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TECHNOLOGY BASED PRODUCTIVITY IMPROVEMENT TECHNIQUES

What is Technology ??
Is Applied Science Is a way of doing things Is systems & artifacts incorporating knowledge of physical and social worlds which affect societys activities & organizations.

MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Vs. TEHCHNOLOGY


Labor specialization accompanied by mechanization is answer to economic growth and productivity. Rate of productivity growth is largely a function of changes in real capital relative to labor and extent of Technology.
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It is a mistake to attribute Japans success to technology alone and a bigger mistake to consider technology to be the only answer to improved U.S quality and productivity.

Technology is automation & mechanization, machines and computers, and semiconductors and new inventions, but the term has a much broader meaning. It is a means of transforming inputs in to outputs.

Good Companies
buy technology to improve processes, reduce lead times, boost quality, & increase flexibility.
Landmark Paper less Office, Ibd
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Technology includes
methods, procedures, & techniques which enable this transformation both machines & methods
No one can argue convincingly against the use of the hardware side of technology to improve both quality & productivity.
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Tech Based Techniques For Producty


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Computer Aided Design (CAD) Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) Robotics Laser Technology Contd

Tech Based Techniques


6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Energy Technology Group Technology Computer Graphics Maintenance Management Rebuilding Old Machinery Energy- Conservation Technology

CONTRIBUTION TO PRODUCTIVITY INCREASE


Labor Capital Technology (%) (%) (%) Denison 10 20 62 Kendrick 10 18 72 Christenson 14 42 44 Average 14 27 59 Internet, Word processing,microwave

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1. COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN (CAD)


Design of: a) products, processes, or systems with help of computer. b) Component parts, subassemblies, & products in mfg- oriented cos. Deal in complex geometry & threedimensional internal parts. Aircraft industry Pioneer to use as PI tool. Contd
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COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN (CAD)

Few Examples In Design -Automobile chassis, engine parts, & suspension parts,machine tools, -Circuit configuration in PCB in for electronic products. -Facilities to minimize unnecessary movements of materials, people, & products. -Evaluate physical interaction between man/workplace (in AC cockpits, truck cabs, passenger vehicles, cranes, forklifts) Contd...
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CAD-Examples. Contd ..

Computer parts & subassemblies Military Hardware, Electronic Calculator, Machine Tool press working tools & dies Molds for investment casting electric motors, Design of earth-moving equipment, bridges

CAD replaces manual design of drafting with interactive computer, with Pen.
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Advantages of CAD
1. Speedy Evaluation of Alternatives. Designer questions What IF scenario (to Cost if I cut weight & volume) Impact on physical properties if modify design? 2. Error Reduction. Because CAD relieves designer of need to make tedious, time consuming decisions & reduces computations, fewer errors are made.
Contd
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Advantages of CAD

3. Minimization of Risk in Functioning. Possible uses can be evaluated ahead of time, avoiding possible failures.
4. High Rate of Return on Investment. where Task repetitive, complex & timeconsuming in nature, CAD is highly useful, with the ROR 10:1 to 50:1.
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2. COMPUTER-AIDDED MANUFACTURING (CAM)


Use of a computer to design & control mfg process. It replaces many manual design & control functions in manufacturing. Examples Assembly-line balancing Machine sequencing & loading. Parts scheduling

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CAM Contd

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Inventory control (computerized MRP) Capacity planning Operator scheduling Automated inspection Efficiency & flexibility of the software used add effectiveness.

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CAM contd..

CAM recent development than CAD Most cases-inseparable, so referred to as combination as CAD/CAM. Integration avoids reconstructing, reformatting, reentering, & reproducing the data that are common to all corporate operations.

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PROBLEMS IN CAM
Lack of in-house computer knowledge. High initial cost Inability to verify adequate rate of return of investment Unavailability of appropriate software

Contd
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Problems in CAM. cont.


