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# Flip-Flop Applications

## Applications of Flip-Flops: Counters

Asynchronous Counter Synchronous Counter

Register

Counters
A counter is a sequential machine that produces a specified count sequence. The count changes whenever the input clock is asserted. There is a great variety of counter based on its construction:
Clock: Synchronous or Asynchronous Clock Trigger: Positive edged or Negative edged Counts: Binary, Decade, Gray Count Direction: Up, Down, or Up/Down Flip-flops: JK or T or D

Counters
A counter is a register that goes through a predetermined sequence of states upon the application of clock pulses. Asynchronous counters Synchronous counters Async. counters (or ripple counters)
the clock signal (CLK) is only used to clock the first FF.
Each FF (except the first FF) is clocked by the preceding FF.

Sync. counters,
the clock signal (CLK) is applied to all FF, which means that all FF shares the same clock signal,
thus the output will change at the same time. 3

Uses of Counters
The most typical uses of counters are:
To count the number of times that a certain event takes place The occurrence of event to be counted is represented by the input signal to the counter To control a fixed sequence of actions in a digital system To generate timing signals To generate clocks of different frequencies

## Two Classes of Counters

Counters are classified into two categories: Asynchronous Counters (Ripple counters) Synchronous Counters Asynchronous: The events do not have a fixed time relationship with each other and do not occur at the same time. Synchronous: The events have a fixed time relationship with each other and do occur at the same time. Counters are classified according to the way they are clocked:
In asynchronous counters, the first flip-flop is clocked by the external clock pulse and then each successive flip-flop is by clocked the output of the preceding flip-flop. In synchronous counters, the clock input is connected to all of the flip-flop so that they are clocked simultaneously.

Asynchronous Counters
In asynchronous counter each flip-flop derives its own clock from other flip-flops and is therefore independent of the input clock. Consequently, the output of each flip-flop may change at different time, hence the term asynchronous. For the asynchronous counter, the output of the first flip-flop becomes the clock input for the second flip-flop, and the output of the second flip-flop becomes the clock input for the third flip-flop etc. For the first flip-flop, the output changes whenever there is a negative transition in the clock input.

Asynchronous Counters
This means that the output of the first flip-flop produces a series of square waves that is half the frequency of the clock input. Since the output of the first flip-flop becomes the clock of the second flip-flop, the output of the second flip-flop is half the frequency of its clock, i.e. the output of the first flip-flop that in turn is half the frequency of the clock input. This behavior, in essence is captured by the binary bit pattern in the counting sequence.

Asynchronous counters
Modulus (MOD) the number of states it counts in a complete cycle before it goes back to the initial state. Thus, the number of flip-flops used depends on the MOD of the counter (ie; MOD-4 use 2 FF (2bit), MOD-8 use 3 FF (3-bit), etc..) Example: MOD-4 ripple/asynchronous upcounter.

## Asynchronous Counters (continue)

The asynchronous counter that counts 4 number starts from 00011011 and back to 00 is called MOD-4 ripple (asynchronous) up-counter. Next state table and state diagram
Present State Q1Q0 00 01 10 11 Next State Q1Q0 01 10 11 00
00 11 10
9

01

## Asynchronous Counters (continue)

MOD-4 Asynchronous up-counter
Q0 (LSB) 1 CLK Q1 (MSB)

Q
CLK

Q
CLK

K
CLK
Q1 0 Q0 0 0 1 1 0

1 1

0 0

0 1

1 0

1 1

Binary 0 1 0

2 3 0 1 10

2 3

## Asynchronous Counters (continue)

The external clock is connected to the clock input of the first flip-flop (FF0) only. So, FF0 changes state at the falling edge of each clock pulse, but FF1 changes only when triggered by the falling edge of the Q output of FF0. Because of the inherent propagation delay through a flip-flop, the transition of the input clock pulse and a transition of the Q output of FF0 can never occur at exactly the same time. Therefore, the flip-flops cannot be triggered simultaneously, producing an asynchronous operation. The 2-bit ripple counter circuit above has four different states, each one corresponding to a count value.

## Asynchronous Counters (continue)

A counter with n flip-flops can have 2 to the power n states. The number of states in a counter is known as its mod (modulo) number. Thus a 2-bit counter is a mod-4 counter. A mod-n counter may also be described as a divide-by-n counter. This is because the most significant flip-flop (the furthest flip-flop from the original clock pulse) produces one pulse for every n pulses at the clock input of the least significant flip-flop (the one triggers by the clock pulse). Thus, the above counter is an example of a divide-by-4 counter.

