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Introduction to Business Communication

Module 1

Overview
Meaning of Communication
Definition of Business Communication

Objectives of Communication Process of Communication


Elements of Communication

Types of Communication
Methods of Communication Channels of Communication Dimensions of Communication

Barriers to Communication
Overcoming Barriers to Communication

Meaning
Communis - Latin word - common Common understanding between 2 or more individuals (biz environment biz comm.) Process message / information transferred from sender to receiver
Internal Communication External Communication

Types of Communication

Definition
Exchange of facts, ideas, opinions or emotions by two or more persons Norman & Summer Process of passing information and understanding from one person to another

Meaningful interaction among human beings

Objectives

Process of Communication

Factors affecting encoding / decoding process

TYPES OF COMMUNICATION

Methods of Communication

Paralanguage
The way in which you say words;
volume, pitch, speaking rate, voice quality

Volume
How loudly or softly you are speaking
When might you speak loudly? Softly?

Pace
How fast or slow you are speaking
When might you speak fast? slow?

Pitch
How high or low the sounds of your voice are
When do you speak with a high pitch? Low?

Chart of Feelings
.

Feeling
Anger

Volume Pace
Loud Fast

Pitch
High

Joy
Sadness

Loud
Soft

Fast
Slow

High
Low

Voice Quality
What makes people able to recognize you by your voice alone
Ex: on the phone Who has a distinct voice? Arnold Schwarzenegger? Mr. H? Bush?

Stress
Volume & pitch; the amount of emphasis you place on different words in a sentence.

Stress Examples:

How does meaning change in the following sentence by stressing different words?

I like him very much.


Meaning: You like him, not the other person.

I like him very much.


Meaning: It is that guy you like, not someone else.

I like him very much.


Meaning: You have very strong feelings.

More Examples:

How does meaning change in the following sentence by stressing different words?

Shes giving this money to me.


Meaning: SHE is the one giving the money, nobody else.

Shes giving this money to me.


Meaning: She is GIVING, not lending.

Shes giving this money to me.


Meaning: MONEY is being exchanged, not anything else.

Shes giving this money to me.


Meaning: I am getting the money, nobody else.

10 Volunteers are needed to number off and remember their number. There will be a series of sentences. The odd numbers will say the sentences as a praise. The even numbers will say the sentences as a criticism. Praise (odd #s) vs. Critisism (even #s)

Proxemics
The study of spatial communication

Four Distances depending on the type of encounter and the nature of the relationship
Relationship Distance Typical Situation

Intimate Distance: 0-18 inches


Situations: Giving comfort or aid,
whispering, conversing w/ close friends and family We are easily stimulated in this distance, but often easily uncomfortable. EX: personal space. Who do we let in it?

Personal Distance: 18 inches-4 feet


Situations: Talking w/ friends or business
associates, instructing in a sport, other students in class Were mostly in this distance. If you decrease to intimate in this distance people feel uncomfortable, but if you increase your distance people feel rejected.

Social Distance: 4 ft - 12 ft
Situations: Discussing impersonal or
business matters w/ someone in authority, taking part in a small group discussion

Public Distance: 12 ft - 25 ft
Situations: Public speaking, teaching a
class, leading a pep rally, fans in the stands at a game, people waiting in a lobby Mostly with strangers we do not want to interact with

Conclusions
Based on the four types of distances and their examples, what can you conclude about the correlation

between the distance people have with you and what that might mean?
The closer the more they like you; the farther away the less personal.

Haptics
The study of touch communication

5 reasons we touch

1. Positive emotions
Support, appreciation, inclusion, sexual interest, and affection
Communicates composure, affection, trust

2. Playfulness
Tells the other person not to take them seriously

3. Control
Touch controls another persons behaviors, attitudes, feelings
EX: move over, hurry, stay there

4. Ritualistic
Greetings and departures
Ex: shaking hands, hug, or put arm on shoulder

5. Task-related
Touch for a task
Ex: Checking fore-head for a fever Customers gave larger tips when lightly touched by waitress (Marsh 1988)

Identify Nonverbal Cues

Essentials of Effective Communication (7C)


Clarity Completeness Conciseness Concreteness Correctness Courteousness Candidness

Verbal communication.
Two types of verbal communication. (1) formal communication. (2) informal communication.

Formal communication
We use this type of communication in offices and social gathering. Two types of formal communication. (1) Downward (2) Upward

(1) Downward communication


Higher designation to lower designation. Ex. Boss ordered his worker. Here effect of this type of communication is very much than upward communication.

