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ACHIEVEMENT TEST

REVIEW
 Which sequence represents the
correct order of organization in
complex organisms?
 

 (1) tissues  organs systems 


cells
 (2) organs  tissues  systems 
cells
 (3) systems  organs  cells 
tissues
 In an ocean, the growth and survival
of seaweed, small fish, and sharks
depends on abiotic factors such as
 
 (1) sunlight, temperature, and
minerals
 (2) sunlight, pH, and type of seaweed
 (3) number of decomposers, carbon
dioxide, and nitrogen
 (4) number of herbivores, carbon, and
food
 Which situation is a result of human
activities?
 
 (1) decay of leaves in a forest adds to soil
fertility
 (2) acid rain in an area kills fish in a lake
 (3) ecological succession following
volcanic activity reestablishes an
ecosystem
 (4) natural selection on an island changes
gene frequencies
Which process helps reduce
global warming?
 
(1) decay
(2) industrialization
(3) photosynthesis
(4) burning
 Which statement most accurately describes
scientific inquiry?
 
 (1) It ignores information from other sources.
 (2) It does not allow scientists to judge the
reliability of their sources.
 (3) It should never involve ethical decisions
about the application of scientific knowledge.
 (4) It may lead to explanations that combine
data
 with what people already know about their
surroundings.
 The diagram below represents a pyramid of
energy that includes both producers and
consumers.
 The greatest amount of available energy is
found
 at level

 

 (1) 1

 (2) 2

 (3) 3

 (4) 4
 The diagram below represents a food
web.
 Two of the herbivores represented in
this food web are
 (1) toads and snakes
 (2) deer and mice
 (3) wolves and raccoons
 (4) grasshoppers and

toads
 Abiotic factors that characterize a
forest ecosystem include
 
 (1) light and biodiversity
 (2) temperature and amount of
available water
 (3) types of producers and
decomposers
 (4) pH and number of heterotrophs
 One season, there was a shortage of
producers in a food web. As a result, the
number of deer and wolves decreased. The
reason that both the deer and wolf
populations declined is that
 
 (1) producers are not as important as
consumers
 in a food web
 (2) more consumers than producers are
needed
 to support the food web
 (3) organisms in this food web are
interdependent
 Which concept is best represented
in the diagram shown below?
 (1) Human actions are a threat to
equilibrium in ecosystems.
 (2) Equilibrium in ecosystems
requires that humans modify
ecosystems.
 (3) Equilibrium in ecosystems
directly affects how humans
modify ecosystems.
 (4) Human population growth is
the
 primary reason for equilibrium in
 ecosystems.
 In December 2004, a tsunami (giant wave)
destroyed many of the marine organisms along the
coast of the Indian Ocean. What can be expected
to happen to the ecosystem that was most
severely hit by the tsunami?
  
 (1) The ecosystem will change until a new stable
community is established.
 (2) Succession will continue in the ecosystem until
one species of marine organism is established.
 (3) Ecological succession will no longer occur in
this marine ecosystem.
 (4) The organisms in the ecosystem will become
extinct.
 The chart below contains both autotrophic and
heterotrophic organisms.

 Organisms that carry out only heterotrophic


nutrition are found in
 (1) row A, only

 (2) row B, only

 (3) rows A and B

 (4) rows A and C


A stable pond ecosystem would
not contain
 
(1) materials being cycled
(2) oxygen
(3) decomposers
(4) more consumers than
producers
 Certain insects resemble the bark of the trees on
which they live. Which statement provides a
possible biological explanation for this
resemblance?
  
 (1) The insects needed camouflage so they
developed protective coloration.
 (2) Natural selection played a role in the
development
 of this protective coloration.
 (3) The lack of mutations resulted in the protective
coloration.
 (4) The trees caused mutations in the insects that
resulted in protective coloration.
A food chain is represented below.
Grass  Cricket  Frog Owl
This food chain contains
 

(4)4 consumers and no producers


(5)1 predator, 1 parasite, and 2
producers
(6)2 carnivores and 2 herbivores
(7)2 predators, 1 herbivore, and 1
producer
 In an ecosystem, the growth and survival of
organisms are dependent on the availability of
the energy from the Sun. This energy is
available to organisms in the ecosystem
because
 

 (1) producers have the ability to store energy


from light in organic molecules
 (2) consumers have the ability to transfer
chemical energy stored in bonds to plants
 (3) all organisms in a food web have the
ability to use light energy
 (4) all organisms in a food web feed on
A volcanic eruption destroyed a forest,
covering the soil with volcanic ash. For
many years, only small plants could grow.
Slowly, soil formed in which shrubs and
trees could grow. These changes are an
example of
  
