?)tta4y.7te Hjj honoured before[Ptah?] solecompanion, onc the Min-inu(?),his df, Hi'. The Lower Lintel: lmt.f [m]rtt.fl Wdrt... n 'His wife, his beloved, Wedjat... n'. The Right Inner Jamb: jmil3w fur nlr ,t Hjj 'The honouredone before the great god, Hi'.

I 34 p,l. the lbrm g162. scc Ttrt-furut Lapp, Oplefinrnret. 1 3 5 T h i c n a t n ci s u n a t { c s t cid R a n k c ,P e r s o n e n n t t n e r ru t r a t h c r n b, a s i r n i l a r a m c ,N z u h - k t t ur s n lbuncionce in thc tomb of Ptl.tlltp (D62) at Siiclqara (ibid l. 182:29:Maricrrc,Mnstubtts. 3 - 5 2 ) , a t c c lt o t h c r c i g n o f D j c d k a r e( B a c r . R a n k c u r t l T i t l e , 7 4 - j 5 l l 6 0 l : S t r u d w i c k , d Atlntin i.srutir.rn, t t37-t38 ). [49] 136 p1t.1.t.. obscrvccl the lasttwo titlcsareusuallycornbined has that (Denclertt,98-99). I 3 7 R a n k e , e r s o n e n n u n t e.n2 3 3 : 1 6 . P l 1 3 8 1 6 i . 1l,- 5 : 1 6 ; v o l . 2 , 3 6 0 . I f ' t h i s r e a c l i n g i s c o r r ctc re n b . fo f H j j l h isMrnu-jnru,rheowner ol' a tonrb recentlycliscovered thc samc areawhich datcsrnostprobably tit thc reign of in Pcpy I (kr be publishcd shortly). 139 pn, tl.tctcrnr L/f see Mcnu-Harari,CRIPEL 2 |()741. l42fl.; Perepclkin,Prit,ctteigerttunt, nassim.

56

OBJECTSAND FRAGMENTS

The Left InnerJamb: jnrhzu furnb.f Hjj 'Thehonourecl one befbrehis lord. Hi . Date: Dynasty6 TNE94:FD3. Pls.25, 57. Found in the debris,.of Nit-nt-pt's tomb near TNE94:FD2, thecompletefalse door of Mr.srnb is of the type with torusmoulcling anclcavetto "minimum corniceand has a T-shaped panel' Decorated incised in relief with details, owner is the shownseated an offeringtableon the pane^l is depicted at and standing and holdrng a lotus flower to her nose at the bottom of each of-t'he four 1ambs. w at base 30.0cm. W aftop 3l.Ocm. H -52.0cm. The UpperLintel and Lefi outer Jamb: The inscriptions on the former (l) continue on thelatter (2). (1) di nsw.t j crw Ttrt-r3rzu n jnur3iui ntr,t (2) r3r \!l ,lnyru.tpj Mr.s-'nbt+0 '(l) An offeringwhich the king giutJ aniAnubis, who is on his hill (gives). IVIayan invocationoffering comefoitf, (2) for the honouredone beforethe greatgod, Meres-ankh'.

'Thehonoured TheRightOuter Jamb:jnufuwt pth Mr.s_<nl3 !1r one beforeptah. Meres-ankh'.


thousand bread,one thousand beer and cake, one thousand of of of tbwl. one thousand oxen, one thousancl alabasterand one thousand of of of clothes. fbr Meres-ankh'. Lower Lintel: jmtfiut Mr.s-<nfu 'Thehonoured one,Meres-ankh,. The Inner Jambs: The szrme inscriptions writtenon both inner.jambs: are bkrt nswt Mr.s-<n! 'The royal o.nament, Meres_ankh'. Date: PepyI, or later.

The CentralPanel: lg t fotl.tnqt fut 'One p3t tpdfu kt fu is ftt nntfut Mr.s-<nh n

III

OFFERING TABLES

The offeringtables, both complete and incomplete, of the type with a l.ttp_stgn are and two basins, exceptfor or3 which is a singl^e basinwith a flat rim. TNE94:OT1. Pls. 26, 58. A completeoffering table inscribedlbr Tmzj/IJrtJtmt-n-brzuwas fbund ne.r the eastern wall of NQt-m-pt'smastaba a heightapproximaGty at z.:0,,-'.abovefloor

nir..ing which Anubis,who is on his hill, gives. May an invocation offeringcomefbrth f'oi hi-, for the honourecl one Tjemst. (2) The honoured onc befbrehis lord, the noblernan the kinc. the of
140 Ranke, ersonennunren P l. l5U:6. | ' 1I I b i d , 3 9 1: l o .

l e v e lI.n s c r i p t i o n s i n c i s e d o n 1 l . e . b t T t $ g n i e a dt:i"i ( iri)i h"t"pta 1 nsi i i ' pl dwf prt,.pyr! ! jyntlw.Trnrj.,o,, t3,ni j tifs1]'nswt hri!6i u[t_h,n,_ '(l) ".f .i) iritt3w n-'ftrTu An offeringwhich fhe king'giv". uno un

