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Heating Ventilation & Air


Conditioning.
1

Air conditioning:
Conditioning the Air by modifying / altering TEMPARATURE /
HUMIDITY LEVEL & purify the air to satisfy human comfort conditions.
T = 26C / 76F
R.H = 50% AIR CONDITIONING

RELATIVE HUMIDITY :- Moisture Present in sample of Air / Moisture in
saturated Air

REFRIGERANTS are heat carrying mediums , which during their cycle in
the refrigeration system absorb heat at LOW tem. Level & discard the
heat so absorbed at higher level.

R -11 , R -12 , R 22 , R 123 , R 134a , R 717.
Chloro fluoro carbons ( CFCS) , Dichloro di fluoro methane R12,
Monochloro di fluoro methane R22


DRY BULB TEMPARATURE (DBT) 3
It I the temperature recorded by a
Thermometer whose bulb I not affected by moisture or
radiation.
WET BULB TEMPERATURE (MBT)
It is the temperature recorded by a Thermometer
whose bulb is covered by mulin wick wetted by water & is
moved past the unsaturated air at a velocity of 4 to 5m/s.

As the air stream flow pat the wick, some water
evaporates, taking the latent heat from the wick, thus
decreasing the temperature & making the surrounding thin
film of air saturated when equilibrium condition is reached
there is a balance between the bulb , wick & surrounding
saturated air. This decreased temp. of surrounding thin film
of saturated air is defined a WET BULB TEMP.
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1 BTU is the quantity of heat that when added to one
pound of water (at atmospheric pressure) raises the
water temp. by one degree Fahrenheit.
SENIBLE heat changes only the temp. of a
substance. It can be felt & measured by an ordinary
Dry Bulb Thermometer.
Latent heat does not change the DBT of a substance.
It is the hidden heat that is absorbed or released
when the physical state of a substance is changed.
1 Lb. water(212F) + 970.3 BTU = 1 Lb. steam (212F)
1 Ton refrigeration = 12000 BTU/hr (or)
3000 Kcal/hr
Qty. of heat removed to freeze 1Ton (2000 pounds) of
water at 32Fahrenheit to ice at the same
temperature in 24 hours.

120
CFM Chlorofluorocarbons
Ozone layer shields the earths surface from the ultraviolet rays
which are harmful to humans.
Ozone depleting is because of chlorine, I, (or) bromine atoms
(Fluorine atoms do not have this effect.)
The solution to the ozone problem was to use halogenated
hydrocarbons which contained no chlorine, just fluorine
atoms. These materials are called fluorocarbons.
H-CFC (fewer chlorine atoms)
Ex:- R-22 (one carbon atom, one chlorine atom one Hydrogen
atom and two fluorine atoms).
H-CFC have a far slighter effect on the ozone layer & in Europe
its use will be banned in 2011 year.
HFC Hydro fluorocarbons
1
st
fluorocarbon to be made available commercially was
R-134a which was used as a replacement for R-12
THE REFRIGERATION CYCLE

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7
Cooling take place when liquid evaporates to become gas.
COMPRESSOR: Most refrigerant gases can be made into the
liquid form by raising its pressure (and cooling it, which IS
handled by the condenser).
CONDENSER: During compression the refrigerant becomes hot
because of two reason: (a) work done on it. (b) Refrigerant is
converted from gas to liquid releasing its latent heat.
This heat has to be removed to enable the gas to condense into
a liquid easily.
EVAPORATOR: The liquid refrigerant from the condenser is
injected through capillary (or) expansion valve into the cooling
coil which has a bundle of tubes.
Inside the cooling coil pressure is low because of throttling
device on one side & the compressor suction on the other side.
In the low pressure, the liquid refrigerant starts evaporating
rapidly by soaking surrounding sensible heat & this is what
causes the cooling.

Compressor :-
Its aim is to increase the refrigerant
vapor pressure so that its
corresponding condensation
temperature is higher than the cooling
medium temperature of the
condenser.
Types:- Reciprocating, Rotary,
centrifugal & Screw type
6/7
7/7
1) Hermetic compressor.
a) Mechanical + Electrical
B) Low Capacity
c) Usage window ac, split ac and
refrigerators.

2) Semi Hermetic Compressor.
a)Mechanical + Electrical
b)Medium Capacity
32
COMPRESS
OR
scroll Reciprocati
ng
Screw centrifugal Absorption
TYP
appl.(TR)
30-100 40-300 >300 >500 >500
Refrigerant R22 R22/R134A R22/R134A/
R407C
R123/R22/R
134A
water
Energy
efficiency
good good v. good v. good Poor (good
only if
waste heat
used or
cheap
natural gas
available)
Initial
cost/ton
low low high high Highest
Maintenan
ce
friendlines
s
easy easy Need SPL
competen
ce
Complicat
ed
complicat
ed
14
EVAPORATOR

Classification of Evaporation :
(1) According to types of flow
a) Flooded Evaporator
b) Dry Expansion Evaporator
(2) According to medium to be cooled
i) Air cooling evaporator.
(A) According to types of construction
a) Bare tube evaporator
b) Plate surface evaporator
c) Finned tube evaporator
(B) According to mode of heat transfer
a) Natural convection evaporator
b) Forced convection evaporator
ii) Liquid cooling evaporator
(A) Double pipe evaporator
(B) Baude lot cooler
(C) Shell & Coil chiller
(D) Shell & Tube chiller
1/7
Condenser:-
It is a heat exchanger where heat transfer takes
place between the super heated refrigerant
received from the compressor and the cooling
medium of the condenser. The refrigerant is
first cooled to saturation and then Condensed
to liquid state.
2/7
Types of Condenser:-
Air cooled condensers
Water Cooled condensers
Shell and tube condensers
Shell and coil condensers
Double pipe condensers
Evaporative condensers
3/7
EXPANSION VALVE:
The expansion valve reduces the
pressure of the liquid refrigerant
received from the condenser.
Another equally important function
of the expansion valve is to
regulate the flow of the refrigerant
to the evaporator and to avoid
flooding of evaporator with
refrigerate.
4/7
Types of Expansion Valve:
a)Capillary tube
b)Constant pressure expansion valve.
c)Thermostatic Expansion valve (mostly used
now a days.)

