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1. To reveal the distribution of costs among the constituent element of the project.

Objectives of Elemental Estimation

2. To relate the cost of any constituent element to its importance as a part of the whole project.

3. To compare the cost of the same element in different projects.


4. To enable a determination of how costs could have been allocated to obtain a better project. 5. To obtain and use cost data for future projects.

Ratio Used for Elemental Estimation


1. Element quantity to base unit quantity
2. Element cost to total project cost

Sample Ratios in Building Element Estimates : Laboratory and office Building Design Efficiency
Areas Area of exterior vertical cladding to floor area Area of windows to area of exterior vertical cladding Area of windows to gross floor area Area of roofing to gross floor area Area of partitions to gross floor area Area of internal doors to area of partitions Area of floor finish to floor area Area of ceiling finish to floor area Volume of building to gross floor area Ratios 0.8244 : 1 0.1156 : 1 0.0951 : 1 0.5113 : 1 0.9618 : 1 0.0724 : 1 1.0023 : 1 0.9369 : 1 11.9669 : 1

Building An Element Cost From Unit Cost Data (Analysis)


Element: 3a. Exterior cladding: roof finish 12.7-mm gypsum board 4-ply built-up roofing 75-mm rigid insulation 40-mm stone Expansion joints, including: Flashing and butyl membrane Flashing at parapet

Quantity 16,140 ft2 16,140 ft2 16,140 ft2 1,305 tons

Unit Cost* $ 0.85 1.26 1.41 50.00

Cost $ 5,652 21,980 22,765 6,350

L.S. 490 m2

30.00

$73,447 ElementCost $4.55 / ft 2 16 ,140

2,000 14,000 $73,447

*September 1981 cost level.

Substructure
a. Normal Foundations. Footing to extend to 4 ft below average finish grade with finish grade at an average of 1 ft below top of foundation walls. Allow for footing size 2 ft 4 ft and foundation wall 10 in. wide and 5 ft high. b. Basement excavations and backfill. Not applicable. c. Special foundations. Not applicable.
Element Substructure a. Normal foundations b. Basement excavations and backfill c. Special foundations Ratio to GFA 0.5000 Quantity 125,000 Unit Unit Cost Sub-total ft2 ft2 ft2 700,000 5.6 700,000 Elem. Total Elem. Cost/ft Cost/ft 2
2

Percent

2.80 0.00 0.00 2.80 3.8

Substructure
a. Lowest-floor construction. Plain slab 6-in.-thick concrete, including 8-in. of crushed stone, mesh reinforcing, screed and steel trowel finish. b. Upper-floor construction. Steel frame, metal floor deck, joint formwork. c. Roof construction. Steel frame, including 11 2-in.deep galvanized metal deck.
Elem. Unit Cost Sub-total Elem. Total Cost/ft Cost/ft 2 Percent
2

Element Structure a. Lowest-floor construction b. Upper-floor construction c. Roof construction

Ratio to GFA 0.5000 0.5000 0.5102

Quantity 125,000 125,000 127,550

Unit ft2 ft2 ft2

2.23 9.20 6.58

278,750 1,150,000 839,279 2,268,029

1.12 4.60 3.36 9.07 13.1%

Exterior Cladding
a. Roof finish. Build-up roof system, including wood cants, nailers, flashings, and 2 in. of rigid insulation for low-rise building. b. Walls below ground floor.

c. Walls above ground floor. 12-in. composite wall with 4-in. modular brick facing, vapor barrier, 6-mm metal stud, 4-mm batt insulation, metal furring, and drywall.
d. Windows. Aluminum frames with baked enamel finish. Thermally broken with one operable vent and sealed tinted double glazing. e. Exterior doors and screens. Aluminum framing with baked enamel finish thermally broken, sealed double glazing.
Element Exterior cladding a. Roof finish b. Walls below ground floor c. Walls above ground floor d. Windows e. Exterior doors and screens Ratio to GFA 0.5102 0.0000 0.8861 0.1446 0.0136 Quantity 127,550 221,525 36,150 3,400 Unit ft 2 ft 2 ft 2 ft 2 Elem. Unit Cost Sub-total Elem. Total Cost/ft Cost/ft 2 Percent
2