57

OBJECTSAND FRAGMENTS

Each endswith a seated figure of lectorpriest,Kheret-hema-en-kheru'. inscription the owner. W 29.8cm.L 43.7cm. TNE94:OT2. Pls.26, 58. two basinsis between The offeringtableof Zzjis brokenon one side. Preserved most of a vertical line of incised inscriptionsending with a seatedfigurc 'The honoured one before It determinative. reads:jmtfuru lnpzutpj dw.f Zzjl42 fur max. L 22.0cm. is on his hill, Sesi'.W l7.0cm. present Anubis,who TNE9l:OT3. Pls.26, 58. roughly The right lower cornerof a singleofferingbasin retainsinscriptions j t f l a t r i m a r o u n d h e e d g e . T h e y r e a d( t ) . . . z i l r j r + z Q ) l . r m t . f . . . o incised n the ' ( 1 ) . . . t h e s c r i b eI,r i . ( 2 ) h i s w i f e , 16.0cm. t i . . . . . P r e s e nm a x .W 2 l . 5 c m . L TNE94:OT4. Pls.27, 58. A small fragmentof an offeringtablehasremainsof a horizontalline of incised '... signswhich reads:... prt-furw Ftkt-ttt11 invocationofferings(for) Feteket-ta'. max.W 8.5cm. L l0.0cm. Present TNE9{:OT5. Pls.27, 58. on An offering table of Sbkruis damaged threecornersbut retainsmost of its (D incisedinscriptions. They read: (l) jmtlut Sbkwt45 htp dj nszutlnpzu tpi '(1) The honoured which the king givesand one,Sebeku.(2) An off-ering dwt.fl... t ( g i v e s ) . . . ' W ' l 3 . 5 c m . p r e s e nm a x .L l 6 . 5 c m . . w Anubis, ho is on hishill TNE94:OT6. Pl. 58. Two pieceswere found of a brokenoffering table,but the right side is missing. which read: ( l) ... prtlinesof incisedinscriptions of Little remains two horizontal ' ( 1 ) . . . i n v o c a t i o n f f e r i n g s f o r ) . . .( 2 ) . . . t h e ( o ftrw ...(2) ...[jmtb]u lr Wsjr... max.W 2l.0cm. L 33.0cm. one beforeOsiris...'. Present honoured TNE94:OT7. Pls.27, 58. The right half of an offering table inscribedin black ink only was found to the of north of the mastaba Ndt-m-pt at a height of 2.00m. The single line of text 'An offering which the king gives and dj nsut lrtpw tpj dwf ... begins: htp max' L 32.5cm. Anubis,who is on his hill (gives)...'. W 26.3cm.present TNE94:OT8. Pl. 58. at A completeoffering tablewas found nearthe SE cornerof Nflt-m-pf's mastaba floor level. Crudelyincisedfor an official 3.00m.above a heightof approximately no-"d Hzjj ihe inscriptionsread: ( t) htp dj nsrot Wsjr prt-furron ipsj nsut jmil3w '(l) An offeringwhich the king gives and Osiris (gives). Hzjjr+6 (2) jmtfuw... May an invocationoffering come forth for the noblemanof the king, the honoured one ...'. W 32.0cm.L 36'0cm. one.Hesi. (2) The honoured
l a 2 1 6 i , 12 9 i : 2 2 . , l a 3 1 5 ; , 1 ,1' 1. 4 l a a 1 6 i , 1 ,4 j . 1 . 1 1 , 1 5t b i d , 3 0 6 : 3 . I a6 15;,1. 254:29.

OBJECTSAND FRAGMENTS

IV

FRAGMENTS

A greatnumberof fragmentsfbund nearto eachother in the fill and debrisabove rock and the centralpart of Nflt-ttt-pt's tomb were formed of a hard, slate-coloured a similarstyleand size. Two (TNE94:F21, F43) bearthe of had inciseddecoration name lpj,to, and it is believedthat the majority belong to the samemonument. orderand to facilitatestudythey numbers not in consecutive are Their registration and their have been groupedat the beginningof the following descriptions on the sameplates. together photographs and line drawingsappear ( T N E 9 4 : F 4 I l , 1 3 - 1 4 ,1 6 - 2 1 , 2 6 - 2 7 , 0 - 3 1 ,3 7 - 3 8 ,4 3 , 4 5 , 5 2 , 6 4 , 6 ' / - 6 9 , 7 6 , , 3 89 Pls. 28-30, 59) TNE94:F4. Pls.28, 59. facing Partsof rows of an incisedoffering list with kneelingfigure determinatives with W background. 14.lcm. H l2.5cm. (oins F52 and belongs left. Blue-grey F l 7 , F 2 0 ,F 8 9 ) TNE94:F11. Pls.29, 59. Lower left portionof falsedoor with torusmoulding;legsand feetof male figure facingright at bottomof jamb;no colour. W l6.7cm. H l2.5cm. TNE9{:F13-14. Pl. 59. tablewith food itemspiled above fitting togethershow an off-ering Two fragments and a'ewer and basin,jar, and tray with fruit below. Above the scenepartially preservedsigns read ... tbtl t fu hnqt fu k:... , and to the right a column of inscriptionretainsthe signs dj, jandp (htpl dj [nswt] lnpw?). Loaves,base jars and meatred; someyellow at top of offerings(vegetable?); undertable stand, in blue-green signs.W 19.0cm.H22.5cm. traces of TNE94:F16. PI. 59. no Incisedsigns,includingt andd, retaining colouron red ground. W 9.lcm. H 4.6cm. TNE94:F17. PIs.28, 59. Partof rows of offeringlist with incisedsignsand kneelingfiguredeterminatives friezewith banded facingright to left of verticalbandedfrieze. Groundblue-grey; (oins F20) etc. blocksof green-red-blue-green, W l4.0cm. H l3.7cm. TNE94:F18. PIs.29, 59. of Remains incisedsignsreading...lnpu tpj dru.f...on blue-greyground,with '/.6cm. W somered discolouration. 8.0cm.H T N E 9 l : F 1 9 .P 1 . 5 9 . Remains of incised signs readingjmfuwt Qhwtj ... on blue-grey ground. W 10.2cm.H I .2cm. (similarin styleto F I 8)

ta7 6i6.22.15.

59

OBJECTSAND FRAGMENTS

TNE94:F20. PL,E. 59. 28, Part of rows of incisedoffering list with kneelingfigure determinatives and verticalbandedfriezeon right. Blue-greyground;friezewith tracesof greenand r e d . W l 2 . l c m . H . 1 2 . 3 c m .( o i n s F 1 7 a n dF 8 9 ) TNE94:F21. Pls.29, 59. Fragment incised with jmt'ftzu and t h e n a m eI p j , o n W 1 7 . 1 c r nH 7 . 5 c m . .

blue-grey gror"rnd.