19









DISC VALVE CFM
4 15-100
6 30-180
8 40-240
FLY FAN:- Increases the suction
Pressure of roof mounted Fan & It
should Be connected in Line.
Static Pressure
Description static pressurewg
Straight Duct 1m 0.004wg
90 Elbow 0.2wg
45Elbow 0.1wg
Baffle Filter 0.5wg
DUCT CONNECTION
8
27
DUCT MATERIAL

1. G.I (Galvanized Iron) Low cost & EASY FABRICATION.
2. ALUMINIUM SHEET METAL Is used for LIGHT WEIGHT &
RESISTANCE TO MOISTURE APPLICATION.
3.FIBER GLASS DUCT LOW VELOCITY APPLICATION ONLY
OTHERWISE HEAVY VIBRATION WILL GENERATE.
4. THICK BLACK MILD STEEL SHEET ARE USED FOR EXHAUST
DUCT.
5. HIGH CORROSION RESISTANCE APPLICATIONS- MARINE
GALVANIZED STEEL SHEETS WITH HEAVY DEPOSITION OF
ZINC( not less than 270gms/sq.m) for INTERNALDUCTING &
STAINLESS STEEL GRADE 316L for EXTERNAL Ducting.
6. PUF (Polyurethane foam) duct are Flexible & do not require
insulation a PUF is an insulating material. But it is costly &
may generate Toxic gases in case of fire.


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CLAIFICATION OF DUCTS
1) LOW PRESURE DUCT:- Velocity <600mpm & static pressure < or = 5cm of
H2O gauge. (mpm stands for miles per minute)
. No specified requirements of class of cleanliness.
. Space do not require specific +ve pressure.
. Conditioned Air is supplied through supply air ducts which is often
surrounded by return Air over the false ceiling.
2) MEDIUM PRESSURE DUCT WORK:- Velocity < 600mpm & static pressure
5-15cm of H2O gauge.
. Specified class of cleanliness often incorporates deburring (exclude) of
coil, Absolute filters, supply, Return, Exhaust & Fresh air ducts.
. Clean room application require Medium pressure duct work because heavy
pressure loses take place through high efficiency filters.
. Care to be taken to seal all duct joints to prevent leakage. Joint should be
soldered or sealed with good quality sealant.
. Sheet used should be free from flaking or any such defects as this likely to
add eroded metal particles to the conditioned air.
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3) HIGH PRESSURE DUCT WORK:-
Velocity >600mpm & static pressure >15cm of H2O gauge
* For specified class or marine applications.
* Pressure drop in supply Air Ducting: 10-15cm of H2O gauge.
* Pressure drop in Return Air Ducting: 5-10cm of H2O gauge.
* Circular (or) spiral ducting (machine fabricated) is recommended as the
helically wound longitudinal joints provide adequate mechanical strength.

RECOMMENDED GI GAUGE
(LONGER SIDE IN CM)
Low pressure medium press. High press. G.I sheet metal
gauge.
Up to 30cm _ _ 26 0.5mm
30 - 75 Up to 45 _ 24 0.6mm
75-135 45 - 120 Up to 120 22 0.7mm
135-120 120-180 120-180 20 0.9mm
Above 210 Above 180 180-240 18 1.2mm
- - Above 240 16
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METHOD FOR DUCT DESIGN
1.VELOCITY REDUCTION METHOD:- V=(Q/A)
In this method arbitrary reduction are made in the air velocity as we
go down the duct run.
2. EQUAL FRICTION METHOD:- The frictional pressure drop per unit
length of the duct is maintained constant throughout the duct system
& size is maintained accordingly.
If an equal friction design has a mixture of short & long runs of
duct, the shortest duct will need a considerable amount of damping.
This is a drawback of the equal friction design.
3. STATIC REGAIN METHOD:- The principle of the static regain
method is to maintain a constant static pressure before each
terminal & each branch to provide same flow. This is achieved by
sizing the duct in such a manner that after each branch or outlet the
static pressure gain due to reduction in velocity, exactly balance the
pr. drop in the succeeding.
17
Duct
Circular Equation of A rectangular Duct:-
Where
d=diameter of circular duct (inc)
a=width of duct (inches)
b=height of duct (inch)
Friction Losses in a Circular Duct:-
Pd=Friction (pressure loss) in
inches of water gauge/100duct
d = Equivalent duct dia. In Inches.

Duct
Section
CFM FPM Duct
size
(w x h)
Round
Diamet
er (d)
Aspect
Ration
Frictio
n/100
(pd)
Duct
Length
Frictio
n/Duct
Length
AB 2200 800 22x18

10
d=1.3x(axb)
(a+b)
0.25
0.628
Pd=(0.109136 Q )
d
1.9
5.02
33
Duct section. This process requires the
iteration in velocity. This is balanced
system & do not require the use of damper
any where used for medium &
high pressure ducting .
` e
.
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25
P=2L+W Wall type Hood
P=2L+2W Island type Hood

CFM=200xP Heavy cooking
CFM=150xP Medium cooking
CFM=100xP Light cooking

*Exhaust/makeup air 1500-2200 /fpm duct velocity
*Duct to be terminated 40 above the roof.
*Cleanouts to be provided at the Base of Riser and every
20feet.
*Duct sheet metal gauge (a) 16ga. Galvanized Steel (b)
18ga. 304 S.S
*Hood construction 18ga.minimum.
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Black steel Duct is used for all kitchen
ducts (Hoods)
S.Steel Duct is used for laundry Exhaust.

Stainless Steel
430 cheap & catches Rust Easily
304 This type is used for hood.
316
317L
Special & Pure Stainless Steel for
operation theater in Hospitals.
(Low Carbon)


INFILTRATION ESTIMATE
( CRACK METHOD)

The leaking of air into a building through small
crack is called Infiltration. The forcing of outdoor air into a
building by means of a fan is called Ventilation.


Window (or) frame CFM =[ Crack length x Leakage rate (cf/hr) ] / 60 min
43
DESCRIPTION LEAKAGE RATE
Windows
Frame
14cf/hr
13cf/hr
45
INFILTRATION
Q = 1.1x CFM x T
Q = Sensible heat loss Btu/hr.
T = Out door Temp Indoor Temp (F )


Q = Latent heat Btu/hr
W = Indoor humidity ratio in grains water/Lb dry air
W = outdoor humidity ration in grains water/Lb dry air
Typical allowable design air Infiltration rates through exterior windows &
Doors.





