You are on page 1of 21

Silicon Quantum Dots: Grown by Ion Implantation and annealing

By Mary Coan

Outline
History of Silicon quantum dots
How they were made

Properties of Silicon Quantum Dots grown by ion implantation and annealing Advantages/Disadvantages Different methods to grow Silicon Quantum Dots
Which method is the best?

Summary

History of Si QDs
1960s: First quantum size effects were seen in semiconductor nanocrystals 1970s: Louis Brus was working in Bell Labs researching colloidal synthesizes 1980s: First semiconductor quantum dots were grown 1990: First visible-photoluminescence seen from Si QDs

History of Si QDs
1993: Silicon optoelectronic integrated circuit is suggested 1993 to present: Si Quantum dots have been extensively researched
Different fabrication methods
microwave plasma decomposition of SiH4 laser breakdown of SiH4 plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition high frequency discharge high dose ion implantation

Formation of Si QDs: Ion implantation and annealing

T.S. Iwayama, T. Hama, D.E. Hole, I.W. Boyd, Vacuum 81, 179 (2006).

Properties of Si QDs
Photoluminescence
Peak energy and intensity

Size ranges from 1 nm to over 10 nm in diameter Size distribution within host material

Photoluminescence

C.W. White, J.D. Budai, S.P. Withrow, J.G. Zhu and S.J. Pennycock, IEEE Conference Proceeding 824 (1996).

Photoluminescence

T.S. Iwayama, T. Hama, D.E. Hole, I.W. Boyd, Vacuum 81, 179 (2006).

Photoluminescence

T.S. Iwayama, T. Hama, D.E. Hole, I.W. Boyd, Vacuum 81, 179 (2006).

Suggested Mechanisms

T.S. Iwayama, T. Hama, D.E. Hole, I.W. Boyd, Solid-State Electronics 45, 1487 (2001).

Suggested Mechanisms

R. Krishnan, UR, (2005).

Range of Sizes

Longer anneals = Larger Si QDs


Ostwald Ripening

T.S. Iwayama, T. Hama, D.E. Hole, I.W. Boyd, Vacuum 81, 179 (2006).

Size distribution within Host Material

M.L. Brongersma, A. Polman, K.S. Min, H.A. Atwater, J. Appl. Phys. 86, 759 (1999).

Defects within Host

C. J. Nicklaw, M. P. Pagey, S. T. Pantelides, D. M. Fleetwood, R. D. Schrimpf, K. F. Galloway, J. E. Wittig, B. M. Howard, E. Taw, W. H. McNeil, J. F. Conley, Jr., IEEE Trans. Nucl. Science 47, 2269 (2000).

Defects within Host

C. J. Nicklaw, M. P. Pagey, S. T. Pantelides, D. M. Fleetwood, R. D. Schrimpf, K. F. Galloway, J. E. Wittig, B. M. Howard, E. Taw, W. H. McNeil, J. F. Conley, Jr., IEEE Trans. Nucl. Science 47, 2269 (2000).

Defects within Host

C. J. Nicklaw, M. P. Pagey, S. T. Pantelides, D. M. Fleetwood, R. D. Schrimpf, K. F. Galloway, J. E. Wittig, B. M. Howard, E. Taw, W. H. McNeil, J. F. Conley, Jr., IEEE Trans. Nucl. Science 47, 2269 (2000).

Advantages/Disadvantages
Advantages:
Ease of integration into silicon based microelectronics (Dots and Process) Ability to control the PL intensity and peak energy

Disadvantages:
Large size distribution within host material Defects within host material Surface damage (QDs)

Other Fabrication Techniques


Microwave Plasma Decomposition of Silane Gas Laser breakdown of Silane Gas Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition High Frequency Spark Discharge Colloidal

Which Method is Best?


It depends on what you want to use the Silicon QDs for. If you want to make an optoelectical integrated circuit:
Plasma Enhanced CVD Ion Implantation

If you want some cool flourishing Si QDs:


Colloidal

Summary
Properties of Si QDs were discussed
PL dependent on:
Anneal time, temperature and process Ion dose

Defects caused by Ion Implantation


Quantum dot surface\host material
Causing lower luminescence intensity

A Large size distribution throughout the Host

In the past this was a good technique now it is outdated by PCVD

Questions ??