TNE94:F26. Pls.29, 59. Lower portion of offering table scenewith baseof stand,lower part of legs of legs red. W l6.0cm. seatedfigure and leg of chair. Greyish background, H l3.6cm. (oins withF27) TNE94:F27. Pls.29, 59. Torso and arms of male figure seatedon a chair. Skin red. W l5.4cm. H l5.0cm. (oins F26) TNE94:F30. PL. 59. signsd-t-tt-rt; no colour. W 8.0cm.H 7.8cm. Partsof largeincised TNE94:F31. Pls.30. 59. inscription; colour.W 8.3cm.x l6.5crn. no Partof right handcolumnof incised (whole). (face); 16.5crn. H 23.0cm. x W TNE94:F37and15. Pl.. 59. frieze,torus from the upperrightjamb of a falsedoor with banded Two fragments is an moulding. The singlesign preserved, incised^rw, the beginningof thehtp dj /1s?rfformula. Backgroundblue-grey,torus moulding and frame red, frieze blue and dark red. W 23.0cm. H 32.5cni. bandedin orange-red, TNE94:F38. Pls.30. 59. figuresfacingleft eachcarryinga staff in right hand, Partsof two male standing pointedkilt, collar and shortcap wig, the second(less the first wearinga long complete)wears a short pointed kilt. Probablylrom right jambs of false door. skin background, red. W 25.0cm.H l6.8cm. Blue-grey TNE9(:F43. Pls.30, 59. End of horizontalline of incisedsignsreading... n [j]mfuu lpj; nn colour. W l4.6cm. H l5.0cm. TNE94:F45. SeeTNE94:31 TNE94:F52. Pls.28, 59. of Partsof registers an incisedoffering list with kneelingfigure determinatives, bandedfrteze. Blue-greyground. W l5.5cm. H l8.7crn. a beneath horizontal (oins F4)

60

OBJECTSAND FRAGMENTS

TNE9(:F6,4. Pl. 59. of Fragment cornerpiecewith part of the incisedsign zuon one sideand vertical banded fneze and cornice on other. Blue-grey background;bird, register and corniceleaf column lines red, frtezeblocksretainred and yellow, frameorange-red, green. Right sideW l0.7cm. H I l.5cm.,left W 4.0cm. H l-5.9cm. TNE94:F67. PIs. 30, 59. (sign7 ?). Paleblue-green blue-grey on IncisedwStt eye aboveline of inscription g r o u n d .W l 0 . 7 c m . H 1 8 . 2 c m . TNE94:F68. PIs.30, 59. jmdbwl below the itemst hnqt b ryd. Blue-greyground,blue Incisedinscription i n s i g n s .W 1 1 . 5 c m .H l 3 . 0 c m . TNE94:F69. Pl. 59. sign for di with tracesof Cornerof falsedoor cornicewith red and blue leaves, (mayfit with F68) blue. W 20.0cm.H 11.0cm. TNE94:F76. Pl" 59. of Cornerpiecewith bandedfriezeon one sideand traces signson the other;no left colour. Right sideW 7.3cm. H 13.0cm., W 6.6cm. H l3.0cm. TNE94:F89. Pl. 59. and of Fragment incisedcffering list with kneelingfiguredeterminatives vertical greenand red remaining of bandedfrieze. Blue-greyground,traces greenin signs, on friezeblocks. W 8.0cm. H 8.5cm. (oins F20)

T N E 9 4 : F 1 . P l s .3 1 , 6 0 . fowl and a calf s headon a tray of Partsof piled offeringsconsisting vegetables, traces red. W l7cm. H l6cm. of that two stands, on the left retaining between TNE94:F2. Pls. 31,60. the Upperpart of two columnsof hieroglyphs, first with the frameof a cartouche of and the secondreadingmrwtth a correction/reversal the first sign. In front of the the inscription is preserved raisedarm of a female offering bearerholding, possibly on the head,a basketand a duck. Backgrounddark grey; arm yellow, tracesof blue on braceletand beak of bird, tracesof red on basket,orange-red on frameblue with tracesof illegibleblue hieroglyphs groundto eye. Cartouche r e d g r o u n d .W 2 4 . l c m . H 1 4 . 5 c m . TNE94:F5. P1.60. Lower legs and feet of a man facing lefi; fragmentsof horizontalline of b hieroglyphicsigns remain at top o f r e s i s t e r c n e a t h . S k i n r e d . W 2 l . 7 c m . H l0.0cm.

TNE9(:F6.P\.60. W no of columns signs; colour. l6.5cm.H 7.8cm. Partof three

6l

OBJECTSAND FRAGMENTS

T N E 9 4 : F 8 . P l s . 3 1 ,6 0 . Partially preserved cartouche Neferkarein column of signsl no colour. of W 9.0cm.H 8.8cm. TNE94:F22. P\.60. Head and shoulders man with shortcurly wig facing left, with bundlesof of foldedlinenon shoulders; colour. W l6.0cm. H 6.8cm. no TNE9l:F23. P|.60. Remains signsin horizontal of inscription abovehornsof two goatsfacing right. Dark grey ground,dark yellow on signsfor slt and i. W 8.5cm. H 7.6cm. TNE94:F25. P\.60. Cornerpiecewith vefticalbandedfnezealongone edge,with sign to left, and on 7 othersideremains largerincisedsignsin verticalcolumn,includingr and, no of sw; c o l o u r . R i g h r s i d e w 9 . 0 c m . H . 2 8 . 7 c m . ,l e f t w g . 6 c m . H 2 g . 0 c m . T h i s fragmentis possiblyfrom the left sideof the falsedoor niche of Kt(.il'pr(w). TNE94:F32. P\.60. Partof largeszusign,very deeplyincised; colour. w 4l.Ocm. H 9.gcm. The no size and depthof the inscriptionresembles that on the faqades the mastabas of of Mrrw-kt.j andKs-gm-n.j. TNE94:F33. P\.60. Remains two standing of figuresfacingleft: of the first only left arm remains; the secondcarriesobjectsover crook of eacharm and holds anotherin left hancl;no c o l o u r .W 2 9 . 0 c m . H 6 . 5 c m . TNE94:F34. Pl 60. Fragmentwith piled offeringsand incisedoffering list to the right; no colour. W 2 0 . 0 c m .H l 9 . 5 c m . TNE94:F35. P\.60. Remainsof two columnsof incisedinscription which retainthe signsj, s andw; no colour. W 18.6cm.H4.2cm. TNE94:F36. PI.60. Remains threecolumns incised of of inscription retaining several signs;no colour. W 27.0cm.H 6.3cm. (maybelongwith F35) TNE94:F40. P\.60" Remainsof horizontalregisterretainingsignsreadingm pr dt.f prt-!1ru, no c o l o u r .W 3 2 . 5 c m . H l 0 . 0 c m . TNE94:F41. PI. 60. Lower legs of standingmale figure facing right and handof anotherfigure facing left, eachhold a pestleand between themis a mortar. Blue-greyground,red skin. W l2.6cm. FI l4.6cm.

