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Neo Classical Style

By: Sidharth Sreerag Sheryl

What is it?
Neoclassical architecture(true style architecture)

started by (1750-1850) was a reaction to Rococo and Baroque architectural styles. New discoveries of Greek and Roman architecture led Neoclassical period, which lasted 1850-1900. Neoclassical buildings have few defining characteristics: 1. Clean, elegant lines 2. Uncluttered appearance 3. Free standing columns 4. Massive buildings

Classical architectural models were adapted or

referenced in a range of architectural forms: 1. Churches, 2. Arches 3. Temple 4. House 5. Terraces 6. Garden monuments 7. Interior designs. Later, neoclassical architecture became an international style, each country held some distinct characteristic in their style.

Characteristic Features
To emphasize its planar qualities, rather than

sculptural volumes Projections and recessions and their effects of light and shade are more flat Sculptural bas-reliefs are flatter and tend to be enframed in friezes, tablets or panels. Clearly articulated individual features are isolated rather than interpenetrating, autonomous and complete in themselves. Clear stories window are provided extensively.

NEOCLASSICAL BUILDING PANTHEON, PARIS

The facade, like that of the Roman Pantheon, is formed by a porch of Corinthian columns and triangular pediment attached to the ends of the eastern arm. The vaulted hall of Pantheon, referenced to the Roman baths, (Baths of Diocletian, Rome,) whose grandiose planning and vaulted halls and chambers became leading inspirations on certain occasions

The vaulted hall of Pantheon

The best preserved of all Roman temples is the Corinthian Maison Carree at Nimes (c. AD 130). Maison Carree is a typical temple - a rectangular building with an open portico and pediment in front with columns all round - was used as a model for churches widely in the eighteenth century.

In Paris, the Madeleine by Alexander-Pierre Vignon, begun as a church, was continued by Napoleon as a Temple of Glory but was completed as a church in 1842. It has direct reference to the Maison Carree, resulting a lifeless paraphrase of an antique Roman temple.

The Madeleine

TYPES OF NEO-CLASSICISM

ARCHEOLOGICAL NEO-CLASSICISM THE HIGH PICTURESQUE STYLE STRUCTURAL NEO-CLASSICISM RADICAL NEO-CLASSICISM

ARCHEOLOGICAL NEO-CLASSICISM
The style was too severe and restricted, too airless and bookish. An aura of clarity and simplicity was still desired. English architects were the first to evolve neoclassical style that evoked the richness of antiquity. One of the other cause was the discovery of Herculaneum and Pompeii (ancient roman town) buried by the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 A.D. Rome was the material and emotional center were Paris also a cerebral counterpart. English were the first to survey scientifically the acropolis, Palmyra, Baalbek . Thus the Archeological publications played an important role in the Neo-classical movement by bringing the splendor of distant ruins into architectural reach.

THE HIGH PICTURESQUE STYLE:


Most important aesthetic ideals to emerge in 18 th century England.

It has more literary ideas , images and values. E.g.. John Nash - The Royal Pavilion, Brighton , England
In 1815 he has used gothic ,Chinese and Indian forms. He has used cast iron onion domes and minarets .

STRUCTURAL NEO-CLASSICISM
Architect Jacques German soufflot poured Most of his talent in single great structures The floor plan shows a Greek-cross layout, 110m long and 85m wide (361 x 279 ft). The large dome reaches a height of 83m (279ft). The portico, with large Corinthian columns was modeled after the 2nd century Pantheon in Rome. The dome features three superimposed shells, similar to the St. Paul's Cathedral in London. Iron reinforcements were added to strengthen the structure even more .

Inside panoramic view of the Panthon, Paris.

Interior Dome of the Panthon

RADICAL NEO-CLASSICISM
Louis Boullee Claude Nicolas Ledoux

Project for the ideal city of Chaux: House of supervisors of the source of the Loue.

Catherine Palace
St. Petersburg, Russia. It

was the summer residence of the Russian tsars German architect JohannFriedrich Braunstein

To emphasize its planar qualities, rather than sculptural volumes Projections and recessions and their effects of light and shade are more flat .