 (1) manipulation of genes
 (2) evolution of a species
 (3) ecological succession
 (4) equilibrium
 The development of an experimental
research plan should not include a
 (1) list of safety precautions for the
experiment
 (2) list of equipment needed for
conducting the experiment
 (3) procedure for the use of
technologies needed for the experiment
 (4) conclusion based on data expected
to be collected in the experiment
 A student performed an experiment to
demonstrate that a plant needs chlorophyll for
Photosynthesis. He used plants that had green
leaves with white areas. After exposing the plants
to sunlight, he removed a leaf from each plant and
processed the leaves to remove the chlorophyll.
He then tested each leaf for the presence of
starch. Starch was found in the area of the leaf
that was green, and no starch was found in the
area of the leaf that was white. He concluded that
chlorophyll is necessary for photosynthesis.
 Which statement represents an assumption the
student had to make in order to draw this
conclusion?
  
 (1) Starch is synthesized from the glucose
produced in the green areas of the leaf.
 (2) Starch is converted to chlorophyll in the green
areas of the leaf.
 (3) The white areas of the leaf do not have cells.
 (4) The green areas of the leaf are heterotrophic.
 One biotic factor that affects
consumers in an ocean ecosystem
is
 
 (1) number of autotrophs
 (2) temperature variation
 (3) salt content
 (4) pH of water
 Which component of a stable
ecosystem can not be recycled?
 (1) oxygen
 (2) water
 (3) energy
 (4) nitrogen
A food web is represented in the
diagram below.
 Which population in this food web
would most likely be negatively
affected by an increase in the mouse
population?
 (1) snake
 (2) rabbit
 (3) wolf
 (4) hawk
 Which result of technological advancement
has a positive effect on the environment?
 (1) development of new models of computers
each year, with disposal of the old computers
in landfills
 (2) development of new models of cars that
travel fewer miles per gallon of gasoline
 (3) development of equipment that uses solar
energy to charge batteries
 (4) development of equipment to speed up the
process of cutting down trees
 Species A, B, C, and D are all different heterotrophs
involved in the same food chain in an ecosystem. The
chart below shows the population of each species at
the same time on a summer day.

 Which statement best describes one of these species


of heterotrophs?
 (1) Species A is the most numerous because it can
make its own food.
 (2) Species B probably feeds on species D.
 (3) Species C and B interbred to produce species A.
 (4) Species D is most likely the top predator in the
food chain.
 Which statement describes a role of
fungi in an ecosystem?
 (1) They transfer energy to decaying
matter.
 (2) They release oxygen into the
ecosystem.
 (3) They recycle chemicals from dead
organisms.
 (4) They synthesize organic nutrients
from inorganic substances.
 The diagram below represents four
different species of wild birds.
Each species has feet with
different structural adaptations.
 The development of these
adaptations can best be explained
by the concept of
 (1) inheritance of resistance to
diseases that affect all these
species
 (2) inheritance of characteristics
acquired after the birds hatched
from the egg
 (3) natural selection

 (4) selective breeding


Which biome is the richest in
terms of the number of
species?
(A) Tundra,
(B) Desert,
(C) Tropical Rain Forest,
(D) Taiga.
 The diagram below represents
an energy pyramid constructed
from data collected from an
aquatic ecosystem.
 Which statement best describes
this ecosystem?
 (1) The ecosystem is most likely
unstable.
 (2) Long-term stability of this
ecosystem will continue.
 (3) The herbivore populations
will continue to increase in size
for many years.
 (4) The producer organisms
outnumber the consumer
organisms.
What is the approximate length of the
earthworm shown in the diagram
below?
 (1) 9 mm
 (2) 90 mm
 (3) 10.6 cm
 (4) 106 cm
 In an ecosystem, the herring population was
reduced by fishermen. As a result, the tuna, which
feed on the herring, disappeared. The sand eels,
which are eaten by herring, increased in number.
The fishermen then overharvested the sand eel
population. Cod and seabirds then decreased.
Which food web best represents the feeding
relationships in this ecosystem?