OBJECTS AND FRAGMENTS

TNE94:F47. P\.60. register line are remainsof Lower part of legs of malefigure facingleft; beneath inscription.Background part line of hieroglyphic blue-grey, the r"rpper of horizontal with F48 andperhaps F5) skin red. W 45.3cm. H 10.8cm.(maybelong TNE94:F48. PI 60. Lower part of two pairs of legs of male figuresand the front part of the foot of a ground, skin. W 33.5cm. H 1l.0cm. (similarto red third,facingleft. Blue-grey F41) TNE94:F53. P|.60. lrom sarcophagus of Incisedsign r; no colour. W 9.0cm. H 9.0cm. Possibly Kt(.j)-pr(w). TNE94:F55. PI. 61. deity followedby htp: no Partof horizontalline of largeincisedsignsof a seated colour. W 24.0cm. H 36.9cm.

P\.61 TNE94:F56. on upturned arm. Skin red,nail on Piledofferings a tray resting an extended, w h i te .W 6 .4 cm.H 1l .5 cm.
TNE9{:F57. P\.61. below on eithersideof with partof smallofferingtablewith containers Fragment line of incisedinscriptions retaining stand;directly abovethe tableis a trorizontal line of largersignsbut only the stand horizontal pr-<t; top probablyanother at shd ... yellow. W 4.4cm. H 15.5cm. Loaves of Anubisis preserved. TNE94:F59.Pl.61. Corner fragment with vertical incised inscriptionnb.f and perhapsfalcon in on determinative one side. Tracesof light blue-green signs. W l6.2cm. H 9.7crn. TNE94:F60.P\.61. including 1)j-p-n 2) part of a bird 3) part Partsof threecolumnsof inscriptions of n; no colour. W 9.0cm. H 8.5cm.

PI. TNE94:F62. 61. grain; colour.W l2.3cm. no of scene birdseating froma (fowling?) Fragment (probably frorr same F63) as H 5.7cm.
TNE94:F63. Pl. 6l Fragment with bird and grain; no colour. W 2.6cm. H. 9.0cm. (probably with F62) belongs F66. Pl. 61. TNEq4: Fragmentwith hand holding oval object,possiblyfrom sccneof'picking fruit. Tracesof red on hand. W 5 . 5 c m .H 9 . 4 c m .

63

[OBJECTSAND FRAGMENTS

TNE94:F72.PL.6l. Lower partof a pair of legswalkingright;in register below remains largesigns of i n c l u d e ; n o c o l o u r .W 5 . 6 c m .H 2 l . O c m . r TNE94:F75.PI.6l. Torso and armsof male figurewearinga kilt, facing leti. Tracesof red on skin. W l 3 . 6 c m .H l l . 2 c m . TNE94:F77.P\.61. Partof horizontal register with incisedn1r sign and seated god determinative; no c o l o u r . W 1 0 . 8 c m .H l 5 . 0 c m . TNE9l:F81. PI. 61. Part of an inscriptionincludingf, bird (probablyt) and a cartouche with sign f , probably Teti; no colour. W 6.4cm. H 7.0cm. of TNEgl:F86. P1.61. Partsof two columnswith incisedsigns 1) b, tp (possibly hrj-hbt l.trj-tp) 21 m?, t andz5; no colour. W l5.5cm. H 8.4cm. T N E 9 4 : F 8 8 .P l s . 3 1 .6 1 . Panther's head;no colour. W -5.5cm. 8.7cm. H TNE9l:F9l . Fl. 6l . jmtfuru traccs relief decoration right; no Partof columnwith signsreading of on ; c o l o u r . W 1 l . O c m .H 2 0 . 0 c m . TNE94:F91. Pl. 61. Part of two columnsof inscriptions, one with lzfp signsand the other with legs and lowerbody of quailchick;no colour. W 29.0cm.H I l.2cm. TNE94: F95. Pl. 6l . Fish;no colour. W I l.2cm. H 6.5cm. TNE94:F96. Pl. 6 I . Top part of a pile of offeringsincluding lettuce,ribs and a iar; no colour. W 2 5 . 4 c m .H 1 8 . 0 c m . TNE94:F97. PI. 6l Leg of a stridingmale figurewearinga kilt, holdingan objectin the lefi hand. line with red beneath.W 7.9cm. H l6.5cm. Leg painted red,blackregister TNE94:F98.P\.61. Remainsof one column of incisedsignss(mr) ru,ti ; on red ground. W l2.0cm. H 2l.5cm. TNE94:F107. PIs.3I-32, 62. of the Fragments falsedoor found in fill of a shaftabutting southwall of NQt-mpf's mastaba.Incisedsignsblue,baseandcolumnlinesblack,toruslashingblack, white.red.blue.outlinedin black. corniceleaves

OBJECTSAND FRAGMENTS

a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) l)

jmt'fint.W 20.2cm. H 12.2cm. horizontalline of signsreading tblr tPlth tblr abovecavettocornice. W 17.7cm.H 9.9cm. / abovecavettocornice. W 9.6cm. H 8.0cm. three loavesfrom an of fbring table and the items ..!t tpd l,1t hnqt. W 8 . 9 c m . t H l0.3cm. smr. W 6.4cm.H 6.3cm. partsof 3 registers signs l7 m jmllTltl 2) nt Zkr 3) n - b7 - j. W l 7 . 0 c m . of H 10.5cm. Anubison stand.W 6.9cm. H 4.6cm. torusmoulding. W 8.2cm. H l6.7cm. horizontalline retainingsign r, abovecavetto.W l7.0cn"r. 8.8cm. H blackregister line. W l3.7cm. H 5.0cm. rL, t? beneath line. W 10.8cm.H 6.3cm. d beneath blackregister part of (sntr) ru,tj andjmj-(r). W 8.5crn. H 3.Scm.

