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RESEARCH REPORT WRITING

RESEARCH REPORT WRITING

Importance of Research

Report 
Report
Importance of Research Report  Report & presentation are important parts of the research project: 1.

Report & presentation are important parts of the research project:

1. They are the tangible products of the research effort.

2. Management decisions are guided by the report and

the presentation.

3. The involvement of many managers in the project is limited to the written report and the oral presentation.

4. Management's decision to undertake research in the

future or to use the particular research supplier again will be influenced by the perceived usefulness of the report and the presentation.

RESEARCH REPORT
RESEARCH REPORT


A research report is:

a written document that communicates the purpose, scope, objectives, hypotheses, methodology, findings, limitations and finally, recommendations of a research project to others.

The last stage of research process.; It is more than a summary of findings; rather it is a record of the research process.

 The researcher has to convince the client [and others who may read the report] that
  • The researcher has to convince the client [and others who may read the report] that the research findings can be acted on for their own

benefit.

Considerations while writing report  Audience
Considerations while writing
report
Audience
Considerations while writing report  Audience  Story  Formatting considerations 5
  • Story

  • Formatting considerations

Types of Research Report
Types of Research Report


Any research report contains descriptions on

methodology, results obtained, and recommendations made.

The basic orientation of a research report

depends on its audience.

The writing style is designed to facilitate easy and rapid reading and understanding of the research findings and recommendations.

Types of Research Report
Types of Research Report


Two types of reports:-

1) Technical Report:

suitable for a target audience of

  • researchers, research managers or other people familiar with and interested in the technicalities such as research design, sampling methods, statistical details etc.,

2) Popular Report: suitable for:

  • a more general audience, interested mainly in the

research findings as it is non-technical in nature.

REPORT PREPARATION AND PRESENTATION PROCESS
REPORT PREPARATION AND PRESENTATION PROCESS
REPORT PREPARATION AND PRESENTATION PROCESS Activities Pre-report Writing Report Writing Activities Post Report Writing 8

Activities

REPORT PREPARATION AND PRESENTATION PROCESS Activities Pre-report Writing Report Writing Activities Post Report Writing 8

Pre-report

Writing

Report

Writing

Activities

Post

Report

Writing

The first step in the process involves..
The first step in the process involves..
The first step in the process involves..  the interpretation of the results of data analysis

the interpretation of the results of data

analysis in light of:

the marketing research problem investigated,

and the research design and methodology followed.

The research report is a means of communication that can be understood,

believed, trusted by everyone who are likely

to be affected by the research, and acted

upon by the decision maker.

Before writing the report…
Before writing the report…


the researcher should discuss: the major

findings, conclusions, and recommendations with the key decision makers.

necessary to ensure that the report meets the client's needs and is ultimately accepted.

The entire marketing research project:

should be summarized in a single written report or in several reports addressed to different readers.

should present the findings in such a way that they can be used directly as input into decision making.

Report Format
Report Format
Report Format  No universally accepted standard format or style for research writing. Different researchers may

No universally accepted standard format or style

for research writing. Different researchers may prepare their reports differently.

The personality, background, expertise, and responsibility of the researcher and those of the decision maker for whom the report is written interact to give each report a unique character.

Report formats are likely to vary with the nature of the project itself. However, the research report closely resembles the steps of the marketing research process.

Most research reports include the following elements:
Most research reports include the following
elements:

Title page Letter of transmittal

Letter of Authentication

I. II.
I.
II.

III.

IV.

Table of contents

  • V. List of tables List of graphs

VI.

VII. List of appendices VIII. List of exhibits IX. Abstract

  • X. Executive summary

    • a. Major findings

    • b. Conclusions

    • c. Recommendations

1

1. Introduction a. Background to the problem b. Statement of the problem 2. Approach to the

1. Introduction

  • a. Background to the problem

  • b. Statement of the problem

2. Approach to the problem / Objectives of the study

  • Statement of casual relationship

  • Statement of construct

  • Literature Citation ( Min. 5 references)

  • Statement of hypothesis

    • 3. Research Methodology / Research plan

Sample Section : procedure , description validity

Measurement : Measures, construction , Reliability & validity

Design & procedure : Design, description of procedure

a. Type of research design b. Information needs c. Data collection from secondary sources d. Data
  • a. Type of research design

