You are on page 1of 80

Electromagnetic Induction

What happens when a wire is moved in a magnetic field?


A voltage is created or induced. For this reason we call this electromagnetic induction.

Electromagnetic Induction
What happens when a permanent magnet is moved towards or away from a coil of wire?

What do we know so far?


When a current passes through a coil of wire, there is a magnetic field around the wire. Changing direction of the current changes the direction of the magnetic field.

What do we know so far?


When we move a wire in a magnetic field, voltage is induced. When we move a magnet in a coil of wire, a voltage is induced.

What do we have in common? Changing magnetic field leading to electricity!

FARADAYS EXPERIMENT

1832

FARADAYS EXPERIMENT

1832

A current in B is only present when the current in A is changing.

I HAVE DISCOVERED ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION

Now I understand! VOLTAGE IS ONLY INDUCED WHEN THERE IS RELATIVE MOTION BETWEEN A CONDUCTOR AND A MAGNETIC FIELD

STRONGER FIELD (B)

STRONGER FIELD (B)

FASTER

FASTER

THE INDUCED VOLTAGE IS DIRECTLY PROPORTIONAL TO THE RATE OF CHANGE OF MAGNETIC FIELD

What is observed when


the magnet is stationary next to the coil? Nothing! No voltage is induced. The magnet is moved in the opposite direction (towards the coil instead of away from it)? The voltage produced has opposite polarity.

What is observed when


the magnet is moved backwards and forwards? Voltage induced which has a changing polarity. What does this mean for the current? The current will change direction it is a.c.!

Generating Electricity
A voltage can be induced in a coil of wire if a magnet is moved towards (or away from the coil). This effect is known as induction.

What does the induced voltage depend on?

Generating Electricity
Induced voltage depends on: strength of the magnetic field (the stronger the greater the induced voltage) speed of movement (the faster the greater the induced voltage). number of turns in the coil (the more turns of wire on the coil the greater the induced voltage).

Virtual Int 2 Physics Electricity & Electronics em induction

Generating Electricity
To summarize: A voltage is induced across the ends of a wire coil is the coil experiences a changing magnetic field.

I HAVE DISCOVERED ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION

Now I understand! VOLTAGE IS ONLY INDUCED WHEN THERE IS RELATIVE MOTION BETWEEN A CONDUCTOR AND A MAGNETIC FIELD

THE INDUCED VOLTAGE IS DIRECTLY PROPORTIONAL TO THE RATE OF CHANGE OF MAGNETIC FIELD

Generating Electricity

How do we create electricity?

A Simple Generator
A current can be passed through a wire to result in movement (a motor!).

Electrical energy was changed to kinetic energy.

A Simple Generator
The motor can work in reverse. Kinetic energy can be used to create electricity in a dynamo or simple generator.

Transformers
Transformers step voltage up or down. A mobile phone charger is basically a step-down transformer. It takes 230 volts from the mains supply and reduces it to 9 ish volts for the mobile phone battery.

Transformers Iron core

Transformers

Transformers

Transformers

Transformers

Transformers

Transformers

An alternating current flowing in the primary coil means that the coil produces magnetic field lines

Transformers

the iron core guides the magnetic field lines through the secondary coil in a big loop.

Transformers

Because the supply voltage is alternating, the current in the primary changes direction which makes the repeatedly magnetic field lines change direction constantly

Transformers

Because the supply voltage is alternating, the current in the primary changes direction which makes the repeatedly magnetic field lines change direction constantly

Transformers

Because the supply voltage is alternating, the current in the primary changes direction which makes the repeatedly magnetic field lines change direction constantly

Having the field lines in the secondary coil swapping direction all the time is like pushing a bar magnet in and out of the secondary coil this induces a voltage across the secondary coil.

Because the supply voltage is alternating, the current in the primary changes direction which makes the repeatedly magnetic field lines change direction constantly

So if youre asked to explain how a voltage applied to the primary coil of a transformer causes a voltage across the secondary coil, you put An alternating current in the primary coil produces a changing magnetic field in the iron core... and hence in the secondary coil. This induces an alternating potential difference across the ends of the secondary coil.

The wire of the coils has to be insulated, ie it has to have a insulating layer wrapped around it.

If the wire wasnt insulated, the electric current would be short circuited ie it wouldnt flow round the coil, but from one wire across to another, or through the iron core.

Really transformers have many more turns on their coils than the 4 & 8 in the example given so far. Often the calculations might have the number of turns being twice or 10 times as big on one coil as on another & then you might be able to easily do such calculations in your head.
Half as many turns on the secondary coil, so the voltage will halve. Vs = 10 V (A STEP DOWN transformer) 4 times as many turns on the secondary coil, so the voltage will go up times 4. Vs = 120 x 4 = 480 V (A STEP UP transformer)

10 V

480 V

Sometimes the numbers wont be so easy & youll need the transformer formula p.d. stands for potential difference, which is another word for voltage.

This formula in symbols would be:

Vp = Np
Vs Ns

Vp = Np
Vs Ns

Vp is voltage across the primary

Vs is voltage across the secondary


Np is number of turns on the primary Ns is number of turns on the secondary

Rearranging this formula is something only the higher tier students need do.

Rearranging the Transformer Formula.