Infiltration Rates for Frequent Door usage



s
s
Q = 0.68 x CFM x (w w )
L
o i
component Infiltration Rate
Windows 0.37 cfm/ft of sash crack
Residential Doors 0.5cfm/sqft of door area
Non-residential Doors 1:00cfm/sqft of Door area
Type Ft / person
Swing door, no vestibule 900
Swinging door, vestibule 550
Revolving door 60
3
L
o
i
118

1.08 = 0.244 x 60/13.54





Specific volume of
Moist air at 70 F db
and 50% RH
Room Latent Heat = 0.68xCFMx w
0.68 = 60/13.5 x 1076/7000 Average heat removal
required to condense one
pound of water vapor from
the room air.
Room Latent Heat = 0.68xCFMx w
Min/hr
Min/hr
Specific volume of
moist air at 70 F db
& 50% RH.
Grains/Lb
4.45=60/13.5
Min/hr
Specific volume of
moist air at 70 F db &
50% RH.
Specific heat of moist
air at 70 F db and 50%
RH, BTU/(deg F)
(Lb of dry air)
Room Sensible Heat = 1.08xCFMx T
51
Central plants are comprised of
COMPRESSORS
CONDENSERS
AIR HANDLING UNITS
WATER CHILLERS
COOLING TOWERS
Direct Expansion (DX) system:-
Air is cooled & conditioned in the plant room.
Treated air is pumped to various parts of the
building. Return air is sucked through a coil fin
arrangement by a fan. Refrigerant inside the coil
picks up heat from this air & evaporates. The cold air
is then pumped back to the air conditioned space.
Heat exchange take place in AHU.
53 -55
CHILLED WATER SYSTEM:-
Refrigerant & water interaction takes place. The
refrigerant in the shell of a shall & tube heat
exchanger, evaporates by picking up heat from the
water which is in the other portion of the heat
exchanger. This chilled water is then circulated to
various water air heat exchanger, called FAN coil
units / Air Handling units.
Hypothermia Temp. increase 98 F
Hyper pyraxia Temp. decrease Thinking ability
reduces Heat stroke.
54
Expansion Tank:- used to provide volumetric
expansion of chilled water due to thermal
expansion in case of plant shut down or
maintenance.





Expansion Tank should be connected using a
branch line to the suction side of the chilled
water pump.
Chiller
AHU
AHU
Expansion Tank
No shut off valve
on this line
50
Chilled water system (or) Air-water system (or) hypersonic
system.
Chilled water system design pressure is 125 PSI
1. Open piping System piping is not a closed circuit.
Incorporates a water sump/Tank.



2. Closed Piping system:-
Chiller
AHU
AHU
52
3. 2-way piping System (or) direct return system





4. 3-way System (or) Reverse return system
most preferred piping
arrangement as it reduces
pressure drop in chilled water
coils.



2
nd
Riser takes a U Trap & Returns back to chiller.
Chiller
AHU
AHU3
AHU
AHU2
AHU1
Chiller
AHU2
AHU1 AHU3
AHU4
65
Chilled water system:-
Chilled water is produced in the chiller (Shell & Tube Heat
exchanger) & Is circulated VIA chilled Water pumps to Air-
handling units (AHU) & Fan coil unit (FCU)
Chilled water entering temperature = 55F (T2)
Chilled water leaving Temperature = 45F (T1)
Chilled water temperature rise =T2-T1= T
=55-45
T=10 F
Chilled water system Design pressure = 125PSI
Chilled water G.P.M (Gallons per Minute)=volume of chilled
water to be circulated by the pump is expressed in G.P.M
Tr=Tons of Refrigeration
T=Water Temperature Rise=10 F
G.P.M = 24xTr/10= 2.4xTr
Electrical Requirements Per Ton of A/C:-
1.2 kw for 1 Ton of central plant
1.5 kw for 1 Ton of window/split (non-central plant)
Air cooled 1.25Tr/kw
Water cooled 0.55-0.8 Tr/kw
G.P.M=2.4xTr/ T
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Types of chillers:-
1. DX-chiller: commercial Air conditioning (shell & tube heat Exchanger)
shell-water; tubes-refrigerant.
2. Flooded chiller: industrial refrigeration (shell & tube heat exchanger)
shell-refrigerant; tubes-water.
Arrangements of chillers:-
1. Parallel Arrangement commercial A/C
both the chillers/all chillers should be of same capacity.




1. Series Arrangement Industrial Applications




Both the chillers are of un Equal capacity.
Note: The Pressure Drop in a Chiller should not Exceed 20 of w.guage ft =2.31xPSI pressure
drop= difference of chiller inlet pressure & outlet pressure.
3. Multiple chillers/Boilers(500Tr)




,
chiller chiller
C1=50Tr C1=50Tr
Common supply Heads
Return Heads
chiller chiller
C1=60Tr C1=40Tr
T>10 F
T>10 F
125
Tr
C1
125
Tr
C2
125
Tr
C3
125
Tr
C4
Lead
chiller
5/7
Evaporator:- An evaporator is heat exchanger
where transfer of heat takes place between the
substance area to be cooled and the refrigerant.
Types:- Natural convection Evaporators Flooded
evaporators.
Liquid Chillers:- A) shell and tube type chiller.
B) Shell and coil type chillers
C) Double pipe evaporator
D) plate-surface evaporator
E) Finned Evaporators
F) Boudelet cooler.


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The piping material most commonly
used in hydronic system is either low
carbon (black) steel pipe or copper
tube, these are standardized by ASTM
(American Society of Testing
Materials). The term Black steel pipe is
used in trade but this refers to ASTM A
120 (or) ASTM A 53 low carbon
steel.
1/6
PIPE:- Is a conduit (enclosed area) through which
any liquid or gas can be passed.
In A/C the pipe which joins the compressor,
condenser & Evaporator in all the A/C M/Cs through
which the ref. gas is passed is called primary piping
or Ref. gas piping.
In chillers there is an additional piping which
joins the pumps, chillers, FCUS & AHUS in which
the chilled water is passed is called secondary Ref.
piping or chilled water piping.
The primary & secondary piping are also
called closed piping because the recirculation of the
same Ref. takes place.
2/6
The condensers piping which join the pump,
condenser, the cooling tower is called HOT WATER
PIPING OR OPEN PIPING.
CLASIFICATION OF PIPE
Metallurgy:- The pipes are available in different
sizes, thickness and materials or metals. Hence they
are named as SS (stainless steel), Cu (copper), Ms
(mild steel), Bs (black steel), CI (cast iron), GI
(Galvanized iron), PVC (Poly vinyl chloride), N
(Nylon), and HDPE (High density poly ethylene pipe).
These pipes are used in A/C, plumbing, & fire
fighting. The duty of a Mechanical Engineer is to
calculate the exact pipe dimensions based on heat
load calculation.

