Combining Behaviors
Setpoint run at a particular direction, depth
and speed.
INTENTIONALLY SET TO RUN THROUGH
BOTTOM
Control
commands
Sensor
data
How the behavior based system looks and how more
complex performance can be obtained by combining
behaviors
Depth Envelope keep vehicle from
approaching to close to bottom
WE USE A SAFETY FEATURE IN THE SYSTEM TO GET A
DESIRED BEHAVIOR
Bottom Following
Slide Courtesy of J.G.Bellingham
3 of 186
P
o
w
e
r
Task Complexity
Seismic
Survey
Bottom
Sampling
Inspection
Intervention
Hifreq Sidescan
or MBES
High power
imaging/mapping
Hydrographic
survey
AUV Glider
ROV
Towed
Vehicle
AUV Operational Domain
Slide Courtesy of J.G.Bellingham
4 of 186
DYNAMICS OF RIGID BODY VEHICLES
Our working Assumptions:
The vehicle behaves as a rigid body;
The earth's rotation is negligible as far as acceleration components
of the vehicle's center of mass is concerned;
The primary forces that act on the vehicle have inertial and
gravitational origins,
For land based vehicles;
contact forces between wheels /tracks and ground,
While for marine vehicles;
hydrostatic, propulsion, thruster, and hydrodynamic forces
from lift and drag, and,
For air vehicles;
aerodynamic propulsion, lift and drag forces.
O
G
G
RO
X
Y
Z
x
y
z
R
0'
= [X
0
I + Y
0
J + Z
0
K]
G
= [x
G
i + y
G
j + z
G
k], Center of Gravity
B
= [x
B
i + y
B
j + z
B
k]. Center of Buoyancy
B
B
Courtesy of Dr. Anthony J. Healy
For a vehicle position R
0
Global Navigational Frame
(Rt. Hand Rule)
I, J, K are unit vectors
Y axis to the right looking along X
Z is positive downwards
5 of 186
Azimuth Rotation :
frame original frame original
z
y
x
) (
z
y
x
cos sin
sin cos
z
y
x
0
0
0
0
0
0
1 frame te intermedia
1
1
1
1 0 0
0
0
(
(
(
 =
(
(
(
(
(
(
=
(
(
(
T
N
E
D
E
u
N
D
N

1 frame te intermedia
1
1
1
1 frame te intermedia
1
1
1
2 frame te intermedia
2
2
2
0
0 1 0
0
(
(
(
 =
(
(
(
(
(
(
=
(
(
(
z
y
x
) (
z
y
x
cos sin
sin cos
z
y
x
u
u u
u u
T
2 frame te intermedia
2
2
2
2 frame te intermedia
2
2
2
3 frame te intermedia
3
3
3
0
0
0 0 1
(
(
(
 =
(
(
(
(
(
(
=
(
(
(
z
y
x
) (
z
y
x
cos sin
sin cos
z
y
x

 
  T
(
(
(
(
(
=
 u   u   u
 u   u   u
u u u
u 
cos cos sin cos  cos sin sin sin + cos sin cos
sin cos cos cos + sin sin sin cos sin  sin sin cos
sin  cos sin cos cos
, , sin
, ,
, ,
) , , (
1
T
R
Body
= [T
1
]
R
Global R
Global
= [T
1
1
] R
Body
Elevation Rotation;
Spin Rotation:
Global To Body Transformation
ROTATION WITH EULER ANGLES
Courtesy of Dr. Anthony J. Healy
Rotation about y axis
Rotation about x axis
Rotation about z axis
6 of 186
( )
(
(
(
 =
(
(
(
w
v
u
, ,
Z
Y
X
1
u 
1
T
) , , (
1
u 
1
T
(
(
(
(
(
 u  u u
  u   u u
  u   u u
cos cos sin cos sin 
sin cos  cos sin sin cos cos + sin sin sin cos sin
sin sin + cos sin cos cos sin  sin sin cos cos cos
, ,
, ,
, ,
KINEMATICS FOR NAVIGATION SOLUTIONS
(
(
(
 +
(
(
(
  +
(
(
(
   =
(
(
(
=
0
0
0
0
0
0 
 u u 
u  e
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
r
q
p
T T T T T T
(
(
(
(
(
(
=
(
(
(
r
q
p
cos / cos cos / sin
sin cos
tan cos tan sin
u  u 
 
