Design
Team:
Kevin Garvey
Alex von Oetinger
Major Topics
Compressor and Turbine Design
Cooling
Dynamic Surge
Stall Propagation
Background
History:
First gas turbine was developed in 1872 by Dr. F. Stolze.
Gas Turbine EngineWhat does it do?
Generates thrust by mixing compressed ambient air with
fuel and combusting the mixture through a nozzle to
propel an object forward or to produce shaft work.
How Does it Work?
Newtons third law
For every action, there is an equal and
opposite reaction.
As the working fluid is exhausted out the nozzle
of the gas turbine engine, the object that the
engine is attached to is pushed forward. In the
case of generating shaft work, the shaft turns a
generator which produces electrical power.
How Does it Work? Cont.
Shaft
Exhaust
Gas
Ambient
Air In
Operation
Compressor is connected to the turbine via a
shaft. The turbine provides the turning moment
to turn the compressor.
The turning turbine rotates the compressor fan
blades which compresses the incoming air.
Compression occurs through rotors and stators
within the compression region.
Rotors (Rotate with shaft)
Stators (Stationary to shaft)
Types of Gas Turbines
Centrifugal
Compressed air output is around the outer perimeter
of engine
Axial
Compressed air output is directed along the centerline
of the engine
Combination of Both
Compressed air output is initially directed along
center shaft of engine and then is compressed
against the perimeter of engine by a later stage.
Example of Centrifugal
Flow
Intake airflow is being forced around the
outside perimeter of the engine.
Centrifugal
Compressor
Airflow being
forced around
body of engine
Example of Axial Flow
Intake airflow is forced down the center shaft
of the engine.
Multistage
Axial
Compressor
Center
Shaft
Example of Combination
Flow
Intake Air
Flow
Axial Compressor
Centrifugal
Compressor
Intake air flow is forced down the center
shaft initially by axially compressor stages,
and then forced against engine perimeter
by the centrifugal compressor.
Major Components of
Interest
Compressor
Axial
Centrifugal
Turbine
Axial
Radial
Axial Compressor
Centrifugal Compressor
Axial Compressor Operation
A&P Technician Powerplant Textbook published by Jeppesen Sanderson Inc., 1997
Axial compressors are designed in a divergent
shape which allows the air velocity to remain
almost constant, while pressure gradually
increases.
Average Velocity
Axial Compressor Operation
cont.
The airflow comes in through the inlet and
first comes to the compressor rotor.
Rotor is rotating and is what draws the airflow
into the engine.
After the rotor is the stator which does not move
and it redirects the flow into the next stage of
the compressor.
Air flows into second stage.
Process continues and each stage gradually
increases the pressure throughout the
compressor.
Axial Compressor Staging
An axial compressor stage consists of a rotor
and a stator.
The rotor is installed in front of the stator
and air flows through accordingly. (See Fig.)
www.stanford.edu/ group/cits/simulation/
Centrifugal Compressor
Operation
Centrifugal compressors rotate ambient air about an
impeller. The impeller blades guide the airflow toward
the outer perimeter of the compressor assembly. The air
velocity is then increased as the rotational speed of the
impeller increases.
Axial Turbine Operation
Hot combustion gases
expand, airflow
pressure and
temperature drops. This
drop over the turbine
blades creates shaft
work which rotates the
compressor assembly.
Axial Turbine with airflow
Airflow around rotor
Airflow through
stator
Radial Turbine Operation
Same operation
characteristics as axial flow
turbine.
Radial turbines are simpler
in design and less
expensive to manufacture.
They are designed much
like centrifugal
compressors.
Airflow is essentially
expanded outward from
the center of the turbine.
Radial Flow Turbine
Gas Turbine Issues
Gas Turbine Engines Suffer from a
number of problematic issues:
Thermal Issues
Blade (airfoil) Stalls
Dynamic Surge
http://www.turbosolve.com/index.html
Thermal Issues
Gas Turbines are limited
to lower operating
temperatures due to the
materials available for
the engine itself.
Operating at the lower
temperature will
decrease the efficiency
of the gas turbine so a
means of cooling the
components is necessary
to increase temperatures
at which engine is run.
Cooling Methods
Spray (Liquid)
Passage
Transpiration
Spray Cooling
The method of spraying a
liquid coolant onto the
turbine rotor blades and
nozzle.
Prevents extreme turbine
inlet temperatures from
melting turbine blades by
direct convection between
the coolant and the
blades.
Passage Cooling
Hollow turbine blades
such that a passage is
formed for the
movement of a cooling
fluid.
DOE has relatively new
process in which excess
highpressure
compressor airflow is
directed into turbine
passages.
http://www.eere.energy.gov/inventions/pdfs/fluidtherm.pdf
Transpiration Cooling
Method of forcing air
through a porous turbine
blade.
Ability to remove heat at
a more uniform rate.
Result is an effusing layer
of air is produced around
the turbine blade.
Thus there is a reduction
in the rate of heat
transfer to the turbine
blade.
Blade (airflow) Stalls
When airflow begins
separating from the
compressor blades over
which it is passing as the
angle of attack w.r.t. the
blades exceeds the
design parameters.
The result of a blade stall
is that the blade(s) no
longer produce lift and
thus no longer produces a
pressure rise through the
compressor.
Separation Regions
Dynamic Surge
Occurs when the static (inlet) air
pressure rises past the design
characteristics of the
compressor.
When there is a reversal of
airflow from the compressor
causing a surge to propagate in
the engine.
Essentially, the flow is exhausted
out of the compressor, or front,
of the engine.
Result, is the compressor no
longer able to exhaust as quickly
as air is being drawn in and a
bang occurs.
http://www.turbosolve.com/index.html
Compressor
Inlet
Turbine Exit
Dynamic Surge Effects
Cause: Inlet flow is reversed
Effect: Mass flow rate is reduced into engine.
Effect: Compressor stages lose pressure.
Result: Pressure drop allows flow to reverse back into
engine.
Result: Mass flow rate increases
Cause: Increased mass flow causes high pressure
again.
Effect: Surge occurs again and process continues.
Result: Engine surges until corrective actions are taken.
Dynamic Surge Process
in
m
out
m
P
V
Surge Point,
Flow
Reverses
No Surge
Conditio
n
Compressor
Pressure Loss
Occurs
Flow reverses
back into
engine
Corrective
Action
Taken
out
m
Axial Compressor Design
Assumption of Needs
Determination of Rotational Speed
Estimation of number of stages
General Stage Design
Variation of air angles
Assumption of Needs
The first step in compressor design in the
determination of the needs of the system
Assumptions:
Standard Atmospheric Conditions
Engine Thrust Required
Pressure Ratio Required
Air Mass Flow
Turbine inlet temperature
Rotational Speed
Determination
First Step in Axial Compressor Design
Process for this determination is based on
assumptions of the system as a whole
Assumed: Blade tip speed, axial velocity, and
hubtip ratio at inlet to first stage.
Rotational Speed
Equation
Derivation of Rotational
Speed
First Make Assumptions:
Standard atmospheric conditions
Axial Velocity:
Tip Speed:
No Intake Losses
Hubtip ratio 0.4 to 0.6
U
t
350
m
s
C
a
150 200
m
s
Compressor Rotational
Speed
Somewhat of an iterative process in
conjunction with the turbine design.
Derivation Process:
First Define the mass flow into the system
is the axial velocity range from the root
of the compressor blades to the tips of the
blades.
AU m
dot
=
where U =
1 a
C
1 a
C
Axial Velocity Relationship
r
r
a
t
r
a
C
r
r
C * 1
2
1
(
(


