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Microcatchment : Negarim

Negarim
small infiltration area surrounding bunds runoff captured at lowest point = 3 - 250 m = 1 - 10 m = 3 : 1 to 25 : 1 = 150-600 mm/yr =1-5%
Productive trees (almond, apricot, peach, carob, pistachio, olive, pomegranates, vine, citrus) or bushes Reforestation

Negarims Unit 12

Negarim

Negarims Unit 12

Negarim with bushes; Photo: Oweis

Negarim

Negarims Unit 12

Aerial view of a negarim system; Photo: Lvenstein

Negarim
CONSTRUCTION :

Negarims Unit 12

Manual

LABOUR DEMAND :

High (construction +
maintenance)

MAINTENANCE :

Weed catchment Loosen soil in cropping area

Negarim system; Source: Rocheleau 1988

Mulch cropping area after receipt of water


Insert infiltration tube (optional) Keep grazing animals away Apply fertilizer (optional) Repair bunds immediately after damage

LIMITATIONS:

Mechanization impossible

Negarim
DIMENSIONS:

Negarims Unit 12

height of bund: 25 cm depth of planting pit: 40 cm - 1.5 m cross-section: 5 - 30 m


Variation of negarim: planting pit in centre

Plan and crosssection of negarim microcatchments, usual layout


Source: Barrow 1987, redrawn

Negarim
Negarims Unit 12

x (varies)
Slope Infiltration pit

Detailed plan view and crosssection of negarim; Source: Critchley


& Siegert 1991

Negarim
Size (m) 3x3 4x4 5x5 6x6 8x8 10 x 12 12 x 12 15 x 15
Size Unit (m) 3 m x 3 m = 9 m 4 m x 4 m = 16 m 5 m x 5 m = 25 m 6 m x 6 m = 36 m 8 m x 8 m = 64 m 10 m x 10 m =100 m 12 m x 12 m =144 m 15 m x 15 m =225 m

Negarims Unit 12

Slope 2% 25 25 25 25 25 30 35 45

Slope 3% 25 25 25 25 35 45 50

Slope 4% 25 25 30 35 45 55

Slope 5% 25 30 35 45 55

Height of bunds below the pit (maximum height)

not recommended
Earthwork per unit (m) 0.75 1.00 1.25 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.25 3.50 Earthworks m / ha 835 625 500 415 310 250 230 160

Size Infiltration Suitable Pit (m) ground slopes 1.4 x 1.4 x 0.4 up to 5% 1.6 x 1.6 x 0.4 up to 4% 1.8 x 1.8 x 0.4 up to 3% 1.9 x 1.9 x 0.4 up to 3% 2.2 x 2.2 x 0.4 up to 2% 2.5 x 2.5 x 0.4 up to l% 2.8 x 2.8 x 0.4 up to l% 3.0 x 3.0 x 0.4 up to l%

No. units per ha 1110 625 400 275 155 100 70 45

Quantities of earthworks for negarims;


Source: Critchley & Siegert 1991

Layout and Construction of Negarim


Step One

Negarims Unit 12

Stake out the contour by using a line level or a water tube level

Smooth contours if required


If the topography is very uneven, separate blocks of negarims

Step Two

Mark the tips along the contour at even spacing with a tape.

Size of microcatchment (m) 3x3 4x4 5x5 6x6 8x8 10 x 10

Spacing of tips along contour 4.2 m 5.7 m 7.1 m 8.5 m 11.3 m 14.1 m

Source: Critchley & Siegert 1991

Layout and Construction of Negarim


Step Three

Hold a string from each of both tips of a microcatchment . If held tight, they will meet at the lowest point of the catchment (apex) Mark the apex with a peg Continue until all catchments in the upper row have been marked

Negarims Unit 12

Step Four

Contour

Lay out the next lower row : The apex of the catchment below is now a tip of the second row Repeat Step Three for all further rows

Layout and Construction of Negarim


Step Five

Negarims Unit 12

Stake out size and excavate pit

Step Six

Clear the catchment of all vegetation Use the excavated soil from the pit to construct the bunds in two layers Wet and compact bund by foot or with a barrel filled with sand or water Fix a string at the beginning and end of each side of the bund and adjust it above ground at the selected bund height to ensure a uniform height

Step Seven

Plant tree seedlings of at least 30 cm height after the first rain of the season It is recommended to plant two seedlings: one in the bottom of the pit and one on a step at the back of the pit.

Summary

Negarims Unit 12

Negarims are diamond-shaped microbasins surrounded by low earth bunds The distance between the most distant points is 5-30 m They are mainly used for growing fruit trees and fodder bushes Negarims are constructed manually The labour demand is high