u  u 
u

0
0
1
(
(
(
(
(
(
=
(
(
(
u

u  
u  
u
 =
(
(
(
=
Z
Y
X
, ,
w
v
u
1
u  T v
Courtesy of Dr. Anthony J. Healy
7 of 186
v v
R
+ + + = e e e e
G G
G
dt
d
2
2
{ } v v F + + + = e e e e
G G
m
(
(
(
zz zy zx
yz yy yx
xz xy xx
I I I
I I I
I I I
I
xx
= ) z y ( dm
N
i
i
2 2
1
+
=
; I
yy
= ) z x ( dm
N
i
i
2 2
1
+
=
; I
zz
= ) y x ( dm
N
i
i
2 2
1
+
=
I
xy
= I
yx
=  ) xy ( dm
N
i
i
=1
; I
xz
= I
zx
=  ) xz ( dm
N
i
i
=1
;I
yz
= I
zy
=  ) yz ( dm
N
i
i
=1
I
zz
=22/386*(10
2
+ 5
2
)= 7.12 lbsec
2
in
Example:
A battery weighs 22 lbs and is placed at 10 inches
from center (x
G
) with 5 inches offset in the
transverse direction (y
G
), What is its contribution
to the mass moment of inertia about the vertical
axis?
z
y
x
MASS MOMENTS OF INERTIA
Courtesy of Dr. Anthony J. Healy
Angular rate of rotation
8 of 186
RIGID BODY EQUATIONS OF MOTION
Translation
Rotation
Kinematics
(
(
(
= + +
)
`
+
app
app
app
g
Z
Y
X
) ( m
dt
d
m
G G
f v
v
= = = =
( ) { }
(
(
(
= + + +
app
app
app
g
G G
o o
N
M
K
m m v v I I e e e e
EULER RATES :
u 
 u
u  u  
cos os
 cos
tan cos + tan sin + =
/ ) + r c sin (q
sin r q
r q p
=
=
GROUND SPEEDS :
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
=
(
(
(
(
w
v
u
, ,
, ,
, ,
Z
Y
X
 u  u u
  u   u u
  u   u u
cos cos sin cos sin 
sin cos  cos sin sin cos cos + sin sin sin cos sin
sin sin + cos sin cos cos sin  sin sin cos cos cos
External Forces and Moments
Courtesy of Dr. Anthony J. Healy
For the purposes of this tutorial Im not going to take you through the each equation
of motion. Just know that there are equations for Surge, Sway, Heave, Roll, Pitch and
Yaw.
9 of 186
W = 0I + 0J + (mg) K, and B = 0I + 0J  (gV) K
(
(
(
=
 u
 u
u
cos cos
sin cos
sin
) B W (
g
f
(
(
(
(
(
(
 u
 u
u
 u
 u
u
cos cos
sin cos
sin
cos cos
sin cos
sin
B
B W =
g G
m
(
=
g
g
g
m
f
F
Weight and Buoyancy Forces:
Courtesy of Dr. Anthony J. Healy
This just says that Weight and Buoyancy work in the Z axis
) u U ( ) u U ( D C .
dt
du
) c ( C
dt
dU
) c ( ) C ( X
f f d a
f
a f
+ + = t t 5 0 1
2 2
Forces from Inertia and Drag are Added (Morison, 1950)
The key point here is the forces are additive
10 of 186
M
a
= tc
2
Flow
c
Rectangular Box Section
2a
2b
M
a
= ta
2
* 1 a / b =
M
a
= ta
2
* 1. 36 a / b = 2
M
a
= ta
2
* 1. 51 a / b = 1
M
a
= ta
2
* 1. 70 a / b = 0.5
Flow
Flow
M
a
= ta
2
2a
Rectangular Plate
M
a
= tb
2
Flow
b
ADDED MASS COEFFICIENTS IN CROSS FLOW
2D SITUATIONS
Courtesy of Dr. Anthony J. Healy
Added mass is very important is you are
performing lots of stops and starts, less so
if youre changing direction frequently but
it still has impact
11 of 186
Neutrally Buoyant Mass
15
4
3 4
2 2
t
t
abc ) b a (
I ; / abc g / B
zz
= =
Neutrally Buoyant Added Masses
zz r r y v x u
I k N g / B k Y ; g / B k X = = =
a/b k
x
k
y
k
r
1.0 0.500 0.500 0.000
1.5 0.305 0.621 0.094
2.0 0.209 0.702 0.240
2.51 0.156 0.763 0.367
2.99 0.122 0.803 0.465
3.99 0.082 0.860 0.608
4.99 0.059 0.895 0.701
6.01 0.045 0.918 0.764
6.97 0.036 0.933 0.805
8.01 0.029 0.945 0.840
9.02 0.024 0.954 0.865
9.97 0.021 0.960 0.883
2b
2a
INERTIAL PROPERTIES OF PROLATE ELLIPSOID
Courtesy of Dr. Anthony J. Healy
The take away message here is for a typical AUV hull the ratio of length
to diameter in nonlinear in terms of added mass
12 of 186
ADDED MASS INERTIAL FORCES
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
=
r q
r q
p w
p w
v u
v u
r q
r q
p w
p w
v u
v u
r q
r q
p w
p w
v u
v u
added
N N
M M
N N
M M
N N
M M
K K
Z Z
K K
Z Z
K K
Z Z
Y Y
X X
Y Y
X X
Y Y
X X
M
(
+
+
=
(
e e e
e
) v , ( C I
v ) , v ( C v M
M
F
r added
r r r added
f
f
]; r , q , p [ ]; w , v , u [ v
] v [ x x M x dS
n
E
r r r r
T
r r r AM
T
r
S
k
= =
= =
c
c
=
}
2
1
2
1
e