.

\

=
Radius to root of
blade
r
r
t
r
Radius to tip of blade
t
r
Tip Radius Determination
(
(


.

\

=
2
1 1
2
1
t
r
a
dot
t
r
r
C
m
r
t
By rearranging the mass flow rate equation we can
obtain an iterative equation to determine the blade tip
radius required for the design.
Now Looking at the energy equation, we can determine the
entry temperature of the flow.
p
a
c
C
T T
2
2
1
0 1
=
2 2
2
1
1
2
0
0
U
T c
U
T c
p p
+ = +
Isentropic Relationships
Now employing the isentropic relation between
the temperatures and pressures, then the
pressure at the inlet may be obtained.
Now employ the ideal gas law to obtain the
density of the inlet air.
( ) 1
0
1
0 1
T
T
P P
1
1
1
RT
P
=
Finally Obtaining Rotational
Speed
Using the equation for tip speed.
Rearranging to obtain rotational speed.
Finally an iterative process is utilized to
obtain the table seen here.
N r U
t t
t 2 =
t
t
r
U
N
t 2
=
Determining Number of
Stages
Make keen assumptions
Polytropic efficiency of approximately 90%.
Mean Radius of annulus is constant through
all stages.
Use polytropic relation to determine the
exit temperature of compressor.
( )
n
n
P
P
T T
1
01
02
01 02
=
n = 1.4, Ratio of Specific Heats,
Cp/Cv
is the pressure that the compressor
outputs
To1 is ambient temperature
02
P
Determine Temperature
Change
Assuming that Ca1=Ca
is the work done factor
Work done factor is estimate of stage efficiency
Determine the mean blade speed.
Geometry allows for determining the rotor blade
angle at the inlet of the compressor.
N r U
mean m
t 2 =
( )
a
m
C
U
=
1
tan 
Temperature Rise in a Stage
( ) ( ) ( )
p
a m
s
c
C U
T
2 1
0
tan tan  
= A
( )
1
1
cos 
a
C
V =
This will give an estimate of the maximum possible rotor
deflection.
Finally obtain the temperature rise through the stage.
( )
2
2
cos
V
C
a
= 
Determine the speed of the flow over the blade profile.
Velocity flow
over blade V1.
Deflection Blade_
1 2
=  
Number of Stages Required
The number of stages required is dependent
upon the ratio of temperature changes
throughout the compressor.
s
T
T
Stages
0
A
A
=
amb
T T T = A
2
is the temperature change within a stage
is the average temperature change over all the stages
s
T
T
0
A
A
Designing a Stage
Make assumptions
Assume initial temperature change through
first stage.
Assume the workdone factors through each
stage.
Ideal Gas at standard conditions
Determine the air angles in each stage.
Stages 1 to 2
Determine the change in the whirl velocity.
Whirl Velocity is the tangential component of
the flow velocity around the rotor.
Stage 1 to 2
Change in whirl velocity through stage.
1 2 w w w
C C C = A
m
p
w
U
T c
C
A
= A
( )
1 1
tan o
a w
C C =
Alpha 1 is zero at the first stage.
( )
( )
a
w
a
w m
C
C
C
C U
2
2
2
2
tan
tan
=
=
o