## Asynchronous Counters (continue)

MOD-8 Asynchronous up-counter
C B A

Q
CLK

Q
CLK

Q
CLK

K
CLK
A 0

B
C

0
0 13

## Asynchronous Counters (continue)

Next state table and state diagram Present State ABC Next State ABC
0 7 6 5 4 3 1 2

14

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## Asynchronous Counters (continue)

So far, we have design the counters with MOD number equal to 2N, where N is the number of bit (N = 1,2,3,4.) (also correspond to number of FF) Thus, the counters are limited on for counting MOD-2, MOD4, MOD-8, MOD-16 etc..

The question is how to design a MOD-5, MOD-6, MOD-7, MOD-9 which is not a MOD-2N (MOD 2N) ? MOD-6 counters will count from 010 (0002) to 510(1012) and after that will recount back to 010 (0002) continuously.
17

18

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## Asynchronous Counters (continue)

Circuit diagram for MOD-6 ripple up-counter (MOD 2 N)
C B A 1 CLK

J Q
CLK

J Q 1
CLK

J Q
CLK

K Q
CLR

K Q
CLR

K Q
CLR

Detect the output at ABC=110 to activate CLR. NAND gate is used to detect outputs that generates 0!
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Propagation delay is severe for larger MOD of counters, especially at the MSB.
Existence of glitch is inevitable for MOD 2N counters.

Difficult to design random counters (i.e.: to design circuit that counts numbers in these sequence 56723156723156.)

## Solution, use SYNCHRONOUS COUNTERS.

Synchronous Counters
For synchronous counters, all the flip-flops are using the same clock signal. Thus, the output would change synchronously.

## Procedure to design synchronous counter as follows:

STEP 1: Obtain the State Diagram. STEP 2: Obtain the Excitation Table using state transition table for any particular FF (JK or D). Determine # of FF used. STEP 3: Obtain and simplify the function of each FF input using K-Map. STEP 4: Draw the circuit.

Synchronous Counters
Design a MOD-4 synchronous up-counter, using JK FF. STEP 1: Obtain the State transition Diagram
0 3 2 1
Binary

00 11 10 01

## STEP 2: Obtain the Excitation table, two JK FF are used.

OUTPUT TRANSITION QN QN+1 FF INPUT J K

Excitation table

0 0 1 1

0 1 0 1

0 1 X X

X X 1 0

Present State A B 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1

Next State A B 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0

Flip-Flop inputs JA K A JB KB 0 X 1 X 1 X X 1 X 0 1 X X 1 X 1

0 0 0 1 X
B

1 1 X

JA = B

0 0 X 1 0 B

1 X 1

KA = B

0 0 1 1 1

1 X X

JB = 1

0 0 X 1 X

1 1 1

KB = 1

## STEP 4: Draw the circuit diagram

B (LSB)
1

A (MSB)

JB Q
CLK

JA Q
CLK

KB Q

KA Q

Synchronous counters
Design a MOD-4 synchronous down-counter, using JK FF?

## STEP 1: Obtain the State transition Diagram

0 1 2 3
Binary

00 01 10 11

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Synchronous counters
Obtain the Excitation table. Two JK FF are used.
OUTPUT TRANSITION QN QN+1 FF INPUT J K

0 0 1 1

0 1 0 1

0 1 X X

X X 1 0

Present St. A B

Next St.

A B

JA KA

JB KB

0 0 0 1 1 0

11 00 01

1x 0x x1

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1x x1 1x

Synchronous counters
Obtain the simplified function using K-Map B B

0 0 1 1 x

1 0 x

JA =A

0 0 X 1 1

1 X 0

KA =B

0 0 1 1 1

1 X X

JB =1

0 0 X 1 X
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1 1 1

KB =1

Synchronous counters
Draw the circuit diagram JA
CLK

Q A

KA Q JB
CLK

Q B

KB Q
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## 3-Bit Synchronous Binary Counter

The J and K inputs of FF0 are connected to HIGH.

## 3-Bit Synchronous Binary Counter

FF1 has its J and K inputs connected to the output of FF0, and the J and K inputs of FF2 are connected to the output of an AND gate that is fed by the outputs of FF0 and FF1. After 3rd clock pulse, both outputs of FF0 and FF1 are HIGH. Positive edge of the 4th clock pulse will cause FF2 to change its state due to the AND gate. Advantage of sync. counters is that there is no cumulative time delay because all flip-flops are triggered in parallel. Maximum operating frequency for this counter will be significantly higher than for the corresponding ripple counter.

SYNCHRONOUS COUNTERS
All flip-flops are clocked simultaneously Mod-16 Synchronous Up-Counter

fmax

ff

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## SYNCHRONOUS COUNTER DESIGN

Mod-6 Up-Counter Using D-flip-flops
Design table

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MOD-6 UP-COUNTER
K-maps

Final design

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## Counter Design Procedure

1. Describe a general sequential circuit in terms of its basic parts and its input and outputs. 2. Develop a state diagram for a given sequence. 3. Develop a next-state table for a specific counter sequence. 4. Create a FF transition table. 5. Use K-map to derive the logic equations. 6. Implement a counter to produce a specified sequence of states.