(
(
(
=
w v u
w v u
w v u
added
Z Z Z
Y Y Y
X X X
M
(
(
(
=
r q p
r q p
r q p
added
N N N
M M M
K K K
I
Courtesy of Dr. Anthony J. Healy
If you account for everything it gets complex very quickly
13 of 186
Simplified Kinematics & Kinetics
b
1
b
2
0
R
v
R


R
o
0
B
v
R
F
o
Angle of Attack
Drift Angle at CM
Drift Angle at Ring
Center
P
x
T
x
Vehicle Surge/Sway/Yaw Equations of Motion
Linearization and Stability
Tailcone Pointing Equations
Slide courtesy of Rob McEwen
14 of 186
Taken from Standard Equations; Gertler &
Hagen, 1967
Notation:
Coordinates:
Body Rates:
Assume z =  = u = 0; w = p = q = 0;
All Velocities are with respect to (wrto) an
Inertial Frame
Lateral Force & Yaw Moment Equations are:
Sway/Yaw EOMs
) sin(     ) (
2     R R r v v v r v r v G
T b F r v Y v v Y ur Y uv Y r Y v Y r x ur v m o + + + + + + + = + +
  u  z y x
  r q p w v u
)] sin( [
      ) (
2
     
R R R
r r r v v v r v r v G zz
T b F x
r r N r v N v v N ur N uv N r N v N ur v mx r I
o + +
+ + + + + + = + +
Slide courtesy of Rob McEwen
Lets dump the
baggage early
Still a lot to deal with but manageable
15 of 186
4 Fin Approximation
Ring and Struts Approximated as 4 Fins for the Steering EOMs
Strut Area = .0299 m2; chord = 5in => dia = 47 cm
Slide courtesy of Rob McEwen
Using our Dorado model
Find the Force Generated by the (Equivalent) Fin:
Along the way, find:
R
F b
2
o  ,
R
Drift Angle Angle of Attack
Lateral vector Total ring force
16 of 186
Kinematics
0 0 0 0
R B B B R
r v v
+ = e
General formula for a point R
0
on a rigid body B with CM B
0
:
( )
(
(
(
+ +
=
0
) cos(
) sin(
0
R T P
R T
R
x x r v
rx u
v o
o
V v
R
=
0
) arcsin(
V
r x v
R
R
+
= 
Velocity of the rudder wrto the fluid
Drift angle at the rudder
o  o + =
R R
0 0
0
R B
R
r
v
= + =
L
D
D L F
R
R
R R
R R
B
R
F
c s
s c
F
(
=
 
 
Principles of Naval Architecture, p.503
R
A Aspect Ratio
Coordinatize in the Lift/Drag Frame
o L
C
Lift Coeff. Slope
Do
C
Min Drag
A
Rudder Area
Crossflow Drag Coeff.
Dc
C
Recoordinatize in the Body Frame
Slide courtesy of Rob McEwen
Xuu BackCalculated to Give Speed of 3 kts w/ 52 N Thrust
CM & CB offsets = 0
Products of Inertia and CrossAdded Mass Terms = 0
Rudder Moves Instantaneously  (Rate Limit will be Added)
SteadyState Turn Will Have Rudder Backpressure
Vehicle Body Without Rudder is Unstable
Rudder Brings CP Aft of CM
18 of 186
Simulation: Drift Angles
Slide courtesy of Rob McEwen
19 of 186
Simulation: Force
Slide courtesy of Rob McEwen
20 of 186
Sway and Yaw Rates
Slide courtesy of Rob McEwen
21 of 186
Simulation: Path
22 of 186
Linearization and Stability
Slide courtesy of Rob McEwen
If Y
RF
= x
G
=0, the System is Unstable.
) (
2
1
Do L RF
C C AU Y + =
o
o o
L R
C AU Y
2
2
1
=
Linearizing the Sway/Yaw EOMs gives:
23 of 186
Tailcone Pointing Equations:
b
2
b
1
a
RA
x
RA
Thrust, T
Pivot
Point
Actuator, Distance d
In TwoActuator Case:
Thrust Doesnt Contribute to Force on the Actuator
Rudder and Elevator are Independent
( )
2 / 1
2
2
1 ) cos( ) sin(
(
(
+


.