3/6
USES:-
1) S.S.Pipe:- These are used in the manufacturing of evaporator of
a chiller i.e.. shell & tube heat exchangers are of stainless steel.
2) Copper & Aluminum pipe are used in the manufacturing of
condensers & evaporators of all the A/C machines and their
connections.
3) The Ms pipes are used to pass the chilled water into the pumps,
chillers & up to FCUS & AHUS.
4) Nylon pipe is flexible plastic pipes which are used to drain the
condensing tray water in to the nearest plumbing connection.
5) Galvanized Iron pipes are used to supply drinking water into the
building.
6) Ms (mild steel) pipes are used in the Fire Fighting system.
7) C.I (cast iron) pipe is used to drain water from kitchen and
toilets. Now-a-days it is replaced by PVC pipes because its
light in weight, can be easily joined, low in cost and non
corrosive.
4/6
CLASSIFICATION OF PIPES ACCORDING TO MANUFACTURING.
Extrusion is the process which manufactures pipes. As welding is
used in joining the two pipes where required length is quite larger
than a given pipe. Welding is classified in two ways i.e..
1. SEAMLESS PIPES.
2. WELDED PIPES.
1) Seamless pipes:- These pipes are perfect in shape and with
stand high pressures up to 40 bar. The refrigerant gas piping in all
the air-condition machine should be seamless pipe.
Only disadvantage in this pipe is power consumption is high.
2) Welded pipes:- This pipe will have internal bur & external bur
during its manufacturing process only external bur can be
removed and internal bur will remain.


5/6
The only way to differentiate a welded pipe from seamless
pipe in physical way.
These pipes are used in plumbing, firefighting and chilled
water system.
CLASSIFICATION OF PIPES ACCORDING TO GRADES:
1. A class pipe or schedule 20 pipe or light duty pipe.
2. B class pipe or scheduled 40 pipe or Medium duty pipe.
3. C class pipe or schedule 60 pipe or heavy duty pipe.
A class pipe is used in water supply system and can
withstand pressure of 8 bars.
6/6
B class pipes are used in chilled water piping and
can withstand pressure of 1 bars. C class pipes are
used in fire fighting system and can withstand
pressure of 6-8 bars.
CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO LOCATION
The chilled water piping which joins pumps, chillers
& OTS. The piping system used on roof is called
ROOF PIPING.
From roof the pipe which brings the water till ground
floor these pipes are called RISER PIPES.
The pipe which moves in horizontal direction on
every floor which carries the water from riser to FCU
or AHU is called FLOOR PIPING.
6
Counter-flow Parallel Flow

Air Air

Connect the water Inlet to the bottom of the
cooling coil header on the air-leaving side of
the coil & the water outlet to the top of the
header at the air-entering side of the coil to
achieve counter flow of water & air.
The air velocity across the chilled water coil &
direct expansion coils should be generally
2.5m/sec. However it must not exceed
2.8m/sec to prevent water carry-over.
63
MAXIMUM WATER VELOCITY TO MINIMIZE EROSION







Normal = operation of chillers in hrs/year
= (No. of months x No. of days/month x
No. of hr/day).
NOMINAL OPERATION
(HR/YR)
WATER VELOCITY (FPS)
1500 12
2000 11.5
3000 11
4000 10
6000 9
8000 8
64
Example:- If a chiller operates for
10months, 30days, 14hours daily, find
the water velocity & normal operation
of chillers in hours per year.

= 10month x 30days x 14 hr/day
= 4200 hours/year.
water velocity = 10 fps (ref. above
chart values)

8/2
AESHRAE:- American society of heating
refrigeration & air-conditioning Engineers.
AIR:- Air conditioning & Refrigeration Institute.
ASTM:- American society for testing & Materials.
FM:- Factory Mutual Insurance Company.
NEPA:- National electrical Manufacturers
Association.
SMACNA:- Sheet Metal & Air Conditioning
contractors National Association.
UL:- Under Writers Laboratories Incorporated.
OSHA:- Occupational safety & health
Administration.
IAQ:- Indoor Air Quality.

Valves

VALVE FOR CONTROLLING FLOW ARE DIVIDED INTO
THREE CLASE
STOPPING FLOW: Gate valve used for complete isolation
equipment for service, GV has straight through flow passage
resulting in low pressure loss.

REGULATING FLOW: Globe valve, ball valve, butterfly used to
adjust flow rate manually.
LIMITING FLOW DIRECTION: check valve valves that allow flow
in one direction only.
SWING CHECK: Horizontal lines, vertical lift check (or) spring-
loaded check- vertical lines. N.R.V
PRESSURE REGULATING VALVES: PRV This valve limits the
discharge pressure to a present valve.

Make- up water supply line to a system.


59
61
RELIEF VALUE : Used to relieve excess pressure
in boiler.

TRAINER : Are used to remove solid particles from the
circulating system.

Y type , Basket type installed at the suction side
of pumps & before large automatic control values.

69
= [162.6x1200] / [(55-45) x 500]
= 390.2 US GPM.
PUMP selected for (400 USGPM / 85 FT WC)
CALCULATION OF PRESSURE DROP IN
CHILLED WATER SYSTEM
1) LINE A PIPE SIZE = 100mm (dia.)
GPM = 200
PIPE LENGTH : 2.5mts x 3.28 = 8.2ft
ELBOW : 1 NO. x 10 ft EQ. length = 10.0 ft
TEE : 1 No. x 21 ft EQ. length = 21.0 ft
DRV ( globe value) : 1 No. x 120 ft EQ. length
= 120.0ft
TOTAL LENGTH = 159.2 ft

71
FRICTION LOSS I 2.3ft in 100ft
i.e.. For 159.2ft friction loss = 3.7ft
2) LINEB
PIPE SIZE : 125mmdia.
FLOW :400GPM
PIPE LENGTH : 9.5mts x 3.28 = 31.16 ft
Friction loss is 2.8ft in 100ft
i.e.. For 31.16ft friction loss = 0.9ft
3) LINEC
PIPE SIZE : 100mmdia.
FLOW : 200 GPM
PIPE LENGTH : 13.5mts x 3.28 : 44.28ft
ELBOW : 2 NO. x 10ft EQ length : 20.00 ft
TEE : 1NO. x 21 ft EQ length : 21.00ft