Compressor Velocity
Triangles
Pressure ratio of the Stage
1
0
01
03
1
(
A
+ = =
q
amb
s s
s
T
T
P
P
R
9 . 0 =
s
q
The pressure ratio in the stage can be determined through
the isentropic temperature relationship and the polytropic
efficiency assumed at 90%.
Stage Attributes
The analysis shows that the stage can be outlined by
the following attributes:
1.) Pressure at the onset of
the stage.
2.) Temperature at the onset
of the stage.
3.) The pressure ratio of the
stage.
4.) Pressure at the end of the
stage.
5.) Temperature at the end of
the stage.
6.) Change in pressure
through the stage.
Example of a single
stage
Variation in Air Angles of
Blade
Assume the free vortex condition.
Determine stator exit angle.
Then determine the flow velocity.
const r C
w
=
2
( ) ( )
1 3
tan tan  o =
a
m
C
U
( )
3
3
cos o
m
U
C =
Air Angle Triangle
Alpha 1 is 0 at
the inlet stage
because there
are no IGVs.
Thus,
Ca1=C1,
and Cw1 is
0
Note: This is
the whirl
velocity
component
and not a
blade
spacing!
Red is
Green is
Blue is
Velocity Triangle
a
C
o
a
C

a
C
Variation in Air Angles of
Blade
Determine the exit temp., pressure, and density of
stage 1
Determine the blade height at exit.
Finally determine the radii of the blade at stator exit.
p
a
c
C
T T
2
2
0 3
=
( ) 1
03
3
03 3
T
T
P P
3
3
3
RT
P
=
mean
r
A
h
t 2
3
=
2
h
r r
mean ts
+ =
2
h
r r
mean rs
=
a
dot
C
m
A
3
3
=
Variation in Air Angles of
Blade
Determine the radii at the rotor exit.
Determine the whirl velocities at the blade root and
tip.
2
ts tri
tr
r r
r
+
=
2
rs rri
rr
r r
r
+
=
Note: That is the radius of the blade at the tip at rotor inlet.
tri
r
Note: That is the radius of the blade at the root at rotor inlet.
rri
r
rr
mean
m w r w
r
r
C C
2 2
=
tr
mean
m w t w
r
r
C C
2 2
=
Note: because there is no other whirl velocity component in the
first stage.
2 2 w m w
C C =
Finally determine the Air
Angles
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
a
t w tr
t
a
m w m
m
a
r w rr
r
a
t w
t
a
m w
m
a
r w
r
C
C U
C
C U
C
C U
C
C
C
C
C
C
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
tan
tan
tan
tan
tan
tan
=
=
=
=



o
o
o
Stator air angle at root of
blade
Stator air angle at middle of
blade
Stator air angle at tip of blade
Deflection air angle at root of
blade
Deflection air angle at middle
of blade
Deflection air angle at tip of
blade
Compressor Design Example
Design of a 5 stage axial compressor:
98 . 0
150
5 . 452
288
2262 . 0
2
=
=
=
=
=
s
m
a
a
t
C
K T
K T
m r
Givens:
Use this and chart to get
Rotational speed of engine.
Once rotational speed is found, determine mean blade tip speed.
Example
s
m
N r U
m
r r
r
mean m
r t
mean
6 . 266 2
1697 . 0
2
= =
=
+
=
t
K T T T
amb
5 . 164
2
= = A
Determine the total temperature rise through the first stage.
We are designing for more than just one stage, so we
need to define an average temperature rise per stage:
K
Stages
T
T
s
9 . 32
#
0
=
A
= A
Example (Air Angle
Determination)
2
0
1
1 2
1
1
55 . 126
0
64 . 60 tan
w
m
s p
w
w
w w w
a
m
C
s
m
U
T c
C
s
m
C
C C C
C
U
= =
A
= A
=
= A
= =

Example (Air Angle
Determination)
( ) s
m C
V
C
C U
a
a
w m
21 . 205
cos
03 . 43 tan
2
2
2
1
2
= =
=
=


= =
15 . 40 tan
2
1
2
a
w
C
C
o
Questions???