5.36 0.00 17.29 34.76 38.70

683,668 0 3,830,167 1,256,574 131,580 5,901,989

2.73 0.00 15.32 5.03 0.53 23.61 34.2%

Interior Partitions
a. Permanent partitions. Metal stud partitions, 4-in. thick with a single layer of 1 2-in. drywall on both sides. 8-in. concrete block fire walls with metal furring and drywall either side. b. Movable partitions. c. Doors. Hollow-steel honeycombed doors in 18 -in. frames, including hardware for residential buildings.
Element Interior partitions a. Permanent partition b. Movable partitions c. Doors Ratio to GFA 0.7007 0.0000 0.0025 Quantity 175,175 0 625 Unit ft2 ft2 each Elem. Unit Cost Sub-total Elem. Total Cost/ft Cost/ft 2 Percent
2

5.03 0 660

881,130 0 412,500 1,293,630

3.52 0.00 1.65 5.17 7.5%

Vertical Movement
a. Stairs. Metal pan stairs, 5 ft wide 10 ft rise with half landings, including precast terrazzo treads and landings and picket railings. b. Elevator and escalators. Not applicable.

Element Vertical Movement a. Stairs b. Elevators

Ratio to GFA 0.00008 0

Quantity

Unit

Elem. Unit Cost Sub-total Elem. Total Cost/ft Cost/ft 2 Percent


2

20 flights 0 number

5700 0

114,000 0 114,000

0.46 0.00 0.46 0.7%

Interior Finishes
a. Floor finishes. Quarry tile in vestibule, ceramic tile in washrooms, and vinyl acetate tile elsewhere. b. Ceiling finishes. Acoustic tile throughout. c. Wall finishes. Tape, fill, and paint.

Element Interior finishes a. Floor finishes b. Ceiling finishes c. Wall finishes

Ratio to GFA 1 1 2.2874

Quantity 250,000 250,000 571,850

Unit ft2 ft2 ft2

Elem. Unit Cost Sub-total Elem. Total Cost/ft Cost/ft 2 Percent


2

1.35 1.50 0.87

337,500 375,000 497,510 1,210,010

1.35 1.50 1.99 4.84 7.0%

Fittings and Equipment


a. Fittings and fixtures. Allowance to cover washroom accessories, signs, and floor mats ($200,000). b. Equipment. Not applicable.

Element Fittings and equipment a. Fittings and fixtures b. Equipment

Ratio to GFA 0 0

Quantity

Unit each each

Elem. Unit Cost Sub-total Elem. Total Cost/ft Cost/ft 2 Percent


2

200000 0 200,000

0.8 0 0.80 1.2%

Electrical
a. Services. Complete electrical installation, including electric heating. b. Lighting and power. Lighting throughout. c. Systems. Not applicable.

Element Electrical a. Services b. Lighting and power c. Systems

Ratio to GFA 1 1 0

Quantity 250,000 250,000 0

Unit ft2 ft3 ft4

Elem. Unit Cost Sub-total Elem. Total Cost/ft Cost/ft 2 Percent


2

4.40 2.30 0.00

1,100,000 575,000 0 1,675,000

4.40 2.30 0.00 6.70 9.7%

Mechanical
a. Plumbing and drains. Allowance for residential buildings. b. Fire protection. One head per 120 ft2 ($190/head). c. HVAC. Room top system, 0.0001 ton of cooling per square foot of gross floor area.

Element Mechanical a. Plumbing and drains b. Fire protection c. HVAC

Ratio to GFA 0.0022 0.0083 0.0010

Quantity

Unit

Elem. Unit Cost Sub-total Elem. Total Cost/ft Cost/ft 2 Percent


2

550 fixtures 2,075 hydrants 250 tons

2580 190 3800

1,419,000 394,250 950,000 2,763,250

5.68 1.58 3.80 11.05 16.0%

Overhead and Profit


Allowance for simple commercial projects with excellent market conditions.