Inadequate training from the vendor Questionable hardware reliability Fear of computerization But CAM technique may prove useful to improve both partial & total productivities.

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ADVANTAGES OF CAM
1. Improved Utilization of Resources Well-managed plants 15 & 30 % of time waiting for parts, tool, & supervisors instruction. Reduced idle time-better scheduling these things. 2. Lower Inventory Costs, JIT (Kanban) system of inventory Toyota uses CAM, savings due to reduced inventory costsmade Toyota highly price competitive. Contd
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ADVANTAGES OF CAM. CONT..


GEs CAM & Engg Council survey of 300 org distribution of Primary Benefits of CAD/CAM: 56 % to productivity, 25 % to quality 17 % reduction to cycle time, 2 % improvement to meeting contractual requirement CAD/CAM design//drafting/mfg process time cut by 5 times
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3. COMPUTER-INTEGRATED MANUFACTURING (CIM)


A fully integrated CAD/CAM system that provides computer assistance from marketing to product shipment. Functions Order entry, bill of material processing, shop floor control (assembly automation,testing and process automation) inventory control, design automation,(drafting, design and simulation)& Mfg planning (process planning, routing, tool design and parts programming). See Diagram
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CIM contd

Design Automation- drafting, design & simulation: Manufacturing planning, including process planning, routing & rating, tool design. Parts Programming& shop floor control- numerical control, assembly automation, testing, & process automation.
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4.

ROBOTICS

is rapidly developing technology - uses robots.

An industrial robot is a reprogram-able multifunctional manipulator designed to move material, parts, tools, or specialized devices, through variable programmed motions to accomplish a variety of tasks. It, is a general-purpose automation device. A mechanical arm rather than a mechanical human being. Contd.
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ROBOTICS Three basic components: manipulator, power supply, & control system.. Not just sit-alone units.can be integrated with other devices & machines in automated or flexible mfg systems. Robotics technology improve partial & total productivities, as there is some natural liking of robots.
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ADVANTAGES OF ROBOT
1. Work 03 shifts, round clock, uninterrupted, no overtime. 2. Perform difficult tasks-handling heavy parts, hot melt slabs, poisonous, radioactive, hazardous chemical. 3. Improve quality by consistency in mfg operations. 4. Save substantially on wages, salaries, & fringe benefits. Contd
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ADVANTAGES OF ROBOT Contd..


5. Overcome shortage of blue-collar workers 6. Integrate CAD/CAM, automated guided vehicle systems, FMS for integrated, auto mfg facilities. (FIAT PLANT). 7. Improvement in partial & total productivities. Die-casting operation, robots increased production by 10 percent & cut rejects by 15 percent.
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Robots in Industry
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Spot Welding Spray painting Arc welding Grinding/debarring Material handling (loading & conveyance) Machine loading/unloading Assembly (e.g., assembling steering locks) Contd
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Robots in Industry (contd..)


8. Inspection (checking container labels, inspecting parts, gauging) 9. Fish farming (feed and Breed) 10. Fire fighting (where heat & smoke would prevent the deployment of firefighters with conventional equipment). 11. Fish farming (feed & monitor fish) 12. Die casting 13. Filling /sealing/packaging/gluing/gasketing 14. Warehousing Contd
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Robots in Industry contd

14. Cake making & decorating


15. Nuclear reactor operation 16 restaurant operations (e.g. making sushi). 17 Casting (Pouring hot metal into molds, inserting parts into furnaces) 18 Cutting /machining 19 Polishing/surface preparation

In Japan, Robots accepted more readily than in most EU.


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ROBOTIC CLASSIFICATIONS
BY CONFIGURATION Cartesian- coordinate Robot Cylindrical coordinate robot Polar (spherical coordinate) robot. Revolute (jointed arm) robot. BY FUNCTION Programmable servo controlled, continuouspath. Programmable, servo controlled, point to point. Programmable, nonservo robots, point to point. Mechanical transfer devices (pick & place)
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5.