  • b. Information needs

  • c. Data collection from secondary sources

  • d. Data collection from primary sources

  • e. Scaling techniques

  • f. Questionnaire development and pretesting

  • g. Sampling techniques

  • h. Field work

  • 4. Literature Review

  • 5. Data analysis

    • a. Methodology

    • b. Plan of data analysis

  • 6. Results : statement of results , Tables , Figures

  • 7. Limitations and caveat

  • 8. Implications & Suggestions

  • 9. Conclusion

  • 10. Appendix

    • a. Questionnaires and forms

    • b. Statistical output

    • c. Lists

    11. References

    Report Writing 
    Report Writing
    

    Effective report writing is an art.

    Use client language in title.

    basic points to note in writing

    a report
    a report
    basic points to note in writing a report  The report should take into account the

    The report should take into account the level of readers' technical sophistication, their interest in the project, ability to understand as well as the circumstances under which they will read the report and how they will use it ..

    devotion to study objectives: A research report must show that the research objectives have been accomplished.

    • It should be well organized, logically structured, and clearlyand clearly written.

    • Headings and sub-headings should be used for different topics and subtopics

    respectively ..

     Report writing should always be guided by objectivity.  Should accurately present the methodology, results,
    • Report writing should always be guided by objectivity.

    • Should accurately present the methodology, results, and conclusions of the

    project, without slanting the findings to conform to the

    expectations of management.

    • A researcher must use his or her judgment in deciding what should be included in the report.

    • A report should be concise.

    • Professional writing

    • Parallel construction

    • Sentence structure

    • Spelling & word usage

    • Neatly produced & reads well

     Key information presented in the text of a research report should be unbreakable with tables,
    Key information presented in the text of a research report should be
    unbreakable with tables, graphs, pictures, maps, and other visual devices.
    Guidelines for Tables: Statistical tables are a vital part of the report and
    deserve special attention.

    Every table should have a number and brief but clear title.

    Basis or unit of measurement should be clearly stated to facilitate

    understanding. The arrangement of the data item should emphasize the most important

    aspect of the data being presented. If necessary, explanations, comments etc. should be provided as footnotes.

    If the table presents secondary data, the source(s) must be cited clearly.

    Title page
    Title page
    
    Title page   Separate lines Centered  Author name  Institutional affiliation  Research title

    Separate lines

    Centered

    Author name

    Institutional affiliation

    Research title

    Running Header ( Bottom / Top)

    Declaration
    Declaration
    Abstract
    Abstract
    Abstract  An abstract is a very concise statement of the major elements of your research
    • An abstract is a very concise statement of the major elements of your research project. It states the purpose, methods, and findings of your research project.

    • An abstract is a condensed version of a full scientific paper.

    • Limited to one page

    • Min.125 words

    • Concise summary

    21

     Complete — it covers the major parts of the project/case  Concise — it contains
    • Complete it covers the major parts of the project/case

    • Concise it contains no excess wordiness or unnecessary information.

    • Clear it is readable, well organized, and not too jargon-laden.

    • Cohesive it flows smoothly between the parts.

     Suggested format for Abstract  Title and Author Information  Introduction  Methods  Results
    • Suggested format for Abstract

      • Title and Author Information

      • Introduction

      • Methods

      • Results

      • Conclusion

    Executive summary  Overview  Major findings  Conclusion  Recommendations 24
    Executive summary
    Executive summary
    Executive summary  Overview  Major findings  Conclusion  Recommendations 24
    • Overview

    • Major findings

    • Conclusion

    • Recommendations

    Main Body – No page break
    Main Body – No page break
    • Introduction ( 2 to 3 pages)

    • Objectives

    Main Body – No page break  Introduction – ( 2 to 3 pages)  Objectives
    • Research Methodology Sample Measures Design

    Procedures

    Literature review
    Literature review
    Literature review  Concept , Secondary data  summary – Article, journal or secondary sources 26
    • Concept , Secondary data

    • summary Article, journal or secondary sources

    Recommendations &

    Conclusion  Clear
    Conclusion
    Clear
    • Brief

    Recommendations & Conclusion  Clear  Brief  Idea  Practical 27
    • Idea

    • Practical

    References
    References