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History of Educational Technology

~Jeffrey D. Arocha

Educational Technology
Technology is commonly thought of in terms of gadgets, instruments, machines and devices most (educators) will defer to technology as computers.
(Muffoletto, 1994)
History of Educational Technology

TEA

Educational Technology
The history of Educational technology can be traced back to the time when tribal priests systemized bodies of knowledge, and early cultures invented pictographs or sign writing to record and transmit information.
(Paul Saettler, 1990)
History of Educational Technology

History of Computers

Abacus---Approximately 3000 BC Calculators---1600s Punched Card Devices---1800s First Electronic Computers---1940s Mainframes---1950s Minicomputers---1960s Microcomputers---1970s Microcomputer Systems---1980s Internet---1990s

History of Educational Technology

Ancient Computing History


The Abacus
Mechanical aid used for counting and making quick calculations.
Still in use around the world.
History of Educational Technology

Early Computing History


Blaise Pascal
Invented the first mechanical calculator.
History of Educational Technology

The Pascaline used cogs and gears to solve math equations.

Mechanical Calculators
Joseph Jacquard
First programmable
History of Educational Technology

machine. Used punched cards (binary instructions) to automate weaving loom. Punched cards were a staple of early and modern computer programming.

Electronic Computer Systems


First Generation:1943-1956
Used vacuum tubes in electronic circuits. Used punch cards to input
History of Educational Technology

and externally store data.


Up to 4K of memory. Programming in machine

language and assembly language.


Required a compiler.

First Generation: 1943-1956


Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator (ENIAC)
Worlds first electronic digital computer.
Used to produce WWII ballistic firing tables for the U.S. Defense Department.
History of Educational Technology

Second Generation: 19571964


1956 IBM 350 RAMAC
Used transistors, developed by Bell Labs.
History of Educational Technology

Up to 32K of memory.
Programming in computer languages,

such as FORTRAN and COBOL.

Third Generation: 1965-1971


Used integrated circuits. Up to 3 million bytes of memory. Lower cost, smaller size, and increasing processor speed.
History of Educational Technology

Fourth Generation: 1972-Now


Microcomputer Revolution Begins.
1971, Intel develops 4004, the first microprocessor chip. Altair sold in 1975, the first personal computer. It is a kit that must be assembled. Apple Computer is formed in 1976 and sells 50 Apple I. Advances increase memory size, storage space, and processing
History of Educational Technology

speeds.

Fourth Generation: 1972-Now


Microcomputers
Personal computers or PCs. Usually cost about $2,000 or less. Process over 1 billion operations per second. Stand-alone or connected to other computers as a network system.
TEA

History of Educational Technology

1990s Connecting the World


Tim Berners-Lee
Developed HTML and the World Wide Web
History of Educational Technology

(WWW) was born.

1990s Connecting the World


Marc Andreessen
An original developer of Mosaic, the
History of Educational Technology

first browser software able to read HTML.


Co-founder of Netscape Communications.

The 21st Century


Technologies of the Future

Advanced robotics

commonplace Smart houses Wearable computers Holodeck virtual reality Truly individualized education

History of Educational Technology

The 21st Century


Only recently focused on

computers. Internet current primary trend.


Communication with colleagues. Lesson plan preparation. Student resources.

History of Educational Technology

Access research and best practices for

teaching.
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TEA

Educational Technology
Our Definition: A combination of the processes and tools involved in addressing educational needs and problems, with an emphasis on applying the most current tools: computers and their related technologies.
(M. D. Roblyer, 2000)
History of Educational Technology

Educational Technology
IBM unveils first PC in 1981.
CPU: Intel 4.77 MHz 8088 Memory: 64K
History of Educational Technology

Storage: Single-sided, 160K 5 floppy disk drive


Display: 12 inch monochrome Price: $2880.00

Read about IBM Through the Years in Resources.

Modern Ed Tech History


Mainframe Computer Systems
First instructional use of computers
History of Educational Technology

was as a flight simulator used to train pilots at MIT in 1950.

Modern Ed Tech History


Mainframe Computer Systems
First use in public schools taught
History of Educational Technology

New York elementary students binary arithmetic in 1959.

Modern Ed Tech History


Microcomputers in Education
Introduced in late 1970s.
History of Educational Technology

Adopted by public school systems

during 1980s.
Apple II Commodore PET Radio Shack TRS - 80

Modern Ed Tech History


The Internet and the WWW Biggest challenge for the public educational system has been how to prepare schools physically and train teachers effectively for its use in the classroom.
History of Educational Technology

TEA

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What Weve Learned


Vet in the Net Todays teacher must be willing to be:
A participating learner in the classroom. One who will take the same risks and
History of Educational Technology

not always have the right answer. A veteran learner in a network of learners called the classroom.
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History of Educational Technology

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