TNE94:F108. Pls.32, 62. of Head and shoulders malc figurc facingright fbllowedby another, only the face remaining,who carriesa small gazelle. Red on face,black on hair. W l 3 . 0 c m . H l6.2cm. (found southof Nflt-nt-pt) TNE94:F111. Pl. 62. Middle part of the bodiesof two male figureswearingplain kilts; no c o l o u r . W 7.lcm. H 8.3cm. TNE94:F113. Pl. 62. Parts of line of incised signsnjutt - nb - fr; pale pink in signs. W 8.6cm. H 8.0cm. TNE94:F115. Pl,s.32, 62. Parts of four horizontal lines of incised sisns. Some traces of vellow. W 3 3 . 5 c m .H 3 7 . 3 c m . T N E 9 4 : 1 8 - I 1 9 . P l s . 3 3 ,6 3 . Two large limestone blockswhich fit one abovethe otherwere found neareach end of Nf,t-nt-pf'smastaba a heightof 2.30m.abovefloor at other at the southern thereis at present trace on no level. Decorated two sideswith incisedhieroglyphs, probablyfbrmedpart of one side of colour on eitherpiece. Thesecornerelements on reads: of a falsedoor niche.l48A singlecolumnof hieroglyphs the thickness 'The sole companion, lector priest, the the smr wctj hrj-hbt jnufuw Ttj-ht-jit.f +v Teti-ha-ishetef Beneaththe column is a standingfigure of the . honouredone, wig, ownerwho wearsa shoulder-length a beardand a pointedkilt. The inscription as but on the jamb is damaged, may be amended [jj.tt.j m njru]t(.j) flt]t.n(.j) [nt] 'I came from my town and sptt(.j) jr,n(.j) [mt]rt mrrt ntr s[htp].n[.j sw] ... rrj justicewhich the god loves. I satisfied from my province. I carriedout descended 48.0cm. jarnb9.9cm. W at top of thickness of him ... rri'. W at baseof thickness 33.5cm. jamb 7.8cm. H at corner108.4cm. of
148 5"" El-Khouli - Kanawati, 2, Sctqclara pls.20-21 lbr conrparison. , 1 4 9 R a n k e ,P e r s o n e n n a n r e n 2 , 3 3 0 : 1 T h c n a m ei s a t t e s t c d l s c w h c r ci n t h c c c r n c t c r y e . g ( c 6. 563). Porter- Moss, Blbllography3:2, -548,

65

OBJECTSAND FRAGMENTS

TNE94:F123. Pl. 64. The right end of a door lintel with a singleline of hieroglyphs with somedetails mastaba a heightof 1.50m. The inscriptions at was found SW of NQt-m-pt's read: l.trj5 n mrt-Ttj zi n zt pr-9 ...'He who is in chargeof the lake of the Meret-temple of ...'. W'71.0cm. 11.0cm. H of Teti, the scribe the phyleof thepalace TNE95:F128. PIs.34, 61. (F2.11,F2.12) Two decorated retaining Iower partsof blockswhich fit together, four offering bearersproceedingto right, each wearing a plain short kilt and on carryinga foreleg. Red paintremains skin. W 68.0cm.H l9.5cm. TNE95:F129. Pls. 34, 64. (C4.2, C5.4) Two fragments which fit together falsedoor with verticaltorus of moulding and the remainson the left outerjamb of one column of incisedsigns roads...'. Some which read ... kt.f thrl wrut dsr(w)t ...' ... his ka on the sacred torus. W 15.0cm.H25.2cm. red colour on TNE95:F130.P\.64. ( C 4 . 1 ) R e m a i n s f t h r e el i n e so f i n c i s e d i g n s :l ) . . . q r s . f. . . 2 ) . . . n h r c un b . . . s o 3, p j * ( ? ) . f . . . . W 2 0 . 0 c m . H 2 5 . 0 c m . ( T N E 9 5 : F 1 3 0 - 1 31 3 - 5 o s s i b l y 3) ...m belonsto the sameobiect)

P\.64. TNE95:F131. (F4.4) Parisof two registers with incised, weathered signs: 1) W t g. . . . W l l . 5 c m . H l 9 . 0 c m . P1 TNE95:F132. 64.

a\

( E 3 . 1 ) P a r to f r e g i s t ew i t h i n c i s e d i g n s. . .p n . . . . . W l 0 . 3 c r n .H 8 . 2 c m . s r TNE95:F133. Pl. 64. s ( E 3 . 4 ) P a r t s f t h r e er e g i s t e rw i t h i n c i s e d i g n s :l l . . . 2 ) . . . f u rs m j t . . . 3 ) . . . w s o m r . . .. W 9 . 0 c m . H 2 3 . 0 c m . TNE95:F135. Pl. 61. with incised signs:l) ...jmthzu(?) ...2) ...m (F2.10) Partsof threeregisters br 16.0cm. h t p b r . . . 3 ) . . . r . . . . W 1 7 . 0 c m .H TNE95:F136. PIs.34, 64. and two (F3.2) Scenein marshwith front part of papyrllsboat,weedbeneath, on figureswith lock of youth standing the deckboth holdinga bird male unclothed by the wings in each of their hands. In front of them, and behind the boat, is probablythe papyrusmarsh,with one droopingumbel and part of a bird in flight. N o c o l o u r . W 3 1 . 0 c m .H 2 4 . 5 c m . TNE95:F137.P\.61. with partsof two verticalcolumnsof clearly (E4.13) Thick block of limestone s i n c i s e d i s n s1 ) . . . n t n . . . 2 ) m m i t t r . . . . N o c o l o u r . W l 6 . 5 c m . H 1 l . 4 c m .

oo

OBJECTSAND FRAGMENTS

TNE95:F138. PL.64. (84.45) Fragmentwith torsoof offeringbearerfacing right with right arm at side blue-grey,skin red. W 10.0cm. H and left holding young calf(?). Background 8.4cm. TNE95:F139. P|.64. (H2.5) Offerings, red with jar which retains paint on lower half andblack at top. W 16.0cm H zl.J cm. . TNE95:F140. P\.64. (F4.46)) Piled offerings,jar at left with red on lower part and black on top, ribs red, loavesyellow, onionsstemswhite/nocolour and bulbs red with red outline. W 2l.0cm. H9.lcm. TNE95:F141. Pls. 34, 64. (Fl.8) Thick limestone block with kilt and foot of incisedmale figure facing right and wearing a calf-lengthpointedkilt and holding a staff. The end of a column of inscriptionin front of the figure retainsa few signs,possiblythe namelrui.tso *o colour. W 18.2cm.H 21.0cm. TNE95:F142. PL.64. (F2.I1) Part of large incised signs in two columns; no colour. W 13.0cm. H 7.5cm.

