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# Submitted by:Kumar Ashish

Introduction
Vibration refers to mechanical oscillations about an equilibrium point. The oscillations may be periodic such as the motion of a pendulum or random such as the movement of a tire on a gravel road. There are two general classes of vibrations - free and forced.

## Free vibration takes place when a system oscillates under the

action of forces inherent in the system itself, and when external impressed forces are absent. The system under free vibration will vibrate at one or more of its natural frequencies, which are properties of the dynamic system established by its mass and stiffness distribution. Vibration that takes place under the excitation of external forces is called forced vibration. When the excitation is oscillatory, the system is forced to vibrate at the excitation frequency. If the frequency of excitation coincides with one of the natural frequencies of the system, a condition of resonance is encountered

Degree of Freedom(DOF)
In the case of more complex systems mass moves in more than one direction adding to degrees of freedom. Each direction represent a particular degree of freedom and can be measured in terms of the number of independent coordinates required to describe the motion of a mass Thus, a free particle undergoing general motion in space will have three degrees of freedom, and a rigid body will have six degrees of freedom, i.e., three components of position and three angles defining its orientation. Furthermore, a continuous elastic body will require an infinite number of coordinates (three for each point on the body) to describe its motion; hence, its degrees of freedom must be infinite.

## Illustration of a Multiple DOF system

When there are many degrees of freedom. An example

of animated mode shapes is shown in the figure below for a cantilevered I-beam. In this case, a finite element model was used to generate the mass and stiffness matrices and solve the eigenvalue problem
N bodies in d dimensions = N x d degrees of freedom i.e. N x d different possible ways the entire system can move. This can mean that the system has N x d different vibration frequencies

## Fig:-A cantelever beam in vibration

Even this relatively simple model has over 100 degrees of freedom and hence as many natural frequencies and mode shapes. In general only the first few modes are important

ANALYSIS OF MDOF

## Fig:-A system in 4 DOF

2 bodies in x, y motion= 4 d.o.f.

ANALYSIS OF MDOF
A multi degree-of-freedom system has the same basic form of the governing equation as a single degree-of-freedom system.

mx + kx = F

## Applying Newtons 2nd Law gives:

ANALYSIS OF MDOF
The equations of motion of the MDOF system are found to be:

M1x1+(c1+c2)x1-c2x2+(k1+k2)x1-k2x2=f1 M2x2+(c3+c2)x2-c3x1+(k3+k2)x2-k2x1=f2 We can rewrite this in matrix format: m1 or 0 0 m2 X X1 X2 + C C1+c2 + -c2 X -c2 C2+c3 X1 X2 + k1+k2 -k2 = -k2 k2+k3 X1 X2 f1 f2

Where M , C , K and are symmetric matrices referred respectively as the mass, damping, and stiffness matrices In the following analysis we will consider the case where there is no damping and no applied forces (i.e. free vibration)

ANALYSIS OF MDOF
M X +

This differential equation can be solved by assuming the following type of solution: x = X eiwt

If we use Euler's formula and take only the real part of the solution it is the same cosine solution for the 1 DOF system. The equation then becomes:

Since eit cannot equal zero the equation reduces to the following.

## Eigen value problems

can be put in the standard format by pre-multiplying the equation by M-1 Let M-1 K = A and K W2 M-1 M X = 0 M-1

The solution to the problem results in N eigenvalues where N corresponds to the number of degrees of freedom. The eigenvalues provide the natural frequencies of the system.

## Eigen value problems

The eigenvalues and eigenvectors are often written in the following matrix format

## Multiple DOF problem converted to a single DOF problem

They can be solved by using a properties of eigenvectors called orthogonality properties.

and

are diagonal matrices that contain the modal mass and stiffness values for each one of the modes

These properties can be used to greatly simplify the solution of multi-degree of freedom models by making the following coordinate transformation. And premultiplying this equation by

We get

Where, q= modal participation factor. q defines how much each mode "participates" in the final vibration

Mode shapes
First note that A1,A2, 1 and 2 are determined by the initial conditions Choose them so that A2 = 1 = 2 =0 Then: x(t) = x1 (t) u11 x2 (t) =A1 u12 sin w1t Thus each mass oscillates at (one) frequency 1 with magnitudes proportional to u1 the 1st mode shape

## Solution for systems with forced vibrations

Response is still made up of the natural modes. Solution is found using the same approach as for a single degree-of-freedom system Break up each generalized force, r, into a series of impulses Use convolution integral to get response for each degree of freedom Stay in normalized coordinates The solution for any mode will thus look like: r (T)= 1/(mrwr) (0,t) sin r (t ) d

qi (t) = r(t)r (t) for r =1 to n Again, use Initial Conditions to get constants
Exact same procedure as single degree-of-freedom system. Do it multiple times and add up. (Linear Superposition) Can therefore represent any system by discrete masses. As more and more discrete points are taken, get a better model of the actual behavior. Taking this to the limit will allow the full representation of the behavior of continuous systems.

## Application of MDOF system

One example of multiple degrees of freedom is One body but moving in multiple dimensions

k1

k3 k2 x2,y2 x,y k4

x3,y3

Fig:-MDOF system

we could displace the mass to position (x,y) and compute the free body diagram to get the forces, and then the EOM

## Equivalent Mass Moment of Inertia Jeq for 2DOF torsional system

Greenhouse Gases:
A case of forced vibrations but at the molecular level Earth re-radiates at much lower frequencies, in the infrared range (1014/s)

Light waves from the sun at high frequencies (1015/s) visible and ultraviolet
Earth heats up Greenhouse gas absorb this radiation and ultimately re-radiate it, some of which heads back toward the earth not escaping

CO2 has a vibration mode at a frequency that is just in the range of the heat radiation frequencies from the earth.

O C O

n ~ 7.2 x1013 / s
Wavelength =2.6x10-5 m

## Light is an electromagnetic field an electric field that oscillates in time

E(t ) Eo sin(t )

CO2 can very effectively absorb electromagnetic radiation that is at a frequency equal to the natural frequency of vibration for this asymmetric mode of vibration

REFRENCES:Mats Abom et al, Sound and Vibration, KTH, Stockholm, 2006. S S Rao,Mechanical Vibration, (4th Edition) Pearson Education, Delhi, 2004. J S Rao and K Gupta, Theory and Practice of Mechanical Vibration, (2nd Edition) New Age International Publishers, New Delhi, 1999. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vibration Maia, Silva. Theoretical And Experimental Modal Analysis, Research Studies Press Ltd., 1997 http://www.brown.edu/Departments/Engineering/Courses/En4//Notes/Vib e_ndof/Vibe_ndof.htm