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QUALITY AND CONDITION OF PUBLIC HIGH SCHOOL BUILDINGS OF BAAO, CAMARINES SUR

RAY ROMULO PENOLIO

THE PROBLEM
School buildings are valuable structures in the community since it caters not just to the educational needs of the children but as evacuation centers during calamities; as polling centers during elections; as billeting areas during athletic events and as venues for multifarious social and cultural activities.
Thus, the quality and condition of the school buildings can be considered as the foremost public affair concern. As practicing engineer, the researcher believes that in order to secure the quality of the school buildings, the different stakeholders should have the appropriate knowledge in assessing its quality and condition.

Statement of the Problem


This study will assess the quality and condition of existing high school buildings in Baao, Camarines Sur. Specifically, this will answer the following questions: 1. What are the conditions of the public high school buildings in the Municipality of Baao in terms of: a. Location i. safe access, egress, and travel distance ii. appearance, freedom from noise, smoke and odors iii. surrounding development vs. deterioration of the general environment iv. location assessed in terms of manmade and natural hazards b. Environmental Factors i. thermal ii. acoustic iii. visual iv. Aesthetic c. Building Features i. roofs ii. framing, floors, foundations iii. exterior walls, finishes, windows and doors iv. interior finishes, and trims v. plumbing vi. electrical power vii. provision for the disabled

2. What is the extent of compliance of the buildings to the standards with regard to: a. Structural Soundness i. earthquake proof ii. flood proof iii. Typhoon proof b. Plumbing and Sanitation i. sanitation adequacy ii. housekeeping quality c. Electrical i. fire safety d. Accessibility and Use by the Handicapped 3. Is there a significant difference in the assessment of the different respondents on the conditions of the public high schools?

Significance of the Study


School Administration Results of study may give a better birds eye view of the structurally sound classroom that would suit the needs for optimal academic learning of the students Occupants/End-Users Students will be occupying room that is conducive to learning and free from building hazards. The teachers and school heads can work effectively and efficiently when the classroom atmosphere is favorable. The parents and other members will be inspired occupying rooms that are built/constructed properly

PTA
Result of the study may provide them the feeling of security for their students. This may also serve as their guidance in choosing classrooms

Constituents of Baao Results of study may provide them with data as to the safety of the buildings of the secondary public schools in Baao, the propose measures may provide better and safer educational haven to students Community Findings of the study may contribute to the awareness of the community on the condition and extent of compliance of secondary school buildings on the locality

LGU Officials
Result of the study may enable the Executive and Legislative departments of Baao to enact, promulgate and adopt effective policies and innovations that will strengthen the school system in the municipality

School Building Project Implementer DPWH District Engineering office will be aware that the DepED monitoring system and evaluation model of the school building project is a potent arm that ensure that school building will be constructed as planned. Contractors will be aware the construction of school buildings are comprehensively monitored based from existing plans and specifications and will give them ample chance to improve their projects Department of Education Result of the present study may serve as guide if and when monitoring system and evaluation model may be adopted for safeguarding of the public school buildings not just in baao but in the philippines Other Researchers Result of the study may provide reasearchers with baseline data that can be used for future researches

Assumptions
The present study is guided by the following assumptions: 1. The conditions of the public high schools as assessed by its faculty, administrators and parents can be measured in terms of location, environmental factors and building features.

2. The extent of compliance of the buildings in public high schools differs along structural soundness, plumbing and sanitation, electrical, and accessibility and use by the handicapped.

Hypotheses

1. There is no significant difference in the assessment of the different respondents on the conditions of the

public high schools.

Locale of the Study

Public High School Buildings of Baao 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Baao National High School Agdangan High School Caranday High School Eusebia Paz Arroyo Memorial High School Nonito Paz Arroyo Memorial High School

Figure 1 Map of Baao, Camarines Sur

RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES Author


Spirit School Facilities

Date
2007

Literature/Study
Reported that there are various aspects of school building which include a) school sites; b) area per student; and c) and school capacity. noted that physical arrangement can affect the behavior of both students and teachers and that a well-structured classroom tends to improve students academic and behavioral outcomes. Found that school building design features such as temperature, lighting, acoustics and age; and components have been proven to have a measurable influence upon student learning.