I 50 punL", Personennamen 391'.1. l,

61

APPENDIX

THE MASTABA OF GEREF/ITJI


A shortseason excavations conducted of was dLrring April-May 19911 with the pulposeof completing work in our earlierconcession the northof the mastaba to of Mrrztt-kt.jt5l beforethe start of the presentproject. The excavations rcvealecl a continuous mud brick wall built immediately the nativerock andextending on eastwest at the northernend of the site. If thc samewall is found to be extending furthereast,underthe cument excavations, would indiciite it somekind of enclosure wall partly or completely surrounding cemetery.The two largestone jambs ('l) the still standing the southof the'rue de tombeaux'rnight to haveoriginallyfbrmecl an entrance the cemetery to and not simply to this streetof tombs. Clearingthe north-eastern sectionof the concessionl52 revealed also a part of a mud brick rectangular offering chamberwith an inscribedlimestonefalse door which had fallen to the ground. As thc greater part of thc mastaba outsideour lies concession,l53i, was not possibleto completeits clearance and to produce plans. The falsedoorof Grf/ltjis pLrblished with someadditional architectural here informationon his family gainedfrom a photograph an architrave of found in the nearvicinity,l-54 beionging a man with identical and to names andtitlesto the owner of the falsedoor.

THE TOMB OWNER AND HIS FAMILY


The Tomb Owner NAI',TES
I

Grftss 'Geref'. Itirso'Itji'.

l - 5 F o r a r c p o r t o n t h c r c s u l t s o ft h e s c c x c a v a t i o n s s c c K a n a w a t i c r , ' t l . S c t c;lE lo r ah o u l i I l q -K Kanawati, Sctclqara2. 1 5 2 I b i d .n t . t . l-53 16" aiea to the eastol'this conccssion to ths westof thc currcntpro1ect, irnntcdiately and i.e. to the north of thc mastabaol-Kt-gnr-n/, was cxcavated M. Abder-Raziq the Egyptran by of A n t i q u i t i e s O r g a n i s a t i o n w h o h a s n o w r c s u n r e ch i s w o r k u n d e r t h e i i u s p i c e so l ' t h e , l Universityof the SuezCanal. 1 5 4 C o u r t e s y f M r . H a s a b a l l a l - T a y c b , h o t o g r a p h ca t S a q q a r a . h c i n s c r i p t i o n sn s e v c n p r o c T i horizontal lines,arc sirnilarto thoscon the architravc Ml.tj (El-Khouli- Kanawati, of Saqqora 2 , p l . 6 ) , w h i l c t h e a r r a n g c m c no f t h e f ' a r n i l y r o u p t o t h e l c l ' t i s s i r n i l a rt o t h a t o n t h e t g architrave /rl (ibid, pl. 3). Thc thrcctornbsare wilhin closeproximity of eachothcr. of 155 ths namcis unattcstcd Ranke.Personenntmren. in 1 5 6 1 6 1 6 15 2 : 2 9 . 1.

69

GEREF/ITJI

TITLES
jcru;r nb nsrutdjdjrupt qrnnuf; 'overseer all the king's breakfast, of and .r of that which heaven givesandearthproduces'. a j*j-, pftruu'overseer of the marshlands'. 3 - j*j-, lnot-jhrut'overseer the 6n11ls of ss1n1s'.1-57 ^ +- j*jn sfutjhtp(t) 'ovelseer the two fields of offerings'.15t3 of j*j-, sqbbzuj pr-<i'overseer the two cool chamb"ru the palace'. r5e of of 6 - jmj-r in t: nb 'overseer all vegelnlisn'.160 of t- jmj-r s/ 'overseer a department'. of 8 - jrj ,tf, htt'keeperof the headdress'. 9- hm-nlr 1d-swt-Ttj 'priestof the pyraniid"one steadfast places Teti"'. of is t0- hrj-sitt n nswt m st.fnb(t)'privyto the secrets thekineln his evervDlace'. of 1 1 -smr ructj'solecompanion'. t2- smr pr'companion the house'. of t3- ipsj nszut'nobleman the king'.l6t of
l - jryj

Gr/s titles seemconsistent with his responsibilities attending the king in the in at morning. He was responsible the bathrooms the palice, for th6 royal for in headdress, the king's breakfast for and as suchwas in chargeof certainsources the marshlands, fields of offerings,the vegetation the anclof all that heavengives and earthproduces. The Wife of Geref NAM ES I- :i,i."^fl^,i'.,", Wnt-nfrrI62'yrran.t-nefert,. 2- t:,-r-il:: Wntwt63'Wentu'. This nameis described rn.s nfr,her beautiful as name'. The wif-eis depictcdon the architrave, equal in size to her husband, with one handon his shoulder and the otherholdinehis arm. Sheis described as ltmt.f 'his wife'. TITLES
1 ta L-

rfut nxttt'acquaintance the king'. of of hnt(t)-ntr Hrut-hr'priestess Hathor'.

r) / Fischer,'Lp.22-23, -5. Sotneexamplcs no. oflnut Tflzrfseern rcf'erto the capitalof Nornc to 3 o f L o w e r E g y p t ( H e l c k , G o u e , I - 5 3 - - 5 - 5 ; Z i b c ei d ls , n g e n , 1 4 9 - - 5 l ; L I o y a l e,tS a q q t ) 1 r Si l u u c . Tonrbs , 24 n.3\. 2 l 5 i i p o r t h i s r c a c l i n g c c K a n a w r ie L a l . ,s a q q c r r r r s l , l - 5 .r 9 n . l l ; F i s c h c r ',1 p , 2 3 ,n o . g . L l o y d e t 'ovcrseer al., translate as of the ol'fcringol-thc two Sckhets', and see thc S/3f as the 'Fcng o d d c s sa n d t h c d u a l n u m h e rr c p r e s e n t i na c l i v i s i o n n t o w e s t a n c le a s to l ' t h e D c l t a . t h e ' g i rnarshcs eachbcing undcrthe protcction a s/3f(saqqira'fombs 2,24 n.4). in of t " . t h c r c a d i n g { ' t h i st i t l c s c ci b i c l , , p l . 9 , w h e r c . s q b b w . j iw r i u e np h o n c t i c a l l y . o 7 s ] ]6 0 1 l H e l c k ,B e a m t e n t i t e ! , 6 6 ;i s c h e rD e n c l e r a|,j 2 , 2 3 4 ; F , i c l c m /, p , 2 3 , n o . 6 . T h e t i t l e i s a l s o transf atedas 'oversecr all hair of thc carth'(Lloyd ct al.,Sctqqara of Tombs2,7). l6l 16" title is usuallycombinedwith that tol' sfiff;rr (Fischer, Denclera.gg-99). 162 6n1t the ntasculine lbrm cl1'(hc namcis attestccl Ranke,Per.sonennturten in l.'/():19. I 6 3 t b i a .8 0 :t 2 .

