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By MANJUNATH C.G.

FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR GROWTH OF MILK PRODUCTION IN INDIA

FOCUSING POINTS
History Milk production in India Present scenario Factors

responsible

for

growth

of

milk

production Constraints of milk production SWOT analysis Summary

HISTORY
O Milk market in India O 1965-NDDB(National Dairy Development Board) O 1970- Operation flood programme O Co operative societies O Industrialization and urbanization

O Up to year 1990 milk production was stagnated to less

than 55.7MT in India O Further decades up to 2012 it was increased every year to reach 127.3MT

MILK PRODUCTION IN INDIA


MILK PRODUCTION (Million Tonnes)
140

120
100 80 60 40 20 0
1999-2000 1991-92 1992-93 1993-94 1994-95 1995-96 1996-97 1997-98 1998-99 2000-01 2001-02 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12

Source: Dept. of Animal Husbandry, Dairying & Fisheries, ministry of agriculture, GOI

2002-03

PRESENT SCENERIO 2011-12


O Milk Production -127.3MT
O Demand -181MT O Per capita demand -152Kg/year O Per capita availability -102.56kg/year

O Annual growth rate- 4-5%

Factors responsible for growth of milk production


1 .White revolution
O Operation flood by NDDB in 1970 O Dr. Varghese kurien main architect O Operation flood in 3 phases

1 .White revolution
Phase-1 (1970-79):

18 of the countrys milk sheds were connected to consumers of 4 metros viz. Mumbai, Delhi, Chennai and Kolkata Main objective is commanding share of milk market and development of dairy animals Total cost - Rs.116crores.

1 .White revolution
Phase 2 (1981-1985):

Management increased the milk sheds from 18 to 136 A self-sustaining system of 42,000 village cooperatives with 42.5 lakh milk producers were covered Milk powder production increased from 22,000 to 1,40,000 tons by 1989 All of the increase coming from dairies set up under Operation Flood.

1 .White revolution
Phase 3 (19851996):

Dairy cooperatives expansion and strengthen

the infrastructure to procure and market increasing volumes of milk Veterinary first-aid health care services, feed and artificial insemination services were extended 30,000 new dairy cooperatives added to 42,000 existing societies organized Milk sheds peaked to 173 in 1988-89

2.Dairy Cooperative Societies development


Encouraged farmers to keep more animals leads to 500

million cattle & buffalo population in the country the largest in the World. The dairy cooperative movement has spread across 1,25,000 villages of 180 Districts in 22 States. 3 tier structure 1). Village Dairy Cooperative Society (VDCS) 2). District Cooperative Milk Producers Union 3). State Cooperative Milk Federation.

link

3.TRADE
O India in 1970s importer O 1990s imports was very less

O After 2003- 0.3 to 0.4% of minor exports


O Nevertheless, India consistently exports

specialty products such as casein for food processing or pharmaceuticals

Indian Dairy Exports by Product Types


Up to 2009

Source: Dept. of Animal Husbandry, Dairying & Fisheries, ministry of agriculture, GOI

Imports and Exports (Rs.in crores)


1400

1203.93
1200

1000

822.41
800

Imports
547.97

Exports

600

402.68
400

322.25

289.36

200

0 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12

Source: DGCI&S(Directorate General of Commercial Intelligence & statistics)

4. Technology up gradation
O Milk Reception units O Milk Storage units O Milk sterilization Pasteurization UHT (Ultra High Temperature). O Milk Filling and Packaging technologies Tetra pack

5.IMPROVEMENT IN BREEDS OF CATTLE


INDIGENOUS BREED a) Milch breeds / Milk breeds : Red Sindhi, Gir and Deoni 1600kg/lactation b) Dual Purpose breeds: Ongole, Hariana, Kankrej, Tharparker, Krishna valley, Rathi and Goalo Mewathi 150-500kg/lactation c) Draught breeds: Kangayam, Umblacherry, Amritmahal, Hallikar.

5.IMPROVEMENT IN BREEDS OF CATTLE


EXOTIC BREEDS

Jersey :Milk yield 5000-8000 kg/lactation i.e., 8-10 liters per day.

Holstein Friesian (HF)-Milk yield - 7200-9000 kg/lactation i.e., 10-15 liter/day

Cross breeding
O Cross breeding word was initiated at NDRI (National

Dairy Research Institute), Bangalore


O At present cross breeding work is going on at
Military dairy farms
NDRI Karnal as AICRP(All India Co-ordinated Research

Project) Collaboration projects like Indo-Swiss, Indo Australian

Advantages of cross breeding


O Desirable characters of the exotic parent are transmitted

O O O O O

to the progeny which the indigenous parent does not have. High milk yield & early maturity, Higher birth weigh of calves, Better growth rates, Better reproductive efficiency and Indigenous parents characters like, heat tolerance, disease resistance ability

Disadvantages of cross breeding


O The breeding merit of cross breed animals may be

slightly reduced. O Cross breeding requires maintenance of two or more pure breeds in order to product the cross breeds

6.Govt. policies, insurance and loans


O Operation Flood and the National Dairy Development

Board (NDDB), 1970 to 1996

Govt. satisfied 2 objectives of 1.To augment the supply of milk for domestic consumption 2.To increase the returns to dairy farmers by providing the infrastructure for producing value-added dairy products.

Operation flood

Phase 1: Financed the operation through the sale of skimmed milk powder and butter oil Phase 2: Expanded the outlets for sale of pasteurized milk Capacity for production of milk powder increased from 22,000 tonnes to 1,40,000 tonnes. Processing units were established for production of butter, ghee, whole milk powder, skimmed milk powder and baby foods. Phase 3: Emphasized the use of modern technologies

O DAIRY ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT

SCHEME" (DEDS)
O Cattle Insurance under IRDP O Financial support.

Access to Credit and Subsidies Financial Incentives to farmers ,individuals, institutions and organizations iii. Financial resources for implementation of the policy will be mobilized through state government central government funds /public investments/support from external agencies. iv. Livestock insurance programme v. Making available soft loans/subsidized interest loans
i. ii.

Constraints of milk production


1). 80% cattle & 60% buffalo Non-descript low

milk yield 2). Very large number requires more feed/fodder 3). Feed/ fodder scarcity: Consume 90% of the already scarce feed and fodder resources 4). Animal health problem: Many diseases claimed to have been eradicated/controlled are still rampant in India

SWOT analysis
Strength 1.Largest milk producer in the world 2.A huge base of around 11 million farmers 3.Traditional emphasis on consumption Opportunity Weakness 1. Poor feeding practices 2. Poor access to institutional credit 3. Lack of cold storage facilities

Threat

1.Elastic demand 2.Economic growth will spur demand 3.Increasing preference for branded dairy products 3.Growing focus on health and nutrients in urban market

1.Nearly 80 per cent of the Indian dairy industry is unorganized 2.Removal of import duty has led to the threat of dumping

Summary
History

Milk production in India


Present scenario Factors responsible for growth of milk

production Constraints of milk production SWOT analysis

References:
O Animal husbandry,

O
O O O O

www.tnau.ac.in Department of animal husbandry dairying & fisheries, www.dahd.nic.in Indian dairy industry, www.aavinmilk.com Milk industry in India, www.authorstream.com White revolution, www.fao.org www.wikipedia.com