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Bhaskara II

Casey Gregory

Background Information
One of most famous Indian mathematicians Born 1114 AD in Bijjada Bida Father was a Brahman (Mahesvara) and astrologer Nicknamed Bhaskaracharya Bhaskara the Teacher Studied Varahamihira and Brahmagupta at Uijain

What he knew
Understood zero and negative numbers
Except how to divide by it

Knew x^2 had 2 solutions * Had studied Pells equation and other Diophantine problems

His Accomplishments
First to declare a/0 = * First to declare + a = Wrote 6 works including
Lilavati (mathematics) Bijaganita (algebra) Siddhantasiromani Vasanabhasya (commentary on Siddhantasiromani) Karanakutuhala (astronomy) Vivarana

Lilavati

O girl! out of a group of swans, 7/2 times the square root of the number are playing on the shore of a tank. The two remaining ones are playing with amorous fight, in the water. What is the total number of swans?

Lilavati
13 Chapters
definitions; arithmetical terms; interest; arithmetical and geometrical progressions; plane geometry; solid geometry; the shadow of the gnomon*; the kuttaka; combinations. 2 Methods for multiplication* 4 methods for squaring Rules of three, five, seven and nine Kuttaka Method
Example: Say quickly, mathematician, what is that multiplier, by which two hundred and twenty-one being multiplied, and sixty-five added to the product, the sum divided by a hundred and ninety-five becomes exhausted. Bhaskaracharya is finding integer solution to 195x = 221y + 65. He obtains the solutions (x,y) = (6,5) or (23,20) or (40, 35) and so on.

Bijaganita
12 Chapters
Including: positive and negative numbers; zero; the unknown; surds*; the kuttaka*; indeterminate quadratic equations; simple equations; quadratic equations; equations with more than one unknown; quadratic equations with more than one unknown; operations with products of several unknowns; and the author and his work Quadratic equation - 700 A.D. Brahmagupta who also recognized 2 roots in the solution. 1100A.D. ANY positive number has 2 square roots

Tried to prove a/ 0 = , however if that were true, *0 = a, therefore proving all numbers equal Shows that the kuttaka method to solve indeterminate equations such as ax + by + cz = d has more than one solution. His conclusion shows his poetic and passionate nature:
A morsel of tuition conveys knowledge to a comprehensive mind; and having reached it, expands of its own impulse, as oil poured upon water, as a secret entrusted to the vile, as alms bestowed upon the worthy, however little, so does knowledge infused into a wise mind spread by intrinsic force.

Siddhanta Siromani

Picture of Goladhyaya.

Siddhanta Siromani
Wrote Siddhanta Siromani (1150 AD)
Leelavati (arithmetic) Bijaganita (algebra) Goladhayaya (spheres, celestial globes) Grahaganita (mathematics of the planets)

Topics Covered in Siddhanta Siromani


Astronomy Related
Latitudes & longitudes of the planets; three problems of diurnal* rotation; syzygies*; eclipses; the moon's crescent; conjunctions of the planets with each other and stars

Sphere Related
nature of the sphere; cosmography and geography; planetary mean motion; eccentric epicyclic model of the planets; the armillary sphere; spherical trigonometry; ellipse calculations; first visibilities of the planets; calculating the lunar crescent; astronomical instruments; the seasons; and problems of astronomical calculations.

Further Information in Siddhanta


First time trigonometry was studied as its own entity, rather than how it related to other calculations.
sin(a + b) = sin a cos b + cos a sin b sin(a - b) = sin a cos b - cos a sin b.

His 7th work?


There exists a 7th work, but it is thought to be a forgery.

After Bhaskara II
Bhaskara II dies in 1185 A HUGE scientific lull after invasion by muslims 1727, next important Hindu mathematician Sawai Jai Singh II Several of Bhaskaras findings were not explored heavily after his death, and ended up being discovered later by European mathematicians.

Bhaskara II Rediscovered
chakrawal, or the cyclic method, to solve algebraic equations. *
6 centuries later, Galois, Euler and Lagrange rediscovered this and called it "inverse cyclic".

differential calculus
Rediscovered as "differential coefficient" "Rolle's theorem" Newton and Leibniz receive credit

Bhaskara is renowned for his concept of Tatkalikagati (instantaneous motion).

Works Cited
http://www.ilovemaths.com/ind_mathe.htm http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A2982567 http://www-groups.dcs.stand.ac.uk/%7Ehistory/Mathematicians/Bhas kara_II.html http://www.math.sfu.ca/histmath/India/1 2thCenturyAD/Bhaskara.html