10

GEREF/ITJI

The Son of Geref 'V-, '5s1.ji-rnkh'. Stj-rnbl64 Describedas zt.f 'his son', a small figure is i depictedon the architrave beforeGrf andholdingon to his staff. The Mother of Geref NAMES

L-

t - -:1.r :,,i,i) T Et-db165'Jjn1-6Js['. '\,'[s1st-ites'. a \ ", ,'.-- filii,utrt-it 5|66 3- -==- Afdtt6T'Khefdjet'. .=.i

The tomb owner is designated his false door as Grf njsu m J[j jr n Ttt-db on 'Geref,who is called Itji, born to Tjat-deb'. In line 6 on the architrave is he described Grf njsru m Ilj jr n Mrt-jt,s'Geref, who is calledItji, born ro Mereras ites',and aL.ove family groupon the samearchitrave is Grf jr n flfdt'GeLef, the he born to Khefdjet'.Therecanbe no doubtthatthe threenames belonged the same to woman, but it is interesting that he referred his motherthreetimes,eachwith a to 168 differentname.

II

DATING O}' GEREF

(unlike thoseon the falsedoor) The excellentstyleof inscriptions the architrave on and their similarity to other inscriptions the vicinity, the shape the falsedoor in of and particularly elongated its panel,l6e theproximityof the tomb to otherbetter and datedmastabas the areasuggest dateat the end of Teti's reign or early under in a Pepy I.

III P L s . 5 ,6 5 . 3

SCENESAND INSCRIPTIONS

As indicatedabove,only the false door was discovered our expedition. by Formedof one pieceof limestone, door is of the type with cavetlocorniceand this torus moulding. The upper lintel is uninscribed, remaindcrof the door is the decorated incisedrelief with no details.The standing in figuresof the ownerat the
t61 165 r66 161 r68 Ibid,322:19. Thc namc is unattcstcd ibid. in Ibid I, l-58:8. Thc namc is unattcsted ibid. in Although Mltj,owner of a ncighbouring tornb,ref'erred hirnselfonly asjr n fJntj 'born to to - K a n a w a t iS a q q a r a 2 , p l . 6 ) , a s n r a l l a l s ec l o o ri n h i s c h a p e l , o s s i b l y Khcnti'(El-Khouli , p bclongingto his rnothcr,showsthat shehad two namcs. fltttj andT{ (ibid. pl.9). 1 6 9 Strudwick,Administration,18. For someexantplcs Junker,Giz.a8,l'igs. 32, 34; Jantes, scc p K h e n t i k a , l s . l 8 - 1 9 ; E l - K h o u l i- K a n a w a t iS a t l q a r u , p l . l l ; A b d e r - R a z i q ,M d l a n g e s , , 2 2 ol. l.

7l

GEREF/TTJI

in bottom of eachjamb are for the most part left unfinished, black paint only, and so figuresof Grf wear shouldermoulding. All standing on are the lashings the torus kilts. Six figureshold a staff in one handand a cloth in lengthwigs and projecting the other,while two, thoseon the innerjambs,havetheir handsby their sides. The CentralPanel: The tomb ownersitson a chair with lion'slegsand a low back. his He stretches right handto an offering tablewith eight half-loavesof breadwhile sideis a ewer the placinghis left handon his chest. Beneath tableon the opposite placedon a stancl.Above the sceneis written: Spsjnswt-imi-r.st.Grf in o Uisin 'The noblemanof the king, the overseer a department, Geref. ... fu mnfutfutkt of '...,one thousand clothes, of one thousand oxen'. of The Middle Lintel: Two horizontal(1-2) and one vertical(3) lines of hieroglyphs '(1)

( read: t) jrnfuzu nlr <t(2)jmtfow wsjr (3)ipli nsy:t.Grf fur for

The.honoured

one beforeOsiris,(3) the noblemanof one befoie thi greatgod, (2) the honoured figure of the tomb owner holding a staff. the king, Geref. To the left is a seated 'The noblemanof the king, Geref . To the lefl is The Lower Lintel: Spsjnsrut Grf a similar figure to that on the middle lintel. The Right Outer Jamb: (I) smr wctj ipsj nswt mrrw !?.f hri-sitt.n .nswt m st'f nb(t) ir(w).f hrr r-nbtll ipsj nswt Grf (2) i*i-, sqbbwi pr-<t jmi-r i'zu.-r nb the nswt djdjzupt qmtw tt jmi-r sfutjlltp(t) Iti']).The solecompanion, nobleman of oi of the't<ing,'Ueioved his lord, he who is privy to the secrets the king in his everyperson,the noblemanof the he loves,one who satisfies whom every plac-e, of of of king, Geref, (2) the overseer the two cool chambers the palace,the overseer the gives and earth produces, and of that which heaven all ihe king's breakfast, Itji'. the two fields of offerings, of overseer The Left Outer Jamb: Two horizontal(1-2) and two vertical (3-4) lines of

pw read: hieroglyphs (r) imtfujj (2)rm! nbdd't|.f O t l.tnqt ;!tl nswt njsw ry .Grf mj rn.f ir Ttt-db itfr lij tq jnkjs (i sic.) m ltili i imtfuw wnt d1tir tp tt ink wrynt 'ti) An honoured heis (2)anyman (3) whowill say: bread one j,r* crf tttii stt
of und b"". for th6 nobleman the king, Geref,who is calledItji, born to Tjat-deb, one, as that which was said his beautifulname,Itji. (4) I was indeedan honoured and who attained upon earth. I was indeed one who achievedgraciousness honours,Geref . of jmj+ st ltj,'The overseer The Right Middle Jamb: jmj-r plwru imi-r l1wt-il1wt Itji'. of the of the the manshlands, overseer the cattieestate, overseer a department, 'The The Left Middle Jamb: i*i-, st Spsjnsut smr pr smr wctj jri nfr htt.Grf of the of overseer a department, nobleman the king, the companionof the house' Geref' of the keeper the headdress, the solecompanion, 'The^prie-st the of The Right Inner Jamb: hm-ntr ild-swt-Ttj ipsi nswt^Grf king, Geref' of is pVramid"One steadfast places Teti", the nobleman the of
examples 2,390:3, wherethe earliestattestcd 1 7 0 p o 1 .' r : - \ - . 'j e d c rM u n d = iedermann trVb sce areliom DynastY18.