LASER TECHNOLOGY (LT)

(Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation)


Beam to generate heat energy that may be used in diverse ways. (Star Wars-SDI) LT in cutting metals, or drilling, welding, alloying, & cladding. Contd
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LASSER TECHNOLOGY (LT)

Laser-assisted inspection lasers will be used in machining. LT in conjunction with fiber optics for comm purposes. Tremendous savings potential with laser. Initial cost of laser technology is relatively high.

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6.

Use of chemical energy, solar energy, geothermal energy, & hydrogen energy. Considerations must be taken into account. Economics of production & distribution of the energy Effect on environmental, ecological, & social aspects of system Rate of depletion & rate of replenishment (if any) of the energy resource.
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Energy Technology (ET) Use of New Sources of Energy.

7.

Group Technology (GT)

GT is a rapidly developing productivity improvement technique - have a significant impact on development of totally integrated mfg facilities & FMS. Organization & planning production parts into batches some similarity in (a) geometry & (b) processing sequence. Aims at a detailed classification & grouping of parts by size. Contd
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Group Technology (GT) Contd


Shape, nature of operation to be performed, design tolerances, & the setup time required. Small-Batch Production loss of production time due to many machine setups. 75 percent of all machined parts are produced in small-batch manufacture. Need to minimize machine setup times in small batch manufacture - GT is very effective way of doing so.
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8. COMPUTER GRAPHICS (CG)


A rapidly developing technique. Computer-aided design (CAD) & CAM known application of CG. Business Executives use, simple Bar Charts, Histograms, Frequency Distribution Diagrams, Pie Charts, & other simple tools of business analysis.

Contd
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ADVANTAGES OF COMPUTER GRAPHICS


1. Ease in creating, modifying, & storing the drawing of an object. 2. The ability to rotate an object in three dimensions to study complex work settings. 3. Minimization (& if used properly, elimination) of duplication of data on the physical, chemical metallurgical, & or aesthetic characteristics of an object. Contd
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CG Contd

4. Virtual elimination of costly storage of paper drawing or paintings. Initial investments-graphics terminals & software, Productivity is concerned, the time for designing, drawing & reproducing is considerably reduced. Thus Human
Productivity is bound to improve.

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9. MAINTANANCE MGT (MM)


MM & Rebuilding old machinery, energyconservation Tech - three approaches to productivity improvement in term of plant & equipment rather than new technology. MM is formalized approach to maintaining the currently available machinery & equipment to help them function according to the maintainability & reliability characteristics. Contd

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MM Cont
Effective means of cutting down maintenance costs & increasing human productivity, fixed capital productivity, & energy productivity, in most cases. In light metal working & fabric-producing plants, maintenance employees may account 4 percent of workforce. In processing plants, heavy industry, & plants with complex eqpt, maintenance personnel can represent up to 40 percent.
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10. REBUILDING OLD MACHINERY


Modifying the existing machinery & their tooling, instead purchase brand-new machinery. Greater the initial cost of machine being remodeled, the greater are the savings in fixed capital input. Many large companies have own machine-building department to remodel very methodically.
Contd
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11. ENERGY CONSERVATION TECHNOLOGY

ECT also refer as Energy Mgmt


Purpose is to lower energy consumption without lowering quality or quantity.

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ECT.. CONT ETC Deals with :


Decision & performance of energy audits Economic analysis of energy related projects Design & effectiveness of monitoring Redesign of existing products & processes Identifies potential areas of energy savings Develops Energy conservation measures for each area Implements conservation procedures Monitors their progress Reports human, material, capital, energy & other expense inputs to productivity engineering deptt.
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ECT.. Contd
Potential Areas for Energy Saving are:
Material-handling equipment Lighting of unnecessary areas Air-conditioning & heating equipment Motors, boilers etc Entrances & exits from air-conditioned areas Car pools Energy control for machinery Pollution at the source (causing clean up problems else where)
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