 Ans. C
 Two food chains are represented
below.
Food chain A:
aquatic plant→insect→frog→hawk
Food chain B: grass → rabbit →
hawk
 Decomposers are important for
supplying energy for
 (1) food chain A, only
 (2) food chain B, only
 (3) both food chain A and food chain B
 (4) neither food chain A nor food chain
 What is an appropriate title for
this diagram?
 (1) Energy Flow in a
Community
 (2) Ecological Succession
 (3) Biological Evolution
 (4) A Food Chain
 
Which organism carries out
autotrophic nutrition?
(1) hawk
(2) cricket
(3) grass
(4) deer
  
 The brown summer feathers of ptarmigans,
small Arctic birds, are replaced by white
feathers after winter arrives. Which
statement best explains this observation?
 (1) The expression of genes can be modified by the
environment.
 (2) Holes in the ozone layer vary in size depending
on the season.
 (3) Acids in rain bleach the brown feathers of the
birds.
 (4) Mutations occur only during certain seasons.
Ecosystems will have a greater
chance of maintaining equilibrium
over a long period of time if they
have
(1) organisms imported by
humans from other environments
(2) a sudden change in climate
(3) a diversity of organisms
(4) predators eliminated from the
food chains
Which concept is represented in the
graph below?

 (1) ecological succession in a


community
 (2) cycling of carbon and nitrogen in a
forest
 (3) energy flow in a food chain over
time
 (4) negative human impact on the
environment
 Which materials would the student
most likely have used in this
investigation?
 (1) microscope, pipette, and slides with
coverslips
 (2) graduated cylinder, triple-beam
balance, and chromatography paper
 (3) thermometer, electric balance, and
biological stains
 (4) computer, pH paper, and gel
electrophoresis apparatus
 An energy pyramid containing
autotrophs and other organisms
from a food chain is represented
below.
 Carnivores would most likely be
located in
 (1) level I, only
 (2) level I and level II
 (3) level III, only
 (4) level II and level III
Which material is being
cycled?
(1) carbon dioxide
(2) nitrogen
(3) oxygen
(4) water
Which event is the best example
of competition between species in
a pond environment?
(1) dragonflies landing on lily
pads
(2) frogs and toads eating flies
(3) lizards and snakes lying in the
sun
(4) hawks eating mice
 The diagram below shows a rock suspended above
an overflow container filled with water up to the
overflow spout. A graduated cylinder is positioned
next to the container to collect water that comes
out of the overflow spout.
 Which property of the rock can be directly
determined when the rock is placed in the overflow
 container?

 (1) mass

 (2) density

 (3) volume

 (4) hardness
Which process is an example
of a physical change?
(1) wood burning
(2) iron rusting
(3) ice melting
(4) milk souring
 Which statement best describes the
energy changes that occur while a child
is riding on a sled down a steep, snow-
covered hill?
 (1) Kinetic energy decreases and
potential energy increases.
 (2) Kinetic energy increases and
potential energy decreases.
 (3) Both potential energy and kinetic
energy decrease.
 (4) Both potential energy and kinetic
energy increase.
 The diagram below shows a hammer
being used by a person to remove a
nail from a piece of wood
 The hammer is being used as which
type of simple machine?
 (1) wheel and axle
 (2) inclined plane
 (3) lever
 (4) pulley
The wheels and gears of a
machine are greased in
order to decrease
(1) potential energy
(2) efficiency
(3) output
(4) friction
Which action forms a different
chemical substance?
(1) crushing a rock
(2) burning a piece of wood
(3) mixing salt and pepper
(4) melting an ice cube
 Whichinstrument could be used to
determine the volume of an irregularly
shaped solid?

Ans. 4
The diagram below shows the head
structure of four different birds.
 The birds’ beaks show
how the birds
 (1) compete for the same
food in their community
 (2) require different
amounts of food for
survival
 (3) store food for the
winter months
 (4) are adapted to get
food from different
sources
How do decomposers obtain
their food?
(1) hunting and killing prey for
food
(2) changing carbon dioxide
and water into food
(3) absorbing food from dead
organisms
(4) producing food from
oxygen and sunlight
A student wanted to study the amount of mold
growing on pizza at different temperatures. In the
experiment, the student set up four identical pans of
pizza. Each pan contained the same amount of pizza.
The temperatures and light conditions are shown in
the data table below.

 One error made in setting up the experiment was


that the four pans of pizza
 (1) were at different temperatures
 (2) were different sizes
 (3) had different ingredients
 (4) received different amounts of light
 During which phase change is heat
energy absorbed by a substance?
 (1) liquid to gas
 (2) gas to solid
 (3) liquid to solid
 (4) gas to liquid
Which object represents a
simple machine?