Making Vp the subject (the proper way)

Multiply both sides by Vs

On the left, Vs top & bottom cancel.

Vp is now the subject of the formula.

Rearranging the Transformer Formula.


Making Vp the subject by cross multiplication:

All the terms (letters) can be in one of 4 boxes. Terms can be moved DIAGONALLY.

To get Vp on its own Vs needs to move.

This is the same formula that was obtained by proper rearranging on the previous slide.

Move Ns to get Np on its own.

Get the one you want (Ns) on the top row Get the one you want (Vs) on the top row
Move the other terms, leaving Vs on its own.

Move the other terms to get Ns on its own.

Eg1. A transformer is used to step down the voltage of mains supply, 230 V, to 11.5 V. The primary coil has 1000 turns. Calculate the number of turns required on the secondary coil. You may use the formula

Ns = Np Vs Vp
Ns = 1000 11.5 230 Ns = 50 turns

What do you put if youre asked With the aid of a diagram


describe the structure

of a transformer?

What do you put if youre asked With the aid of a diagram


describe the structure

of a transformer?

You might see from other sources that the core is laminated soft iron.
You dont need the laminated or soft. The core is laminated into layers with insulation between so that induced currents dont flow around within the core, heating it up & wasting energy. The soft means that the iron can be easily magnetised one way round & then demagnetised & re-magnetised the other way round. If a hard material were used itd waste energy magnetising & demagnetising it.

Transformers & batteries (or any dc supplies)

ZERO volts

The diagram shows a 1.5 V cell connected to a voltmeter through a step-up transformer. Will the voltmeter show a voltage bigger than 1.5 V? No. The CHANGING magnetic field produced by alternating current in the primary is crucial to the way transformers work. Because the cell gives a steady dc current, the magnetic field in the coils will be constant, so no voltage will be induced across the secondary coil. The voltmeter will read ZERO volts.

What is a step-up transformer?

V2 rms N 2 1 V1rms N 1
What is a step-down transformer?

V2 rms N 2 1 V1rms N 1

Step-Up Transformer
What is a step up transformer? What can you say about the relationship between the number of turns in the secondary and primary?

Ns N P

and the voltage in the secondary and primary?

Vs VP

Step-Down Transformer
What is a step down transformer? What can you say about the relationship between the number of turns in the secondary and primary? N N
s

and the voltage in the secondary and primary?

Vs V P

STEP-DOWN

Typical Transformers

transformers usually heavy due to iron core


Winter 2012 UCSD: Physics 121; 2012 60

Power Plants and Distribution


How we get our electricity

Hydroelectric power

A Hydroelectric Battery

Getting Electricity from Coal

Nuclear Plant

Generator

The Generator Principle


Loop of wire (conductor) rotates within stationary magnetic field
this produces changing field requirement

Brush contacts connect to rotating loops and carry current to external circuit In practice, wire makes many (thousands of) loops to get a larger voltage
each loop adds to voltage

Simplest arrangement leads to alternating current (AC)

Generator

Electricity Transmission
Electrical energy is transferred from the power station to the consumer via the National Grid. Electricity is sent for many kilometres along transmission lines on pylons.

The National Grid & The Use of Transformers Within It - 1

The national grid is system that links power stations and houses all over the country. Before the national grid, each large town had its own power stations. The advantages of having a national grid are that; If the local power station breaks down or cant supply as much power as is required then power can be supplied from other power stations. Electricity can generated in places a long way from customers. It allows for better balancing of supply & demand.

The National Grid & The Use of Transformers Within It - 2


Using transformers allows us to reduce the power wasted in heating the wires that carry electricity around the country. Simply using high voltages in houses as well as on the power lines would also reduce power wastage, but such high voltages would be too dangerous to use in homes.

Transformers are used to step-up the voltage from power stations & other transformers are used to step-down the voltage to make it safer for use in homes.

A way to provide high efficiency, safe low voltage:


step-up to 500,000 V ~5,000 Volts
step-down, back to 5,000 V

step-down to 120 V

High Voltage Transmission Lines Low Voltage to Consumers

Transmission structures
three-phase live wires

to house

500,000 230,000 long-distance

138,000 69,000 713,000 neighborhood

Center-tap Transformer

REDUCING HEAT IN TRANSFORMER

All houses/apartments have energy meters to monitor electricity usage

Measuring your electricity consumption

this is what the bill is based on

Dials accumulate KWh of usage Disk turns at rate proportional to power consumption
Kh value is the number of Watthours per turn (1 Wh = 3600 J)

Example: one turn in 10 sec


(7.2 Wh)(3600 J/Wh)/(10 sec) = 2592 J/s 2.6 kW

Takes 138.9 turns for 1 kWh

78

Example data from energy meter


During the day at my house, the dial may take about 3 minutes to make a revolution. one revolution is 7.2 Wh = 7.23600 = 25,920 J 180 seconds per revolution means about 144 W computer, clocks, VCR, etc. Average usage is 16 kWh per day: 24 hours in day means average rate of 667 W For 2 people333 W each: 1/30th of our 10kW share means most of energy not used at home: industry and transportation are the big consumers on our behalves

Transformers in Electrical Transmission


Energy is changed from electrical to heat resulting in large power losses in the wires. Relationship between power, current and resistance?

PI R
2