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Introduction to

Softcomputing
Son Kuswadi
Robotic and Automation Based on Biologically-
inspired Technology (RABBIT)
Electronic Engineering Polytechnic Institute of
Surabaya
Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember
Agenda
AI and Softcomputing
From Conventional AI to
Computational Intelligence
Neural Networks
Fuzzy Set Theory
Evolutionary Computation
AI and Softcomputing
AI: predicate logic and symbol
manipulation techniques
U
s
e
r

I
n
t
e
r
f
a
c
e

Inference
Engine
Explanation
Facility
Knowledge
Acquisition
KB:
Fact
rules
Global
Database
Knowledge
Engineer
Human
Expert
Question
Response
Expert Systems
User
AI and Softcomputing
ANN
Learning and
adaptation
Fuzzy Set Theory
Knowledge representation
Via
Fuzzy if-then RULE
Genetic Algorithms
Systematic
Random Search
AI and Softcomputing
ANN
Learning and
adaptation
Fuzzy Set Theory
Knowledge representation
Via
Fuzzy if-then RULE
Genetic Algorithms
Systematic
Random Search
AI
Symbolic
Manipulation
AI and Softcomputing
cat
cut
knowledge
Animal?
cat
Neural character
recognition
From Conventional AI to
Computational Intelligence
Conventional AI:
Focuses on attempt to mimic human
intelligent behavior by expressing it in
language forms or symbolic rules
Manipulates symbols on the
assumption that such behavior can be
stored in symbolically structured
knowledge bases (physical symbol
system hypothesis)
From Conventional AI to
Computational Intelligence
Intelligent Systems
Sensing Devices
(Vision)
Natural
Language
Processor
Mechanical
Devices
Perceptions
Actions
Task
Generator
Knowledge
Handler
Data
Handler Knowledge
Base
Machine
Learning
Inferencing
(Reasoning)
Planning
Neural Networks
Neural Networks
f
E
E
z
-1

z
-1

o
0

o
1

E
N
E
E
z
-1

z
-1

o
1

+
-
e(k+1)
o
0

^
^
y
p
(k+1)
y
p
(k+1)
^
u(k)
Parameter Identification - Parallel
Neural Networks
f
E
E
z
-1

z
-1

o
0

o
1

E
N
E
E
z
-1

z
-1

o
1

+
-
e(k+1)
o
0

^
^
y
p
(k+1)
y
p
(k+1)
^
u(k)
Parameter Identification Series Parallel
Neural Networks
Control
ANN
G
p
(s)
G
c
(s)
R(s)
C(s)
+
-
+
+
Plant
Feedforward
controller
Feedback controller
ANN
-
+
Learning Error
Neural Networks
Control
Ball-position
sensor
Controller
Current-driven
magnetic field
Iron ball
Neural Networks
Neural Networks
Experimental Results
Feedback control
only
Feedback with fixed gain feedforward control
Feedback with ANN
Feedforward controller
Fuzzy Sets Theory
What is fuzzy thinking
Experts rely on common sense when they solve the
problems
How can we represent expert knowledge that uses
vague and ambiguous terms in a computer
Fuzzy logic is not logic that is fuzzy but logic that is
used to describe the fuzziness. Fuzzy logic is the
theory of fuzzy sets, set that calibrate the vagueness.
Fuzzy logic is based on the idea that all things admit
of degrees. Temperature, height, speed, distance,
beauty all come on a sliding scale.
Jim is tall guy
It is really very hot today
Fuzzy Set Theory
Communication of fuzzy idea
This box is
too heavy..
Therefore, we
need a lighter
one
Fuzzy Sets Theory
Boolean logic
Uses sharp distinctions. It forces us to draw
a line between a members of class and non
members.
Fuzzy logic
Reflects how people think. It attempt to
model our senses of words, our decision
making and our common sense -> more
human and intelligent systems
Fuzzy Sets Theory
Prof. Lotfi Zadeh
Fuzzy Sets Theory
Classical Set vs Fuzzy set
No Name
Height
(cm)
Degree of Membership of
tall men
Crisp Fuzzy
1 Boy 206 1 1
2 Martin 190 1 1
3 Dewanto 175 0 0.8
4 Joko 160 0 0.7
5 Kom 155 0 0.4
Fuzzy Sets Theory
Classical Set vs Fuzzy set
1
0
175 Height(cm)
1
0
175 Height(cm)
Universe of discourse
Membership value Membership value
Fuzzy Sets Theory
Classical Set vs Fuzzy set

e
e
=
A x
A x
x f X x f
A A
if , 0
if , 1
) ( where }, 1 , 0 { : ) (
Let X be the universe of discourse and its elements be denoted as x.
In the classical set theory, crisp set A of X is defined as function f
A
(x) called the
the characteristic function of A
In the fuzzy theory, fuzzy set A of universe of discourse X is defined by function
called the membership function of set A ) (x
A

. in partly is if 1 ) ( 0
; in not is if 0 ) (
; in totally is if 1 ) ( ], 1 , 0 [ : ) (
A x x
A x x
A x x where X x
A
A
A A
< <
=
=


Fuzzy Sets Theory
Membership function
0
2 4 6 8 10
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
Derajat keanggotaan [0, 1]
elemen semesta pembicaraan
A
0
1
0.5
c-b c-b/2 c c+b/2 c+b
b
Fuzzy Sets Theory
Fuzzy Expert Systems
Kecepatan (KM)
Jarak (JM)
Posisi Pedal Rem (PPR)
Fuzzy Sets Theory
Membership function
Kecepatan (km/jam)
0 20 40 60 80
Sangat Lambat
Lambat
Cukup
Cepat
Cepat Sekali
Jarak (m)
0 1 2 3 4
Sangat Dekat
Agak
Dekat
Sedang
Agak Jauh
Jauh Sekali
Posisi pedal rem (
0
)
0 10 20 30 40
Injak Penuh
Injak Agak
Penuh
Injak
Sedang
Injak
Sedikit
Injak Sedikit
Sekali
KM
JM
PPR
Fuzzy Sets Theory
Fuzzy Rules
Aturan 1:
Bila kecepatan mobil cepat sekali dan jaraknya sangat dekat maka pedal
rem diinjak penuh
Aturan 2:
Bila kecepatan mobil cukup dan jaraknya agak dekat maka pedal rem
diinjak sedang
Aturan 3:
Bila kecepatan mobil cukup dan jaraknya sangat dekat maka pedal rem
diinjak agak penuh
Fuzzy Sets Theory
Fuzzy Expert Systems
Aturan 1:
Kecepatan (km/jam)
0 20 40 60 80
Cepat Sekali
Posisi pedal rem (
0
)
0 10 20 30 40
Injak Penuh
Jarak (m)
0 1 2 3 4
Sangat Dekat
Fuzzy Sets Theory
Fuzzy Expert Systems
Jarak (m)
0 1 2 3 4
Agak Dekat
Posisi pedal rem (
0
)
0 10 20 30 40
Injak Sedang
Aturan 2:
Kecepatan (km/jam)
0 20 40 60 80
Cukup
Fuzzy Sets Theory
Fuzzy Expert Systems
Jarak (m)
0 1 2 3 4
Sangat Dekat
0 10 20 30 40
Posisi pedal rem (
0
)
Injak Agak
Penuh
Kecepatan (km/jam)
0 20 40 60 80
Cukup
Aturan 3:
Fuzzy Sets Theory
Fuzzy Expert Systems
MOM : PPR = 20
0


10x0,2+20x0,4
COA : PPR =
0,2+0,4
= 16,67
0

Posisi pedal rem (
0
)
0 10 20 30 40
MOM
COA