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Inspection of PV

Are you ready for the real thing?

PMTSB 2006

Inspection of PV

Are you ready for the real thing?

PETRONAS Management Training Sdn Bhd 2006. All right reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise) without the permission of the copyright owner.

Inspection of PV

Step 1 Know function & construction of vessel


The inspector should know the equipment construction details materials, internal attachments, weld details
Unfired Pressure Vessel Drums Storage vessel Reactor Columns Separators Exchangers

Surge drum

Atmospheric

Radial flow

Fractionation

Liquid-solid

Reboiler

Accumulator

Pressure

Axial flow

Distillation

Liquid-liquid

Evaporator

Catalyst drum

Radial & axial

Separation

Gas-liquid

Condenser

Resin & filter

Single bed

Gas-solid

Cooler

Storage

Multi bed

Filter

Plate

Thats why we spend so much time learning what is a column, tower, drum, separator, exchanger, etc
PMTSB 2006

Inspection of PV

Step 2 Review past inspection history of vessel


The inspector should know the temperature, pressure, and service conditions since the last inspection

PMTSB 2006

Inspection of PV

Step 3 Determine possible problems with vessel

PMTSB 2006

Inspection of PV

Step 4 Perform preliminary general visual inspection to verify anticipated problems from Step 3
But remember the following We never work alone..theres always the Maintenance or Operation people around the vessel as well Before going into vessel, remember the following: Know the safety requirements Know in advance what youll be doing inside vessel Inform people outside vessel that youll be going inside Know what activities will be ongoing outside vessel while youre inside Ensure you bring the right tools into vessel
PMTSB 2006

Inspection of PV

HSE consideration No job is so important that it cannot be done safely As minimum requirements; 1. Positively isolate vessel from all sources of gases, liquids, and vapors

2. Ventilate vessel & verify with gas test


3. Wear appropriate PPE 4. Have standby man outside vessel

PMTSB 2006

Inspection of PV

General requirements for internal & external inspection Careful visual inspection is the most important inspection technique Visual inspection usually begins with external inspection External inspection is usually done on-stream i.e. the vessel is not entered for internal inspection Internal inspection is the preferred method because corrosion rates may be nonuniform throughout vessel and will be difficult to detect using external inspection

PMTSB 2006

Inspection of PV

The moment of truth. You are now standing in front of the vessel!

PMTSB 2006

Inspection of PV General requirements for internal & external inspection Check the components that contain the pressure Shell & heads Welds Manways, nozzles, openings Check the components that protect the vessel Insulation Painting / coating Internal lining Check the components that keep the vessel in place Foundation & guy wires
PMTSB 2006

Inspection of PV General requirements for internal & external inspection Check the components that contain the pressure Shell & heads Welds & heat affected zone Manways, nozzles, openings Check the components that protect the vessel Insulation Painting / coating Internal lining Check the components that keep the vessel in place Foundation & guy wires
PMTSB 2006

Inspection of PV pressure retaining components Shell & heads Check for presence of thinning, cracks, bulges, blisters Check skirt, knuckle, and support-attachment for distortion especially if they carry the entire vessels weight

Figure 5.1: Skirt welds carry the load of the entire vessel

PMTSB 2006

Inspection of PV General requirements for internal & external inspection Check the components that contain the pressure Shell & heads Welds & heat affected zone Manways, nozzles, openings Check the components that protect the vessel Insulation Painting / coating Internal lining Check the components that keep the vessel in place Foundation & guy wires
PMTSB 2006

Inspection of PV pressure retaining components

Welds & heat affected zone (HAZ) Check for service induced cracks Vessel under static load Visually inspect longitudinal welds Vessel under cyclic load Use PT or MT to inspect nozzle edges

PMTSB 2006

Inspection of PV General requirements for internal & external inspection Check the components that contain the pressure Shell & heads Welds & heat affected zone Manways, nozzles, openings Check the components that protect the vessel Insulation Painting / coating Internal lining Check the components that keep the vessel in place Foundation & guy wires
PMTSB 2006