Element Overhead and Profit Net building cost

Ratio to GFA

Quantity 7%

Unit

Elem. Unit Cost Sub-total Elem. Total Cost/ft Cost/ft 2 Percent


2

1,128,814 17,254,722 Use 17,300,000 + 15%

4.52 6.5% 69.02 100.0%

Site Development
a. General. Rough grade, spread imported topsoil, fine grade, and place sod. Roads and parking, including 6-in. of crushed stone base, 3 in. of double-layer asphalt, and precast concrete curbs. Walks and steps 4 ft wide, including 4 in. of crushed stone base, 5 in. of concrete, mesh and broom finish. Include a planting allowance for trees and shrubs (allowance $250,000). b. Mechanical and electrical. Site drainage and services to the building (allow $100,000). c. Alterations. Not applicable. d. Demolition. Not applicable.
Element Site development a. General b. Mechanical and electrical c. Alterations d. Demolition Ratio to GFA 0 0 0 0 Quantity Unit allow allow m2 m2 Elem. Unit Cost Sub-total Elem. Total Cost/ft Cost/ft 2 Percent
2

250,000 100,000 0 0 350,000

10.00 4.00 0.00 0.00 14.00 -

Contingencies
a. Design. Allow 6%. b. Escalation. Allow 2%. c. Construction. Allow 3%.

Element Contingencies a. Design b. Escalation c. Construction

Ratio to GFA

Quantity 6% 2% 3%

Unit

Elem. Unit Cost Sub-total Elem. Total Cost/ft Cost/ft 2 Percent


2

1,059,000 353,000 529,500 1,941,500 7.77 -

Element Substructure a. Normal foundations b. Basement excavations and backfill c. Special foundations Structure a. Lowest-floor construction b. Upper-floor construction c. Roof construction Exterior cladding a. Roof finish b. Walls below ground floor c. Walls above ground floor d. Windows e. Exterior doors and screens Interior partitions a. Permanent partition b. Movable partitions c. Doors Vertical Movement a. Stairs b. Elevators

Ratio to GFA 0.5000

Quantity 125,000

Unit ft 2 ft ft 2
2

Elem. Unit Cost Sub-total Elem. Total Cost/ft 2 Cost/ft 2 Percent 5.60 700,000 2.80 0.00 0.00 700,000 2.80 1.12 4.60 3.36 2,268,029 9.07 2.73 0.00 15.32 5.03 0.53 5,901,989 23.61 3.52 0.00 1.65 1,293,630 5.17 0.46 0.00 114,000 0.46 0.7% 7.5% 34.2% 13.1% 4.1%

0.5000 0.5000 0.5102

125,000 125,000 127,550

ft ft 2 ft 2

2.23 9.20 6.58

278,750 1,150,000 839,279

0.5102 0.0000 0.8861 0.1446 0.0136

127,550 221,525 36,150 3,400

ft 2 ft 2 ft 2 ft 2

5.36 0.00 17.29 34.76 38.70

683,668 0 3,830,167 1,256,574 131,580

0.7007 0.0000 0.0025

175,175 0 625

ft 2 ft 2 each

5.03 0 660

881,130 0 412,500

0.00008 0

20 flights 0 number

5700 0

114,000 0

Interior finishes a. Floor finishes b. Ceiling finishes c. Wall finishes Fittings and equipment a. Fittings and fixtures b. Equipment Electrical a. Services b. Lighting and power c. Systems Mechanical a. Plumbing and drains b. Fire protection c. HVAC Overhead and Profit Net building cost Site development a. General b. Mechanical and electrical c. Alterations d. Demolition Contingencies a. Design b. Escalation c. Construction Total Building Cost

1 1 2.2874

250,000 250,000 571,850

ft ft 2 ft 2

1.35 1.50 0.87

337,500 375,000 497,510 1,210,010

1.35 1.50 1.99 4.84 0.8 0 200,000 0.80 4.40 2.30 0.00 1,675,000 6.70 5.68 1.58 3.80 11.05 16.0% 4.52 6.5% 69.02 100.0% 9.7% 1.2% 7.0%

0 0

each each

200000 0

1 1 0

250,000 250,000 0

ft ft 3 ft 4

4.40 2.30 0.00

1,100,000 575,000 0

0.0022 0.0083 0.0010

550 fixtures 2,075 hydrants 250 tons 7%

2580 190 3800

1,419,000 394,250 950,000 2,763,250 1,128,814 17,254,722 Use 17,300,000 + 15%

0 0 0 0

allow allow m2 m2

250,000 100,000 0 0 350,000

10.00 4.00 0.00 0.00 14.00 -

6% 2% 3%

1,059,000 353,000 529,500 1,941,500 19,591,500 Use 19,600,000 + 15% 7.77 78.37 -

Estimate note: The total cost is within the range predicted by the preliminary estimate (19,000,000+25%)