(2) Upward communication.


Lower designation to higher designation. Ex. Worker request to his boss. Here the effect of communication is less than downward communication.

Informal communication.
We use this type of communication with our family or friends. Three types of informal communication. (1) lateral (2) diagonal (3) grapevine

Lateral communication.
Found among members working at the same level. Ex. Peer group. Most effective form of communication. Barrier of subordinates or boss is not present here.

Diagonal communication.
The path is mixture of vertical and horizontal movement. In large communications various departments need communication support from each other.

Grapevine communication.
Also called as backbiting or backstabbing. A backstabber is a colleague or an employee who acts like a friend in public but badmouth you in private.

BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATIONS

COMMUNICATION

CHANNEL

SETTING

BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION
Barriers

Sender

Receiver

BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATIONS
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Physical Barriers Language Barriers Cross Cultural Barriers Personal-Psychological Barriers Socio-Psychological Barriers Status Barriers Organization Barriers

1. PHYSICAL BARRIERS

Noise
Time and Distance Age Defects in medium / channels

2. LANGUAGE BARRIERS
Different Languages Difference in Accent / Pronunciations Jargons Semantic Barriers
Word having different meanings Bypassed instructions Denotations and Connotations Poor Vocabulary Grammar and Punctuations

3. CROSS CULTURAL BARRIERS


When the sender and receiver of a communication come from different cultural backgrounds a cultural barrier is erected and messages are misunderstood. By cultural we mean the behavioural characteristics typical of a group of people. Cross cultural barriers are erected by different national and religious backgrounds, different value system, differences in language and literature and even different perceptions of time.

4. PSYCHOLOGICAL BARRIERS
MISUNDERSTANDINGS: Some times problems crop up when
send a message on one channel and it is received on another. When people communicate, they communicate parts, feelings, opinions or barriers. Example : a) Indians are the most tolerant people in the world (opinion).

b) 48% of Indian population is illiterate

THE EFFECT OF EMOTIONS:

While considering the language barrier we have referred to the effect of Emotional loaded word like profit and bonus. We must now mention how joy, sorrow, worry, etc. act as a barrier to communication. when we are happy, contented and secure we ignore rumors or stories about the bad intentions of the management.

5. SOCIO-PSYCHOLOGICAL BARRIERS
RESISTANCE TO CHANGE
The adult human mind usually resists change. When a message is received containing a new idea, the person receiving the message unconsciously becomes inattentive. Mr. Haiman expresses the psychological aspect of this communication problem very aptly.

UNCLARIFIED ASSUMPTION

Making assumption is a common practice with most of us. Whenever we make statements like it for granted that this is an unchanging fact and exists like a stone or a rock. Often we find that the assumption made by the sender of the person who receives the message.

6.STATUS BARRIERS

Hierarchy
Managers believe that all clerks are lazy.

News letter is perceived as propaganda sheet.


Important feedback given by sub ordinates is not paid attention by superiors.

7. ORGANIZATIONAL BARRIERS
Hierarchical Barriers Specialization of Workforce

Wrong choice of Medium


Information load Organization Policy

HELLO..

IMPLICATIONS OF COMMUNICATION BARRIERS

Loss of Trustworthiness Financial Impact Delay in completion of tasks Can lead to unrealistic assumptions Discomfort in relationships Can damage public image

Classification
Sender
Receiver Situation Related Barriers
Total Impact= 0.07Verbal + 0.38 Vocal + 0.55

facial

HOW TO OVERCOME THE BARRIERS


Proper Encoding & Decoding of message Understanding of situation Selection of Medium Maintenance of Instruments Feedback Open Mind & Positive attitude Develop Good Listening Skills Eliminate fear

CHANNELS
For effective communication multiple channels should be used as it increases the chances of clarity of message. The message is reinforced by using different channels and there are less chances of deformation of message.
E.g. Telephone is better than memos. Email is better than telephone. IM is better than E-mail. Radio is better than TV.

CONCLUSION
The key to the communication process is to have understanding on the part of the receiver. There are many barriers to good communications that must be overcome for communications to be successful. Learn to be an active listener as part of successful communications.

CONCLUSION
Communicating to be understood and being a good listener are crucial.
Another important aspect of communication

is to think about what you are saying before you say it. Todays communications set the tone for tomorrows relationships.