You are on page 1of 29

Lecture # 04 PI

12/11/12

Subject Department
Topic

: :

RS & GIS CIMR,PU

Interactions between Matter & Electromagnetic radiation

Presented by Rehana Jamal


Wednesday, December 19, 2012

Energy interactions in the atmosphere


Fundamental interactions in the atmosphere

Source of energy

Sun

Absorption Transmission Scattering

Wednesday, December 19, 2012

Fig.1

Absorbed
Total atmospheric absorption 17 %

Incoming solar radiation 100%

Scattered/Reflected
Total scattering/reflection 30% (albedo)

14 % By atmospheric components 47% 3% By clouds

5% By dust 25% By clouds

Clouds

Clouds

Clouds

Direct radiation

31%

22%

Diffuse radiation

Earths surface
Wednesday, December 19, Fig. 2 Energy interactions in the atmosphere 2012 3

Energy interactions in the atmosphere & on the land

Fig.3

Wednesday, December 19, 2012

Efficient absorbers of solar radiation in the atmosphere


Ozone(O3) Water vapour(H2O) Carbondioxide(CO2)

Electromagnetic spectrum between 0-22um is useless for remote sensing Only Wavelength regions out side the main absorption bands of the atmospheric gases are useful for remote & these regions are called atmospheric transmission windows

Wednesday, December 19, 2012

Atmospheric transmission windows

Fig.5

Wednesday, December 19, 2012

Fig.6

Wednesday, December 19, 2012

Atmospheric transmission windows


include: A window in the visible & reflected infrared region(0.4-2um) Three windows in the thermal infrared region (Two narrow windows around 3 & 5um & Third relatively broad window from 8 to 14 um)

Wavelength

Near IR

Thermal IR

Radar

Far IR

Frequency(Hz)

ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM Fig.4


Wednesday, December 19, 2012 8

AM

Atmospheric Scattering
Amount of scattering depends on following factors: wavelength of the radiation the amount of particles & gases radiation distance

Types of scattering
Rayleigh scattering (Particle size < wavelength) Mie scattering
( Particle size = wavelength) (Particle size > wavelength)

Non-selective scattering

Wednesday, December 19, 2012

Energy interactions with the Earths surface


In remote sensing applications, Land & Water have different surface characteristics

Energy interactions: When electro-magnetic energy is incident on any given earth surface feature, three fundamental energy interactions with the features are possible:1.Reflection , 2.Absorption , 3.Transmission

Fig.7

Wednesday, December 19, 2012

10

Two types of Reflection


Specular reflection (mirror like reflection from smooth surface) Diffuse reflection (reflection from rough surface)

Fig.8

Wednesday, December 19, 2012

11

Fig.9

Fig.10
Wednesday, December 19, 2012 12

Irradiance & radiance

Sun

Energy reaching the surface is called irradiance.


Earths surface

Energy reflected by the surface is called radiance


Earths surface

The density of radiation incident on a given surface usually expressed in watts per square centimeter or square meter.
Wednesday, December 19, 2012

13

Spectral reflectance of vegetation, soil & water


Vegetation: 50% , Soil : 30-40% , Water: 10%

Wednesday, Fig.Spectral Reflectance Curves December 19,

2012

14

Spectral reflectance of vegetation, soil & water


Vegetation:

The reflectance characteristics of vegetation depends upon the properties of leaves(orientation & structure of the leaf canopy)

The proportion of the radiation reflected in the different parts of the spectrum depends upon:

leaf pigmentation leaf thickness & composition(cell structure) amount of water in the leaf tissues
Wednesday, December 19, 2012

15

Leaf Cross-Section

Fig.13

Wednesday, December 19, 2012

16

Reflection: reflected light is what we know as color; i.e. chlorophyll in plants reflects green light

Fig.11

Wednesday, December 19, 2012

17

Different reflection in Vegetation:

Fig.12

Wednesday, December 19, 2012

18

Normal Color

False Color (CIR)

Fig.14a

Fig.14b
Wednesday, December 19, 2012 19

Soil
Main factors influencing the reflectance of soil are:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. soil colour moisture content presence of carbonates Particle size distribution Organic matter content iron oxide content

7.
8.

Soil structure
Soil mineralogy
Wednesday, December 19, 2012

20

SMC

Fig 15: Variation in the spectral reflectance characteristics of soil according to moisture content. Wednesday, December 19,
2012 21

Fig 16: Variation in the spectral reflectance characteristics Wednesday, December 19, to particle size of soil according
2012 22

Fig 17: Variation in the spectral reflectance characteristics of Wednesday, December 19, soil texture. soil according to
2012 23

Water
Compared to vegetation & soils, water has the low reflectance.

Spectral Characteristics of Water

There are three types of possible reflectance from a water body a) Surface (specular) reflectance b) Bottom reflectance c) Volume reflectance

Wednesday, December 19, 2012

24

Fig 18: Spectral reflectance characteristics of deep, clear water.


Wednesday, December 19, 2012 25

Fig.19 Variation in the spectral reflectance characteristics of turbid water according to the content of suspended solids
Wednesday, December 19, 2012 26

Fig 20: Spectral reflectance characteristics of clouds and snow. Snow shows variation in spectral reflectance according to the size of crystals.
Wednesday, December 19, 2012 27

In short, percentage of Spectral reflectance of vegetation, soil & water is :

Vegetation: Soil : Water:

50% 30-40% 10%

Wednesday, December 19, 2012

28

References:
Principles of Remote sensing by Lucas L.E Janssen

Remote sensing and image interpretation by Thomas M.Lillesand


University Practical Geography by M. Iftikhar Akram Ch. http://www.answers.com/topic/specular/-reflection

http://hyperphysics.phyastr.gsu.edu/hbase/mod3.html http://hosting.soonet.ca/eliris/remotesensing/bl130lec3.html http://www.cps-amu.org/sf/notes/m1r-1-8.htm


Wednesday, December 19, 2012 29