\

+ =
R
RA
RA
R RA
a
x
a d o o
Ring CP
Tailcone Bulkhead
Slide courtesy of Rob McEwen
24 of 186
AUV Technology and Application Basics
Sidebar on Buoyancy and Housings
www.nasatech.com/Spinoff
http://www.benthos.com
Syntactic foam is the main
flotation material we use to offset
vehicle weight in water.
Syntactic foam is made of macro or
micro spheres of various materials
and bound together by a urethane
or epoxy matrix generally.
Glass spheres are commonly used for two
reasons. 1
st
they are inexpensive pressure
housings and 2
nd
they are the most efficient
buoyancy module against weight in water.
They also generally are rated very deep for
little or no additional cost.
25 of 186
AUV Technology and Application Basics
Sidebar on Buoyancy and Housings
Sometimes pressure housings are
required when pressure balanced
oil filled boxes wont work.
These are often metal but more
and more they are composite. The
design depends on requirements
and costs, but wound glass (G10)
tubing is becoming a very cost
effective housing material for
moderate depths (up to 4000
meters).
http://www.patchambers.com
http://www.ovations.com
More on pressure housings is available in the Appendices
26 of 186
AUV Technology and Application Basics Things that affect control
CGCB
CB  CG
Separation
Stability
CG
CB
CB
CG MetaCenter
This is the point
that the various
forces work
around
27 of 186
AUV Technology and Application Basics
CB
CG
CB
CG
CB
CG
Things that affect control
CGCB
CBCG horizontal offset causes vehicle to fight,
increasing drag and making straight and level
flight troublesome
CBCG vertical offset makes diving and altitude
control difficult, control inputs have diminished
effectiveness
CBCG coincident makes vehicle unstable
causing control loop problems with gains and
cross coupling of controls if vehicle rolls to side
CB
CG
CB too large makes diving and altitude control
difficult, causes pitch control oscillations
Im assuming I dont need to cover too large a CG
28 of 186
AUV Technology and Application
Basics
SI units x is from the nose
Item Weight Displacement Buoyancy Displacement total W xmom B xmom
(N) (m^3) (N) (m^3) (Nm) (Nm)
2Kw/Hr Battery 254.1771 0.01547 155.5547175 0.04641 727.1117211 444.9876026
Spacer, Center Battery 0.4299723 0.000044 0.442431 0.000044 0 0.51576792
Bulkhead, Forward 4.8895983 0.00052 5.22873 0.00052 3.187529132 3.408609087
Spacer, Forward Bulkhead 0.4371336 0.00005 0.5027625 0.0002 0.52456032 0.603315
Bulkhead, Aft,Aft 5.4603441 0.00058 5.832045 0.00058 6.242265375 6.667193844
Bulkhead, Aft 5.4603441 0.00058 5.832045 0.00058 4.95731536 5.294773686
SBE49 CTD 26.487 0.00114 11.462985 0.00114 11.38941 4.92908355
CTD Acrylic Shroud 2.9674269 0.0003 3.016575 0.0003 0.59348538 0.603315
Washers 0.04905 0.0000004 0.0040221 0.000012 1.015335 0.08325747
Compression Ring 3.50217 0.00013 1.3071825 0.00013 5.4633852 2.0392047
Shell Splice Joint 7.047504 0.00069 6.9381225 0.00138 16.86298567 16.60126199
Cables w/ connectors 7.3575 0.00021 2.1116025 0.00042 14.582565 4.185196155
TOTALS 0.18965682 1483.2321 1544.6917
Balance Point from Nose (m) 0.8099915 0.8573902 0.8099915
Total Dry Mass of Nose (kg)
Dsplcmt of Nose (m^3)
Net Buoyancy (N)
Cb  Cg (m)
Things that affect
control
Weight and Balance
Note: this sheet has hidden columns see handout or appendices for the complete sheet
29 of 186
OpenLoop Control
Plant or
Process
Control
Law
Commands Output
Disturbing
Forces
Example: A running propeller
AUV Technology and Application Basics
images courtesy of P.McGill_MBARI
Things that affect control
control loops
30 of 186
Example: A running propeller with velocity control
AUV Technology and Application Basics
images courtesy of P.McGill_MBARI
Things that affect control
control loops
ClosedLoop Control
Plant or
Process
Control
System
Commands
Output
Disturbing
Forces
Feedback
Note: See appendices on controls for more info.
Note: AUVs tend to be underdamped and easily perturbed
31 of 186
AUV Technology and Application
Basics
Depth Control
Image courtesy of Rob McEwen MBARI
Typical Pitch Control
Underdamped Pitch Control
Elapsed Time