TOTAL LENGTH = 85.28 ft
73

Friction loss is 2.3ft in 100ft
i.e.. For 85.28ft friction loss = 2.0ft
4) Line D PIPE IZE : 80mmdia.
FLOW : 100GPM
PIPE LENGTH :9.3mt x 3.28 :30.5ft
Elbow :1no.x 1.7ftEq.
length :7.5ft
Tee : 1no.x15ftEq.
length : 15.0ft
Total length is 53.0ft
Friction loss is 2.4ft in 100ft
i.e.. For 53.0ft Friction loss = 1.27ft.
5) Line E
i.e.. For 56.33ft Friction loss = 2.8ft.
75
6) LINEF i.e.. For A3.1ft Friction loss = 1ft

7) LINEG IV : 1no.x 1ftEq. length = 1.0ft
i.e.. For 18.44ft friction loss = 0.7Aft
8) LINEH DRV: 1no.x 29ftEq. length = 29.0ft
3 WAY.M.V: 1no.x 29ftEq. length =
29.0ft
i.e.. For 74.78ft friction loss = 3.0ft
9) LINEI i.e.. For 43.1ft friction loss = 1ft
10) LINEJ i.e.. For 56.33ft Friction loss = 2.8ft
77
11) LINE K i.e.. For 52ft friction loss = 1.25ft
12) LINEL i.e.. For 105ft friction loss = 2.4ft
13) LINEM i.e.. For 39.2ft friction loss = 1.1ft
14) LINEN
I V : 1no. x 6ftEq. Length = 6.0ft
ST : 1no. x 58ftEq. Length = 58.0ft
Reducer : 1no. x 5ftEq. Length = 5.0ft
i.e.. For 11404ft friction loss = 3.2ft
15) LINEO
I V : 1no. x 6ftEq. Length = 6.0ft
ENLARGER : 1no. x 15ftEq. Length = 15.0ft
NRV : 1no. x 50ftEq. Length = 50.0ft
i.e.. For 100.1ft friction loss = 2.8ft
79
16) LINE P i.e.. For 70.4ft friction loss = 2.0ft
17) LINEQ
IV : 1no. x 4.5ftEq. Length = 4.5ft
i.e.. For 42.1ft friction loss = 1ft
Total pressure drop (friction loss ) in pipe line =
friction loss in A + B + C + D + E + F + G + H + I + J +
K + L + M + N + O + P + Q = 33ft of WC
pressure drop in pipe line = 33ft of WC
pressure drop across chiller = 17ft of WC
pressure drop across FCV = 3.5ft of WC
TOTAL ^h = 53.5ft of WC
Add 10% safety = 5.5ft of WC
Total system pressure = 59.0ft of WC
Drop ^H
67
FLOW RATE
CALCULATION
Chiller Capacity 81.3 TR x 2NOS = 162.6 TR.
WATER ENTERING TEMPERATURE 55 F
WATER LEAVING TEMPERATURE A 5 F
WATER FLOW RATE = TR x 12,000 / ^T x 500
Hp= GPM x head x sp. gravity
3960 x % of Efficiency
= ( 30 x 97 x 1 ) / ( 3960 x 0.5 )
= 1.5 HP.


121
Classification of Fans
1. According to max total pressure:-





2. According to air flow direction:-
a) centrifugal fan:- Types= forward curved, Radial curved,
Backward curved.
Air enters axially & flows radially over the impellers (or blades) &
discharged radically.
Used for duct system as pressure can be developed.
Quite in operation.
High in cost.

b) Axial flow fan:- Types= Propeller, Tube axial, vane axial fan.
Air flows parallel to the axis of the fan.
Should not be used for duct AC Systems as they are incapable to
develop high pressure. Used as exhaust fan. Low in cost.
(a) Class I- Pressure up to 95mm wg
(b) Class II - Pressure from 96-170mm wg
(c) Class III - Pressure from 171-310 mm wg.
(d) Class Iv - Pressure above 310 mm wg.
123
Classification of pumps
1. Working Principle
Impeller pumps displacement pumps
Rotary Reciprocating
Screw vane lobe gear peristaltic piston diaphragm pump
Archimedean
Progressive cavity
Twin-screw
Triple-screw
Multi-screw.
2. Layout of working axis(Horizontal, Vertical & inclinded)
3. Conformity to standards API pumps & ISI marked Pumps
4. Construction features by method of shaft sealing gland packed
Mech
62
-DRINKING -TOILET
-BATHING -DRINKING
CLOTH WASHING
100Lit / day 50Lit / day

Total no. of occupants = 280 ~300
i.e.. Total liters of water consumption per day = 300 x 50
= 15000 lit.


15000 / 30 = 500 cu ft
i.e.. Tank volume L x W x H = 500 ft3
Let w = 6 , H = 5
i.e.. L = (500 / ( 6 x 5)) = 16.6


WATER SUMP CAPACITY
RESIDENTIAL COMMERCIAL
1 cu ft = 28.32 lit ~ 30 lit
64
CAPACITY OF OVER HEAD TANK
15000lit/2 = 7500lit.
i.e.. Tank volume L x W x H = 7500
let W = 6, H = 5
L = 7500 / ( 6 x 5) = 8.2
PUMP CAPACITY (SUPPLY DRINKING
WATER)
GPM & Head = { L x (fr/100)}
1 Gallon = 4lit i.e.. (7500/4)lit
= 1875 Gallons = 1875/60 =
31.25 ~ 30 GPM


DITRICT COLLING SYSTEM

District Cooling could be simply defined a:-
A centralized cooling plant that serve multiply buildings.
A centralized cooling plant that is designed as a utility.
A centralized and operated for maximum life- usually 25 years
or more.
A centralized cooling plant that I designed to operate at
maximum efficient at all time.
58
76
A centralized plant that is designed for
flexibility in operation.
A centralized cooling plant that is deigned to
make full use of the operation /consumers
that it serves.
A centralized plant that I operated by an
independent organization that operates,
maintains, and charges consumers for the
energy that is CONSUMED.
78
In our minds, unless all of these parameters
are met, a centralized cooling plant cannot
de classified as a district cooling plant
unless all of the above criteria are met. The
operation must be classified a a utility
operator and must be responsible to its
consumers, the community and the
environment.
Similar organization in Dubai are EMPOWER,
Tabreed, and Palm District cooling.
80
How is District Cooling different
from a Central Cooling plant?
A Central plant is not much
different that a district plant. In
fact, the basic equipment is the
same. The difference lie in the
definition of a District Cooling
plant. The following is a list of
some of the basic differences
between the two systems.
82
CENTRAL PLANT
It is operated by the owner of
the building or the developer.
It serves single building or
small group of buildings known
as campus.
The connections to buildings
are not metered.
Designed to operate efficiently
capital investment is usually
not a great concern for the plant
itself. The capital is concern for
the entire development.




