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Chapter 6

Motor Protection Lecture 2 ..:

Example : A three phase induction motor of 900 HP , Vr = 4.16 KV, p.f = 0.87 ,eff. = 0.94, f = 50 s / c is protected against phase and earth faults in the stator windings by using two over current relays in phases and one earth fault relay in the residual circuit. If the motor starting current at full load condition is 5Ir , where Ir is the motor rated current. (1) Find the C. t. ratio (2) Determine the over current and earth fault relays settings

SYSTEM UNBALANCE FOR MOTORS

The most common cause of unbalance for three-phase motors is the loss of phase resulting from an open fuse, connector, or conductor. Unbalances in other connected loads can also affect the motor. A voltage unbalance of 3.5% can produce a 25% or greater increase in motor temperature. This results primarily from negative-sequence produced by the unbalance. This current produces flux in the motor air-gap rotating in the opposite direction to the actual motor direction.

The relative effect is essentially doublefrequency current in the rotor. Skin effect results in higher resistance, negative-sequence impedance remains essentially at locked-rotor value. Thus high current and high resistance compound the heating effect.

NEGATIVE SEQUENCE VOLTAGE PROTECTION


The CVQ (27/47) relay contains a negative sequence voltage unit that, energizes an induction-disk voltage unit V2. If a three-phase voltage applied to the relay contains 5% (adjustable to 10%) negative sequence content or more, the negative sequence unit (V2) operates. A back contact of the negative sequence unit opens a CV-7 under voltage unit coil circuit, and after a time delay, the contacts of the under voltage unit initiate tripping or sound an alarm. This relay operates for Reverse-phase rotation (100% negative sequence) Unbalanced voltage (partial negative sequence) Under voltage (no negative sequence)

The CVQ relay is recommended for all important buses supplying motor loads. Although the CVQ relay can detect single phasing of the supply to even a single, lightly loaded large motor if its magnetizing impedance is low enough, it does not respond to single phasing between the point of application of the CVQ and the motor displays. Two cases of an open phasing condition. The rst case is an open phase at A. The resulting sequence network interconnections are shown. In this rst case, the negative sequence voltage relay measures the voltage across the negative sequence impedance of the motor or motors.

In the second case, the open phase occurs at B.. When the open is at location B, the relay now measures the negative sequence voltage across the source. Very low negative sequence voltage is produced on the source side of the open phase, which makes it extremely difficult for the negative sequence voltage relay to detect. For practical purposes, the voltage unbalance occurs only on the load side of an open phase. In general, a phase-unbalance current relay is preferred for detecting a feeder circuit open phase.

Simplied schematic diagram of the CVQ (27/47) negative sequence voltage relay.

Motor single phasing.

Example : A Single - phasing relay is used to protect a 3 - phase induction motor of 350 KW , Vr = 2.2 KV, p.f = 0. 85 ,efficiency = 0. 93 . Suggest a suitable c. t . ratio and find the relay setting , where the no load current is equal to 25% of the motor rated current. Check the relay operation if the minimum current response is 30 % of the relay rated current

Unbalanced supply voltages


The voltage supplied to a three-phase motor can be unbalanced for a variety of reasons; single-phase loads, blown fuses in pf capacitors, etc. In addition, the accidental opening of one-phase lead in the supply to the motor can leave the motor running, supplied by two phases only. It might seem that the degree of voltage unbalance met within a normal installation (except when one-phase is open circuited) would not affect the motor to any great extent, but this is not so. It should be remembered that it is not the unbalanced voltage which is important, but the relatively much larger negative sequence component of the unbalance current, resulting from the unbalanced voltage.

The positive, negative and zero components

Loss of one-phase represents the most dangerous case of unbalance. It is therefore essential for motors, which are protected against short circuit by fuses (limited breaking capacitor of the breaker) to be equipped with fast-operating loss of phase protection

Open of one phase relay

Operation with one phase open to a three phase motor I a = 0 , I b = - I c , I 1a = - I 2a .

Under voltage If an induction motor operating at full load is subjected to an under voltage condition, full load speed and efficiency will decrease and the power factor, full load current and temperature will increase. The under voltage element can be considered as backup protection for the thermal overload element. If the voltage decreases, the current will increase, causing an overload trip. In some cases, if an under voltage condition exists it may be desirable to trip the motor faster than the overload element.

Under and overvoltage Protection

(a) The undervoltage relay is connected to the busbar

(b) one relay for each motor

Typical recommendations for motor protection for motors without neutral leads and RTDs available

Overervoltage When the motor is running in an overvoltage condition, slip will decrease as it is inversely proportional to the square of the voltage and efficiency will increase slightly. The power factor will decrease because the current being drawn by the motor will decrease and temperature rise will decrease because the current has decreased.

Faults statistics The causes of motor damage given in Figure 6.13 are taken from statistics gathered within the ABB Group. They are shown in Figure 6.14, that 81% of these failures could have been avoided by using an accurate and effective relay.

Main causes for motor damage in industrial drives

Protective functions needed to detect the motor drive faults

6.16 Typical protective settings for motors FLA: full load amper, LRA : locked rotor amper

General for thermal relays

The bi-metal thermal overload relay has proved itself an effective and economical solution for small to mediumsized motors up to about 22 kW. On larger, more expensive motors or when maximum motor utilization is required under varying operational conditions more sophisticated flexible and accurate microprocessor protection relays should be considered. These relays typically include: Thermal overload protection, monitoring all threephases with thermal replicas for direct and frequency convertor-controlled drives Short-circuit protection Start-up and running stall protection Phase unbalanced protection

Single-phasing protection Earth fault protection Undercurrent protection Digital read-out of set values, actual measured values and memorized values Self, supervision system Outstanding accuracy Optimum philosophy. The present day concept is use of microprocessor-based numerical relays for both HV and LV motors (say beyond 50 kW), as the relays come with lot of features which allow them to be interchangeable, ensures site settings and give valuable feedback on the load details whether a trip occurs or not.