Inspection of PV pressure retaining components

Manways, nozzles, openings Check for distortion, cracks, especially at reinforcement welds If evidence of distortion or cracks is found, all seams and shell in this area should be examined for cracks Vessel under cyclic load Use PT or MT to inspect nozzle edges Weep holes in reinforcing plates should be open; To provide visual evidence of leakage

To prevent pressure buildup in the cavity

PMTSB 2006

Inspection of PV General requirements for internal & external inspection Check the components that contain the pressure Shell & heads Welds & heat affected zone Manways, nozzles, openings Check the components that protect the vessel Insulation Painting / coating Internal lining Check the components that keep the vessel in place Foundation & guy wires
PMTSB 2006

Inspection of PV External insulation Perform visual inspection at joints and where there is protrusion e.g. instrument tapping, to check for condition of joint sealant If it appears in good condition, then remove only a small portion to; 1. Investigate their condition and effectiveness 2. Determine condition of metal underneath insulation If vessel is proven from experience to have remaining life > 10 years or protected from external corrosion 1. No need to have insulation removed 2. Observe condition of their insulating system or outer jacket at least every 5 years, and repair if necessary
PMTSB 2006

Inspection of PV General requirements for internal & external inspection Check the components that contain the pressure Shell & heads Welds & heat affected zone Manways, nozzles, openings Check the components that protect the vessel Insulation Painting / coating Internal lining Check the components that keep the vessel in place Foundation & guy wires
PMTSB 2006

Inspection of PV Painting / coating Cracking

Bulging
sagging

Crocodiling Coating flake off resulted corrosion

Mud cracking
PMTSB 2006

Inspection of PV General requirements for internal & external inspection Check the components that contain the pressure Shell & heads Welds & heat affected zone Manways, nozzles, openings Check the components that protect the vessel Insulation Painting / coating Internal lining Check the components that keep the vessel in place Foundation & guy wires
PMTSB 2006

Inspection of PV Lining For high temperature vessel - Refractory lining can be inspected on the run using thermography For vessel in acid or caustic service - Glass, plastic, & rubber linings should be visually inspected and examined using spark test For vessel in corrosive service - Stainless steel cladding is best inspected using visual inspection to ensure; 1. No corrosion

2. No pits
3. No cracks (use dye penetrant technique) Most susceptible areas are where geometry changes dramatically nozzles, attachments
PMTSB 2006

Inspection of PV General requirements for internal & external inspection Check the components that contain the pressure Shell & heads Welds & heat affected zone Manways, nozzles, openings Check the components that protect the vessel Insulation Painting / coating Internal lining Check the components that keep the vessel in place Foundation & guy wires
PMTSB 2006

Inspection of PV

Foundations Almost always constructed of steel-reinforced concrete or structural steel fireproofed with concrete This concrete should be checked for spalling, cracking, settling Look for cracks in concrete fireproofing. If water gets behind the fireproofing, the steel will corrode and may cause the fireproofing to bulge. Corrosion will eat away the structural steel and the entire vessel may collapse! PMTSB 2006

Inspection of PV

Foundations..continued Steel supports should be checked for corrosion, distortion, and cracking When significant corrosion is observed on supporting elements, perform thickness measurement Corrosion of structural elements can be eliminated by keeping them properly painted or galvanized

PMTSB 2006

Inspection of PV

Guy wires Check connections to the tower and each ground anchor point for tightness and correct tension Check cables for corrosion and broken strands Visual inspection will be adequate unless problems are too noticeable

PMTSB 2006

Inspection of PV

Others that should be checked Ladders, stairways, platforms, walkways Perform thorough visual inspection Check for severity of external corrosion, especially at bolts which may become loose due to severe corrosion

PMTSB 2006

Inspection of PV Internal inspection

Inspection of heat exchanger parts - 1 The following locations are usually susceptible to problems: Outside surfaces of tubes opposite shell inlet subject to erosion or impingement corrosion Tubes adjacent to baffles and tubesheets When sludge formation is likely, it will generally be along the shell bottom and the bottom tubes

PMTSB 2006

Inspection of PV Internal inspection Inspection of heat exchanger parts - 2 First step: General visual inspection