Battery Pliers Match Candle


 ( 1 ) (2) (3) (4)
Some species of bacteria are harmful. Antibiotics are chemicals that kill
bacteria. Some bacteria are resistant to antibiotics and are not killed
by these chemicals. Over time, the resistant bacteria can reproduce
and create populations that are not affected by antibiotics.
The graphs below show the results of a controlled experiment that
measured the population of one species of bacteria that had been
grown in four containers under identical conditions. Different
antibiotics were added to three of the four containers.

 The control in this experiment is represented by the container with


 (1) antibiotic A added
 (2) antibiotic B added
 (3) antibiotic C added
 (4) no antibiotic added
Which title best describes the
processes shown in the diagram
below?
 (1) The Rock Cycle
 (2) The Water Cycle
 (3) Plate Tectonics
 (4) Chemical Changes
 Which equipment will best
separate a mixture of iron filings
and black pepper?
 (1) magnet
 (2) filter paper
 (3) triple-beam balance
 (4) voltmeter
The diagram below shows milk
being poured into a measuring cup.

 Which property of the milk can be


directly
 measured using the cup?
 (1) mass
 (2) density
 (3) solubility
 (4) volume
Populations living in one place
form a
(1) community
(2) system
(3) habitat
(4) species
The diagram below shows a penny
scratching the surface of the
mineral calcite.
Which physical property of the
calcite is being tested?
(1) streak point
(2) hardness
(3) melting
(4) reaction to acid
 The speedometer in a car does not measure the
 car’s velocity because velocity is a

 (1) vector quantity and has a direction associated

 with it

 (2) vector quantity and does not have a direction

 associated with it

 (3) scalar quantity and has a direction associated

 with it

 (4) scalar quantity and does not have a direction

 associated with it
 The speed of an object undergoing
constant acceleration increases
from 8.0 meters per second to
16.0 meters per second in 10.
seconds. How far does the object
travel during the 10. seconds?
 (1) 3.6 × 102 m
 (2) 1.6 × 102 m
 (3) 1.2 × 102 m
 (4) 8.0 × 101 m
A 60.-kilogram student climbs a
ladder a vertical distance of 4.0
meters in 8.0 seconds.
Approximately how much total
work is done against gravity by
the student during the climb?
 (1) 2.4 × 103 J
 (2) 2.9 × 102 J
 (3) 2.4 × 102 J
 (4) 3.0 × 101 J
 What is the maximum amount of work that a
 6000.-watt motor can do in 10. seconds?

 (1) 6.0 × 101 J

 (2) 6.0 × 102 J

 (3) 6.0 × 103 J

 (4) 6.0 × 104 J


 The mass of a paper clip is approximately
 (1) 1 × 106 kg

 (2) 1 × 103 kg

 (3) 1 × 10–3 kg

 (4) 1 × 10–6 kg
The graph below represents the
displacement of an object moving
in a straight line as a function of
time.
 What was the total
distance traveled by the
object during the 10.0-
second time interval?
 (1) 0 m
 (2) 8 m
 (3) 16 m
 (4) 24 m
 Which combination of fundamental
units can be used to express
energy?
 (1) kg•m/s
 (2) kg•m2/s
 (3) kg•m/s2
 (4) kg•m2/s2
A race car starting from rest
accelerates uniformly at a rate of 4.90
meters per second2. What is the car’s
speed after it has traveled 200.
meters?
 (1) 1960 m/s
 (2) 62.6 m/s
 (3) 44.3 m/s
 (4) 31.3 m/s
A joule is equivalent to a
(1) N•m
(2) N•s
(3) N/m
(4) N/s
The weight of a chicken egg is
most nearly equal to
(1) 10–3 N
(2) 10–2 N
(3) 100 N
(4) 102 N
The diagram below represents a
force vector, A, and a resultant
vector, R.

 Which force vector B below could be


added to force vector A to produce
resultant vector R?

Ans. 1
 Which quantity is a measure of the
rate at which work is done?
 (1) energy
 (2) power
 (3) momentum
 (4) velocity
The table below lists the mass and
speed of each of four objects.
 Which two objects have the same
kinetic energy?
 (1) A and D
 (2) B and D
 (3) A and C
 (4) B and C
A force of 1 newton is equivalent to 1

 Ans. 1
An observer recorded the following data for
the motion of a car undergoing constant
acceleration.
 What was the magnitude of the acceleration of
 the car?

 (1) 1.3 m/s2

 (2) 2.0 m/s2

 (3) 1.5 m/s2

 (4) 4.5 m/s2


Which graph best represents the
relationship between the power required to
raise an elevator and the speed at which
the elevator rises?

