You are on page 1of 16

Casey Gregory

Background Information
One of most famous Indian mathematicians Born 1114 AD in Bijjada Bida Father was a Brahman (Mahesvara) and astrologer Nicknamed Bhaskaracharya Bhaskara the Teacher Studied Varahamihira and Brahmagupta at Uijain

What he knew
Understood zero and negative numbers
Except how to divide by it

Knew x^2 had 2 solutions * Had studied Pells equation and other Diophantine problems

His Accomplishments
First to declare a/0 = * First to declare + a = Wrote 6 works including
Lilavati (mathematics) Bijaganita (algebra) Siddhantasiromani Vasanabhasya (commentary on Siddhantasiromani) Karanakutuhala (astronomy) Vivarana

Lilavati

O girl! out of a group of swans, 7/2 times the square root of the number are playing on the shore of a tank. The two remaining ones are playing with amorous fight, in the water. What is the total number of swans?

Lilavati
13 Chapters
definitions; arithmetical terms; interest; arithmetical and geometrical progressions; plane geometry; solid geometry; the shadow of the gnomon*; the kuttaka; combinations. 2 Methods for multiplication* 4 methods for squaring Rules of three, five, seven and nine Kuttaka Method
Example: Say quickly, mathematician, what is that multiplier, by which two hundred and twenty-one being multiplied, and sixty-five added to the product, the sum divided by a hundred and ninety-five becomes exhausted. Bhaskaracharya is finding integer solution to 195x = 221y + 65. He obtains the solutions (x,y) = (6,5) or (23,20) or (40, 35) and so on.

Bijaganita
12 Chapters
Including: positive and negative numbers; zero; the unknown; surds*; the kuttaka*; indeterminate quadratic equations; simple equations; quadratic equations; equations with more than one unknown; quadratic equations with more than one unknown; operations with products of several unknowns; and the author and his work Quadratic equation - 700 A.D. Brahmagupta who also recognized 2 roots in the solution. 1100A.D. ANY positive number has 2 square roots

Tried to prove a/ 0 = , however if that were true, *0 = a, therefore proving all numbers equal Shows that the kuttaka method to solve indeterminate equations such as ax + by + cz = d has more than one solution. His conclusion shows his poetic and passionate nature:
A morsel of tuition conveys knowledge to a comprehensive mind; and having reached it, expands of its own impulse, as oil poured upon water, as a secret entrusted to the vile, as alms bestowed upon the worthy, however little, so does knowledge infused into a wise mind spread by intrinsic force.

Siddhanta Siromani

Siddhanta Siromani
Leelavati (arithmetic) Bijaganita (algebra) Goladhayaya (spheres, celestial globes) Grahaganita (mathematics of the planets)

## Topics Covered in Siddhanta Siromani

Astronomy Related
Latitudes & longitudes of the planets; three problems of diurnal* rotation; syzygies*; eclipses; the moon's crescent; conjunctions of the planets with each other and stars

Sphere Related
nature of the sphere; cosmography and geography; planetary mean motion; eccentric epicyclic model of the planets; the armillary sphere; spherical trigonometry; ellipse calculations; first visibilities of the planets; calculating the lunar crescent; astronomical instruments; the seasons; and problems of astronomical calculations.

## Further Information in Siddhanta

First time trigonometry was studied as its own entity, rather than how it related to other calculations.
sin(a + b) = sin a cos b + cos a sin b sin(a - b) = sin a cos b - cos a sin b.

## His 7th work?

There exists a 7th work, but it is thought to be a forgery.