If the bundle can be removed from the shell casing, it must be visually inspected.
The color, type, amount, and location of scales and deposits, will often give clues to the type of problems

Green scale or deposit on copper-base tubes indicates that the tubes are corroding
General tube corrosion indicated by overall heavy scale on steel tubes Erosion indicated by lack of any scale or deposit on tubes near shell inlet

PMTSB 2006

Inspection of PV Internal inspection

Inspection of heat exchanger parts - 3 In water service, maximum corrosion will occur where water temperature is the highest: outlet side of channel In any type of exchanger, corrosion may occur where dissimilar metals contact each other due to galvanic corrosion e.g. carbon steel channel-gasket surfaces near brass tubesheets will often corrode rapidly When flow velocity is high, accelerated attack can be expected at tube inlets inserts/ferrules Baffles, tie-rods, tubesheets, and floating head covers should be inspected for corrosion and distortion

PMTSB 2006

Inspection of PV Internal inspection

Testing of heat exchanger - 1 When an exchanger is removed from service, it is normally pressure tested using water or air Leaking tubes should be plugged Normally, 5-10% tubes can plugged, after which the bundle has to be retubed

PMTSB 2006

Inspection of PV Internal inspection

Testing of heat exchanger - 2 A number of techniques are available for testing heat exchanger tubes Eddy current, IRIS In order for these techniques to be meaningful, limits of corrosion or other deterioration that may be allowed, must be known, especially: 1. Retiring thickness 2. Rate of deterioration

PMTSB 2006

Brief overview of degradation mechanisms

General Vessels tend to degrade while in service (sometimes, while out of service) Thats one of the reasons we inspect these vessels It is extremely important that you recognize and understand the conditions causing deterioration and failure More details on these mechanisms are taught in the module SI17 : Damage Mechanisms & Failure Analysis

PMTSB 2006

Brief overview of degradation mechanisms

Corrosive components of crude oil Hydrogen chloride and organic and inorganic chlorides Hydrogen sulfide, and organic sulfur compounds Carbon dioxide Dissolved oxygen and water Organic acids Etc.

PMTSB 2006

Brief overview of degradation mechanisms

Corrosive components of crude oil

Figure 4.1: General corrosion


PMTSB 2006

Brief overview of degradation mechanisms

Corrosion under insulation - CUI Commonly seen as localized corrosion of carbon steel external surface when insulation is removed Expect to see it when insulated steel operates from 4oC to 121oC

Figure 4.2: Corrosion under insulation


PMTSB 2006

Brief overview of degradation mechanisms

Erosion and corrosion/erosion

Figure 4.3: Erosion-corrosion

PMTSB 2006

Brief overview of degradation mechanisms

Environmental cracking Common example is chloride stress corrosion cracking of austenitic stainless steels

Figure 4.4: Stress corrosion cracks in SS Type 316


PMTSB 2006

Brief overview of degradation mechanisms

Environmental cracking

Figure 4.5: Stress corrosion cracks in Inconel

PMTSB 2006

Brief overview of degradation mechanisms

Fatigue cracking

Fatigue cracking image

PMTSB 2006

Brief overview of degradation mechanisms

High temperature hydrogen attack

Brittle failure of pipe due to HTHA

PMTSB 2006

Brief overview of degradation mechanisms

High temperature sulfidation corrosion

PMTSB 2006

Brief overview of degradation mechanisms

Biological corrosion

Biological corrosion before & after cleaning

PMTSB 2006

Brief overview of degradation mechanisms

Scattered pits

PMTSB 2006

Brief overview of degradation mechanisms

Other considerations Heat exchangers Run length is determined by degree of fouling which can cause high pressure drop as a result of blockage, which in turn controls: Required heat transfer rate Desired flow rates Inspection frequency of heat exchanger is determined not so much by its integrity, but rather by the degree of fouling

PMTSB 2006

Inspection of PV Internal inspection

Miscellaneous inspection tips Telling you how to inspect vessel is like telling you how to drive a car you need EXPERIENCE KEY no substitute for experience & common sense

PMTSB 2006