DISTRICT COOLING PLAN
Operated by a company that is
certified to be a utility provider.
Serves large district with many
buildings with many examples.
All consumer connections are
metered.
Designed to operate efficiently,
and cost effective from a capital
investment perspective. These
plants are designed to minimize
operational costs and hence
max. profitability.
84
Deigned to be reliable usually a
ingle point of failure from the
power supply and return feeds,
etc.
Generally there plants utilize
electricity as their main source
of energy.
Designed usually with a higher
degree of reliability and include
implementation such as:-
i) Networked chilled water
supplies.
ii) Multiple electrical feeds.
iii) Industrial grade equipment
for control and operation.
iv) Distributed cooling plants.
Deferent technologies are
available for these plants:
i) Gas fired engine driven
chillers.
ii) Absorption chillers.
86
It utilize municipal
domestic water for
cooling tower heat of
rejection.
These plants can be
designed for use with:
Treated sewage effluent.
Sea water
Ground water.
These plants are
generally designed by
the engineers that design
the buildings.
Designed by
professionals that are
experienced in the district
cooling field.
109
Dehumidifier capacity is usually measure in pints (1L =
1.816 pint (pt) ) 24 hours and is determined by two
factors : the size of the space that needs to be
dehumidified and the conditions that exist in the space
before dehumidification.
111
Condition without dehumidification 500 1,000 1,500 2,000 2,500
Moderately damp (space feels damp
and has musty odor only in humid
weather.)
10 14 18 22 26
Very damp (space always feels damp
and has musty odor. Damp sports
show on walls and floor.)
12 17 22 27 32
Wet (space feels and smells wet. Walls
or floor sweat, or seepage is present.)
14 20 26 32 38
Extremely wet (laundry drying, wet
floor, high load conditions.)
16 23 30 37 44
Area (Sq . Feet)
113
Allowances:
20% in Duct Weight
15% in Insulation Area
10% in Accoustic Lining

DUCT
SIZE
cm
DUCT
RUN
M
PERIME
TER IN
METER
2(W+H)
AREA
Sq m
Sq. Mt
Wt/sq m

TOTAL
wt IN
Kg
ACCOUS
TIC
LINING
Sq. Mt
115
Recommended Metal Gauges for Duct:
Greatest
Inches
Dimension Gauge Thickness
mm
Nom
Kg/sq.m
<30 <76.2 24 0.6mm 5.64
31- 60 79 - 152 22 0.7mm 6.86
61 90 155 - 228 20 0.9mm 8.08
91 > 231> 18 1.2mm 10.52
117

Area = 2x(w+H) x L
Straight Duct
w
L
H
L
D
c
A
B
Taper
Area=(A+B+C+D)
x Length

c
Shoe Piece
Area =
[(A+B+C+D) x
Length]
Elbow:- Area=2(b + a)(L
+ L) (or)
Area = {(A + B) x length
+ (0.5 x A)} 3.14 +
angle/90 + 2(A + B) x
[E x t1 + Ex t2]
B
A
D
Area= 2(w + H )L +2(W + H ) L
+ 2(w + H ) L
1 2
3
1 1 2 2
3 3
89
FIRE FIGHTING
CLASS OF FIRE:
A: SOLID MATTERS FORMING GLOWING
RESIDUES (Wood, Rubber, Car Tire, Paper,
Textiles.)
B: LIQUID COMBUSTIBLE MATTER (Petrol, Oil,
Grease, Ether, Alcohol.)
C: Burning gases emerging under pressure
(Propane, Butane, Methane, Acetylene, Town
gas.)
D: FIRES ON ELECTRICAL PLANTS.
NFPA :- Natural Fire Protection Association.
90
Sprinklers Types
1. Pendant Type Each sprinkler 20gmp
2. Up-right type
3. Side Type Each fire hose cabinet =50gpm






Pipe size No. of Sprinklers
O1 2
O1.25 3
O1.5 5
O2 10
O2.5 30
O3 50
O4 80
O5 160
O6 275
FHU FHU
30M 30M
60M
Maximum distance between two
fire hose cabinets.
6M 6M
91
SPRINKLER :- A sprinkler installation comprises of inter- connected
pipes into which sprinkler heads are fitted on a definite basis of
distribution i.e.. 8-10 feet apart according to nature of risk. The
heads are so constructed that the heat arising from fire will cause
them to rupture thus permitting the water to discharge in the form of
spray. The main function of the sprinkler installation are:-
1) To detect the fire 2) To sound an Alarm 3) To attack the fire
4) To restrict the spread of fire
Types of sprinkler system:-
a) Wet system:- it is installed where there is no danger of the water
in the pipes freezing & the pipes are always filled with water.
b) Dry system:- it is employed where temp. is liable to fall below
freezing point, the pipes are always kept charged with air under
pressure. Some times found in cold stores.
c) Alternate wet and dry system:- it is used where the risk of freezing
is present at certain period of year at which times the water is
drained from the pipes and the system is charged with air under
pressure.
93

FOAM:- Fire fighting foam =foaming agent +
water aerated used for oil fires.
Powders Burning metals, chemicals fire,
form sticky residue over the fire.
Class A organic material (wood, paper,
cloth, plastic etc.)
Class B flammable liquid (petrol, paints,
solvents).
Class C Flammable gas (LPG, Acetylene).
Class D combustible metals (Mg, Na, k).
Class E Electrical fires, motors, switch gear.
99

Water supply for 30 min before
the pump starts.
sprinkler
Deluge System Total flooding System which
comes in operation with the help of a single heat
sensing sprinkle used to protect electrical
transformer, Main Deluge Valve is located out
side the risk area.





Over
Head
Tank
22,500L
92
WATER EXTINGUISHERS:- These are filled with regular tap water
& pressurized with air.
DRY CHEMICAL EXTINGUISHERS:- These are filled either with
foam or powder, usually soda or potassium bi carbonate &
releases carbon di oxide. Dry chemical extinguishers interrupt
the chemical reaction by forming a thin layer of powder or
foam, separating the fuel from the surrounding air.
CARBON DI OXIDE (CO2) EXTINGUISHERS:- These contain CO2 a
non-flammable gas, these extinguishers work by displacing
away oxygen from the surrounding air.
101
In high rise building
(15-16 stored & above) Static
becomes high so divide



the building into vertical hydraulic zones & use pressure
reducing valves. Min pressure provided in a wet Riser =
3.5kg/sq cm.
63mm 12mm Nozzle.