 Ans 1
 Which subatomic particles are
located in the nucleus of a neon
atom?
 (1) electrons and positrons
 (2) electrons and neutrons
 (3) protons and neutrons
 (4) protons and electrons
Which element is classified
as a nonmetal?
(1) Be
(2) Al
(3) Si
(4) Cl
Which substance can be
decomposed by chemical
means?
(1) tungsten
(2) antimony
(3) krypton
(4) methane
Bronze contains 90 to 95 percent
copper and 5 to 10 percent tin.
Because these percentages can
vary, bronze is classified as
(1) a compound
(2) an element
(3) a mixture
(4) a substance
At room temperature, a
mixture of sand and water
can be separated by
(1) ionization
(2) combustion
(3) filtration
(4) sublimation
 Which statement describes a chemical
property
 of hydrogen gas?

 (1) Hydrogen gas burns in air.

 (2) Hydrogen gas is colorless.

 (3) Hydrogen gas has a density of 0.000 09


g/cm3
 at STP.

 (4) Hydrogen gas has a boiling point of 20. K


at
 standard pressure.
Which compound releases
hydroxide ions in an aqueous
solution?
(1) CH3COOH
(2) CH3OH
(3) HCl
(4) KOH
Which list of elements
consists of metalloids, only?
(1) B, Al, Ga
(2) C, N, P
(3) O, S, Se
(4) Si, Ge, As
Which term is defined as a
measure of the average
kinetic energy of the
particles in a sample?
(1) temperature
(2) pressure
(3) thermal energy
(4) chemical energy
Which particle diagram
represents a sample of
one compound, only?

 Ans. 4
An Arrhenius base yields which
ion as the only negative ion in
an aqueous solution?
(1) hydride ion
(2) hydrogen ion
(3) hydronium ion
(4) hydroxide ion
Which element has both
metallic and nonmetallic
properties?
(1) Rb
(2) Rn
(3) Si
(4) Sr
Which statement describes a
chemical property of the element
magnesium?
(1) Magnesium is malleable.
(2) Magnesium conducts electricity.
(3) Magnesium reacts with an acid.
(4) Magnesium has a high boiling
point
Matter that is composed of
two or more different elements
chemically combined in a fixed
proportion is classified as
(1) a compound
(2) an isotope
(3) a mixture
(4) a solution
The table below shows mass and
volume data for four samples of
substances at 298 K and 1 atmosphere.

 Which two samples could consist of the


same
 substance?
 (1) A and B
 (2) A and C
 (3) B and C
 (4) C and D
Which element is a metal
that is in the liquid phase at
STP?
(1) bromine
(2) cobalt
(3) hydrogen
(4) mercury
Which property could be used
to identify a compound in the
laboratory?
(1) mass
(2) melting point
(3) temperature
(4) volume
Which substance can not
be decomposed by a
chemical change?
(1) AlCl3
(2) H2O
(3) HI
(4) Cu
 Tetrachloromethane, CCl4, is classified as a
 (1) compound because the atoms of the
elements are combined in a fixed proportion
 (2) compound because the atoms of the
elements are combined in a proportion that
varies
 (3) mixture because the atoms of the
elements are combined in a fixed proportion
 (4) mixture because the atoms of the
elements are combined in a proportion that
varies
Which of the following pH values
indicates the highest
concentration of hydronium ions
in a solution?
(1) pH = 1
(2) pH = 2
(3) pH = 3
(4) pH = 4
 Which is the best procedure to follow
if a student spills several drops of
concentrated HCl on his hand?
 (1) Cover the area with solid sodium
hydrogen
 carbonate.
 (2) Rinse with large amounts of cold
water.
 (3) Wash with concentrated sodium
hydroxide solution.
 (4) Wrap the hand with sterile gauze.
 Which statement about silicon is
false?
 (1) It is a metalloid.
 (2) It behaves as a semiconductor
when pure.
 (3) It is extremely rare in the earth's
crust.
 (4) It has a smaller atomic radius
than aluminum.
 Choose the response that includes all
the items listed below that are pure
substances.
 1. orange juice 2. steam 3. wine
 4. carbon dioxide 5. gasoline

 1. 1, 3, 5
 2. 2, 4
 3. 1, 3, 4
 4. 4 only
 Which one of the following is a physical
change?
 1. water when heated forms steam

 2. bleach turns hair yellow

 3. sugar when heated becomes brown

 4. milk turns sour


How many significant
figures are there in 1.3070
g?
1. 6
2. 5
3. 4
4. 3