Savage

2007

Earthman

2002

Author

Date

Literature/Study
Reasons why an existing building may not comply with requirements of the earthquake building codes 1) the building may not have been designed initially to resist earthquake loads, as it may have been constructed before such a code was adopted, or even if adopted it may not have been mandatory; 2) even if the building was initially built to the earthquake code provisions, the seismic resistance requirements may have been revised upwards in the later revisions of the code; 3) the use of building may have changed requiring higher level of safety; and 4) the condition of the building may have deteriorated over the years, in the absence of proper maintenance. stressed that the availability of an acceptable building is an important requirement for the operation of a school. To be acceptable, a building shall be safe, sanitary and adequate.

Chakrabarti 2012

2010 DepEd Educational Facilities Manual

Author
Luna et al.

Date
2008

Literature/Study
school buildings are allocated according to a prioritized list prepared based on the following criteria: 1) to replace school buildings destroyed by natural calamities and fortuitous events; 2) to replace old and dilapidated school buildings which have been condemned; 3) to provide new school with high shortages (Red and Black Schools) to accommodate the increase in school population or to decongest existing ones; 5) to replace makeshift and temporary school buildings; and 6) to provide school buildings to accommodate classes currently housed in rented buildings, school stage, gymnasiums, etc. reported a case study conducted which aimed to transform the La Sallian schools in the Philippines into green schools where physical surroundings, management systems, values and lifestyles of the people reflect care and stewardship of the earths resources.

Dizon et al.

2002

Theoretical Framework
Cash Theoretical Model on Building Condition (1993) contends building condition potentially affects student achievement and student behavior directly and indirectly. Social Exchange Theory of Blau, (1964) in order for the different stakeholders participate in making sure that the school buildings were built in accordance to mandated rules and regulation, they should perceive that in doing so, they can satisfy their own interest such safety for own school children.

Maslows Hierarchy of Needs (1954)


Safety, as one of the hierarchy of needs, is the feeling people get when they know no harm will befall them, physically, mentally, or emotionally; security is the feeling people get when their fears and anxieties are low. If a person feels that he or she is in harm's way, higher needs will not receive much attention.

PUBLIC SCHOOL BUILDINGS IN BAAO, CAM. SUR

Figure 2

Theoretical framework showing the different theories that describe the necessity for the school buildings to be safe.

Conceptual Framework
INPUT
1. Conditions of School Buildings Location Environmental Factors Building Features 2. Extent of Compliance to Standards Structural Soundness Plumbing and Sanitation Electrical Accessibility and Use by the Handicapped 3. Significant difference in the assessment of the difference respondents Conditions of public high schools

PROCESS

OUTPUT

-Preparation of Survey Questionnaire -Validation and Reliability test of Research Instrument -Administration of the Instrument -Analysis -Interpretation

Proposed Measures for the Enhancement of the Building Condition of the High School Buildings

Figure 3 Conceptual Paradigm of the Study

FEEDBACK

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLODY Research Design The present study was quantitative research which employed the descriptive comparative method. Respondents of the Study The respondents of the present study will be from different groups namely: faculty, administrators/school heads and parents of the respective schools. Procedure of Data Gathering Permission to Conduct the Research, Formulation of the Questionnaire, Validation of the Instrument, Distribution of Questionnaire, Tabulation of the researcher Data, and Analysis and interpretation Data Gathering Tools The instrument that will be used by the researcher is a closed- type survey questionnaire.

Statement of the Problem


What are the conditions of the public high school buildings in the Municipality of Baao in terms of: a. Location b. Environmental Factors c. Building Features What is the extent of compliance of the buildings to the standards with regard to: a.Structural Soundness b. Plumbing and Sanitation c. Electrical d. Accessibility and Use by the Handicapped Is there a significant difference in the assessment of the different respondents on the conditions of the public high schools?

Assumption/ Hypothesis

Instrument

Statistical Treatment of Data

The conditions of the public high schools as assessed by its faculty, administrators and parents can be measured in terms of location, environmental factors and building features The extent of compliance of the buildings in public high schools differs along structural soundness, plumbing and sanitation, electrical, and accessibility and use by the handicapped.

Part A of the Survey Weighted Mean Questionnaire

Part B of the Survey Weighted Mean Questionnaire

There is no significant difference in the assessment of the different respondents on the conditions of the public high schools.

N/A

One-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)