Water=500l/m

Automatic Sprinkler System:- Spacing is determined by
Hazard classification, Exposure & height at which it is
& installed.
`
Air vessel
pump
Tank
103
Hydrant stations are provided to serve an area.
Place the Hydrant station near staircase or Lobby.

Hydrant station contains:-
* First Aid Hose reel with dia.20mm, Rubber hose 30-
36m long with dia.6mm nozzle.
* dia.63mm Single ordouble headed landing valve.
15m x dia.63mm reinforced Rubber lined hose, &
a brand pipe with 12mm Nozzle.

105
CO2 & Halon system:- Electrical switch room,
control room, computer room, storage area, in
libraries, archives, museums.
co2 if concentration is more than 9-10% can
cause severe in consciousness.
Halons less toxic but environmentally hazards.
CO2 is used for dosing electrical fires or other
fires which cannot be put out with water.
Halogenated Agents ( Halons )
Hydrocarbons in which one or more H atom
is replaced with Fl, Cl, Br or I


70
Fire Alarm System
Analog low profile high
performance optical smoke
sensor
Minimum distance between each
smoke detector cost=400/-SR
(or)
Heat detector Installed in kitchen
cost=370/-SR



5m allowed but 3.75m recommended by civil
defense.
7.5m
S S
7.5m
H
S
S
5M
S
5M 5M
74
Auto Dialer system to automatically dial the three
programmed number in case of fire.
Fire Alarm control panel for Analogue
addressable fire alarm system, 4 loop with
maintenance free Rechargeable batteries (3hrs
duration) 12,000/-SR
Emergency light with Rechargeable batteries.
{COST: 50SR ~ 1500SR+100SR
(Labour+ wiring) +25%profit+10%over heads}
= 345/-SR
16
STAIRWELL PRESSURIZATION
* Wood, paper, cotton cellulose:
products of combustion:- CO, CO2,
H2O.
* PVC HCL appears as chlorinated
material.
Application of large amount of nitrogen
in plastics, nylon appearance of HCN.
According to ASHRAE, design of smoke
management system fire protection is
defined in two basic approaches.
1) Prevent fire ignition.
2) Manage fire impact.
Example of fire impact management:
a) compartmentation.
b) fire suppression.
c) control of construction material.
d) smoke management.
SMOKE
MANAGEMENT
SHAFT
PROTECTOR
PROTECTOR
FLOOR
STAIR CASE
PRESSURIZATION
SYSTEM
ELEVATION
HOISTWAY
SYSTEM
2/2
Q) A Staircase serves 6 floors. There is a double door to outside at ground level & single doors into
the accommodation on each floor calculation the requirements for the supply fans fo4r
pressurization system. Q=0.83Ae P
Q=The volume of air required (m qu/sec)
Ae=Leakage area from the space (m sq)
P=Pressure differential (Pa) 50 Pa
n=Leakage factor
for large leakage areas-doors etc n=2
for small leakage areas-window cracks n=1.6
Ae=1xdouble door at0.03=m sq to hold smoke behind doors the formula become
6xSingle door at 0.01=0.06msq Q=0.83Ae P
Ae=0.09msq
Q = 0.83 x 0.09 x 50 = 0.53mqu/sec
Increase by 50% +0.26mq u/sec
0.79mqu/sec 0.8mqu/sec(1)

A=Area of single leaf door= 2.0mx0.8m= 1.6sqm
v=velocity through door ------------------ 0.75m/sec
Q= V x A = 0.75 x 1.6 -------------------- 1.20mqu/sec
Add(1)-------------------- 0.80mqu/sec
2.0m qu/sec
a) To calculate Pressure required in stair well to exhoust 1.2mqu/sec to
atmosphere via fire floor.
Are of single leaf door = 2.0x0.8=1.6msq
area of exhoust vent=1.2/2.5=0.48msq
Ae=[1/A + 1/A ] = [1/1.6 + 1/0.48 ] = 0.46msq
P1= [Q/ 0.83XAe] = [1.2/0.83X0.46] = 10.01Pa
b) To calculate Area of pressure relief.
Quantity of Air to be wasted =(2.0 - 0.8) = 1.2m qu/sec
Area of pressure Relief = Q/0.83 x P = 1.2/(0.83) x (50) = 0.204m sq`
1m qu/sec=2118CFM
1M/Sec=196FPM
1
2
2
2
1/2
1/n
1/2
1/2
2 2
2
-1/2
6 Flore
Exhoust
vent
Double doors
stairs
p
p
1
V=0.75m/sec
Exit vent
A=Q/2.5
125
Maintenance of A/C System




@FCUs/AHUs/Chiller/Pumps/piping/ducting
[ regular maintainance @ FCUs/AHUs]

1. Stop the machine/open the cabinet. Clean the condensing
tray/evaporator's coil/condensing pipe on drain pipe.
2. Lubricate the fan motor.
3. Tighten the nuts & bolts of M/cs isolators.
4. Balance the duct by adjusting SD( splitter damper) /VLD.
5. In AHUs tension the fan belt.
6. Charge/clean the filter.
7. Balance the flow of CHW by adjusting gate valve.
8. Check the thermostat & cut out [O/P] over load protector.
9. Check the electrical controls like fuse, switches, relay regulation,
capacitor.

Periodic/ Regular
Maintenance
Brake down Shutdown
maintenance.
127
<REGULAR MAINTANANCE @ PIPING>
If PH is 7water is natural no remedy.
If < 7water is basic.
/Fungus formation started reduces efficiency / bad
smell.
Remedy:- prepare chlorine (HCL) of suitable
concentration sol = remix into dosing pot (D.P)
to remove the scale.
If > 7 water is acidic erosion / occur impact
reduce life of pipe / increase friction rate.
Remedy:- prepare hydroxide (NaOH) of suitable
concentration.
129
< REGULAR MAINTAINANCE @ PUMPS>

1. Close the pump fittings.
2. Lubricate the motor.
3. Tighten the nuts and bolts of coupling and isolator fittings and
flanges.
4. Take out the filter from the strainer and clean.
5. Check the electrical controls, switches, fuse, relay, temp.
gauge, pressure gauge.
6. Collect the water sample, send it to lab for water Ph value, to
water treatment department.
7. Cut off the power supply and start the stand by.