Registers
Sample data using clock Hold data between clock cycles Computation (and delay) occurs between registers
data in D Q D Q data out

clock

may change

stable

stable

## Timing Methodologies (contd)

Definition of terms setup time: minimum time before the clocking event by which the input must be stable (Tsu) hold time: minimum time after the clocking event until which the input must remain stable (Th)
Tsu input Th data D Q D Q

clock

## clock stable changing data clock

there is a timing "window" around the clocking event during which the input must remain stable and unchanged in order to be recognized

## Example - Circuit with Feedback

Output is a function of arbitrarily many past inputs

## Example - Circuit without Feedback

Output is a function of the input sampled at three different points in time.

Shift Register
Shift registers are constructed using several flip-flop, connected in such a way to STORE and TRANSFER digital data. Basically, D flip-flop is used. The input data (either 0 or 1) is applied to the D terminal and the data will be stored at Q during positive/negative-edge transition of the clock pulse. Negative edge transition of CLK

D Q

Shift Register
One D FF is used to store 1-bit of data.

Thus, the number of flip-flops used is the same with the number of bit stored.
Shift register mean that the data in each FF can be transferred/ move to other FF upon edge triggering of the clock signal. Four types of data movement in shift register are:
Parallel in / parallel out (PIPO) Serial in / parallel out (SIPO) Serial in / serial out (SISO) Parallel in / serial out (PISO)

Shift Register

## Serial Data Vs. Parallel Data movement

Serial
Movement of N-bit data require N number of CLK pulses. Thus, the operation is slow. Only one FF is required to be connected at the output terminal, thus only one wire is required.

Parallel
Require only one CLK pulse to transfer all N-bit of data. Thus, operation is faster than serial. Required N number of connection to the output terminal, which is proportional to the number of bit. Thus, too many connection is required.

## Parallel in / parallel out (PIPO)

Flip-flop configuration for PIPO register.
D3 D2 D1 D0

D Q3
CP

D Q2
CP

D Q1
CP

D Q0
CP

CLK
Q3 Q2 Q1 Q0

## PIPO data movement.

CLK D3 D2 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 0

D1
D0 Q3 Q2 Q1 Q0 0 0

1
0 1 0 1 0

1
0 0 1 1 0

1
0

0
1

1
0

0
0

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## Serial in / Serial out (SISO)

Flip-flop connection for SISO.
1st CLK DIN 2nd CLK 3rd CLK 4th CLK

D Q0
CP

D Q1
CP

D Q2
CP

D Q3
CP

CLK

FF0

FF1

FF2

FF3

## Parallel in / serial out (PISO)

Flip-flop connection for PISO.

D1

D2

D3

D Q0
CLK CP

D Q1
CP

D Q2
CP

D Q3
CP

FF0

FF1

FF2

FF3

## PISO data movement.

CLK D0 D1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 0

D2
D3

1
1

1
0

1
0

0
1

1
1

Q3

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## Shift Register Counters

A shift register counter is a shift register whose output being fed back (connected back) to the serial input. This shift register would count the state in a unique sequence! Two types of shift register counter:
The ring counter The Johnson counter

Ring Counter
Q3 Q2 Q1 Q0

0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0

0 0 0 1

1 0 0 0

## Ring Counter (continue)

Ring counters are used to construct One-Hot counters It can be constructed for any desired MOD number A MOD-N ring counter uses N flip-flops connected in the arrangement as shown in fig. a) In general ring-counter will require more flip-flops than a binary counter for the same MOD number

Johnson Counter
Or Twisted-ring counter

Johnson counter constructed exactly like a normal ring counter except that the inverted output of the last flip-flop is fed back to first flip-flop

A0 B 0 0

1
0 0

1
1 0

1
1 1

## Applications of shift registers

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Sequential Circuits
Design steps

Topics Discussed
Characteristic equation for RS, D, JK & T FF. Design/excitation table for RS, D, JK & T FF. 3-bit synchronous counter design using T FF. Design of synchronous counter with the count sequence 0,3,2,4,1,5,7, and repeat using RS FF/T FF. Design of synchronous counter that goes through the sequence 2,6,1,7,5, and repeat using D FF. A FF has 3 inputs S, R, & T. no more than one of these inputs may be 1 at any time. S & R inputs behave as SR FF. T input behave as T FF.
Show a state graph for this FF Write an equation for output Q+ in terms of S, R, T & Q

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