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Marine Ecosystems

Whats life like underwater?

Whats life like underwater?

Photic Zones Aphotic Zones Benthic Zones

Whats life like underwater?

Warmer near the equator and colder near the poles Deeper : Colder Current can carry water significantly warmer or cooler than would be typical

Whats life like underwater?

Oxygen, nitrogen, Potassium and Phosphorus

Loose deposits of sand, gravel or shells 2/3 of the worlds ice-free coastlines Serve as a buffer zone Dynamic Environment Harsh and unstable environment (some species hare adapted well to this environment)

High tide brings with it nutrients and food Water is available regularly with the tides (varies) Some small animals burrow into the sand and feed on material deposited by the waves.

Changing tides, pounding waves, and competition for food and space (physical and biological factors) As the tide goes out, water loss becomes a problem for residents of the intertidal zone As the tide rises, organisms must deal with the physical pounding of waves

Supply of water is intermittent The wave action High exposure to the sun Salinity is much higher in the intertidal zone

Along coastlines, in cool waters It contains large communities of brown algae. The keystone species are the algae, purple sea urchins, and sea otters.

Lie at the edge of land and sea, on waveprotected coasts Low-lying, salt-tolerant vegetation Communities of emergent herbs, grasses, or low shrubs, rooted in soils Highly productive environments

Feeding and breeding grounds for bird species Plant material from salt marshes is broken down by microorganisms Filter and store pollutants Natural barrier

Hard corals build by secreting calcium carbonate skeletons Boring organisms break down the coral skeletons Stabilizing the reef structure: Cementation

The Pelagic Zone This community contains 83% of the oceans total biomass in the uppermost 200 meters.

The Benthic Zone This marine community is very cold. It has a high level of salinity, density, and pressure. Some organisms thrive in this environment especially the brittle star.

Super-heated water, mineral rich Bacteria are the primary producers and make food through chemosynthesis Deep sea fish are at the top of the food chain in this environment

(A) Sea anemones and Stalked Barnacles (B) Sea Anemones and Snails (C) Sea Anemones and Yeti Crabs (D) Snails (E) Stalked Barnacles and Starfish (F) Ian Octopus.

Walrus Humans Ice Algae Fish Phytoplankton

Seal

Polar Bears

Jellyfish

Zooplankton Bowhead Whale Detritus

Sea Stars and Sea Urchins

Petrels Orcas Fur Seals

Penguins

Jellyfish Phytoplankton Salps

Crabeater Seals

Ctenophores

Leopard Seals Copepads Fish Squids Baleen Whales

Krill

Petrels Orcas Fur Seals

Penguins

Crabeater Seals Pteropods Salps

Juvenile Krill Ctenophores

Leopard Seals Amphipods Fish Squids Copepods Baleen Whales

Krill

Marine Ecosystems

Edvie Mae V. Baral Elena M. Mercado