131
FILTER:-
Permanent Nylon for residential
Temporary Paper for commercial to replaced for every 6 months.
[regular maintenance @ chillers]
1. Clean the condensing unit by recommended cleaning agent.
2. Lubricate the fan motor of condensing unit.
3. Check the gas into the chiller via sight glass.
4. Check the oil via oil level or gauge.
5. Check the flow of CHW.
6. Rea & the temp & pressure of gas & CHW-@Inlet & outlet.
7. Tighten the nuts & bolts of chillers, chaser & cabinet & isolator.








After the expansion valve
From
condenser
liquid
To evaporator
30
Heat balance calculation for COOLING TOWER
TO CALCULATE THE REQUIRED HEAT REJECTION FOR THE
SCREW CHILLER
1. Cooling capacity of the screw chiller=300TR=300x3.516
KW=1055KW
2. Compressor = 205KW
3. Total heat rejection required=(1055+205)kw = 1260kw
Capacity of the selected cooling tower
1. Water flow rate selected = 330CMH
2. Water inlet temp. to cooling tower = 38 C
3. Water outlet temp. from cooling tower=33C
4. Capacity of cooling tower= MC p ^T.
where ^T=(water inlet temp. water outlet temp.) C
M: MASS FLOE RATE THROUGH COOLING TOWER
= (selected flow rate x Density of water Kg/s) / 3600
Cp: specific heat of water = 40186 K3/Kg.deg c
CAPACITY OF COOLING TOWER = {330X1000X4.186X(38-33) }
/3600
= 1918.58kw


35
Air delivery system
Single zone system: 1AHU Required for one large Hall/zone-
Adjustments are done to AHU Itself supply air: 4000cfm
peak Load (partial Load)
Temp=57F
Typical supply Air temperature for commercial air conditioning.


VAV System:- The temperature of supply Air remain constant but the volume of the air supplied
varies VAV Terminal = VAV Box with dampers, diffusers & control units.


Temperature recorded by the thermostat is noted by
control unit of VAV terminal & the damper position is accordingly
maintained to supply the air which will meet the requiremend of load.
High load system supplies more air at constant
CAV System:- The volume of air supplied is constant. But the Temp. of supply Air varies as per
load. Two AHUs with ducting one producing cool air & other hot air.

Heating mode; 4000cfm; T=120 F


cooling mode; 4000cfm; T=57 F


Intermediate mode; 4000cfm; T=65 F
Hot air
Cool air
Hot air Cool air
Cool air
Hot air
CU
T =25 C
36

S.NO
SYSTEM PUPOSE FORMULA FROM
1. CHILLER FLOWRATE TRx2.4=us GPM Mcquay chillerdata
2. Chiller Power Consumption TRx1kw/tr=kw Asper chiller
1kw/tr=0.65
3. Cooling tower Flow rate Trx3=us GPM Mcquay chiller data
4. Cooling tower Power Consumption Trx0.0275=kw Assumption
5. Pump Power consumption Us GPMx0.054=kw Assumption
6. Ventilation car
parking kitchen toilet
ex.
Power consumption Cfmx2.5/6356x0.7x
1.1=kw
ISHRAE
7. Stair case lift, smoke Air volume Volume(quft)xno.airc/
hr/60=cfm
ISHRAE
(cooler) chiller
7 c
12 c
condenser
condenser
T=12-7=5 c
WBT+4 c=Ambient
Temp. of the air.
T=35-30=5 c
30 c
35 c
T=37-32=5 c
32 c
37 c
CT
83








Chiller Selection is based on :
GPM
System Capacity
Entering Water Temp 55 F
Chilled water Temperature Rise
Chiller Tube surface Area =__Heat gain in BTU/hr_____
Loading Rate in BTU/hr/sq ft
Loading Rate (LR) = Tons/ftsq
It is the load in heat unit per surface are of chiller refrigerant tube for a given METD.








t = Entering water Temperature = 55 f
t = Leaving water Temperature = 45 f
tr = Chiller Refrigerant Temp (35 f 38 f)
Chilled Water Hot Water
Entering Temperature 55 F 160 F
Leaving Temperature 12 F 180 F
T 10 F 20 F
METD= ___(t1 -t2 )______
2.3 log (t1 - t2 )
(t2 - t1 )
Mean Effective Temperature Difference (METD)
85
Example:- If LR (Loading Rate)=2.16 Toms/ft find the
METD & the chiller tube surface area for a 50 Tr System.
METD=55-45/2.3LOG(55-36)/(45-36)
=10/2.3LOG19/9
METD=13.39
Loading Rate (LR) = 2.16 Toons/ft
2.16x12000=25920Btu/hr/ft
Chiller tube surface Area = 50x12,000 btu/hr

Cooling coil selection:- is based on.
Entering DBT, Entering WBT Air temp, refrigerant coil no.
of rows, fins facing, coil face velocity (velocity of air over
face of the coil, it should not exceed 7000fpm)
Chilled water coil selection is based on Entering Water
temp, water Temp. Rise, Entering DBT & WBT, coil face
Area.
2
2
2
25920 Btu/hr/ft
2
1/4
2/4
FPS = 10 x 24 x 30 = 7200 hrs/yr
FPS = 8
Straight pipe:-
Sec GPM FPS pipe dia. eq. length Fric Fric eq.lg.
AB 200 8 3 12 _ _
CD 200 8 3 17 _ _
Valve:-
Condenser:-
Gate 200 8 3 4.0 7 0.28
Gate 200 8 3 100 7 7
7.28
Cooling Tower:-
Gate 200 8 3 4.0 7 0.28
Gate 200 8 3 100 7 7
7.28
4/4
Condenser ft = 2.31 x P si
= 2.31 x 13 = 30.03 ft
Total ft. loss = 1.68 + 7.28 + 9.73 + 5.25 +
30.03 + 13.86 = 75.11 ft.
Pump HP = GPM x total pressure loss
3960 x pump efficiency
= 200 x 75.11
3960 x 0.8
= 4.74 HP
= 5HP
3/4
PUMP:-
Gate 200 8 3 4.0 7 0.28
Gate 200 8 3 100 7 7
Gate 200 8 3 35 7 2.45
9.45

ELBOWS:-
1 200 8 15 7 1.05
2 200 8 15 7 1.05
3 200 8 15 7 1.05
4 200 8 15 7 1.05
5 200 8 15 7 1.05
5.25
Note:- For cooling tower assume Fr. loss as 6 P si
For condenser assume Fr. loss as 13 P si
Cooling Tower ft = 2.31 x P si
= 2.31 x 6 = 13.86ft