12

GEREF/ITJI

The Left Inner Jamb'.smr wctj jmj-r in tt nb hrj-sitt n nsrutm st.f nbt ipsj nswt 'Tne he of sole companion,the overseer all vegetation, who is privy to the Itj of of secrets the king in his everyplace,the nobleman the king, Itji'.

t-)

INDEX

DEITIES 43'41 55-59 32-33, , Inpw 18-21, 54, 33, Wsjr 18-20, 45-41, 58,12 Pth 56-57,65 Mt<t 45 Nf I r-r2 55-51,12 33, Ntr-e 19-22, 44-49, H w t l r 1l ; n . 8 flntjjmntju 46 Zkr 65 S!f n.158 Phwtj 59 KINGS n.135 Djedkare 53, Neferkare 62 , , I P e p y 1 3 ,3 2 ,3 1 - 4 05 3 ,5 1 , 1 1 n . 6 3 , n . 8 2n . 1 3 3n . 1 3 8 , , , n , P e p y I 3 8 ,- 5 3 , 5 5 ;. 7 1n . 8 2n . 1 3 3 I 53,1l Teti 13,37-40, 39-40 Userkare INDIVIDUALS r I b j t 4 - 1 6 , 8 ,3 1 - 3 4 lpj se-60 lri 58;n.154

fuj sa-ss

lhj-m-zt.f n.126 fitjj 36,a+ n.101 lifj s3;n.76, Itj 6e,11-13 ldtu 37,45 nn 3 ]dw(Giza) 1,39;n.94, .l07-108 <nft (Giz,a) 11 ,nh-nt-r-Hr37-38, 53;n.37, n.4-5, 82, n. 48, nn.l22-123 Wtrt-nfrt 70 Wntw l0 n.70, 13, WQtJu-TtjNfrsim-Ptl.r/Sij 37-40; n.94 56 Wdtt...tr (Mcir) n.69 Ppjj'<nful.rrj-jb zt Ppjj-ddj n.135 Ptl.tJ.ttp Ffkf-r 58 M m u - j n u 5 6 ;n . 1 3 8 Mttw-rtt!(Giza) ll Mr.s <tt[ 57

n.90 Mrjj <t(El-Hagarsa) Mrw n.93 Mrw-kt.j(Giza)l1-12 Mrrru-kt.j I l-13,21,62, 69;n.45 n M l . r jn . l 0 l ,n . 1 5 4 , . 1 6 8 Mrt-jt.s 1l l8 Mff (t-ouvre) I'Ij-knu-lzzjI 3; n.76,n.86 Mu-L-krr n.l3-5 j j ut 6 Nu -11-1.n-kuu -5-5-5 ht Nfr sim-Pth seeWQt Ttj n.45 Nfr-sim-R<37-38; Nsru 37,48 IxlStpt(Giza)I l 11-12 Nit nrpt (.Giz.a) 25, 53, Nit-m-pt 1t-14,16-22, 21-28,31-32, 64-66 55-59, Hjj s6-s1 (El-Hawawish) n.69 Hnt-Mnzu Hmt-R< 12,20 Hhj s4-ss Hzzj 58;n.l}l afdt 7l fJntj n.168 ; u n t j - k t . j3 l , 4 4 , 4 u n . 4 5 IJrt-hnrrr hrru seeTnej 1l Zruf(Giz.a) Zzj 58 Zizit 12,21 Sim-nfr n.68 Sbkw58 Sti 'r1t , t t2-t4, 55 tpsj-pru-Ptl1 n.l Kt gnt-n.j l2-13, n.4-5, -53 62; Kt(.j)'<pr(w)35-40,42-49,53,62-63;n.44, n.70n.U6 , Q:r (Giza)39 Grf 69-72 Tjt il, r8-2r Tjtj n,22 rtj-t.u-jit,f 6s Ttt-db1t-12 Tntj 67 lntzj/IJrt lmutt-finu 51-58 n.94,n.I 6it Ttj (Giz.a) TITI,ES jntj-rj<w-rnb trsrut djdjwpt qmru tt 70,12 jnrj-rjpt rtsrut31,33

15

INDEX

jnrj-r pr 31, 45,5(t jnl r pr-in< 54-55 jnrj-r plnuu 70,72 jmj-r l.nut-jluut0, 12 1 jnrj r l.nut-utrf 35,39,44-11,19 jmj-r zi <nsrut 3.5-36, 4-5 39, jmj-r zi n ktt ttbt 39 jntj-r ziwj 35,45 jntj-r sltj-lttp(t) 10,12 jntj-r sir 37,45 jmj-r sqbbwj pr<t 70,72 jnrj r st 70,72 jmj-r Sm, n.86 jnj-r in b nb 10,13 jntj-r ktt nbt 39 jnrj-r k:t rtbtrtt ttstut3-5-36, 215; 39, n.86 jnrj-rgs-pr 36,44-49 jrj-P't zo' 44-45; 86 n jrj |ut 3t-33,10,12 49 rut"f, 22.10 rfutnsrut I l, 19-20, 36,44 l.utj-< l.rnt dd-xtttTtj 10,12 ntr

l . t n t ( t ) - n tN t ( m h t j t j n b . s ) w p t i u r i u f l l , 1 8 , r 20 I.tm(t)-ntrHwt-l.rr l0 I.tnt(t)-ntr Hwt-l.trnbt nht I 1, l9-20 l.trj-sitt pr dwtt 36,45 n Irrj sitt tt trsrut 36, 4'/ l.trj sitt rr rtsrutm st.f trb(t) 10,72-13 hrjinnrrt-Ttj 66 llrp z.lt 37, 48 I t r j - l t u t 3 l - 3 3 , 3 6 , 4 5 ,4 1 , 4 9 , 5 4 - - 5 5-,5 7 , . 5 6 Irrj l.rbtl.trj-tp 64 Itrj-tp ttstut 35-36, 39, 44-49 ltkrt nxut 5l ztt nxut nt lt.f 12-13 zi -58, 64 zi , ttstutlft l.tr 39 zi rr zt pr-s 66 sntr 65 s n t r u c t j 3 l - 3 3 , - 5 6 , 1 - 6 5 ,1 0 , 7 2 - 1 3 6 s n t rp r 5 6 , 7 0 , 1 2 ; n . 1 6 l sl.tjltnrkt 31,45 sl.tQ pr-<t 63 ... ipsj trsrot 56-58,70, 12-13

76